ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0839.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Ageing; ARIP; Biological Ageing; Inflamm-ageing; INFLA-score; Lymphocyte subsets; Longevity; Semi-supercentenarian
Online: 13 September 2023 (07:22:24 CEST)
In this paper, we present demographic, clinical, anamnestic, cognitive, and functional data, as well as haematological, haematochemical, immunological and genetic parameters of an exceptional individual: Antonino Turturici, a semi-supercentenarian who held the title of the oldest living Italian centenarian from December 28, 2020, to September 23, 2021. The purpose of this study is to offer fresh insights into extreme phenotypes, with a particular focus on immune-inflammatory parameters. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first phenotypic investigation of a semi-supercentenarian, illustrating both indicators of age-related immune phenotype (ARIP) recognized as significant gauges of biological ageing and INFLA-score, a metric designed to assess the cumulative impact of inflammatory markers. The aim of this study was, indeed, to advance our understanding of the role of immune-inflammatory responses in achieving extreme longevity. The results bolster the idea that the immune system can play a role in promoting extreme longevity. However, this does not exclude the involvement of other body systems or organs in achieving extreme longevity.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: glucose; glycogen; gluconeogenesis; early life adversity; acute stress; chronic stress; psychosocial stress; hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis; ageing; immuno-senescence; inflamm-ageing; Developmental origins of health and disease
Online: 23 March 2021 (09:04:41 CET)
The physiological response to a psychological stressor broadly impacts energy metabolism. In-versely, changes in energy availability affect the physiological response to the stressor in terms of hypothalamus, pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system activation. Glu-cocorticoids, the endpoint of the HPA axis, are critical checkpoints in endocrine control of ener-gy homeostasis and have been linked to metabolic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Glucocorticoids, through the glucocorticoid receptor, activate transcription of genes associated with glucose and lipid regulatory pathways and thereby control both physi-ological and pathophysiological systemic energy homeostasis. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of glucocorticoid functions in energy metabolism and systemic metabolic dysfunc-tion, particularly focusing on glucose and lipid metabolism. There are elements in the external environment that induce lifelong changes in the HPA axis stress response and glucocorticoid levels, the most prominent are early-life adversity, or exposure to traumatic stress. We hypothe-sise that when the HPA axis is so disturbed after early-life adversity, it will fundamentally alter hepatic gluconeogenesis, inducing hyperglycaemia, and hence crystalise the significant lifelong risk of developing either the metabolic syndrome, or type 2 diabetes. This gives a “Jekyll and Hyde” role to gluconeogenesis, providing the necessary energy in situations of acute stress, but driving towards pathophysiological consequences when the HPA axis has been altered.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0506.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Ageing; Epigenetics
Online: 15 November 2021 (13:34:33 CET)
The current state of biological knowledge contains an unresolved paradox: life as a continuity in the face of the phenomena of ageing. In this manuscript I propose a theoretical framework that offers a solution for this apparent contradiction. The framework proposed is based on a rethinking of what ageing is at a molecular level, as well as on a rethinking of the mechanisms in charge of the flow of information from one generation to the following ones. I propose an information-based conception of ageing instead of the widely accepted damage-based conception of ageing and propose a full recovery of the chromosome theory of inheritance to describe the intergenerational flow of information. Altogether the proposed framework allows a precise and unique definition of what life is: a continuous flow of biological information. The proposed framework also implies that ageing is merely a consequence of the way in which epigenetically-coded phenotypic characteristics are passed from one generation to the next ones.
Online: 9 May 2019 (11:42:00 CEST)
Extensive post reproductive lifespan (PRLS) is observed only in a few species, such as humans or resident killer whales, and its origin is under debate. Hypotheses like mother-care and grandmother-care invoke strategies of investment—provision to one’s descendants to enhance one’s overall reproductive success—to explain PRLS. The contribution of an investment strategy varies with the age of the caregiver, as the number of care-receiving descendant changes with age. Here we simulated an agent based model, which is sensitive to age-specific selection, to examine how the investment strategies in different hypotheses affect survival and reproduction across different stages of life. We found that extensive PRLS emerges if we combine multiple investment strategies, including grandmother-care but not mother-care, which allow an individual to have an increasing contribution as it ages. We also found that, if mother-care is further introduced to the PRLS-enabling strategies, it will let contribution at mid-life to substitute contribution at late life, which consequently terminates extensive PRLS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0463.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Belgium; spatial capital; sprawl, ageing; ageing in place
Online: 18 April 2023 (03:12:02 CEST)
Flanders (Belgium) is ageing at a rapid pace. Elderly people will continue to live at home in large numbers, partly because this is encouraged by the government. However, many homes are not adapted to reduced mobility. For example, it is not possible to circulate with a wheelchair. But also the living environment poses challenges for the elderly. Flanders is known for a far-reaching spread of housing and facilities, with the result that daily facilities can often only be reached by car. As a result of this spatial fragmentation, the elderly themselves often live for care providers in unreachable places. This ensures, among other things, that the in-home help travels several car kilometers. And research shows that so-called informal care is not self-evident either. Because what about the elderly who don't have children living nearby? Or with the residents who only see their next neighbor hundreds of meters away, who is also often a little mobile peer? The (untouched) appropriateness of the home, the presence or absence of facilities or neighbors, all of which belongs to what we can call the spatial capital of an environment. If this is not present, an autonomous life for a less mobile elderly person is not possible. The argument is that without sufficient spatial capital, the policy options are to allow the elderly to live in their homes for as long as possible or caring neighborhoods dead ends.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0158.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Covid-19; SARS-CoV-2; Inflamm-aging; mtDNA; Telomere; Inflammation
Online: 9 April 2020 (14:43:41 CEST)
More than 1,000,000 confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been registered worldwide since the beginning of the pandemic in Wuhan on December 2019. The high mortality rate of COVID-19 is associated with age, gender and the presence of comorbidities. Biochemical data have shown that COVID-19 patients develop a local and systemic hyper-inflammatory response associated with poor outcome. Therefore, the understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2-induced inflammation is a compelling need. Following this reasoning, here we will focus on the importance of the progressive age-related development of a pro-inflammatory state (aka inflamm-aging) in the understanding of the unbalanced inflammatory response against SARS-CoV-2 in aged people. In particular, we underpin the role of mitochondrial DNA and genomic DNA telomeric sequences in local and systemic mechanisms of inflammation. Indeed, the leakage of mtDNA out of its natural compartment (i.e. the mitochondrion), into the cytoplasm and in the extracellular environment is a powerful trigger of innate immunity and inflammation, as part of an evolutionary-conserved signaling mechanism of cellular damage (e.g. viral infection). High levels of circulating mtDNA are increased in aged people and set up as inflammatory markers of poor prognosis in intensive care unit patients. In turn, telomeric DNA, which can be released into the cytoplasm and in the extracellular environment upon cell damage, has been proven to exert potent anti-inflammatory activity. Since that aged people (particularly those affected by co-morbidity) are equipped with shortened telomeres, we posit that, in aged people affected by COVID-19 the release of mtDNA, coupled with insufficient telomeric DNA favors the onset of a detrimental inflammatory response. In this regard, we highlight that the mechanism of action of some currently used drugs, as well as potential new ones may be better understood under the light of the above-depicted theoretical framework thus explaining how studies on inflamm-aging may help to understand and combat COVID-19 pandemic.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0172.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: ageing GTEx analysis
Online: 13 September 2022 (10:36:35 CEST)
Recently, many independent research project focus on the study of the molecular basis of aging processes. I parallel, the different progression of many diseaes between sex is a hot topic research area. These studies require many data, models and tools for inferring aging and sex specific molecular machinaries. Among the others, the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) database is one of the preminent resources for the analysis of expression data related to tissues, sex and age. The current version of the database has a lot of querying interface that enable many analysis centered on the expression of genes on tissues. Despite this the database lacks on the analysis at sex/age level, thus the researcher has to download data and then write queries by hand. Nevertheless it lacks on the integration with existing protein interaction data. Therefore, the need for the introduction of tools enabling easy access and powerful analysis capabilities (i.e. state of the art network based analysis and integration), arises. We here present NOMA-DB a framework for the analysis of age related genes based on the GTEx database that enable easy querying at sex/age level, network based analysis. The framework is based on wrapping the GTEx database and on building an application logic level on top of existing data. The current version enables the analysis of genes by tissue, gene and age, thus it may be used in potentially future directions of analysis towards better comprehension of aging/sex-related molecular machineries based on the analysis of expression dat
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1337.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Autophagy; Ageing; LSM4; Yeast
Online: 20 July 2023 (02:51:12 CEST)
LSM4 is an essential yeast gene encoding a component of different LSM complexes involved in the regulation of mRNA splicing, stability and translation. In previous papers we reported that the expression in S. cerevisiae of the K. lactis Lsm4 gene lacking the C-terminal Q/N-rich domain in a Lsm4 null strain S. cerevisiae (Sclsm4D1) restored cell viability. Nevertheless, in this transformed strain we observed some phenotypes which are typical markers of regulated cell death, Reactive Oxygen Species and oxidated RNA accumulation. In this paper we report that a similar truncation operated in the S. cerevisiae LSM4 gene confers to cells the same phenotypes observed with the K.lactis LSM4D1 gene. Up to now there was no evidence on the direct involvement of LSM4 in autophagy. Here we found that the Sclsm4D1 mutant showed defects in the induction of autophagy and it was very sensitive to nitrogen starvation or treatment with low doses of rapamycin, an inducer of autophagy. Moreover, both during nitrogen starvation and ageing, the Sclsm4D1 mutant accumulated cytoplasmic autophagy-related structures, suggesting a role of Lsm4 in Phagophore Assembly Site (PAS) processing and/or vacuolar autophagosome internalization
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0302.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: ferroptosis; senescence; ageing; disease
Online: 17 January 2023 (09:07:35 CET)
Background: Senescence is a cellular ageing process in all multicellular organisms. It is characterized by a decline in cellular functions and proliferation, resulting in increased cellular damage and death. This condition plays an essential role in the ageing process and significantly contributes to the development of age-related complications. On the other hand, ferroptosis is a systemic cell death characterized by excessive iron accumulation followed by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress is a common trigger of this condition and may be induced by various factors such as toxins, drugs, and inflammation. Ferroptosis is linked to numerous illnesses, including cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Relevance of these conditions to ageing and disease: Senescence is believed to contribute to the decline in tissue and organ function that occurs with ageing. It has also been linked to the development of age-related pathologies, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. In particular, senescent cells have been shown to produce inflammatory cytokines and other pro-inflammatory molecules that can contribute to these conditions. On the other hand, ferroptosis has been linked to the development of various health disorders, including neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease, and cancer . It is known to play a role in developing these diseases by promoting the death of damaged or diseased cells and contributing to the inflammation often associated with them. Both senescence and ferroptosis are complex processes that are still not fully understood. Further research is needed to thoroughly understand the role of these processes in ageing and disease, and to identify potential interventions to target these processes to prevent or treat age-related conditions. Objectives: This systematic review aims to assess the potential mechanisms underlying the link connecting senescence, ferroptosis, ageing, and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0792.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Microplastics; Artificial Ageing; Polymer Degradation; Artificial Ageing; Polyethylene; Polypropylene; Polystyrene; Polyethylene Terephthalate
Online: 30 April 2021 (15:29:00 CEST)
