Online: 17 May 2021 (17:06:31 CEST)
The most severe threat that the Covid-19 pandemic poses to the global economy is the need to choose between human lives and livelihoods. Bangladesh must assess the implications of such impacts on Bangladesh's macro-financial scenario to maintain the economy's current high growth trajectory. The paper outlines the major Covid-19 shock wave transmission channels to the four major sectors of the Bangladesh economy. Authorities around the world have taken every precaution possible to halt the spread of the pandemic. An aggregate transmission framework that includes these four sectors is required to contain the impact of Covid-19 can propagate through these sectors and eventually impact macro-financial stability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0336.v1
Online: 28 June 2020 (10:07:58 CEST)
The outbreak of Corona Virus effected negatively on the world’s economy which has already touched the maximum sectors. Readymade garments sector has the large contribution in Bangladesh’s economy. For increasing the locked down period, it is hitting badly by stopping production and cancellation of orders with some issues. This paper will represent the brief scenario and impacts of garments sector in recent days and the economy status of Bangladesh for the pandemic. The study is based on secondary data, collected from different authentic journals and web portals etc. Bangladesh’s garments earnings mostly depended on export but on these days, the buyers are cancelling their orders and the factories are being failed to give payments to the worker, some are being shut down also. As the duration of locked down is increasing, there is a huge chance to get unemployed and Bangladesh can be faced an undisciplined condition in near future. BGMEA and BKMEA are taking necessary steps to support the worker. Ensuring health security, the authorities are trying to reopen the factories limitedly to meet up the immediate needs. The government has taken the situation on most priority and introduce some improvement packages to run the economy smoothly and reduce the losses of the country for the pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0461.v2
Online: 29 May 2020 (12:27:24 CEST)
The pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus obstructed the Chinese economy and has expanded to the rest of the world at a rapid pace affecting at least 215 countries, areas and territories. The advancement of the disease and its economic repercussions is profoundly ambiguous, making it challenging for policymakers to formulate suitable microeconomic and macroeconomic policy responses. The scenarios in this paper illustrate how an outbreak could significantly affect the global economy in the short run. It has been estimated that each additional month of crisis would cost from about 2.5-3% of the global GDP and that the GDP growth would take a blow, reaching about 3-6%, depending on the country. Scenarios also suggest that GDP can drop by more than 10% and even exceed 15% in some countries. Via addressing the economic consequence of COVID-19 in different industries and countries, the paper presents assessments of the likely global economic costs of COVID-19 and the GDP growth of different countries. Economies will be negatively affected because of the high number of jobs at risk. Countries highly dependent on foreign trade are more negatively affected. Given that disease and its economic influence are highly unpredictable in numerous aspects, the global economy at the moment is the most critically threatened in history.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0192.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: pineapple; wastes; biorefinery; COVID-19; circular economy; biomedical
Online: 21 April 2022 (07:54:36 CEST)
Pineapple is a highly demanded fruit in international markets, thanks to its unique appearance and flavor, high fiber content, vitamins, folic acid, and minerals. It makes the pineapple production and processing market a significant source of income for producing countries, such as Costa Rica. Nowadays, its processing produces a large amount of waste with negative consequences for the environment. However, pineapple waste is an essential source of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and other high-value products like enzymes (bromelain). These by-products can be obtained by pineapple waste biorefinery, generating an additional source of export goods and foreign currency, framing pineapple processing in the concept of the circular economy. This review discusses how incorporating biorefinery in the pineapple production processes can contribute to the post-COVID 19 economy in Costa Rica. Pineapple production in Costa Rica is explored, and the contamination of generated residues is delineated. Furthermore, the primary processes for by-product extraction via biorefinery, their general characteristics and applications in the medical field, and their contribution to the circular economy are presented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0131.v1
Online: 11 June 2020 (11:39:49 CEST)
A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) responsible for a severe acute respiratory disorder (SARS-CoV-2) in humans, with its epicentre in Wuhan, China emerged in December 2019. This coronavirus, by far, has hit >200 countries, affecting 7 million worldwide accounting 11% death of the affected population. The transmission is majorly caused by human-to-human contact and, through fomite. In view of the increasing number of COVID-19 cases and the absence of definitive treatment or vaccinations, WHO has deemed the viral infection a pandemic of international concern. In such grave situations, there is a need for expanding the health sector workforce, government and police workforce, sanitation and prevention strategies. The current article describes the virology aspect, control of COVID-19 and revisits the various treatment options available at present this deadly infection. Epidemiology of COVID-19 is also discussed to further understand the pandemic status of India. The article also discusses implicating quarantine or social distancing, and in extreme cases, lockdown or alternative approaches such as herd or indirect immunity, as a measure to control the pandemic. Lockdown or social distancing will give rise to economic, emotional, political and social downfall in the country. It is estimated that a lockdown period will set back the country, possibly, by $240 billion, yet it stands unavoidable in the spread of control of infection. Thus, policymakers should strategize economic revival depending upon the best possible data and critical understanding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0200.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; economic model; economic cascade; economic impact coronavirus; California economy
Online: 11 January 2021 (13:25:15 CET)
Shelter-in-place policies and the closure of non-essential workplaces intended to disrupt transmission of the SARS-COV-2 virus are effective approaches to combating COVID-19. They have, however, caused record levels of unemployment in the United States, raising questions of whether mitigation is more societally damaging than the disease. Here we use a coupled epidemiological-economic model to estimate the impact on employment of an unmitigated, business-as-usual approach to the pandemic. We compared unemployment between March-August 2020 in ten Californian socio-economic systems (SESs) to unemployment forecast by a model of industrial sector inter-dependencies subjected to unmitigated outbreaks of COVID-19. We found that economic losses are unavoidable because disease-driven losses propagate economically through SESs, amplifying losses to the disease. While model forecasts are generally lower than actual unemployment, jobs savings would come at the cost of greatly increased worker mortality. The costs would also be disproportionately greater among smaller and inland SESs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0039.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Music Studies Keywords: Covid-19; digital skills; economy; opera artists; opera industry
Online: 5 October 2022 (12:12:26 CEST)
The coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic has emerged as a global phenomenon that significantly affects almost all sectors, irrespective of whether they have a well-established economic system. The inception of COVID-19 pandemic has increased and accelerated the demand for opera industry embrace digit technology to continue to produce performances and reach audiences. The brutality of the Covid-19 pandemic has affected most sectors, and opera artists are significantly affected in the Global South. South Africa, among others, is at the receiving end. The Covid-19 pandemic has wreaked havoc and exacerbated the existing vulnerability of opera artists. Opera artists have difficulty obtaining employment and finding funding for performing arts organisations have caused seriously challenged opera artists to survive during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study is aimed to examine the quest for new digital skills for opera artists and opera companies during the Covid-19 pandemic. A qualitative research method was adopted using interviews with opera artists, selected retired opera practitioners and managers of opera companies. In this study, scholarly documents were reviewed to yield trustworthy findings. The findings demonstrate a high demand for opera artists to upgrade their current skills to meet the demand for digital skills. This demand for digital skills is partially attributable to the closed and suspension of live theatre performances due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The findings also reveal that digital connectivity in the performing arts sector become an essential driver of economic growth. This study concludes by affirming that digital skills are key skills required for resuscitating the opera industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0148.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Covid-19; Indian economy; supply chain; manufacturing industries; barriers
Online: 9 May 2020 (10:01:56 CEST)
At present time world is facing from the coronavirus disease known as Covid-19. The first case of the coronavirus was reported in the December, 2019 in the Wuhan city of China which is known as the major transportation hub of China. After the spread of Covid-19 many countries have shut down their sea ports and airports. They have banned the import and export activities. Also, China is the major distributor of the raw materials which affect the manufacturing activities across the globe due to lockdowns. India is the developing country due to the Covid-19 spread the cases reported in the India government has lockdown the country for 41 days which affected the manufacturing activities and majorly it affects the supply chains and economy of the country. In the present paper we have discussed the effect of Covid-19 on Indian economy and on supply chains in India. There are total of 18 critical barriers are found out which affected the supply chains in the India. It is expected that this study will helpful the researchers to develop the conceptual models to overcome from this issue.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: corona virus; environmental degradation; hydrogen economy; clean energy; renewable sources; non renewable sources; economic impact; environmental impact.
