Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Higher-Level Executive Functions in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review

Version 1 : Received: 8 December 2021 / Approved: 10 December 2021 / Online: 10 December 2021 (13:37:48 CET)

How to cite: Corbo, I.; Casagrande, M. Higher-Level Executive Functions in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review. Preprints 2021, 2021120185 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202112.0185.v1). Corbo, I.; Casagrande, M. Higher-Level Executive Functions in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review. Preprints 2021, 2021120185 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202112.0185.v1).

Abstract

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a moderate decline in one or more cognitive functions with a preserved autonomy in daily life activities [1]. MCI exhibits cognitive, behavioral, psychological symptoms [2]. The executive functions (EFs) are a set of key functions for everyday life and physical and mental health; and allow adapting the behavior to external changes [3-5]. Higher-level executive functions develop from basic EFs (inhibition, working memory, attentional control, and cognitive flexibility). They are planning, reasoning, problem- solving, and fluid intelligence (Gf) [3]. This systematic review investigates the relationship between higher-level executive functions and healthy and pathological aging, assuming the role of executive functions deficits as a predictor of cognitive decline. The systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA Statement [6-7]. A total of 73 studies were identified. The results indicate that 65.8% of the studies confirm significant EFs alterations in MCI (100% problem solving, 71.4% fluid intelligence, 56.8% planning, 50% reasoning). These results seem to highlight a strong prevalence of higher-level executive functions deficits in MCI elderly than in healthy elderly.

Keywords

Mild Cognitive Impairment; Ageing; Elderly; Executive Functions; Higher-Level Executive Functions; Planning; Reasoning; Fluid Intelligence; Problem Solving

Subject

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology

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