Up to 13 million tons of plastic waste are estimated to enter the oceans every year. A generally accepted picture based on an increasing number of environmental studies suggests that the largest fraction of it consists or is rapidly degraded into microplastics (MPs). Most of the analytical studies focused on MPs are based on the detection and identification of the polymers. On the other hand, plastic debris in the environment undergo chemical (mainly photoxidative) and physical degradation processes leading not only to fragmentation but also to the formation of leachable, soluble and/or volatile degradation products that are released in the environment. The formation of such low molecular weight species is generally neglected in the studies on MPs even if these compounds, released in the environment from the plastics debris, may pose even higher risks for the environment and for the biota than the MPs particles themselves, risks that are far from being understood and assessed. In this study we performed the analysis of reference MPs - polymer micropowders obtained by grinding a set of five polymer types down to final size in the 857-509 μm range, namely high- and low-density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE, respectively), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The reference MPs were artificially aged in a Solar-Box and their degradation products were analyzed to investigate their degradation processes. In particular, a systematic and thorough characterization of the aged (photo-oxidized) MPs and of their low molecular weight and/or highly oxidized fraction extractable in polar organic solvents was performed. For this purpose, the artificially aged MPs were subjected to selective extraction with organic solvent that are non-solvents for the virgin polymers, targeting selective recovery of the low molecular weight fractions generated during the artificial aging. Analysis of both the extractable fractions and the residues was carried out by a multi-technique approach combining evolved gas analysis-mass spectrometry (EGA-MS) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). Up to 18 wt% of newly extractable, low molecular weight fraction was recovered from the photo-aged MPs, depending on the polymer type. The results highlight the need for more extensive studies about the potential harmfulness of the oxidation products (molecular and oxidized oligomeric species) that may leach out from plastic debris during their permanence in the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0466.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ageing; exercise; drosophila; proteome; mitochondria
Online: 28 September 2021 (11:23:15 CEST)
Ageing is a major risk factor for many of the most prevalent diseases, including neurodegenerative disease, cancer and heart disease. As the global population continues to age, behavioural interventions that can promote healthy ageing will improve quality of life and relieve the socio-economic burden that comes with an aged society. Exercise is recognised as an effective intervention against many diseases of ageing, but we don’t know the stage in an individual’s lifetime in which exercise is most effective at promoting healthy ageing and whether it has a direct effect on lifespan. We exercised w1118 Drosophila melanogaster, interrogating effects of sex and group size, at different stages of their lifetime and recorded their lifespan. Climbing scores at 30 days were measured to record differences in fitness in response to exercise. We also assessed the mitochondrial proteome of w1118 Drosophila that had been exercised for one week, alongside mitochondrial respiration measured using High-Resolution Respirometry, to determine changes in mitochondrial physiology in response to exercise. We found that age-targeted exercise interventions improve lifespan in male and female Drosophila, and grouped males exercised in late life had improved climbing scores, when compared with those exercised throughout their entire lifespan. The proteins of the electron transport chain were significantly upregulated in expression after one week of exercise, and complex II linked respiration was significantly increased in exercised -Drosophila. Taken together our study provides a basis to test specific proteins and complex II of the respiratory chain as important effectors of exercise induced healthy ageing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0174.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ageing; metabolomics; biomarker.; nmr spectroscopy
Online: 7 December 2020 (15:46:43 CET)
The dysregulation of cellular metabolism is a hallmark of ageing. To understand the metabolic changes that occur as a consequence of the ageing process and to find biomarkers for age-related diseases, we conducted a metabolomic analysis of brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung and spleen in young (9-10 weeks) and old (96-104 weeks) wild type (mixed genetic background of 129/J and C57BL/6) mice using NMR spectroscopy. We found differences in metabolic fingerprints of all tissues and identified several metabolites to be altered in most tissues, suggesting that they may be universal biomarkers of ageing. In addition, we found distinct tissue-clustered sets of metabolites throughout the organism. The associated metabolic changes may reveal novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of ageing and age-related diseases. Moreover, the identified metabolite biomarkers could provide a sensitive molecular read-out to age determine the age of biologic tissues and to validate the effectiveness and potential off-target effects of senolytic drug candidates on both a systemic and tissue-specific level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2010009
Online: 10 March 2020 (00:00:00 CET)
As there is lack of understanding about the effect of transitioning between different flooring materials on the gait of older adults, this study investigated the effect of transitioning between a carpeted floor and a vinyl floor on the gait characteristics of older adults. Fourteen older (65 years old and over) and 14 younger (18 to 35 years old) adults walked on different transitional floors by measuring various gait parameters. While the older participants had greater toe clearance than their younger counterparts, the older participants had smaller toe clearance on a carpeted floor than on a vinyl floor, which would increase the probability of a trip-induced fall. Further, the study found the slower transitional acceleration of the whole body COM and the increased friction demand, especially during the toe-off phase, rather than heel contact phase, which will lead to a slip-induced fall on a vinyl floor shortly after transitioning from a carpeted floor to a vinyl floor. Although the increased likelihood of a slip or trip accident was found throughout the changes in gait parameters, the older participants did not perceive of slipping and tripping much. Therefore, older adults are recommended to be made aware of the danger of slipping and tripping while transitioning between different flooring materials.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0143.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; IL-6; inflamm-aging; immune senescence; host-directed therapies
Online: 9 April 2020 (08:38:22 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is characterized by a high mortality of elderly men with age-related comorbidities. In most of these patients, uncontrolled local and systemic hyperinflammation induces severe and often lethal outcomes. The aging process is characterized by the gradual development of a chronic subclinical systemic inflammation (inflamm-aging) and by acquired immune system impairment (immune senescence). Here, we advance the hypothesis that some key features of aging contribute to the disproportionate SARS-CoV-2 mortality suffered by elderly men. At least four well-recognized aging-related characteristics that are strongly expressed in older men go some way towards explaining why these patients account for the vast majority of fatalities: i. the presence of subclinical systemic inflammation without overt disease, ii. a blunted acquired immune system and type I interferon response due to the chronic inflammation; iii. the downregulation of ACE2 (SARS-CoV-2 receptor), which triggers inflammation, particularly in patients with age-related comorbid diseases such as type II diabetes; and iv. accelerated biological aging, as measured by epigenetic and senescence markers (e.g. telomere shortening) associated to the chronic inflammatory state. Though typical of the aged, especially of elderly men, it is conceivable that these features are also shared by some subsets of the younger population. The high mortality rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection suggests that clarification of the mechanisms of inflamm-aging and immune senescence can help combat not only age-related disorders but also SARS-CoV-2 infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1387.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: ageing; age-related disease; antagonistic pleiotropy; biological constraint; hyperfunction; hypofunction; programmatic ageing; trade-off
Online: 23 November 2023 (04:05:44 CET)
The evolutionary theory of aging, particularly antagonistic pleiotropy (AP), provides an account of the ultimate origins of aging. What remains unclear is the nature of the proximate mechanisms by which AP gives rise to diseases of aging, like cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Damage-centric theories focusing on loss of genetic and cellular function have been proposed, as well as programmatic theories focusing on unwanted gene and cellular function. The latter include the hyperfunction and developmental theory that view aging as the futile continuation, or run-on, of growth and developmental programmes into later life. Yet neither type of theory has performed well in explaining late-life disease aetiology, particularly with respect to disease onset, presentation and progression. What is proposed here in this review is a new programmatic theory of aging. We argue that the emergence of many specific diseases may involve quasi-programmes that are not the result of run-on, but rather are triggered by other factors in late life. Such triggers may be non-programmatic (e.g. infection, mechanical injury) or programmatic. Moreover, the consequent pre-pathological and pathological changes may in some cases trigger further changes, leading to futile and destructive cascades of quasi-programmes and pathology. The origins of triggered quasi-programmes can be traced to biological constraint i.e. the inability of organisms to optimise all functions at once. And, to some extent, the new theory presented here revises the understanding of AP. That is, because any gene can be triggered in an erroneous manner, every gene is potentially an AP gene that risks pathology, though level of risk varies according to constraint. To help validate the theory, we test it against several complex diseases of aging. The new model in this review attempts to provide a blueprint understanding that, to a certain extent, closes the gap in the causal chain of events between evolutionary causes of aging and the aetiology of age-related diseases. It also helps to explain why certain disorders mimic accelerated aging and how interventions, such as the suppression of IIS and mTOR retard many aspects of aging; notably, though, unlike prior programmatic theories, the new theory is not mTOR-centric. Finally, it provides new perspectives on possible treatment of aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0621.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: SOC; SOH; Dataset; Ageing; Model; Estimation
Online: 9 May 2023 (09:11:39 CEST)
The state estimation for lithium-ion battery cells has been the topic of many publications concerning the different states of a battery cell. They often focus on a battery cell’s state of charge (SOC) or state of health (SOH). Therefore this paper introduces a, on one hand, a new lithium-ion battery data set with dynamic validation data over degradation and on the other hand a model-based SOC and SOH estimation based on this dataset as a reference. An unscented Kalman filter-based approach was used for SOC estimation and extended with a holistic ageing model to handle the SOH estimation. The paper describes the dataset, the models, the parameterisation, the implementation of the state estimations, and their validation using parts of the dataset resulting in a SOC and SOH estimation over battery life. The results show that the dataset can be used to extract parameters, design models based on it and validate with dynamically degraded battery cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0556.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Iran; active ageing; elderly; qualitative study
Online: 27 October 2020 (15:14:45 CET)
Background: Active ageing is a multidimensional, relative, and context-dependent concept with different paths and outcomes. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore personal active ageing strategies in a specific context. Method: Following a directed content analyze procedure, we conduct semi structured individual interview with 39 elder (men and women) between the ages of 60-97 years that selected with purposeful sampling .data collection and analysis were concurrent. We analyzed the data from interviews, written narratives, and field notes using directed content analyze. The Reliability of data was fulfilled in accordance Lincoln and Guba criteria. We stopped data collection when no new concept was added and data saturation occurred. Results: Based on the experience of elders, we identified 5 categories: 1) Preventive 2) Coping 3) Internal self-control 4) Coherence maintenance strategies 5) Opportunity exploiting strategies. These described the active ageing strategies when encountering with age related change. Utilizing these strategies, the elder accompanied the life time. Conclusion: The finding suggests that active ageing is a continuous process in confronting age related change. The identified strategies can help to promote active ageing by familiarizing older with opportunities of life and training them in how to use these strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0590.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: Ageing; contemporary issues; demographic correlates; grandparent caregiver
Online: 8 September 2023 (09:56:23 CEST)
Background: In the 21st century, grandparenthood is a significant phenomenon in the fields of demography, gerontology and sociology. It is mainly explored in the context of ageing, as it is poised to become one of the most significant demographic phenomena and social issues in contemporary South Africa. Therefore, this study examined the determinants associated with grandparents who are parenting as caregivers and the health challenges they are exposed to as a caregiver. Methods: The National Income Dynamics Study (NIDS) Wave 5 dataset was utilized, and a total of 302 476 grandparents aged 25 years and older, who reported to be primary caregivers of double orphans, were included in the analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate binary logistics regression were performed to determine the predictors of the determinants of grandparents parenting as a caregiver and their health challenges in South Africa. Estimated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used, and the threshold for statistical significance was established at ρ< 0.05. Results: A majority of the male and female grandparent caregivers are aged 24-34 years, were black Africans (69.8%), had secondary education (46.9%), reported health challenges (HC) (59.7%), with 26.4% reporting headaches in the last 30 days. Logistic regression revealed that grandparent caregivers aged 55-64 years were 8.9 times more likely to report health challenges as compared to those aged 25-34 years. Non-black African grandparent caregivers were found to be 0.61 times less likely to be report health challenges, compared to Black African grandparent caregivers. Those with perceived poor health status were 3.3 times more likely to report health challenges, compared to those with excellent perceived health status. Conclusion: Therefore, there is an urgent need to redesign health interventions to address these health burdens among grandparent caregivers and to take cognizance of providing economic and social support for these vulnerable populations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1851.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: aging theories; gerontology; genetics; lifespan; evolvability; ageing
Online: 28 August 2023 (10:01:19 CEST)