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:49:50 CET)
Covid-19 pandemic lockdown has slow down the world economic system. The pandemic has cleared the roads, close factories and grounded planes causing severe economic challenges. The damaging impact of the pandemic amid lockdown has been a blessing in guise for the environment because of significant drop in pollution level as transport and industrial sectors shutdown. Transport and industrial sectors are major contributors to environmental degradation through various emissions as a result of fossil fuel consumption. Energy consumed by transport and industrial sectors will have to shift to viable, readily available, economically and environmentally friendly with no carbon build up post Covid-19 pandemic. Hydrogen energy remains the best alternative option technologies containing green house gas emission and pollutions of several forms. Hydrogen holds the potential to provide a clean, reliable, renewable and economical source of energy for meeting the growing and unending global energy needs post pandemic. The present paper explores the economic feasibility and potential of hydrogen to serve as a competitive fuel option post pandemic. In this paper, the role of hydrogen as an energy carrier hydrogen economy structure, potential of hydrogen economy, hydrogen production methods, hydrogen application and the economic and environmental importance of hydrogen as a viable fuel option post covid-19 pandemic were discussed. There will be a surge in demand and investment for hydrogen economy post Covid-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0690.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: pandemic; monetary theory; financial sustainability; Wellbeing Economics; Political Economy.
Online: 29 March 2021 (12:43:54 CEST)
This paper analyses the COVID-19 crisis and its management, under the Austrian Economics. The attention is focused in the States’ coercive intervention, to evaluate the positive or negative effects of pandemic, according to the Principles of Political Economy and the theory of capital and economic cycles. The paper examines the specific case of massive intervention by governments and, especially, central banks in monetary and financial markets to deal with the pandemic by seeking to lessen its effects. Also, it is offered a critical analysis on simultaneous government policies involving taxes and an increase in public spending which are presented as the panacea and universal remedy for the evils that afflict the society, instead of promoting the transit to Wellbeing Economics. To conclude the review, there is a proposal of paradigm review, in the way to offer a sustainable model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0495.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19); analysis; modeling; recommendations; surveillance; social media analytics; meteorological effects; image processing; business and economy
Online: 24 August 2020 (02:54:47 CEST)
COVID-19 has created anxiety not only in individuals but also in health organizations, and countries worldwide. Not a single industry is left un-influenced and loss is being estimated in billions of dollars. The widespread of this pandemic disease has challenged researchers all over the world. Some of the researchers are working to invent its cure while, others are applying computing technologies to stop its spread, by analyzing and identifying patterns for prediction and forecasting. This is by no doubt the hottest area of research for the last 100 years. This survey has targeted the research published in computing sub-domains to combat the pandemic. The survey has clustered the scientific efforts into logical groups: surveillance, metrological effects, social media analytics, image processing and business and economy, analysis and modeling. It will serve as a leading source for the followings: researchers who want to identify what has been achieved in different computing sub-domains, those who need fresh authenticated datasets openly accessible for different research contexts and what are future directions in this area of research. The findings of analysis and modeling can be also useful for government agencies who want to set priorities and formulate policies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0024.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Decision Making; Cost Estimation; COVID-19 Crisis; Health Economics; Wellbeing Economics; Political Economy
Online: 4 May 2021 (15:27:04 CEST)
This paper reviews the management of the COVID-19 crisis and the difficulty of cost estimation model, comparing centralized management or bureaucratic government coaction and the agile market alternative or spontaneous social coordination. This is a study of Political Economy and Health Economics from the perspective of Austrian Economics. We describe and compare the al-ternative models, which are adapted to the current crisis. The analysis is based on the theorem of the impossibility of the economic calculation under coactive systems, and other principles of economy. In this context we pay also attention to collateral problems of the centralized and coac-tive management. Finally we propose a solution based on dynamic efficiency and the constitutions of wellbeing economics
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0383.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; Indian Economy; First wave; Second Wave; Economic Revive
Online: 22 September 2021 (12:31:55 CEST)
Background-The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic has affected the global economy from its starting. Indian economy is also affected by the pandemic and experienced a lot of economic damages. India has become the global hotspot of COVID-19 during the second wave of the pandemic and recorded the second-highest position in terms of positivity rate after China. The present study attempts to analyze the economic issues that emerged in the first and second waves of the pandemic in India. Method/Approach-There is no econometric tools or analytical models used in the present study. This study attempts to evaluate the two research questions which are formed on the basis of some previous studies by various organizations and researchers. The research questions are as follow, First, what are the sectors those are primarily affected at the time of the first COVID-19 outbreak? Second, which economic issues and impacts emerged in the second wave of the pandemic? Results/ Findings-From the study, it is found that the second wave of COVID-19 is not much affected by the Indian economy. At this time, no nationwide lockdown was announced by the Government. But so, it was much severe in the time of the first wave of COVID-19. Many sectors were affected by the pandemic like agriculture, MSMEs, Tourism, etc., and these resulted in substantial unemployment problems in the economy. The study is trying to analyze these problems and concluding it with a few policy recommendations for the economy of India.