Programmed aging refers to the idea that mammals (and some other multiparous sexually reproducing organisms) evolved complex biological mechanisms that cause gradually increasing fitness deterioration and internally limit individual organism lifetimes. The rationale is that this process enhances the survival (non-extinction) of a species population. Evolvability theories propose that mammals have evolved design characteristics that aid their ability to evolve, that is, reduce the time required for a particular increment of evolutionary adaptation and/or increase the precision with which the adaptation can be performed. Because an increase in evolvability aids a population in escaping extinction, evolution selects the associated design characteristics. Both of these concepts conflict with traditional (Darwinian) theory regarding the nature of evolution. However, more recent genetics discoveries have exposed rich detail regarding the nature of the evolution process including the fact that biological inheritance involves the transmission of organism design information from parent to descendant in digital form. These discoveries have acted to support both programmed aging and evolvability theories. Acquisition traits are those that depend for their evolutionary (fitness) value on the acquisition of something that gradually accumulates during an organism’s life but is not transmitted genetically to descendants. This situation causes these traits including language, immunity, intelligence, and social status to represent a special need for evolvability and programmed aging.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: life histories; ageing; fecundity; nutrient balance; evolution
Online: 2 February 2022 (12:55:42 CET)
Reducing overall food intake or lowering the proportion of protein relative to other macronutrients, can extend lifespan in diverse organisms. A number of mechanistic theories have been developed to explain this phenomenon, mostly assuming that the molecules connecting diet to lifespan are evolutionarily conserved. A recent study using Drosophila melanogaster females has pinpointed a single essential micronutrient that can explain how lifespan is changed by dietary restriction. Here, we propose a likely mechanism for this observation, which involves a trade-off between lifespan and reproduction, but in a manner that is conditional on the dietary supply of an essential micronutrient – a sterol. Importantly, these observations argue against previous evolutionary theories that rely on constitutive resource reallocation or damage directly inflicted by reproduction. Instead, they are compatible with a model in which the inverse relationship between lifespan and food level is caused by the consumer suffering from varying degrees of malnutrition when maintained on lab food. The data also indicate that animals on different lab foods may suffer from different nutritional imbalances and that the mechanisms by which dietary restriction benefits the lifespan of different species may vary. This means that translating the mechanistic findings from lab animals to humans will not be simple and should be interpreted in light of the range of challenges that have shaped each organism’s lifespan in the wild and the composition of the natural diets they would feed on.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0155.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: Nickel laterites; laterization; serpentinization; weathering; goethite ageing
Online: 27 January 2022 (12:43:44 CET)
While there are extensive studies on the mineralogy and geochemistry of laterites worldwide, the temporal and spatial mineralogical development of a typical nickel laterite profile is still poorly constrained. In this study, we present a detailed mineralogical and geochemical characterization of samples systematically collected from a nickel laterite profile at the Sta. Cruz nickel laterite deposit, Zambales, Philippines, to describe the temporal and spatial development of the laterite profile. Wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (WDSXRF), mass balance-element mobility calculations, transmitted and reflected light microscopy, and previously reported results from coupled X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld refinement analyses, reveal that the laterite profile investigated is composed of two main horizons: the limonite and saprolite zones, separated by a thin transitional zone. The main zones are further subdivided into subzones based primarily on the mineral assemblage and major element chemistry: upper limonite, lower limonite, transitional zone, upper saprolite, and lower saprolite. Late-stage Ni-rich serpentine veins were observed cutting the upper and lower saprolite subzones. Investigation of the structure of goethite within the limonite zone via Rietveld refinement show that the crystallinity of goethite decreases with increasing Ni content and increasing crystallite size. This suggests that upwards through the limonite zone, as goethite ages, its crystallinity increases which possibly results in the removal of Ni from its crystal structure and eventual remobilization to the lower laterite zones. We propose a genetic model of the formation of the Sta. Cruz laterite consisting of four stages: (1) early-stage alteration, (2) continued serpentinization and volume expansion, (3) late stage serpentinization, dissolution, and incipient oxide formation, and (4) goethite ageing and Ni-rich serpentine vein formation. Overall, our results suggest that serpentinization is an important aspect of Ni laterite formation, both before and after the emplacement of the peridotite protolith.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0540.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Smokeless tobacco; India; Ageing; Occupation; Tobacco consumption
Online: 30 August 2021 (11:49:45 CEST)
More than two-thirds of death in developing countries are due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and tobacco is a leading risk factor. Among different socio-demographic factors, occupation and its corelates have impact on use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) and the evidence in India is limited. The objectives of this study are to find out the overall preva-lence of SLT use and its pattern of association with various occupation and associated variables. Methods: This study used data from Longitudinal Ageing Study in India (LASI) wave 1. Current and ever users of SLT are taken into consideration as target population. For the data analysis, survey-weighted tools have been applied for descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic re-gression model. The weighted data analysis has been done using R. Results and Discussion: From the sample size of 65561, 38% have ever used either smoking or SLT, of them, 40 % use to-bacco in smoke form, 51 % use SLT and 9 % take both. At the population level, 22.8% and 20.4% are ever and current users of SLT respectively. Type, place, and workload in the occupation found to be significantly associated with SLT use. Workplace tobacco-cessation-policy for infor-mal-workers is required to manage this issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0202.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: CaCO3 polymorphs; sulphate; ageing process; aragonite; gypsum
Online: 21 February 2019 (10:45:12 CET)
In this work we aim to experimentally study the nucleation and growth of CaCO3 phases precipitated from supersaturated aqueous solutions in the presence of varying concentrations of sulphate oxyanion. The experiments were conducted under pH conditions close to neutral (7.6) and considering a wide range of initial (SO42-)/(CO32-) ratios (0 to ~ 68) in the aqueous solution. We paid special attention to the evolution of the precipitates during ageing within a time framework of 14 days. The mineralogy, morphology and composition of the precipitates were studied by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and EDX microanalysis. The concentration of sulphate ions in the reacted aqueous solution was study by ICPs. The experimental results show that the mineral composition of the precipitate recovered in each run varied with the (SO42-)/(CO32-) ratio in the parental solution, which influences the mineral evolution of the precipitates during ageing. We observe that high concentrations of sulphate in the aqueous solution stabilize the vaterite precipitates and inhibit calcite formation. Furthermore, aragonite never precipitates directly form the solution and it is only formed via a dissolution-precipitation process in solutions with high (SO42-)/(CO32-) ratio after long reaction times. Finally, gypsum only precipitates after long ageing in those aqueous solutions with the highest concentration of sulphate. The reaction pathways during ageing, the morphology of the calcite crystals and the composition of vaterite and calcite are discussed considering both, kinetic and thermodynamic factors. These results show a considerably more complex behavior of the system than that observed in experiments conducted under higher pHs and supersaturation levels and lower (SO42-)/(CO32-) ratios in the aqueous phase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0508.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: ageing; sarcopenia; dynapenia; skeletal muscle atrophy; denervation; behavior
Online: 10 July 2023 (03:58:41 CEST)
The facultative loss of muscle mass and function during aging (sarcopenia) poses a serious threat to our independence and health. Much of what we know about sarcopenia derive from studies on small rodents which serve as models for the human condition. Here we used outbred male rats to study the natural history of sarcopenia with the aim to compare behavioral motor deficits with degree of muscle wasting and to find processes underlying the preclinical phase of sarcopenia. Selected metrics were validated in female rats. We used the soleus muscle because of its long duty cycles in everyday life and significance for postural control. The results show that gait and coordination remain intact through middle age (12-18 months; 40%-60% of median lifespan) when muscle mass relative to body weight is largely maintained. The muscle, however, show multiple signs of remodeling with a shift in myofiber-type composition towards type I, increased number of hybrid fibers and fibers expressing embryonic myosin. In parallel with the shift in fiber type prevalence, fiber type clustering increased. The latter combined with a transcriptional upregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (CHRN ), NCAM and Myogenin (MYOG) suggests a remodeling driven by myofiber denervation. Additional stigmata were increased number of central nuclei, transcriptional upregulation of Smad3, FBXO32, and MuRF1mRNAs; unaltered density of satellite cells (SC) and Catenin mRNA. In early (25-month-old) and advanced (30-month-old) aging, gait and coordination deteriorate as loss of muscle mass progresses. In late middle age and early aging because of a type II atrophy (>50%), followed by type I atrophy (>50%). Number of myofiber did not correlate with this process. At advance age, the atrophy is accompanied by a decrease in SC and Catenin mRNA while several transcripts upregulated earlier-on were downregulated. In contrast, glial-derived nerve growth factor (GDNF) mRNA abundance peaked at endpoint. We conclude that sarcopenia in the rat as in humans, has a long preclinical phase where the muscle undergoes extensive remodeling to preserve muscle mass and function. The data supports the notion that myofiber denervation is the instigating mechanism, initially affecting large type II motor units (MUs) and at more advanced stage also the smaller type I MUs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0326.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SNP; calpaincalpastatin system genes; genomic association; tenderization; ageing
Online: 18 November 2021 (13:48:09 CET)
The most important factor that determines beef tenderness is its proteolytic activity and the balance between calpain1 protease activity and calpastatin inhibition is especially important, while contributions could arise from calpain2 and possibly calpain3. These processes are however affected by the meat aging process itself. To determine whether genotypes in the calpaincalpastatin system can enhance tenderness throughout a 20 day aging period, South African purebred beef bulls (n=166) were genotyped using the Illumina BovineHD SNP BeadChip, through genebased association analysis targeting the cast, capn3, capn2 and capn1 genes. The WarnerBratzler shear force (WBSF) and myofibril fragment length (MFL) of Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) steaks were evaluated between d 3 d 20 of aging, with protease enzyme activity in the first 20 h postmortem. Although several of the 134 SNP associated with tenderness, only seven SNP in the cast, capn2 and capn1 genes sustained genetic associations, additive to agingassociated increases in tenderness for at least three of the four aging periods. While most genomic associations were relatively stable over time, some genotypes within SNP responded differently to aging, resulting in altered genomic effects over time. The level of aging at which genomic associations are performed is an important factor that determines whether SNP affect tenderness phenotypes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0234.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: economics; ATP; energy budget; cellular activity; ageing; prebiotic
Online: 15 October 2021 (17:04:45 CEST)
Ramsey’s economic theory of saving (RTS) estimates how much of its commodities a nation should save to safeguard the well-being of future generations. Since RTS retains many attractive qualities such as simplicity, strength, breadth and generality, here we ask if it would be useful to investigate biophysical issues. Specifically, we focus on a biological topic that lends itself as a backdrop for the study of the imbalance between intake and expenditure, i.e., the evaluation of the multicellular living organisms’ energetic requirements and constraints. Our problem is to find at each time the optimum distribution and the right balance of the cellular energy budget between consumption and storage: how much must a living organism spare to increase its chances of survival over long periods? Suggesting how to find the optimum allocation of the available energy between expenditure and saving at each time, RTS approaches to biological energy budgets may have a wide range of experimental applications, such as: a) optimization of the long-term survival chances of either immortalized cell cultures, or beneficial bacterial colonies and exogenous probiotic mixtures; b) eradication of detrimental biofilms, such as, e.g., heart valves’ Streptococcus colonies; c) novel anti-stress and anti-ageing strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0513.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: dementia; neurocognition; neuroimmune; oxidative stress; antioxidants; psychiatry; ageing
Online: 21 June 2021 (13:58:41 CEST)
Background: No studies have examined whether interactions between the apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) allele and peripheral biomarkers, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may impact the neurocognitive, behavioral and social dysfunctions in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD). Aims: To clinically define and biologically validate a subgroup of aMCI subjects that take up an intermediate position between controls and AD patients. Methods: In 61 healthy controls, 60 subjects with aMCI, and 60 AD patients we measured the features of aMCI/AD using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD). A composite BIORISK score was computed using the ApoE4 allele, serum folate, albumin, white blood cells, fasting blood glucose (FBG), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), T2DM and hypertension. Results: Clustering and nearest neighbour analyses were unable to validate the aMCI subgroup. We constructed two z unit-based composite scores, the first indicating overall burden of cognitive, social, and behavioural deterioration (OBD), and a second reflecting the interactions between ApoE4, all other biomarkers, hypertension and T2DM (BIORISK). We found that 40.2% of the variance in the OBD score was explained by BIORISK, ApoE4, age and education. The OBD index was used to construct three subgroups (normal, medium, and high OBD) with the medium group (n=45) showing mild cognitive dysfunctions (MCD) in memory, language, orientation, and ADL. People with MCD show OBD and BIORISK scores that are significantly different from controls and AD.Conclusions: Petersen’s aMCI criteria cannot be validated and should be replaced by the more restrictive, biologically validated MCD class.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0329.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: ageing; simulated driving; attention; switching costs; neural oscillations