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; public health intervention; revive economy; disease severity; transmission route; influenza; ventilation; work environment
Online: 16 April 2020 (12:34:43 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has great adverse impacts on personal life, the U.S. economy, and the world economy. Freezing all human activities is not a sustainable measure. Thus we want to develop a public intervention framework that allows people to resume personal and economic activities. In this article, we examined transmission routes, disease severity, personal vulnerability, available treatments, and person-person interactions to establish a general public intervention framework. We divide people into risk groups, non-risk group and group that may serve as viral transmitters, explore interactions between individual persons within each group and between different groups, and propose interaction behavior modifications to mitigate viral exposures. For the non-risk groups, we identified preventive measures that can help them avoid the most serious exposures and infections that pose higher death risks. The invention measures for the vulnerable groups include prior-exposure measures, heightened protective measures, interaction behavior changes, post-exposure remedial measures, and multiple factors treatments to reduce death and disability risks. The multiple interventions and two-ways defensive behavior modifications are expected to result in reduced rate of detectable infections and lowered disease severity for the vulnerable groups. In this framework, most human activities and economic activities can continue as normal. With time passing, the population acquires population immunity against the COVID-19 virus. Implementation of this intervention framework requires considerable resources and governmental effects while the multiple factors treatment protocol requires the support of health care professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0142.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Anaerobic digestion; circular economy; biogas; fish waste; anchovy; limonene
Online: 4 February 2021 (15:03:46 CET)
Anchovies are amid the largest fish catch worldwide. The anchovy fillet industry generates a huge amount of biowaste (e.g. fish heads, bones, tails) that can be used for the extraction of several potentially valuable bioproducts including omega-3 lipids. Following the extraction of valued fish oil rich in omega-3, vitamin D3 and zeaxanthin from anchovy fillet leftovers using biobased limonene in a fully circular process, the solid residue was used as starting substrate for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion. The results first reported in this study demonstrate good potential energy recovery of the anchovy sludge of about 280 mLCH4∙gVS-1. Due to unbalanced C/N ratio typical of marine biowaste, co-digestion with a carbon rich substrate is recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0447.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: circular economy; Covid-19; Voyant tools; environmental sustainability; social sustainability; economic sustainability; text mining
Online: 20 February 2021 (01:42:10 CET)
The emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic has created both negative and positive changes, including implementing the circular economy across the globe. This Systematic Review follows the PRISMA statement and employs the Text Mining (Voyant Tools) technique to visualize and analyze the impacts of the Covid-19 on three aspects of the circular economy: economic, social, and environmental. The research employs Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to identify five major topics: (1) Shortage of medical equipment but high medical waste during Covid-19 due to the high demand in healthcare; (2) The long term negative impacts of lockdown on economic and social activities because of Covid-19 pandemic; (3) The reports on impacts of Covid-19 pandemic on the manufacturing globally, and their coping strategies and new opportunities; (4) The impacts of international restriction on the tourism, trade, shipping, and aviation industry, causing billion-dollar losses; (5) The reduction of pollution with health environment improvements with example cases from China and EU. The research identifies current literature gaps in the circular economy and Covid- 19 topics and encourages the application of text mining tools into researching to stimulate the research process and assist in communicating with the public.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; public health intervention; revive economy; disease severity; epidemiological model and R0
Online: 4 May 2020 (15:08:26 CEST)
We previously proposed a public intervention framework concept that would allow people to resume personal and economic activities. We showed that intervention measures are used in a quantitative scale to reduce transmission probabilities and disease severity. In this article, we systematically examine the origin, assumptions, performance and limitations of epidemiological models from different views used in past review. We found that nearly all model assumptions fail to hold or are remote from reality; R0 does not exit or has no utility in guiding treatment options; personalized intervention measures are vitally important to COVID-19 due to its transmission characteristic; and current epidemiological models are unable to accurately assess the true benefits of personalized intervention measures. We suggest that poor performance of the models are attributed to flawed assumption that health/disease properties can be treated as transferable properties. The flaw creates a fiction that disease properties such as infection probabilities and death risks can be transferred from any vulnerable persons to anyone in the population and thus severely limit societal ability to fight the pandemic. We finally show that the benefits of personalized mitigation measures could be determined directly by using variable Ri values for infected persons (or nodes) together assessment of death rate and disability rate; the attempt of avoiding the disease by defeating all potential transmission probabilities is unrealistic; but mitigating disease severity for specific persons is more feasible and reliable. A most reliable strategy for reviving economy is using personalized protective measures and improving person health before effective vaccine is available.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0352.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Health record; electronic health record; e-health record; the history of medicine; the economy of the healthcare system
Online: 22 May 2020 (10:48:18 CEST)
The history of health records (later also called medical records), including ones regarding individual patients, is thousands of years old. It finds it roots in the first ancient civilisations. Up until the 19th century the records’ purpose was mainly an educational one. In the 19th and 20th century they started becoming significant in other roles as well, including those not strictly limited to medicine. In particular, to account for medical procedures, insurance proceeds or legal action. Currently we are living in a revolutionary era when it comes to health records, in which their character has changed from a “paper-based” to an electronic one. This paper presents the development of health records from the ancient to modern times, mainly in Europe and North America. Other cultures and civilisations, including China and India, are not discussed. An analysis of available sources was conducted, inter alia digital versions of manuscripts up to hundreds of years old. The analysis was based on PubMed and Google Scholar (several key words, all the available sources). Sources published in non-international languages (e.g. Dutch) were also investigated. Overall, approximately 600 articles were analysed, 158 of which were used and cited in this paper. The conclusions drawn from the analysis are as follows: (1) Health records, priorly used mostly for educational purposes, for about 100 years now have acquired a fully formal status. (2) We are currently facing the most revolutionary changes regarding the transformation of paper-based records into electronic ones. (3) The consequences of this process include systematic applications of solutions within the area of e-health, which allow us to make medical services more flexible, improve the health of individual patients and entire populations and potentially limit expenditure. (4) In the light of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, introducing electronic health records could be beneficial in terms of limiting the potential sources of contamination (physical copies of health records), saving time and resources, and improving the network of communication between medical centres.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0217.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Cirrcular economy; freeshops; sharing economy; consumer behaviour
Online: 17 February 2022 (15:08:21 CET)