Online: 4 August 2020 (10:57:24 CEST)
We recently reported that refocusing attention between temporal and spatial tasks becomes more difficult with increasing age, which could impair daily activities such as driving (Callaghan et al., 2017). Here we investigated the extent to which difficulties in refocusing attention extend to naturalistic settings such as simulated driving. 118 participants in five age groups (18-30; 40-49; 50-59; 60-69; 70-91 years) were compared during simulated driving, where they switched from a spatially focal yet temporally complex task (braking due to traffic ahead) to a spatially more distributed task (reading a motorway road sign). Sequential-Task (switching) performance was compared to Single-Task performance (road sign only) to calculate age-related switch-costs. Electroencephalography was recorded in 34 participants (17 in the 18-30 and 17 in the 60+ years groups) to explore age-related changes in the neural oscillatory signatures of refocusing attention while driving. We indeed observed age-related impairments in attentional refocusing, evidenced by increased switch-costs in response times and by deficient modulation of theta and alpha frequencies. Our findings highlight virtual reality (VR) and Neuro-VR as important methodologies for future psychological and gerontological research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0370.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: eotaxin; immune marker; neuroinflammation; ageing; neuro-psychiatric disorder
Online: 30 January 2020 (14:42:45 CET)
Background: CCL11 (eotaxin) is a chemokine with an important role in allergic conditions. Recent evidence indicates that CCL11 plays a role in brain disorders as well. Aims: This paper reviews the associations between CCL11 and aging, neurodegenerative, neuroinflammatory and neuropsychiatric disorders.Methods: Electronic databases were searched for original articles examining CCL11 in neuropsychiatric disorders.Results: CCL11 is rapidly transported from the blood to the brain through the brain-blood barrier. Age-related increases in CCL11 are associated with cognitive impairments in executive functions, episodic and semantic memory and, therefore, this chemokine was described as an “endogenous cognition deteriorating chemokine” (ECDC) or “accelerated brain-aging chemokine” (ABAC). In schizophrenia, increased CCL11 is not only associated with impairments in cognitive functions, but also with key symptoms including formal thought disorders. Some patients with mood disorders and premenstrual syndrome show increased plasma CCL11 levels. In diseases of old age, CCL11 is associated with lowered neurogenesis and neurodegenerative processes and, as a consequence, increased CCL11 increases risk towards Alzheimer's Disease. Polymorphisms in the CCL11 gene are associated with stroke. Increased CCL11 also plays a role in neuroinflammatory disease including multiple sclerosis. In animal models, neutralization of CCL11 may protect against nigrostriatal neurodegeneration. Increased production of CCL11 may be attenuated by glucocorticoids, minocycline, resveratrol and anti-CCL11 antibodies.Conclusion: Increased CCL11 production during inflammatory conditions may play a role in human disease including age-related cognitive decline, schizophrenia, mood disorders and neurodegenerative disorders. Increased CCL11 production is a new drug target in the treatment and prevention of those disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: humanoids; robots; ageing population; elderly; attitude; future intention
Online: 13 September 2018 (11:38:28 CEST)
The processes of an ageing population are becoming a challenge in the context of social, technological, and research policy. Also, according to the perspective 2080, Poland belongs to the group of counties with the prognosticated number of citizens over 65 to account for one-third of the population. Different strategies aimed at dealing with the mentioned demographic challenges include widespread use of humanoids in care for older people. As the research of such nature was the first in Poland, this article aimed to identify the factors and their interlinks that determine the attitude and the future use of humanoids by older people of the Polish society. Based on the specific attributes of humanoid technology, the model hypothesises that an attitude to technology can be directly predicted by four perceived technology attributes, namely an impact on the quality of life, technological impact, ethical and social problems, while user attitude towards humanoid technology is predicted to have an indirect influence on the future intention of use. A survey method was used to collect research data. An electronic questionnaire was used to conduct confidential interviews. Finally, 643 filled questionnaires were received. Results received via a regression analysis confirmed that the most important factor influencing human attitudes was a positive social impact achieved using humanoids in the care of lonely people and improving the safety of older people. Another important factor was a technological impact from the use of humanoids performing functions desired by respondents. The technology in question could be useful for reminding older people about taking medication, informing family members about the health condition of their older people and calling for help on their behalf.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0917.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: seed storage; seed viability; seedling emergence; seed ageing; germination
Online: 11 August 2023 (10:06:48 CEST)
Seed quality is crucial for the success of crop production, as it affects germination capacity, emergence potential, and seedling growth. This study investigated the impact of extended stor-age on the germination capacity, oleoresin and essential oil contents of black cumin seeds from three black cumin varieties in Ethiopia: "Aden", "Dershaye", and "Darbera". Seeds were stored for up to three years, and germination studies were conducted using a Completely Randomized De-sign. Results showed that storage period significantly affected various germination parameters, with a decrease in germination percentage observed with increasing storage period. However, variety and the interaction between storage period and variety had no statistically significant effect on germination percentage. The study also provides valuable insights into the correlations between different germination indices. Additionally, as black cumin seeds age, their oleoresin and essential oil contents decrease across all three varieties. Proper seed storage practices are essential in maintaining the germination potential of black cumin seeds, particularly over ex-tended storage periods. Overall, this study provides insights into the impact of extended seed storage on black cumin seed quality and germination potential, highlighting the importance of proper seed management practices to support sustainable crop production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: ageing; inflammation, cytokines, inflammageing; inflammageing; immunosenescence; immunosurveillance; senescence; SASP
Online: 4 October 2021 (11:00:22 CEST)
Acute inflammation is a physiological response to injury or infection, with a cascade of steps that ultimately leads to recruitment of immune cells to clear invading pathogens and heal wounds. However, chronic inflammation arising from continued presence of the initial trigger, or dysfunction of signalling and/or effector pathways, is harmful to health. While successful ageing in older adults including centenarians is associated with low levels of inflammation, elevated inflammation increases the risk of poor health and death [1–3]. Hence inflammation has been described as one of seven pillars of ageing. Age-associated sterile, chronic, and low-grade inflammation is commonly termed inflammageing - it is not simply a consequence of increasing chronological age, but is also a marker of biological ageing, multimorbidity and mortality risk. While inflammageing was initially thought to be caused by “continuous antigenic load and stress”, reports from the last two decades describe a much more complex phenomenon also involving cellular senescence and ageing of the immune system. In this review, we explore the sources and consequences of inflammageing and highlight potential interventions. In particular, we assess the contribution of cellular senescence to age-associated inflammation, identify patterns of pro- and anti-inflammatory markers characteristic of inflammageing, describe alterations in the ageing immune system that lead to elevated inflammation, and finally assess the ways that diet, exercise and pharmacological interventions can reduce inflammageing and thus improve later life health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0651.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Ageing; Qualitative Research; Primary Health Care; Loneliness; Social Capital.
Online: 25 December 2020 (10:38:50 CET)
Loneliness is a frequent negative feeling among older people. A programme aimed at alleviating loneliness among older people by promoting social capital, i.e. social support and participation, was conducted in primary health care centres in Spain. We aimed to explore participants’ experiences of loneliness and social participation before the programme, perceived programme effects and contextual influences. A descriptive-interpretative qualitative design was used. 41 persons were included comprising older people, health and social care professionals, and volunteers. Data were collected through three focus groups, 36 semi-structured interviews and participant-observation of the intervention. A thematic content analysis was applied. Older persons with diverse profiles of loneliness and participation decreased their loneliness, increased their knowledge and participation in local community assets, and developed companionship, a sense of belonging, peer support and friendship. Their mental wellbeing increased and participants could deal better with health or family problems. An empowerment process was observed. However, loneliness persisted among some widowed participants and health and social vulnerabilities hampered some impacts. Conflicts and exclusion were occasional unintended effects. The promotion of social capital in ageing to alleviate loneliness involves complex processes interrelated with health and socio-economic factors. Future programmes should be adapted to local contexts and participants’ characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0337.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: thermal sensation; ageing; infrared thermography; frailty; assessment; comfort; extremities
Online: 15 August 2020 (04:56:17 CEST)
The temperature of the indoor environment is important for health and wellbeing especially at the extremes of age. The study aim was to undertsand the relationship between self-reported thermal sensation and extremity skin temperature in care home residents with and without dementia. The Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) was used to discriminate residents to two categories, those with and those without dementia. After acclimatisation, measurements included: tympanic membrane temperature, thermal sensation rating followed by infrared thermal mapping of non-dominant hand and forearm. Sixty-nine afebrile adults (60-101 years of age) were studied in groups of two to five, in mean ambient temperatures of 21.4oC-26.6oC (median 23.6oC). Significant differences were observed between groups; thermal sensation rating (p=0.02), tympanic temperature (p=0.01), fingertip skin temperature (p=0.01) and temperature gradients; fingertip-wrist p=0.001 and fingertip-distal forearm, p=0.001.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: adaptive death; ageing; altruism; C. elegans; kin selection; salmon
Online: 4 August 2020 (11:26:31 CEST)
Standard evolutionary theory, supported by mathematical modelling of outbred, dispersed populations predicts that ageing is not an adaptation. We recently argued that in clonal, viscous populations, programmed organismal death could promote fitness through social benefits and has, in some organisms (e.g. Caenorhabditis elegans), evolved to shorten lifespan. Here we review previous adaptive death theory, including consumer sacrifice, biomass sacrifice, and defensive sacrifice types of altruistic adaptive death. In addition we discuss possible adaptive death in semelparous fish, coevolution of reproductive and adaptive death, and adaptive reproductive senescence in C. elegans. We also describe findings from recent tests for the existence of adaptive death in C. elegans using computer modelling. Such models have provided new insights into how trade-offs between fitness at the individual and colony levels mean that senescent changes can be selected traits. Exploring further the relationship between adaptive death and social interactions, we consider examples where adaptive death results more from action of kin than from self-destructive mechanisms and, to describe this, introduce the term adaptive killing of kin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0536.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: playable city; age-friendly environments; games; mobility; active ageing
Online: 23 October 2018 (10:11:15 CEST)
A key concern in an ageing society is citizens’ mobility. As populations age, disability impairments can affect active ageing, health-related wellbeing and quality of life. In this paper, we present the on-going research project SeriousGiggle—Game-based learning for triggering active ageing. Its goal is to assess the potential of game-based learning for active ageing and contribute to a sense of wellbeing and quality of life. It also seeks to improve the mobility of older adults by creating a set of journey plans with route guidance that are rated in terms of safety, community support, environment and age-friendliness. Drawn on our field work with 33 co-designers, 40 end users and 10 semi-structured interviews with Subject Matter Experts, we identify a set of necessary design requirements to an Age-friendly Playable City. This study recommends the use of gamification and playful techniques to engage the end-users to provide information about local traffic signs, pavement conditions, wayfinding and, therefore, help to create route guidance and walking assistance that are personalized to older adults’ context in terms of location, travel fitness, mobility impairments and motivations.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0145.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Aged; Geriatrics; Successful Ageing; Care Quality; Health Systems; Training
Online: 8 October 2018 (12:34:05 CEST)