According to a number of authors, current social-economic and environmental problems require radical solutions, including the change of our approach to economy and looking for new models of its functioning. In Poland such trends are being recognised as well, having their reflection in the economic life. An approach described in this article concerns an intermediate sharing model, which may be placed between the most archetypical sharing, which is applied, among other, in family relationships, and sharing platforms that are raising growing controversies, such as UBER and Airbnb. The article uses the analysis of solutions applied in this regard in Poland and a survey carried out among students of the Faculty of Economics, University of Gdańsk, aimed at determining factors that affect changes in consumer behaviour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0266.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: peer-to-peer energy trading; P2P; sharing economy; collaborative economy
Online: 14 May 2021 (09:57:09 CEST)
Peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading is a new data-driven business model currently being trialed within the energy sector. Introducing P2P transactions to an essential service such as energy could have far-reaching implications for individuals and the grid. This paper raises considerations and questions from social, economic/markets and regulatory points of view, that should be understood and addressed by societies and policymakers. It does this by considering under what circumstances it is reasonable to conceptualize P2P energy trading as part of the sharing economy, and drawing parallels to the sharing economy experience in other sectors. In order to reap the full societal benefits, while avoiding considerable risks to infrastructure and individuals, a policy approach promoting dialogue and innovation is necessary. We suggest the regulatory sandbox is the most appropriate tool to achieve this and would help avoid the breakdown of trust between policymakers and platform companies observed in other sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0241.v1
Online: 12 July 2021 (11:14:35 CEST)
The circular economy is an alternative paradigm whose purpose is the protection of the environment, the prevention of pollution and the growth of economic prosperity. This paper covers research which is qualitative in nature but has an exploratory scope through a documentary review, and includes proposals to promote sustainability. A more responsible consumption or use can be achieved by educating the user or consumer to return the product to production or repair through a collection service by way of reverse logistics (recovery of materials), followed by recycling or reuse of the product or its components to then offer these as recovered or recycled products on the market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0636.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: collaborative economy; sharing economy; switchover; obtainer; provider; values; learning; mutuality; exploratory research
Online: 23 April 2021 (12:05:17 CEST)
The collaborative economy comprises resource circulation systems where consumers can act as both obtainers and providers of products and services. Despite considerable research on collaborative economies, there is a dearth of understanding of how individuals switch from being an obtainer to a provider. We address this void by drawing on 31 in-depth semi-structured interviews with collaborative economy obtainers. The findings suggest that personal values, learning experience, social benefits, mutuality, and peer influence drive obtainers to become providers. In contrast, distrusting strangers, a sense of intimacy, a lack of resources to share, and a lack of skills inhibit the switchover process. Our findings contextualize the drivers and inhibitors idiosyncratically to convert obtainers into providers, offer important implications for managers, contribute to the collaborative economy and sharing economy literature, and suggest compelling avenues for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0388.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: planned economy; distribution; market economy; convergence; Mises; Hayek; universal basic income; guaranteed job
Online: 22 November 2021 (12:04:21 CET)
Arguments of Mises and Hayek, who opposed the planned economy (PE), are used in the paper as a starting point for establishing the objective area of effective application of the PE. The abstract model of PE, based on the definitions of Mises and Hayek, leads to the conclusion that for the effective use of PE, it must be a part of mixed economy and it must produce a limited amount of essential goods of irreducible demand. These goods must be distributed among all members of society free of charge, evenly, without competition. Examples of a mixed economy are given that meet this requirement. Calculations of the personal benefit in the transition to a mixed model of the economy have been carried out. The positive and negative qualities of the planned and market methods of organization are considered. Mixed economy model combines these qualities in optimal construction. An analytical framework has been introduced for the construction of product characterization curves. Such curves provide criteria for determining the efficiency of manufacturing of this product in a planned economy. The general economic prerequisites for the usability of the PE are clarified. The applicability and advantages of the PE for the organization of the universal basic income (UBI) system are demonstrated. The possibility of using PE to solve the problem of guaranteed employment is mentioned.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0357.v1
Online: 19 August 2022 (05:44:02 CEST)
Due to the prospective local and international markets, the neon tetra fish breeding industry has its own allure for fish lovers and as a side business. The goal of the study was to analyze the opportunities and difficulties associated with neon tetra fish farming in order to build a "Blue Economy" policy. The Depok City Food Security and Fisheries Service (DKP3) program was implemented with the help of key informants who were chosen based on the following criteria: 1) DKP3 Officials, such as the Board of Trustees of the Fish Farming Group (POKDAKAN), 2) Researchers from the BRBIH (Ornamental Fish Farming Research Center), 3) Practitioners/Extension Workers, and 4) POKDAKAN.The study's conclusions state that the relevant Dinas must support local policies based on natural identification that are strengthened at the national level, that routine human resource training needs to be improved, that technology needs to be taken into account in collaboration with the private sector, and that post-harvest and market access are essential for industry. The SWOT analysis's findings, which are in quadrant 1, show that the firm is in a position for rather aggressive expansion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0240.v1
Subject: Keywords: Foreign exchange rate, economy, inflation
Online: 8 June 2021 (15:59:19 CEST)
The Foreign Exchange rate is very much crucial for determining the economic health level of the country. The foreign exchange rate provides financial stability, enhances purchasing power and allows global trades. This rate usually fluctuates due to the market forces which control the supply and demand of the currency. Nominal and relative inflation and income level have a substantial effect on determining the exchange rates. Government measures, international situations, natural disasters or any unexpected situation like Covid-19, Rohingya crisis etc. can affect the exchange rates. Besides this, the interaction between the factors can create different reasoning to affect the market. This study tries to identify some factors with relevant examples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0680.v2
Online: 1 September 2020 (12:08:06 CEST)
In recent years, there have been many new global companies investing and operating in Vietnam as a form of sharing economy (Uber, Grab, Foody, Agoda, Facebook, Google, etc). These kinds of economic models are popular in the world but very new in Vietnam. Sharing economy enterprises bring both benefit and challenges for Vietnam. Before time, there is no policy and law to govern the activities of these companies. So they make the challenges for the authority of Vietnam to manage. This paper will analyze the nature, characters, and impacts of the sharing economy in Vietnam. It also mentions the problems and recommends some solutions to manage the activities of sharing - economy companies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0131.v1
Online: 9 July 2019 (14:15:17 CEST)
Saudi Arabia is an oil-reliant nation as a large percentage of its GDP comes from oil resources. Oil dependency leaves a county at the mercy of the international crude market, and a decrease in the price of crude can seriously destabilize the economy of such nations. An example is the case of Venezuela whose dependence on oil caused a national disaster (McCarthy, 2017). As such, the nation’s exports, GDP, and government revenue are primarily dependent on oil revenue, and the recent decrease in the oil prices has decreased Venezuela’s national revenue resulting in economic collapse as well as inflation. A shift from a resource based economy to a knowledge based economy will help Saudi Arabia become less reliant on its oil revenues for its economic stability and growth (Nurunnabi, 2017).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0415.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Economics; SFC; Growth imperative; Steady state economy; Money stock; Money supply; Green economy; Green Growth