Malaysia became the centre of international attention when it democratically removed a semi-authoritarian government of 62 years during its 14th general election this year. This electoral success has provided geriatric medicine in Malaysia with the unexpected ageing icon in the oldest prime minister in the world. Political change has led to a wave of optimism for the expansion of geriatric services in Malaysia, which has met with numerous challenges in the last two decades. The number of geriatrics specialists and services had already begun expanding under the previous government. However, existing geriatricians will need to reassess the landscape of delivery and access of care in our rapidly growing ageing population and develop new strategies to truly expand their services. In addition to unrelenting efforts in the recruitment and training of future geriatricians, the steady expansion of the geriatric workforce should take into account the inclusion of geriatric medicine in the undergraduate training curricula of all healthcare professionals. Expansion of geriatric services will also be a cost-effective strategy to reduce the growing national healthcare budget incurred by the growing needs of an ageing population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0467.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Nuts; ageing; nutritional status; malnutrition; appetite; energy intake; health
Online: 24 September 2018 (16:29:08 CEST)
The proportion of adults aged over 60 years in the world is expected to reach 20% by the year 2050. Ageing is associated with several physiological changes that increase the risk of malnutrition among this population. Malnutrition is characterized by deficiencies or insufficiencies of macro- and micronutrients. Malnutrition has detrimental effects on the health, wellbeing and quality of life of older adults. Nuts are rich in energy, unsaturated fats, protein, as well as other nutrients that provide a range of health benefits. While the effects of nuts on overnutrition have been studied extensively, very few studies have been specifically designed to understand the role of nuts in mitigating undernutrition in the elderly. Therefore, this review explores the potential role of nuts in improving the nutritional status of older adults who are at risk of undernutrition. Several properties of whole nuts, some of which appear important for addressing overnutrition, (e.g. hardness, lower-than-expected nutrient availability, satiety-enhancing effects) may limit their effectiveness as a food to combat undernutrition. However, we propose that modifications such as transforming the physical form of nuts, addressing the timing of nut ingestion, and introducing variety may overcome these barriers. This review also discusses the feasibility of using nuts to prevent and reverse undernutrition among older adults. We conclude with a recommendation to conduct clinical studies in the future to test this conceptual framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0199.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: active ageing; social participation; mobility; assistive technologies; service delivery
Online: 23 August 2016 (14:53:52 CEST)
Active ageing is defined as the process of optimizing opportunities for physical, social and mental health to enable older people to take an active part in society without discrimination and to enjoy an independent and good quality of life. The World Health Organization assumed this as a process for increasing and maintaining an individual’s participation in activities to enhance his/her quality of life. In this survey, the authors addressed the following question: “Is assistive technology (AT) for mobility contributing to enhancement of lifelong capacity and performance?”. From June 2015 until February 2016, 96 community dwelling adults, AT users for mobility (powered wheelchairs, manual wheelchairs, lower limb prostheses, walkers, crutches and canes), aged 45-97, mean 67.02 +/- 14.24 years old, 56.3% female, were interviewed using the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (P-PIADS), the Activities and Participation Profile related to Mobility (APPM) and demographics, clinical and questions about AT use and training. The participants’ profiles revealed moderate limitation and restrictions in participation, measured by the APPM (2.03). Most participants showed positive impact of AT; average scores obtained from the P-PIADS subscales were: Self-esteem 0.62, Competency 1.11 and Adaptability 1.10. P-PIADS total was 0.96, with the powered wheelchair users scoring the highest (1.53) and the walker users scoring the lowest (0.73). All subscales and P-PIADS total were positively correlated with the activities and participation profile. There was no relation between age and the psychosocial impact of AT or activities and participation profile. These results encourage the authors to follow these participants up for a lifelong intervention. To accomplish that aim, currently, the protocol is implemented at the AT prescribing centers in Coimbra, Portugal in order to assess the impact of AT on participation in society, one of the domains of the Active Ageing Index, a new analytical tool to help policy makers in developing policies for active and healthy ageing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0228.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Prognostics; Ageing; Lithium-Ion Batteries; EV Batteries; Degradation; Electric vehicles; Failure; Solid Electrolyte Interphase; Lifespan Estimation; Battery Performance; Diagnostics; Lifetime Prediction
Online: 21 November 2023 (13:16:44 CET)
Lithium-ion batteries with improved energy densities have made understanding the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) generation mechanisms that cause mechanical, thermal, and chemical failures more complicated. SEI processes reduce battery capacity and power. Thus, a review of this area's understanding is important. It is essential to know how batteries degrade in EVs to estimate battery lifespan as it goes, predict, and minimize losses, and determine the ideal time for a replacement. Lithium-ion batteries used in EVs mainly suffer two types of degradation: calendar degradation and cycling degradation. Despite the existence of several existing works in the literature, several aspects of battery degradation remain unclear or have not been analyzed in detail. This work presents a systematic review of existing works in the literature. The results of the present investigation provide insight into the complex relationships among various factors affecting battery degradation mechanisms. Specifically, this systematic review examined the effects of time, side reactions, temperature fluctuations, high charge/discharge rates, depth of discharge, mechanical stress, thermal stress, and the voltage relationship on battery performance and longevity. The results revealed that these factors interact in complex ways to influence the degradation mechanisms of batteries. For example, high charge currents and deep discharges were found to accelerate degradation, while low temperatures and moderate discharge depths were shown to be beneficial for battery longevity. Additionally, the results showed that the relationship between cell voltage and State-of-Charge (SOC) plays a critical role in determining the rate of degradation. Overall, these findings have important implications for the design and operation of battery systems, as they highlight the need to carefully manage a range of factors to maximize battery performance and longevity. The result is an analysis of the main articles published in this field in recent years. This work aims to present new knowledge about fault detection, diagnosis, and management of lithium-ion batteries based on battery degradation concepts. The new knowledge is presented and discussed in a structured and comprehensive way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0323.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Keywords 1D PLA filaments, mechanical properties, thermal properties, temperature, ageing
Online: 17 November 2022 (03:24:50 CET)
The effects of post-treatment temperature-based methods on 1D single PLA filaments after FFF have been studied. This lets to decouple the variables related to the 3D structure (layer height, raster angle, infill density, and others) from the variables solely related to the material (molecular weight, molecular orientation, crystallinity, and others). PLA 1D filaments have been aged at 20, 39, 42, 51, 65, 75 and 80 ºC in a water-bath-inspired process in which the hydrolytic degradation of the PLA has been minimised for the ageing temperatures of interest. The evolution of the thermal and mechanical properties of the PLA filaments at different temperatures was recorded. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to evaluate thermal and physical properties, in which the glass transition, enthalpic relaxation, crystallisation and melting reactions were analysed. Tensile tests were performed to evaluate the tensile strength and elastic modulus. The flow-induced molecular orientation, the degradation, the logistic fitting and the so-called summer effect –stabilisation of properties at higher temperatures– are discussed for assessing the safeness of accelerating ageing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: Ageing; CaReMoOC; Biomechanics; Motor Control; Rehabilitation; movement limitations; movement impairments
Online: 9 January 2020 (14:00:26 CET)
In healthy ageing, capacity declines in the neural, muscular, and skeletal systems, and each system decline has its effect on the execution of complex motor tasks. This decline in capacity can result in the inability to stand up (sit-to-stand, sit-to-walk), which is a key movement for independence. The mechanisms leading to mobility limitations or inabilities are complex, overlapping, and interdependent and the complementary fields of biomechanics, motor control, and physiology need to be combined to understand these mechanisms. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of age-related compensation in standing up and to consider the limitations of these results when analysing standing up in daily life using the Capacity, Reserve, Movement Objectives, and Compensation (CaReMoOC) framework that combines biomechanics, motor control, and physiology. A literature search was performed in the search engine Scopus, using the keywords and their synonyms: strateg*(approach, technique, way) AND, sit-to-walk OR sit-to-stand OR rise (raise, arise, stand, stand-up) AND chair (seat). Inclusion criteria were: biomechanics or motor control on sit-to-stand or sit-to-walk in healthy and/or frail adults (<60y) and elderly (>60y), and/or osteoarthritis patients as a specific case of ageing related decline. The review shows that movement compensations in standing up manifest as changes in planned trajectory (Compensation by Selection) and in muscle recruitment (Compensation by Reorganisation). However, as most studies in the literature typically use standardized experimental protocols where movement compensation is restricted, these studies cannot be directly translated to functional tasks, such as the mobility of the elderly in their homes, communities, and clinic. Compensation must be included in future studies in order to facilitate clinical translation. Specifically, future studies in the standing up task should 1) determine the effect of varying arm use strategies (e.g., armrests, knees, chair, cane) on trunk and both lower limb and upper limb joint loading, 2) analyse control strategies in elderly people, 3) determine the biomechanical implications of asymmetry, and 4) incorporate assessments of age-related physical and neural decline as well as changes in psychological priorities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0073.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: body composition; triathlon; ageing; energy availability; macronutrients; performance; protein; carbohydrate
Online: 5 December 2019 (11:54:46 CET)
The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the benefits that evidence-based nutritional and training recommendations could have on the time course of reconditioning following hip arthroplasty in a competitive master triathlete. Methods: During 38 weeks (from 6 weeks prior to surgery through to the return to competition), the athlete was provided with detailed training and nutritional recommendations based on the latest research evidence. Dietary intake (via the remote food photographic method), body composition (via DXA), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), peak power output (PPO) and cycling efficiency (GE) were assessed 6 weeks pre- and 8, 12, 18, 21 and 25-weeks post-surgery. Training load was quantified (TRIMP score) daily during the retraining. Results: Total body mass increased by 8.2 kg (attributable to a 3.5 and 4.6 kg increase in fat mass and lean mass, respectively) between week -6 and week 8 despite a reduction in carbohydrate (CHO) intake post-surgery (<3.0g/kg/day). This was accompanied with a decrease in VO2peak, PPO, and GE due to a drop in training load. From week 7, the athlete resumed training and was advised to gradually increase CHO intake according to the demands of training. Conclusions: Eventually the athlete was able to return to competition in week 32 with a higher PPO, improved VO2peak and GE. Throughout retraining, energy availability was maintained around 30 kcal/kg LBM/day, protein intake was high while CHO intake was periodised. Such dietary conditions allowed the athlete to maintain and even increase lean mass, which represents a major challenge with ageing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0059.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Connected healthcare; ageing society; health accessibility; e-health; telemedicine; telehealth; telecare
Online: 4 March 2020 (10:29:39 CET)
Background: The evolution of names, from “medical informatics” to “connected health”, implies that the evolvement of technology in health care has been shifted from technology-oriented to healthcare-oriented implementation. Connected healthcare, a healthcare platform of remote monitoring and self-management through technological measures, is suggested to contribute to the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and satisfaction of healthcare recipient enhancement. However, limited understanding of related connected health (CH) terminology may constrain its implementation. Whether CH is a Buzzword only or a practice that can contribute to an ageing society is controversial. Objective: This study aims to distinguish CH-related terminology and to identify the trend of CH through reviewing its definition, initiation, development, and evolvement, in order to offer management insights and implications. The objective is to understand what is connected and who is cared about in the connected health model, so that better applications can be addressed for the benefit of society. Method: This study reviews the evolution of names, from “medical informatics” in the 1970s to “connected health” after 2000, as well as relevant literature of CH, including e-health, telemedicine, telehealth, telecare, and m-health, to discover the trend of technology-related healthcare implementation. The current status and issues facing CH will be presented and its future trends will be explored through reviewing how changes in healthcare are managed, in addition to its operation and practice. Issues of accessibility, quality, and cost will be discussed, as well as its market status. Results: Preconditions and requirements for implementing CH are identified to select a typical case to study. Areas with a complete business ecosystem, including advanced technology and medical services, a payment system, an ageing population, geographic isolation, integrated health, and social care, are prevalent. These findings may be beneficial to designing and establishing comprehensive CH implantation and environments. Conclusion: The evidence and tendency of technological convergence create a demand for innovation and partnering with start-up companies that offer a competitive advantage in innovation. Specifically, it is necessary to innovate both the public and private operation model of the CH ecosystem. This focus will be further explored in future work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0167.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Bioelectrochemical system; Cation exchange membranes; Ageing of membranes; Microbial electrolysis cell.