Online: 2 July 2021 (13:51:03 CEST)
“Money has always been something of an embarrassment to economic theory. Everyone agrees that it is important; indeed, much of macroeconomic policy discussion makes no sense without reference to money. Yet, for the most part theory fails to provide a good account for it.” (Banerjee and Maskin, 1996, p. 955)The debate about whether or not a growth imperative exists in debt based, interest bearing mone- tary systems has not yet been settled. It is the goal of this paper to introduce a new perspective in this discussion.For that purpose an SFC computational model is constructed which simulates a post Keynesian Endogenous Money system without including economic parameters such as production, wages, consumption and savings. A case is made that isolating the monetary system allows for better analysis of the inherent properties of such a system.Loan demands, which are assumed to happen, are the driving force of the model. Simulations can be run in two modes, each based on a different assumption. Either the growth rate of the money stock is assumed to be constant or the loan rate, expressed as a percentage of the money stock, is assumed to be constant.Simulations with varying parameters are run in order to determine the conditions under which the model converges to stability, which is defined as converging to a bounded debt rate.The analysis shows that stability of the model is dependent on net bank profit ratios, expressed relative to their debt assets, remaining below the growth rate of the money stock. Based on these findings it is argued that the question about the existence of a growth imperative in debt based, interest bearing monetary systems needs to be reframed. The question becomes whether a steady state economy can realistically support such a system without destabilising it. In order to answer this question real world behavior of economic actors must be included in the model.It is concluded that there are indications that it might not be feasible for a steady state economy to support a stable debt based, interest bearing monetary system without strong interventions. However, more research is necessary for a definite answer. Real world observable data should be analysed through the lens of the presented model to bring more clarity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Keywords: Circular economy; building sector; Europe
Online: 13 September 2022 (10:04:31 CEST)
This article evaluates Europe's building sector's circular economy (CE). This industry is respon-sible for 42% of energy consumption, more than 50% of extracted materials, 30% of Europe's wa-ter and waste generation, and 35% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study focuses on peer-reviewed articles from Scopus and Web of Science databases. Of the first 1750 publications, 2.9% were eligible for a full-text reading and analysis. Most of the trending studies, 92%, pro-mote the circular economy concept through construction materials rather than analyzing the im-pact of the construction sector on the environment and finding solutions for better implementa-tion, and 41% promote recycling and reuse as the only options. New Design solutions are in 12% of the studies, six-fold more than Law and Legislation, only 2%. Finding an optimal combination of assessing the life cycle of buildings and components and searching for different ways of man-aging the Construction and Demolition Waste at end-of-life is between 33% and 39%. Ultimately, one evaluated CE proposed frameworks for the building industry based on 10R principles varia-tions. One presents an alternative framework for a circular strategy for the building industry that focuses on Upcycling, replacing the Recover principle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0004.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: monetary; West African countries; trade; economy
Online: 1 March 2020 (03:04:45 CET)
It shows the monetary investigation in west countries the big flow in economy by the gross value change effects, also the value of debt policy with debt management strategies to control the budgetary risk of long-term economy from sustainability. The intellectual policies of inflation, GDP, trade, and services and merchandise trade has effected on the West African country’s monetary policies. The implication of trade by a lag of exchange rate indicators has a positive and significant effect. The estimated results reflect the dynamic implication of trade with liquidity and proper monitoring policies. The GDP, gross value (GVA), debt policies, equity of public administration, trade in service and merchandise trade is positive and significant, all are significant. We suggest the optimum control of liquidity with trade service policy recommendations in different countries. The research method was based on 5 countries from the 16 countries of western African and elaborated by their individual indicators with the least square method. The gross value of debts and public administration controlled the development aim of an entire state with strategic and planned environment for state and reduce the level of inflation in small and enterprise section and the results analyzed the policy makers implement planned in implication of trade with domestic currency and long run endogeneity. The results analyzed the monetary policies affecting the level of growth of an individual country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0171.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: adaptation; climate change; green economy; agriculture
Online: 15 April 2019 (12:30:46 CEST)
An opinion dependent cross sectional survey was conducted among charland peoples of Noakhali, Bangladesh with a view to identify the factors that affect green economy. Nijhumdwip Island and Tamaruddi union are highly affected by cyclone and soil salinity. Unpredictable rainfall is the most acute in Nijhumdwip. Lack of information the main problem in Nijhumdwip Island. Farmers are found less interest in integrated farming and crop diversification. Few farmers from Sonadia Union are involved in homestead gardening. Regression analysis have shown a negative relationship (p<0.001) between education of stockholders and decrease of crop production. On the other hand education level of stockholders is to be found positively (p<0.05) varied with decrease of food insecurity. So it can be said that educated farmers are more adaptive against climate change.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0319.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: aflatoxins; Mozambique; impact; health; economy; regulation
Online: 20 June 2018 (09:50:00 CEST)
Aflatoxins are a known cause of primary liver cancer in Mozambique since pre-independence epidemiological studies. However, their impact goes beyond the public health, affecting the country’s economy and raising legal concerns. As a developing country endemic for Aspergillus, the nation has been struggling to keep pace with external trade quality demands, delicate policy making, still dealing with the farmers’ limitations to control the contamination. The contamination shows variations over time, space and the different commodities. Considering the recommendations of the Codex Alimentarius, the major crops will be highly implicated unless there is major intervention from the authorities to control the toxins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: concrete; slag; valorization; cement; circular economy
Online: 3 May 2018 (09:00:22 CEST)
Concrete consumption greatly exceeds the use of any other material in engineering. This is due to its good properties as construction material and the availability of its components. Nevertheless, the present worldwide construction increase and the high-energy consumption for cement production means a high environmental impact. On the other hand, one of the main problem in iron and steel industry is waste generation and by-products that must be properly processed or reused to promote the environmental sustainability. One of these by-products are blast furnace slag. Cement substitution by slag strategy achieves two goals, raw materials consumption reduction and waste management. In the present work, four different concrete mixtures are evaluated. 25% cement is substituted by different blast furnace slag. Tests are made to evaluate the advantages and drawbacks of each mixture. Depending on the origin, characteristics and treatment of the slag, concrete properties change. Certain mixtures provide proper concrete properties. Stainless steel slag produces a fluent mortar that reduces the water consumption whit a slight mechanical strength loss. Mixture with electric arc slag furnace properties are better to the reference concrete (without slag) when slag is treated similarly to the cement.