Online: 18 March 2019 (09:07:18 CET)
Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) encompass a group of biobased technologies capable of directly converting organic matter into electricity. In these systems, which are derived from conventional electrochemical systems, the ion exchange membrane represents a key element because of its influence on the economic feasibility and on the performance of BES. This study examines the impact of long-term operation of a BES on the mechanical, chemical and electrochemical properties of five different kind of cation exchange membranes (Nafion-117, CMI-7001, Zirfon UTP 500, FKE and FKB) through several techniques: (i) scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to assess the changes on the membranes surface, (ii) thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to evaluate the structural stability of the membranes, and (iii) ion exchange capacity (IEC) to monitor any change in their electrochemical properties. Results confirmed that there is not an ideal membrane for BES. While Nafion and CMI-7000 exhibited the strongest chemical structure, they also underwent the highest fouling as revealed by a fast increase in surface roughness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0264.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: mesoporous silica; surface area; rice husk ash; hydrolysis-ageing time, hydrophobicity
Online: 18 June 2018 (13:38:56 CEST)
This work describes the preparation of mesoporous silica by the green reaction of rice husk ash (RHA) with glycerol, followed by the modification and the potential use as a drug carrier. The reaction was carried out at 215 °C for 2 h. The solution was further hydrolyzed with deionized water and aged for various times (24, 48, 120, 360, 528 and 672 h) before calcinations at 500 oC for 24 h. Further treatment of prepared mesoporous silica was performed using trimethylmethoxysilane (TMMS) to obtain hydrophobic Mesoporous silica. For all synthesized silica, silica contents were as high as 95%wt, whereas organic residues were less than 3%wt. RHA-glycerol showed the highest specific surface area with smallest pore diameter (205.70 m2/g, 7.46 nm) when aged for 48 h. The optimal hydrolysis-ageing period of 120 h resulted in 500.7 m2/g BET surface area, 0.655 cm3/g pore volume and 5.23 nm pore diameter. The surface modification of RHA-glycerol was succeeded through the reaction with TMMS as confirmed by FTIR. Ibuprofen was selected as a model drug for the adsorption experiments. The adsorption under supercritical CO2 was carried out at isothermal temperature of 40 ˚C and 100 bar, % ibuprofen loading of TMMS modified mesoporous silica (TMMS-g-MS) was 6 times less than mesoporous silica aged for 24 h (MS-24h) due to the hydrophobic nature of modified mesoporous silica, not surface and pore characteristics. The release kinetics of ibuprofen-loaded mesoporous silicas were also investigated in vitro. The release rate of ibuprofen-loaded MS-24h was much faster than that of ibuprofen-loaded TMMS-g-MS, but comparable to the crystalline ibuprofen. The slower release rate was attributed to the diffusion control and the stability of hydrophobic nature of modified silica. This would allow the design for the controlled release drug delivery system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2092.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Ageing; Fiber Optic Sensor; Transformer Oil; Refractive Index; Evanescent Field; Intensity Modulation
Online: 3 October 2023 (03:18:58 CEST)
In the realm of power delivery to end-users, transformers are indispensable, with their malfunctions leading to substantial economic, safety, and environmental repercussions. The need for persistent surveillance is accentuated for in-situ oil-filled transformers, given the potential degradation of oil and the emergence of related ageing by-products. As the focus tilts towards online detection methodologies for transformer oil ageing, bypassing challenges associated with traditional offline methods such as sample contamination and misinterpretation, fiber optic sensors are gaining trac-tion due to their compact nature, cost-effectiveness, and resilience to electromagnetic disturbances typical in high-voltage environments. This work delves into the sensitivity analysis of intensi-ty-modulated plastic optical fiber sensors. The investigation encompasses key determinants such as the influence of optical source wavelengths, noise response dynamics, ramifications of varying sensing lengths, and repeatability assessments. Findings underscore that elongating the sensing length detrimentally affects both the linearity response and repeatability, largely attributed to the diminished resistance to external noise. Additionally, the choice of the optical source wavelength proved to be a critical variable in assessing sensor sensitivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0304.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: well-being; affective support; community engagement; ageing; mental health; socio-emotional skills
Online: 3 August 2023 (08:23:38 CEST)
Aging involves several changes depending on genetic and behavioural factors, such as lifestyle and number and quality of social relationships, which in turn can be influenced by empathy. Here, the change in the perceived social support across the life span as a function of empathy was investigated, considering the mediating role of the empathy, after controlling for gender and education. 441 people (18-91 years old) filled in the Italian short version of the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL-12) and the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ6) as well as the Empathy Questionnaire (EQ) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (RMET). The mediation analyses with ISEL-12 showed that age and the EQ fully mediated the relationship between age and Appraisal, Belonging and Tangible scores. Further, the EQ fully mediated only the relationship between age and SSQ6-People. These results showed that empathic skills play a key role in the relationships between age and social support. This suggests: empathy can trigger social support and ultimately well-being if stimulated across the lifespan, especially since young age; this would help to form the socio-emotional competence across the years, as a sort of cushion that can be useful in the elderly to fulfil active aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0857.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Accelerated ageing, Dirana; tanδ; LV cable; PVC cables; Cable structure; FDS; PDC
Online: 24 April 2023 (11:24:29 CEST)
The widespread use of renewable energy sources has considerably expanded distributed generation. An unbalanced load on distribution cables may also result from the recent increase in novel appliances and electric vehicles, the reverse power flow may create short-term overloads. These transient overloads increase the temperature for a short time beyond the limit, which causes degradation. However, the temperature distribution on the cable is not even. Therefore, the cable components are not degraded evenly and similarly. This publication describes the change in electrical properties of low-voltage cables caused by short-term cyclic artificial ageing to track the impact of these brief temperature rises. This study examines how cable structure affects the dielectric characteristics of cable specimens. Four cable samples, each measuring 50 cm in length (SZAMKAM 0.6/1 kV 16 mm2× 4 manufactured by Prysmian MKM Kft, Hungary) put through an accelerated ageing test in a temperature-controlled oven after changing their structures by removing their layers. Three rounds, each of six hours, accelerated thermal ageing were applied. After each round of ageing, the dielectric parameter tanδ and capacitance were measured by Dirana Dielectric Response Analyzer in the laboratory at room temperature 24±0.5∘C. Furthermore, the polarization and depolarization currents were also studied. The results show that changing the cable structure impacts the dielectric parameters, especially the effect of belting layer is significant. From point of view of aging the PVC belting layer protects the diffusion of plasticizers of inner structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0511.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Artificial ageing; amylose; heat treatment; phenotypic correlation coefficients; rice samples; selec-tion
Online: 27 December 2022 (06:51:35 CET)
Rice varieties such as Mahsuri Mutan and Basmati 370 are categorized as specialty rice with kernel elongation ratio exceeding 1.6 and 2.0, respectively. Ageing treatment in rice could affect the physical and chemical properties of rice such as grain size and shape, quality and taste of the cooked rice. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of ageing treatment on the physicochemical properties of Mahsuri Mutan, Basmati 370 and MR219 rice varieties. The three rice varieties were subjected to heat treatment at 90ºC using the oven for 3 hours. After the heat treatment, the samples were cooled at room temperature (25ºC) for 1 hour. Physicochemical properties such as alkali digestion value, water uptake ratio (WUR), solids in cooking water (SCW), high kernel elongation (HKE) ratio and amylose contents were determined. Data collected on physicochemical traits and ageing vs non-ageing treatments were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SAS software version 9.4. Phenotypic correlation coefficient indicated that there was a high positive correlation between HKE and water uptake ratio. The ageing treatment also showed significant difference in all the physicochemical traits of the varieties studied. Observation under electron microscope showed that the ageing samples had more cracks on the tissue structure compared to normal rice samples. The hexagon structure in Mahsuri Mutan gave more elongation effect on its kernel. The findings from this study could be useful to breeders in selection and development of new high kernel elongation rice variety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0427.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: ageing; methods; frailty; exercise; nutrition; psychosocial intervention; mental health; life style; guidelines
Online: 14 May 2021 (09:33:51 CEST)
The World Health Organization has developed the Integrated Care of Older People (ICOPE) strategy, a program based on the measurement of intrinsic capacity (IC) as “the composite of all physical and mental attributes on which an individual can draw”. Multicomponent interventions appear to be the most effective approach to enhance IC and to prevent frailty and disability, since adapted physical activity is the preventive intervention that has shown most evidence in the treatment of frailty and risk of falls. Our paper describes the development of a multi-domain group-based intervention addressed to older people living in the community, aimed at improving and/or maintaining intrinsic capacity by means of promoting physical activity, healthy nutrition, and psychological wellbeing in older people. The process of intervention development is described following the Guidance for reporting intervention development studies in health research (GUIDED. The result of this study is the AMICOPE intervention (Aptitude Multi-domain group-based intervention to improve and/or maintain IC in Older PEople) built upon the ICOPE framework and described following the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) guidelines. This study represents the first stage of the UK Medical Research Council framework for developing and evaluating a complex intervention. The next step should be carrying out a feasibility study for the AMICOPE intervention, and in a later stage, assessing the effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: Biomechanics; Ageing; Human Movement; Mobility Impairments; Capacity; Reserve; Compensation; Geriatrics; Modelling; Rehabilitation
Online: 9 January 2020 (14:03:05 CET)
To prevent, mitigate and treat movement impairments, we need to recognize early signs of decline and understand how to best compensate for limitations. The mechanisms leading to movement impairments are complex, overlapping, and interdependent and the fields of biomechanics, motor control, and physiology must be combined to understand these mechanisms. This article introduces CaReMoOC, a framework incorporating neuromusculoskeletal capacity (accumulation of neuromusculoskeletal resources over the lifespan), reserve (task-specific difference between capacity and task demand), movement objectives (considerations made to plan a movement), and compensation (use of NMSK resources to respond to the task demand). The framework is demonstrated for healthy ageing, providing an overview of age-related capacity decline (neural, skeletal, muscular system) and shifted weighting of movement objectives (energy, pain, stability, speed) relevant for biomechanics and motor control. Two forms of compensation are Compensation for Capacity, when capacity does not meet the task demands, and Compensation for Movement Objectives, when the movement is changed due to for example a fear of falling. Understanding the interrelationships between decline in the variables within capacity and the effect on compensation strategies will provide benefit in preventing mobility impairments and will support clinicians in their rehabilitation practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0319.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: culture, ageing, pain, idioms of distress, somatisation, cultural concepts of distress, stoicism
Online: 24 April 2018 (17:13:05 CEST)
In this paper, the authors seek to discuss some of the complexities involved in cross-cultural working in relation to the communication and management of pain in older people. Specifically, the paper addresses the culture construction of ageing and how pain is often constructed as a natural part of ageing. The authors also suggests that with the rise of the ideology of active-ageing many older people who are disabled or living in chronic pain, may feel a moral imperative to hide pain and ill-health. The discussion extends into looking at the impact of culture and the communication of pain, including specific idioms of distress, somaticize and the lay-management of pain through stoicism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0011.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: air lime mortars; calcareous aggregate; silica aggregate; microstructure; physical-mechanical performance; salt ageing
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:50:57 CEST)
Several lime mortars for the repair of painted plasters of the rock cut church of Ss. Pietro and Paolo in Matera were studied. They were designed taking into account both aesthetic criteria that need to be fulfilled in the field of paintings restoration, and physical-mechanical compatibility with the original materials on site, i.e. the pre-existing plasters and the supporting rock. Mixes with calcareous and silica aggregates, based on different grain size proportions, were prepared for filling missing portions of the original painted plaster. The effects of the mineralogical nature and size of the aggregates on the characteristics and properties of the mixes were investigated in relation to the microstructure, physical-mechanical features and resistance to salt ageing. At the end of the experimental campaign, the overall performances were evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0421.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: physical education; older employee; ageing; work ability; coping at work; wellbeing at work
Online: 24 August 2022 (11:07:47 CEST)
This article examines older physical education (PE) teachers’ wellbeing over the course of their career in Finland. The study highlights challenges to physical and mental functioning as well as how teachers respond to these challenges. The six interviewees were over 55-year-old PE teachers, whose career had lasted for more than 30 years. Qualitative methods were used in the collection, transcription and analysis of the research data. The qualitative analysis consisted of a series of interpretations that visualised the world described by the interviewees. All the research participants had physical problems that affected their teaching and make teachers consider a potential career change. To be able to teach, teachers adapted their ways of working according to the challenges brought by age and injuries. The research participants found that the challenges caused by musculoskeletal problems and ageing were an inevitable part of the profession. They emphasised the positive sides of the work: the profession permits varied workdays. In addition, the teachers noted that their work provides them with opportunities to remain physically fit. Teaching health education is a means to lighten the workload of older teachers. PE teachers enjoy their profession and are dedicated to it, despite all the challenges. The interviewed participants clearly experienced work engagement. Our development proposal for teacher education is that future PE teachers be informed about the risks involved in the profession. Such activity helps young teachers reflect proactively on the measures taken to maintain their functioning during their career and on perspectives related to the ways of working.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0670.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: proteomics; peptide location fingerprinting; extracellular matrix; biomarkers; ageing; intervertebral disc; spine; mass spectrometry