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: waste management; circular economy; sustainability; mechanical biological treatment; waste-to-energy; waste tax; green economy; landfills; composting
Online: 7 March 2020 (15:29:01 CET)
An adequate number of waste management facilities is the key element to meet circular economy goals. Using empirical data taken from official sources the research framework bases on an econometric model to compare the elasticity of cost on quantity of different alternatives such as waste-to-energy facilities, mechanical biological facilities and landfills impact on waste management cost. Results suggest that both waste-to-energy facilities (-0.278%) and landfills (-0.38%) concur to lower the cost while the higher the percentage of waste sent to mechanical biological treatment facilities, the higher the cost (0.788%). This figure deserves to be examined in more details as such facilities represent an intermediary step in the chain which efficiency depends on the industrial organization of the chain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0275.v1
Online: 20 May 2022 (09:18:26 CEST)
The Circular Economy of plastics is a promising concept that has the potential to reduce pollution and close the loop on plastic waste. However, further research is needed to develop more efficient and environmentally friendly methods of recycling plastic. This review article discusses the Circular Economy of plastics, its potential benefits and drawbacks, and the challenges that need to be addressed to make it a reality. Some case studies are also examined to explore how the Circular Economy of plastics has been implemented across the globe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0088.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: innovation; proactivity; financial literacy; economy business performance
Online: 5 October 2021 (15:06:35 CEST)
This study aims to determine the Implication of innovation, proactivity, risk-taking, artistic orientation, and financial literacy on creative economy businesses during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was conducted on 120 creative economy businessmen in Bandar Lampung City, which is a miniature of Indonesia with multiethnic cultures. The results showed innovation is not significant, but proactive attitude, artistic orientation, and financial literacy have a significant implication on the performance of creative economic businesses during the Covid-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0072.v1
Online: 5 January 2021 (10:28:29 CET)
Many countries are raising questions on the intentions behind Saudi reforms. The low oil prices in 2008-09 were the awakening call for Saudis, and later in 2014, it became the reason to look for the economy that is less dependent on oil. The article studies the initiated social reforms and social impact of foreign cultural activities. It scrutinizes the Saudi social fabric under the social exchange theory and looks for the positive and negative effects of cultural exchanges. The paper also considers the COVID-19 situation in KSA as it has broken the chain of cultural events planned all over the country to promote tourism and improve the image of KSA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0070.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Circular Economy; Water; Wastewater; Resource Use; Latin America
Online: 4 January 2023 (06:39:53 CET)
Circular Economy (CE) is noted as an emerging tool or framework to support sustainable production and consumption agenda. In addition, CE is aiming to be a trigger for redefining economic growth pathways to be sustainable, inclusive, and sensitive to ecological and environmental agendas and to focus its operational standards on co-creating societal benefits. Concerning the guiding principles and the standards of practice applied to implement and scale circular economy, this study will provide an overview of the water sector-specific circularity roadmaps and strategies in the Latin American Region. By using a semi-systematic review, document analysis, and qualitative assessment approach, we highlight framings and operational pathways, gaps, and needs within existing practices of circularity in the water sector. The results provide an overview of CE pathways at the national level of selected countries in LAR iterating those nations reflect various levels of advancement (low to high) with CE-focused innovations and policy support structures specific to the water and wastewater sectors. Towards the closing, the study is pointing to the ‘call for action’ to integrate outstanding advances and innovations in the circular economy within sectoral mandates for water and wastewater management, making an argument that circularity in the water sector could serve as an accelerator toward implementing the agenda outlined in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and in particular for SDG 6 (water security for all).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: dynamic program; fuel economy; global optimization; predictive control
Online: 17 October 2022 (03:40:06 CEST)
Fuel consumption, subsequent emissions and safe operation of class 8 vehicles are of prime importance in recent days. It is imperative that the vehicle operates in its true optimal operating region given a variety of constraints such as road grade, load, gear shifts, Battery State of charge (for hybrid vehicles), etc. In this paper a research study is conducted to evaluate the fuel economy and subsequent emission benefits when applying predictive control to a mild hybrid line haul truck. The problem is solved using a combination of dynamic programming with back tracking and model predictive control. The specific fuel saving features that are studied in this work are dynamic cruise control, gear shifts, vehicle coasting and torque management. These features are evaluated predictively as compared to a reactive behavior. The predictive behavior of these features are a function of road grade. The result and analysis shows significant improvement in fuel savings along with NOx benefits. Out of the control features dynamic cruise (predictive) control and dynamic coasting showed the most benefits while predictive gear shifts and torque management (by power splitting between battery and engine) for this architecture did not show fuel benefits but provided other benefits in terms of powertrain efficiency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0365.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: pineapple; wastes; biorefinery; COVID-19; circular economy; biomedical.
Online: 23 September 2022 (09:22:33 CEST)
Pineapple is a highly demanded fruit in international markets, thanks to its unique appearance and flavor, high fiber content, vitamins, folic acid, and minerals. It makes the pineapple production and processing market a significant source of income for producing countries, such as Costa Rica. Nowadays, its processing produces a large amount of waste with negative consequences for the environment. However, pineapple waste is an essential source of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and other high-value products like enzymes (bromelain). These by-products can be obtained by pineapple waste biorefinery, generating an additional source of export goods and foreign currency, framing pineapple processing in the concept of the circular economy. This review discusses how incorporating biorefinery in the pineapple production processes can contribute to the post-COVID 19 economy in Costa Rica. Pineapple production in Costa Rica is explored, and the contamination of generated residues is delineated. Furthermore, the primary processes for by-product extraction via biorefinery, their general characteristics and applications in the medical field, and their contribution to the circular economy are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0522.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: recycled PET products; circular economy; intention to purchase.