Online: 29 July 2021 (15:46:49 CEST)
In ageing tissues, long-lived extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are susceptible to the accumulation of structural damage due to diverse mechanisms including glycation, oxidation and protease cleavage. Peptide location fingerprinting (PLF) is a new mass spectrometry (MS) analysis technique capable of identifying proteins exhibiting structural differences in complex proteomes. PLF applied to published young and aged intervertebral disc (IVD) MS datasets (posterior, lateral and anterior regions of the annulus fibrosus), identified 268 proteins with age-related structural differences. For several ECM assemblies (collagens I, II and V and aggrecan), these differences were markedly conserved between degeneration-prone (posterior and lateral) and resistant (anterior) regions. Significant differences in peptide yields, observed within collagen I, II and V α-chains (COL1A2, COL2A1, COL5A1), were located within their triple helical regions and/or cleaved C-terminal propeptides, indicating potential accumulation of damage and impaired maintenance in ageing. Several proteins (COL5A1, COL2A1 and aggrecan) also exhibited tissue region (lateral)-specific differences in structure between aged and young, suggesting that some ageing mechanisms may act locally within tissues. This study not only provides evidence of age-related changes in ECM protein structures which are tissue-region specific, but also highlights the ability of PLF to identify potential protein biomarkers of localised tissue remodelling.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0155.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Rho GTPases; metabolism; glucose homeostasis; GLUT4 translocation; skeletal muscle; pancreas; insulin; diabetes; ageing
Online: 13 April 2019 (05:20:35 CEST)
Rho guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) are key regulators in a number of cellular functions, including actin cytoskeleton remodeling and vesicle traffic. Traditionally, Rho GTPases are studied because of their function in cell migration and cancer, while their roles in metabolism are less documented. However, emerging evidence implicates Rho GTPases as regulators of processes of crucial importance for maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Thus, the time is now ripe for reviewing Rho GTPases in the context of metabolic health. Rho GTPase-mediated key processes include the release of insulin from pancreatic β-cells, glucose uptake into skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, and muscle mass regulation. Through the current review, we cast light on the important role of Rho GTPases in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and the pancreas and mechanisms by which Rho GTPases act to regulate glucose metabolism in health and disease. We also describe challenges and goals for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0461.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: ectoine; epigenetic modifications; DNA hypomethylation; skin cells; tumorigenicity; cell proliferation; DNMTs; anti-ageing; cancer
Online: 7 August 2023 (09:58:44 CEST)
Epigenetic modifications, mainly aberrant DNA methylation, have been shown to silence the ex-pression of genes involved in epigenetic diseases, including cancer suppression genes. Almost all conventional cancer therapeutic agents, such as the DNA hypomethylation drug, 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, have insurmountable side effects. To investigate the role of ectoine in skin cell DNA methylation and cancer cell proliferation, comprehensive methylome sequence analysis, 5-methyl cytosine (5mC) analysis, proliferation and tumorigenicity assays, and DNA methyla-tion-related gene and marker analysis were performed. The results showed that ectoine hypo-methylation in skin cells, especially in the CpG island (CGIs) element and 5mC, was significantly reduced. Moreover, ectoine mildly inhibited skin cell proliferation, but did not induce tumorigenicity in HaCaT cells injected into athymic nude mice. HaCaT cells treated with ectoine for 24 weeks modulated the mRNA expression levels of Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Dnmt3i, Hdac1, Hdac2, Kdm3a, Mettl3, Mettl14, Igf2, Snrpn, and Mest. Overall, ectoine, an excellent DNA protectant, mildly de-methylates DNA in skin cells, modulates the expression of methylation-related genes, and reduces cell proliferation. This evidence suggests that ectoine is a potential anti-aging agent that prevents DNA hypermethylation and subsequently activates cancer-suppressing genes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0440.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: value-based care; healthy ageing; frailty; social care; barriers; health promotion; community; digital solution
Online: 4 August 2023 (14:45:00 CEST)
A new intervention model for promoting healthy ageing grounded on integrated value-based care was developed and tested in the city of Valencia (Spain). Its implementation raised relevant barriers for older adults in their access to health, health promotion, and health self-management linked with their health and digital literacy. This new intervention model included several aspects. On the one hand, researchers together with older adults and their informal caregivers participating in the study, designed personalised care plans, based on older adults’ specific needs, to be implemented with the support of a digital solution. On the other hand, researchers and health and social professionals implemented a series of six workshops in different locations of the city to encourage the sense of community among participants, reinforcing their trust in the new care model and increasing their adherence. Social activities were at the core of the workshops to understand older people’s interaction with the health and social services provided in the neighbourhood. Qualitative and quantitative methods were combined to extract information from older participants on how to engage them as active actors of their own health and understanding their values and preferences. Qualitative results show that after a post-pandemic situation, they were more concerned about social isolation and desired face-to-face contact with their professional care team; however, feelings of loneliness and/or sadness were not considered amongst the reasons to visit health professionals. Some of the conclusions reveal that the use of technology as a supportive tool is well received but with a stress on its role as “supportive”, and not replacing the close contact with healthcare professionals. Professionals recognised the benefits of this new approach but required more time and incentives to dedicate the effort needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1265.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: active and healthy ageing; intrinsic capacity; user-centered design; eHealth literacy; technology-based interventions
Online: 18 May 2023 (04:48:50 CEST)
The worldwide population is undergoing a fundamental change in its age structure, which challenges the health and social services system. The need to migrate towards a more person-centered and coordinated model of care that supports the optimization of abilities and capacities for older people has to be matched. In this sense, eHealth technologies can play a fundamental role. In this paper, through a questionnaire-based data collection on 30 primary (older people) and 32 secondary (informal caregivers) end-users, we share the sustainable way to develop a product optimizing the user experience and ensuring adoption. Both older adults and caregivers consider the use of smartphone and smartwatch to be very important, but also the use of digital devices for healthcare can be helpful. Seniors care about self-monitoring of health parameters using wearable devices, regardless of their health status, and would like to be included in the process of making good health decisions, because they need to feel in control of their healthcare process. Digital solutions in health and care can support the wellbeing of older adults in many areas of their daily lives at home and in their communities, but only if such innovation is designed around the natural voice of the intended target.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0084.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: microbial evolution; immune evasion; first-line immunity; non-structural protein; interferon; lymphocytes; metabolism; ageing
Online: 4 January 2023 (12:43:27 CET)
Microbial immune escape represents the primary cause of induced pathogenesis in humans, and it represents a pivotal method used by viral agents to increase their load and suppress key mechanisms of the innate and adaptive immune system. This phenomenon represents the primary factor that led to the onset of the 1918-1920 A(H1N1) Influenza and 2020-2022 COVID-19 pandemics, and it possibly played a major role in the onset of the AIDS pandemic as well. Moreover, repeated incidents of immune evasion could be associated with higher rates of cellular aging (Jackson et al., 2017), most likely due to the consequent increased demands of energy consumption. Highly developed viral immune evasion ultimately indicates the high inner intelligence of human immunity due to reflective and imitative characteristics of reactions that are produced against initial actions. Ribonucleic acid-based viral genomes contain open reading frames, which consist of genes producing sixteen non-structural proteins. Such proteins play a considerable role in desensitizing first-line immunity during cellular infection, and non-structural proteins 1, 10 and 16 have the strongest effects against a healthy expression rate of Type I and Type III Interferon-encoding genes. Type I Interferons consist of IFN-alpha, -beta, -delta, -epsilon, -omega, -tau and -zeta, whilst Type III Interferons consist of IFN-lambda1, -lambda2 and -lambda3, and they act as stimulators of intracellular signalling cascades that in turn lead to the activation and expression of interferon-stimulated genes (Brown et al., 2022). The earlier the interferon-stimulated genes are activated, the lower the extent of pro-inflammatory mediation and overall, the more effective the antiviral immune response will be, given the exponential nature of the viral load increase. Non-structural protein 16 methylates the 5’ cap of the virus, making the pathogen-associated molecular patterns less recognisable by pattern-recognition receptors, and it requires activation by bonding with non-structural protein 10. It is preserved in the S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine pocket of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) directly cleaves the host cell mRNA producing Type I and possibly Type III Interferons, thereby preventing a translation process of the immune proteins. NS1 has recently been found to often be packaged into exosomes once secreted by the viral genome in the cytosol, meaning that exocytosis and paracrine signalling to neighbouring cells before their actual infection is possible. As a result, NS1 is highly capable of silencing the first-line immune responses of uninfected neighbouring cells as well, thereby highlighting the need to adjust the focus of therapeutics and vaccinology toward first-line immunity and further indicating its foundational importance in the support for the development of precise and balanced defenses against microbial agents of concern (EL SAFADI et al., 2022).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: nanoform; nanoparticle; nanoparticles; silver; silver citrate; ageing; behavioral functions; cognitive functions; stress; individual content
Online: 6 December 2022 (01:33:04 CET)
Silver in different forms is used for medical purposes from ancient times. It is not yet well known, which form of silver is more biocompatible and less toxic. Here we considered silver nanoparticles and silver citrate. Also, the relationships of neurotoxicity of silver compaunds with ageing factor is not yet described. To assess the role of nanoform in neurotoxicity of silver and role of ageing a long-term experiment was conducted. We had four control groups of intact mice and four experimental groups which were exposed to silver nanoparticles and silver citrate for two months. Four groups of mice were introduced into the experiment since the age of five months to assess ageing factors. It was shown that the nanoform does play a certain role in neurotoxicity of silver. Silver citrate seems to be a more preferable silver compound. Ageing can be regarded as a positive factor that neutralizes toxic action of silver compounds. It may be due to the development of physiological/cognitive functions with the age as well as adaptation to unnatural content in the individual cages that is definitely stressful for mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0134.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging; White Matter; Fractional anisotropy; Multi-centre; Reproducibility; Imaging artefacts; Ageing
Online: 6 September 2021 (13:20:18 CEST)
In clinical diagnostics and longitudinal studies, the reproducibility of MRI assessments is of high importance in order to detect pathological changes, but developments in MRI hard- and software often outrun extended periods of data acquisition and analysis. This could potentially introduce artefactual changes or mask pathological alterations. However, if and how changes of MRI hardware, scanning protocols or preprocessing software affect complex neuroimaging outcomes from e.g. diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) remains largely understudied. We therefore compared DWI outcomes and artefact severity of 121 healthy participants (age range 19-54 years) who underwent two matched DWI protocols (Siemens product and Center for Magnetic Resonance Research sequence) at two sites (Siemens 3T Magnetom Verio and Skyrafit). After different preprocessing steps, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps,obtained by tensor fitting, were processed with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Inter-scanner and inter-sequence variability of skeletonised FA values reached up to 5% and differed largely in magnitude and direction across the brain. Skeletonised MD values differed up to 14% between scanners. We here demonstrate that DTI outcome measures strongly depend on imaging site and software, and that these biases vary between brain regions. These regionally inhomogeneous biases may exceed and considerably confound physiological effects such as ageing, highlighting the need to harmonise data acquisition and analysis. Future studies thus need to implement novel strategies to augment neuroimaging data reliability and replicability.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: sustainability; connected health; fad; trend; value; business model innovation; ageing society; telehealthcare; and Taiwan
Online: 24 February 2020 (02:41:44 CET)
Policymakers, academics, and industry players have been focused on determining whether connected health (CH) is a fad or a trend by looking at its sustainability. Although the significance of innovation in healthcare is gradually rising, a definitive identification and systematic comprehension of the core drivers, structure, content, and pattern of innovation in CH are missing. To bridge this gap, this study re-examines and analyses CH from the perspectives of its industrial chain and structure, to assess its future prospects and sustainability by focusing on how its structures and participants act in the ecosystem. This study involves an inductive theory building approach based on multi-stage, semi-structured interviews (n=60 in total). The results indicate that the core drivers, constituents, and components of CH need to be identified and restructured. A valid discourse, which is missing in the current literature, should be proposed with regard to the sustainability of CH. A sustainable business model innovation (BMI) system and the methods employed to achieve sustainability are suggested to discover indicators for future success. This study enriches the current CH understanding from a technology perspective and suggests some implications for practitioners as well as policymakers to enhance sustainable development in the healthcare sector.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0075.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: health promotion; ageing; workplace; occupational health; effectiveness; salutogenesis; holistic medicine; subsidiarity; participatory approach; setting
Online: 9 January 2018 (07:26:56 CET)
The ageing of workers is one of the most important issues for occupational health and safety in Europe. A number of intervention studies on health promotion for older workers were conducted in European workplaces between 2000 and 2015. This review gives an overview of these studies and considers perspectives for workplace health promotion.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0748.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: ageing; cognitive function; physical activity; human neural stem cell; choline acetyltransferase; acetylcholine; growth factor; neurotrophic factor
Online: 12 July 2023 (02:50:44 CEST)
Ageing may be characterized by progressive loss of cognitive function as well as decrease in physical activities, in addition to change in appearance. Previously, we reported that intracerebroventricular transplantation of a human neural stem cell (NSC) line (F3) over-expressing choline acetyltransferase (F3.ChAT) gene, an enzyme responsible for acetylcholine synthesis, markedly improved cognitive function and physical activity of aged animals by enhancing acetylcholine and growth factors (GFs) and neurotrophic factors (NFs). In the present study, 10-month-old F344 rats were intravenously transplanted with F3 or F3.ChAT NSCs (1 x 106 cells) once a month to 21st month of age when the cumulative mortality reached 20%, and physical activity and learning/memory function were investigated, in addition to the analyses of brain acetylcholine concentration, and cholinergic and dopaminergic system restoration. Neuroprotective and neuroregenerative activities of stem cells were also confirmed by analyzing oxidative damages, neuronal skeletal protein, angiogenesis, brain and muscle weights, and proliferating host stem cells. Stem cells markedly improved both the cognitive (passive avoidance and water-maze performances) and physical (locomotor and rota-rod activities) functions, in parallel with the elevation of acetylcholine levels in cerebrospinal fluid and in muscles, in which F3.ChAT cells were superior to F3 parental cells. Stem cell transplantation down-regulated CCL11, leading to restoration of microtubule-associated protein 2 as well as functional markers of cholinergic and dopaminergic systems, and preserved brain and muscular capillaries, recovering muscle mass. In addition, stem cells enhanced antioxidative capacity, attenuating oxidative damage of multiple organs including muscles and the brain. The results indicate that NSCs over-expressing ChAT gene improve cognitive function and physical activity of ageing animals by protecting and recovering functions of multiple organs including cholinergic and dopaminergic systems as well as muscles from oxidative injuries through secretion of acetylcholine and GFs/NFs, increased antioxidant elements, and enhanced blood flow.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0129.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: food safety; gel-based proteomics; LC-based proteomics; post-translational modifications; proteomics; seed ageing; seed quality
Online: 11 December 2018 (11:00:26 CET)
For centuries, crop plants have represented the basis of the daily human diet. Among them, cereals and legumes, accumulating oils, proteins and carbohydrates in their seeds, distinctly dominate modern agronomic practice. Indeed, these plants play an essential role in the food industry and fuel production. Therefore, the seeds of crop plants are intensively studied by food chemists, biologists, biochemists, and nutritional physiologists. Accordingly, not only seed development and germination, but also age- and stress-related alterations in seed vigor, longevity, nutritional value and safety can be addressed by a broad panel of analytical, biochemical and physiological methods. Currently, functional genomics is one of the most powerful tools, giving direct access to characteristic metabolic changes, accompanying plant development, senescence and response to biotic or environmental stress. Among individual methodological platforms, proteomics represents one of the most effective ones, giving access to cellular metabolism at the level of proteins. Here we discuss the main methodological approaches employed by seed proteomics in the context of physiological changes related to seed development, ageing and response to environmental stress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: mTOR; mTORC1; mTORC2; rapamycin; rapalogues; rapalogs; mTOR inhibitors; senescence; ageing; aging; cancer; neurodegeneration; immunosenescence; senolytics; biomarkers
Online: 5 June 2018 (09:49:19 CEST)
Chronological age represents the greatest risk factor for many life-threatening diseases including neurodegeneration, cancer and cardiovascular disease; ageing also increases susceptibility to infectious disease. Current therapies that effectively tackle individual diseases may have little impact on the overall healthspan of older individuals, who would still be vulnerable to other age-related pathologies. However, recent progress in ageing research has highlighted the accumulation of senescent cells with chronological age as a probable underlying cause of pathological ageing. Cellular senescence is an essentially irreversible proliferation arrest mechanism that has important roles in development, wound healing and preventing cancer, but it may limit tissue function and cause widespread inflammation with age. The serine/threonine kinase mTOR is a regulatory nexus heavily implicated in both ageing and senescence. Excitingly, a growing body of research has highlighted rapamycin and other mTOR inhibitors as promising treatments for a broad spectrum of age-related pathologies, including neurodegeneration, cancer, immunosenescence, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related blindness, diabetic nephropathy, muscular dystrophy, and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we assess the use of mTOR inhibitors to treat age-related pathologies, discuss possible molecular mechanisms of action where evidence is available, and consider strategies to minimize undesirable side effects. We also emphasize the urgent need for reliable, non-invasive biomarkers of senescence and biological ageing to better monitor the efficacy of any healthy ageing therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0185.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Mild Cognitive Impairment; Ageing; Elderly; Executive Functions; Higher-Level Executive Functions; Planning; Reasoning; Fluid Intelligence; Problem Solving
Online: 10 December 2021 (13:37:48 CET)
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a moderate decline in one or more cognitive functions with a preserved autonomy in daily life activities . MCI exhibits cognitive, behavioral, psychological symptoms . The executive functions (EFs) are a set of key functions for everyday life and physical and mental health; and allow adapting the behavior to external changes [3-5]. Higher-level executive functions develop from basic EFs (inhibition, working memory, attentional control, and cognitive flexibility). They are planning, reasoning, problem- solving, and fluid intelligence (Gf) . This systematic review investigates the relationship between higher-level executive functions and healthy and pathological aging, assuming the role of executive functions deficits as a predictor of cognitive decline. The systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA Statement [6-7]. A total of 73 studies were identified. The results indicate that 65.8% of the studies confirm significant EFs alterations in MCI (100% problem solving, 71.4% fluid intelligence, 56.8% planning, 50% reasoning). These results seem to highlight a strong prevalence of higher-level executive functions deficits in MCI elderly than in healthy elderly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0224.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: disability, ageing, health, disablement, wellbeing, functioning, participation, inclusion, oldest olds, genetics, environmental variables, lifestyles, World Health Organization
Online: 13 August 2018 (09:47:22 CEST)
In the last decades there has been a progressive aging of the population, known as “demographic revolution” or “demographic transition”. As a consequence of the worldwide progressive aging of population and of the increasing of general life expectancy, the relationship between aging and disability became a very important one and received a huge interest in research for its consequences on participation, inclusion and quality of life of ageing people and for its consequences on socio-sanitary organizations. The aim of this paper is to analyze this relationship and to discuss consequences on participation, inclusion and quality of life of ageing people, according to recent conceptual models of disability and active ageing. According to previous papers this relationship could be considered in two ways: ageing with disability (which refers to people living with long-term effects of disabling conditions acquired from birth to middle age) and disability with ageing (which refers to people which disabling conditions acquired later or age-related conditions), but newer papers proposed a convergence of these two approaches, taking into account the similarities and the differences between the two ways.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0227.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Eastern Europe; Balkans; Healthcare; Sustainability; History; Financing; Population Ageing; Migration; Belt and Road Initiative; Sustainable Millennium Development Goals
Online: 10 August 2021 (10:08:57 CEST)
Historical legacy of Eastern European and Balkans’ health systems was mutually interdependent and shaped by local socioeconomic circumstances. Three distinctive systems of risk sharing and health financing to develop since the late XIX century were the Bismarck, Beveridge, and Semashko systems. Modern day healthcare systems in these countries are challenged by population ageing, accelerated innovation in medical technology, growing purchasing power and rising demand for healthcare services. Supply side changes contribute to demand side efficiency bottlenecks in financing, driving the costs of the already expensive medical care up. All of the nations have a large share of citizens experiencing difficulty with affordability and access to medical care, particularly in rural and remote areas. Network of Health technology assessment agencies have mushroomed over the past three decades. Principles of health economics theory and cost-effective resource allocation are slowly gaining ground in governing authorities’ mindset and decision-making process. For many years to come, pharmaceuticals and medical services will remain dependent on out-of-pocket spending. Currently accelerating and spreading 4.0 Industrial Revolution, together with the Belt and Road Initiative, are likely to substantially impact the further economic development of this vast region. Post-Pandemic ‘Green’ Recovery strategies adopted by many of the Eastern European governments shall also make this transition towards sustainable development more difficult and challenging given the large dependency of all these economies upon traditional carbon fuels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1247.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: otolith; ageing; natural mortality; linear growth; growth rate; silver eel production; biological production of yellow eel; von Bertalanffy; EMP; stocking
Online: 19 October 2023 (09:37:03 CEST)
Silver eel were sampled in 1981 and 1983 in River Brede, Denmark, with outlet to the North Sea. Yellow eel in River Køge-Lellinge, Denmark, with outlet to the Baltic Sea were sampled 1965-1968. Silver eel were aged by burning the otoliths. Silver male ages varied from 4 to 25 years, lengths 30.8 to 45.3 cm, and female silver eel varied from 7 to 25 years, lengths 42.3 to 77.3 cm. von Bertalanffy trajectories of length-at-age of male and female yellow eel were calculated in both rivers. Younger yellow eel had significantly higher annual growth rate compared to older age groups, and females grew significantly faster than males. Two models for natural mortality M were used to estimate number of glass eel needed to produce number of silver eel for each sex and silver age group. Annual silver eel production from River Brede Å was 49.2 kg ha-1, demanding 2,894 glass eel ha-1 and in River Køge-Lellinge, the silver eel production was 48.5 kg ha-1, demanding 5,570 glass eel ha-1. It was calculated that one (0.29 g) thousand glass eel contribute to 8.8 kg silver eel in River Køge-Lellinge, and 17.0 kg silver eel in River Brede. To fulfill the Danish EMP in rivers requires annual stocking of 33 tons or 9.4 million reared on-grown eel (3.5 g) to compensate for 183 tons lost silver eel.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0245.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: early life adversity; stress; psychosocial stress; hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis; ageing; immuno-senescence; inflammageing; Developmental origins of health and disease
Online: 9 March 2021 (09:26:00 CET)
There are many ‘faces’ of early life adversity (ELA), such as childhood trauma, institutionalization, abuse or exposure to environmental toxins. These have been implicated in the onset and severity of a wide range of chronic non-communicable diseases later in life. The later-life disease risk has a well-established immunological component. This raises the question as to whether accelerated immune-ageing mechanistically links early-life adversity to the lifelong health trajectory resulting in either ‘poor’ or ‘healthy’ ageing. Here we examine observational and mechanistic studies of ELA and inflammageing, highlighting common and distinct features in these two life stages. Many biological processes appear in common including reduction in telomere length, increased immuno-senescence, metabolic distortions and chronic (viral) infections. We propose that ELA shapes the developing immune, endocrine and nervous system in a non-reversible way, creating a distinct phenotype with accelerated immuno-senescence and systemic inflammation. We believe that ELA acts as an accelerator for inflammageing and age-related diseases. Furthermore, we now have the tools and cohorts to be able to dissect the interaction between early life adversity and later life phenotype. This should, in the near future, allow us to identify the ecological and mechanistic processes that are involved in ‘healthy’ or accelerated immune-ageing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: chronic inflammation; biomarker panels; leukocyte count; C-reactive protein; related syndromes and pathologies; risk assessment; screening programmes; ageing; elderly's health
Online: 25 October 2019 (04:16:43 CEST)
C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocytes are blood biomarkers involved in "Inflamm-Aging", which is a risk factor for the onset and progression of age-related diseases. Studies show that higher serum concentrations of these biomarkers are associated with functional disability, increased risk of low muscle strength, decreased muscle mass and mortality in the elderly. The objective was to estimate the predictive power and discriminating criteria of C-reactive protein and leukocyte concentrations for the risk of adverse health factors in the elderly within 30 days after hospital discharge (HD). Prospective cohort study using exploratory methods and blood biomarkers with 135 older adults admitted to medical and surgical clinics at a government hospital. The elderly were monitored at home after 30 days of HD for adverse health factors (rehospitalization, falls, amount of medication consumed, disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living and mortality). CRP> 2.4; ≥ 0.7 and> 24.7 mg / dL and leukocytes ≥ 6.410; ≥ 8.690 and> 8.310 mm³ were discriminant for rehospitalization, falls and mortality within 30 days after HD, respectively. The cut-off points described may be used as a reference in the screening of hospitalized elderly vulnerable to adverse health events after hospital discharge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0126.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: advanced glycation end products (AGEs); enzymatic hydrolysis; glycation; methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (MG-H1); seeds; seed ageing; seed quality; sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)
Online: 11 December 2018 (10:40:15 CET)
Seeds represent the major source of food protein, impacting on both human nutrition and animal feeding. Therefore, seed quality needs to be appropriately addressed in the context of viability and food safety. Indeed, long-term and inappropriate storage of seeds might result in enhancement of protein glycation, which might affect their quality and longevity. Glycation of seed proteins can be probed by exhaustive acid hydrolysis and quantification of the glycation adduct Nɛ-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This approach, however, does not allow analysis of thermally and chemically labile glycation adducts, like glyoxal-, methylglyoxal- and 3-deoxyglucosone-derived hydroimidazolones. Although enzymatic hydrolysis might be a good solution in this context, it requires aqueous conditions, which cannot ensure reconstitution of seed protein isolates. Because of this, the complete profiles of seed AGEs are not characterized so far. Therefore, here we propose the approach, giving access to quantitative solubilization of seed proteins in presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and their quantitative enzymatic hydrolysis prior to removal of SDS by reversed phase solid phase extraction (RP-SPE). Using MG-H1 as a case example, we demonstrate the applicability of this method for reliable and sensitive LC-MS-based quantification of chemically labile AGEs and its compatibility with bioassays.