Online: 30 September 2021 (15:06:49 CEST)
Circular Economy involves structural changes in traditional business models and consumers’ behaviour toward recycled products. The recycling of PET products has been increasing but there is still a gap between consumption and demand for PET packaging in Brazil. In this research, the waste reduction was examined under a projective scenario to the current ecological purposes in Brazil for reducing environmental pollution. In that manner, this paper aimed to comprehend the intention to purchase recycled PET products of Brazilian consumers. With a non-probabilistic and convenience sample, the study counts 422 participants. The method employed was based on Structural Equation Modelling and Partial Least Squares, used to test the hypotheses of causality among the variables. Results showed the perception of low quality about recycled products reduced consumers’ intention to purchase. Also, the sustainability of recycled products positively influenced the intention to purchase. In addition, recycled products presented a negative impact on the perceived safety, which could influence the purchase of recycled products in Brazil. We conclude that the image that Brazilian consumers have about recycled products positively affects the intention to purchase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0620.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: IntegroPectin, naringin, eriocitrin, citrus, flavonoids, pectin, circular economy
Online: 26 February 2021 (13:47:16 CET)
Following the analysis of terpenes present in new lemon and grapefruit “IntegroPectin” pectins obtained via the hydrodynamic cavitation of industrial lemon and grapefruit processing waste, the HPLC-MS analysis of the flavonoid compounds reveals the presence of eriocitrin, naringin, hesperidin and kaempferol typical of the respective citrus fruits. The pectic fibers rich in rhamnogalacturonan-I “hairy” regions act as chemical sponges adsorbing and concentrating at their outer surface highly bioactive citrus flavonoids and terpenes. These findings, together with the unique molecular structure of these new whole citrus pectins, provide preliminary insight into the broad-scope and powerful biological activity of these biomaterials. Numerous new biomedical applications beyond prevention and treatment of microbial infections and neurodegenerative disease are anticipated.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: values of repair; circular economy; environmental justice; politicization
Online: 10 February 2021 (16:21:37 CET)
The idea of replacing the broken linear economy with circular forms to help address the current sustainability crisis is gaining world-wide traction in policy, industry, and academia. This article presents results from an international interview study with 34 repair practitioners and experts in different fields. The article aims to improve understandings of the potential of repair so as to contribute to a more just, sustainable, and circular economy. Through a five-step qualitative method the results reveal and explore three tensions inherent in repair: first, repair activities constitute different forms of subjectivity; second, repair entails different and sometimes contested temporalities; and finally, even though repair is deeply political in practice, the politics of repair are not always explicit, and some repair activities are actively depoliticized. The opportunities and obstacles embodied in these tensions are generative in repair practices and debates, but poorly reflected in contemporary circular economy discourse. We conclude that a richer, more inclusive and politicized understanding of repair can support environmental justice in the implementation of CE and provide greater opportunities for just and transformational sustainability strategies and policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0359.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Circular economy; Sustainable development; EU countries; Ranking; Classification
Online: 12 November 2020 (18:10:48 CET)
In this paper, we have analysed the level of advancement in circular economy (CE) in the EU-28 countries. Firstly, we used a synthetic measure to examine CE advancement in EU countries in each of the Eurostat CE distinguished areas, i.e. production and consumption, waste management, secondary raw materials, and competitiveness and innovation. For the empirical analysis, we applied 17 Eurostat indicators to the CE areas. To find the synthetic measure in 2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016, we used multidimensional comparative analysis, i.e. a zero unitarisation method. Secondly, based on the synthetic measures of the CE areas, we created a general synthetic measure of the CE advancement of the EU-28 countries as well as the countries’ rankings. Thirdly, we classified the countries into groups according to their level of advancement in CE, i.e. high level, medium-high level, medium-low level, and low level groups. Finally, we applied a similarity measure to evaluate the correlation between obtained rankings in two most extreme moments in the period of analysis (2010, 2016). Our analysis covers all EU member states, as well as "old" and "new" EU countries separately. Our results confirm that highly developed Benelux countries, i.e. Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Belgium, have the highest CE advancement level. Malta, Cyprus, Estonia, and Greece are the least advanced in CE practice. Apart from that, on average, there is some progress in CE implementation, significant disproportions between the EU countries were observed, especially among the "new" member states.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: zero waste; plastic waste; circular economy; recycling performance
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:45:14 CET)
Despite the increase in popularity of Zero Waste (ZW) concept, the successful implementation of this concept in waste management is still facing many challenges. The plastic recycling rate in Australia is currently only about 9.4%, which could leave up to 90.6% of plastic consumption being sent to landfills. The state of Victoria (in Australia) has proposed an ambitious plan to upgrade its waste and recycling system and to divert about 80% of waste from landfills by 2030. The aim of this research is to study Victoria’s current waste management plan and to develop a simulation model to assess the feasibility of it achieving zero plastic waste by 2035. In this direction, a fundamental knowledge of global ZW implementation needs to be acquired in order to understand the challenges, obstacles, and uncertainties in achieving ZW target. A simulation model is established using a method called double baselines. This method was developed as an improvisation to address the limitation of data availability for the model development. The model will run on 4 scenarios including one from Victoria’s current plan. Outcomes from the model are produced in comparative charts covering 6 key considerations including the rates of plastic consumption, waste to landfill, diversion, recycling, relative accumulative cost and effort. The findings of this study pointed out that Victoria’s current plan are feasible for its goal and presented with opportunities for improvement especially towards zero plastic waste. Besides, study results also reveal that the Victoria’s current plan to achieve 80% diversion rate by 2030 is possible but the zero plastic waste target by 2035 is less likely to happen.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0044.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Circular Economy; Social Aspects; Systematic Review; Sustainable Development
Online: 2 September 2020 (11:42:04 CEST)
Circular Economy (CE) is a growing topic among scholars, industry and government aiming at decoupling economic growth and development from the consumption of finite resources. CE incorporates different meanings, from reduce, reuse and recycle activities to environmental degradation or resource scarcity, and supported by specific indicators to attain sustainable development. However, so far, there has been no agreement to measure how effective an industry/product is in making the transition from linear to circular approaches, particularly those affected the society. This research work aims to perform a systematic literature review (n=60) to analyze and discuss how social aspects have been considered and integrated in the CE research so far. Moreover, this review provides and overview of the literature on social impact within CE, that resulted in three main outputs: a knowledge map of the CE, an analysis of social aspects within CE, and the theories/frameworks used to evaluate social impact of CE. Finally, this study brings to light how CE implementation can affect society and highlights the importance of social dimension in the domains of CE and policy-making community, which could help moving CE towards a sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0251.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: anthropogenic mineral; recycling; circular economy; metals; urban mining
Online: 25 August 2019 (15:15:47 CEST)
An increasingly large quantity of primary mineral resource is being converted into manufactured products and destined for solid waste disposal. This material can be reclassified as “anthropogenic mineral reserves” and be a potential source of metals for a range of manufacturing uses. China is implementing a range of policy interventions which can lead to such a classification that will raise the profile of recycling programs as a means of metal supply. China is not only a major producer of consumer products and importer of secondary metals, but also has a major urban infrastructure footprint. Here we consider three product groups, 30 products, and imports, and map the recycling potential of anthropogenic mineral and 23 types of the capsulated materials by targeting their evolution from 2010 to 2050. Total weight of anthropogenic mineral on average in China reached 39 Mt in 2010, but it will double in 2022 and quadruple in 2045. Stocks of precious metals and rare earths will increase faster than most base materials. The total economic potential in yearly-generated anthropogenic mineral is anticipated to grow markedly from 100 billion US$ in 2020 to 400 billion US$ in 2050. Anthropogenic mineral of around 20 materials will be able to meet projected consumption of three product groups by 2050, due to high availability of recycled content and gradual saturation of consumption. Durability of material usage and the concomitant stock of the anthropogenic mineral remain major challenges in determining the viability of this supply in the second half of the coming century.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: intellectual capital; sustainability; harness; bio-economy; global crisis
Online: 24 April 2019 (12:10:55 CEST)
Bio-economy is a major area of the strategy that can afford the European Union to achieve growth: (i) smart, through the development of knowledge and innovation; and (ii) sustainable, based on a greener, more efficient economy in resource management. We believe that the progress of bio-economy cannot be achieved without the harnessing of intellectual capital. Our research aimed to emphasize the benefits of the dynamics of the intellectual capital growth on the evolution of the bio-economy. Thus, the information published by Eurostat (European Statistic Institute) during a period spanning seven years (2011-2018) was used to assess the influence exerted by the conduct of the harness of intellectual capital related to sustainability as well as for the reporting of indicators relevant to appreciating an economic progress and sustainability (renewable waste material, share of renewable energy and energy intensity of the economy). The ultimate goal was represented by the generation of a regression model to see what factor influences mostly the progress of the bio-economy at European and Romanian level. Significant dependency relationships were identified. The results remain robust even after the introduction of certain control variables, such as gross domestic product rate, food production, population growth, urbanization growth and inflation. Our paper sets out to contribute to expanding the specialty literature by highlighting the involvement of intellectual capital as a factor in optimizing sustainability growth and, at a methodological level, by using a multiple regression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0282.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: intellectual capital; sustainability; harness; bio-economy; global crisis
Online: 3 January 2019 (11:08:57 CET)
Bio-economy is a major area of the strategy that must enable the European Union to achieve growth: smart, through the development of knowledge and innovation; and sustainable, based on a greener, more efficient economy in resource management. We believe that the progress of bio-economy cannot be achieved without the harnessing of intellectual capital. Our research aimed to emphasize the benefits of the dynamics of the intellectual capital growth on the evolution of the bio-economy. The aim of this analysis was to study the established link between the Energy Intensity of the Economy (EIE) and a number of factors that can measure the intellectual capital, such as: Market Capitalization of Bitcoin, Patent applications listed by European Patent Office and the Turnover from Innovation as a proportion of the total Turnover. The ultimate goal was represented by the generation of a regression model to see what factor influences mostly the progress of the bio-economy at European and Romanian level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0004.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: sustainable regional development; knowledge economy; regional innovation policy
Online: 1 October 2017 (08:21:30 CEST)
The paper explores different models of innovation management at the regional level and reasons for the best model considering the specific features of St. Petersburg as the innovative region of Russia. The authors, on the base of their long-time experience in studies of innovative enterprises and elaborating the regional innovation policy in St. Petersburg, propose the tool of creation and measuring the results of the regional innovation policy that promotes the life quality improvement and regional sustainable development. The balanced scorecard is used as a method, based on the methodology of knowledge economy development and adjusted to the specific needs of St. Petersburg innovation eco-system. The authors pay special attention to the implementation of principles of green economy into the realization of the regional innovation policy and the proposed balanced scorecard.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0125.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Insurance; PEST; political; risks; challenges; economy; European Union
Online: 16 May 2017 (17:01:30 CEST)
The insurance industry plays an important role for European economic stability and the threats and opportunities it faces should be carefully determined. In this paper we highlight the main challenges by using a PEST analysis. This work applies conventional actuarial thought on this area by focusing strictly on the European sector.
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: circular economy; social ecology; consumerism; dialectical naturalism; mining
Online: 12 September 2016 (09:55:09 CEST)
The concept of a "circular economy" needs a more cogent theoretical anchor which will allow for transference of its goals and methods of attainment across cases. Tensions between ecological goals of this concept and the social implications of its implementation need to be addressed. This paper attempts to provide a theoretical framework for harnessing the strengths of a circular economy. Building on theories of social ecology which are predicated in Murray Bookchin's notion of "dialectical naturalism", the analysis presented here addresses some of the criticism of circular economic paradigms, such as their potential for stifling innovation or a neglect of human development challenges. A model for managing human "need" and "greed" within a circular economy framework is presented that also incorporates consumer choice and innovation. Planned obsolescence as a means of livelihood generation is also problematized with a view towards balancing durability of products on the one hand and ensuring throughput for manufacturing employment and innovation incentives on the other. Finally, the need for governance systems is considered to ensure that a planetary vision for a circular economy can be realized that efficiently harnesses local initiatives rather than an atomized and insular view of circularity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0530.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Resource recovery; circular economy; food waste; anaerobic co-digestion
Online: 31 August 2022 (03:10:30 CEST)
The emergence of the circular economy, and the evolving paradigms in the treatment and management of wastewater, have opened up an opportunity for co-digestion of organic waste (i.e., food waste) with sewage sludges to enhance resource recovery at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This paper reviewed the potential for anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludges, as well as alternative sustainable food waste handling systems in South Africa. The promotion of the circular economy by the latest national solid waste management strategy and the ongoing efforts for resource recovery by the wastewater sector suggests that anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge is possible in South Africa. Furthermore, an integrated food waste disposer (FWD) system was identified as a sustainable alternative for food waste handling. To formulate a roadmap for future food waste and sewage sludge co-digestion implementation, a multi-disciplinary investigation is required to bridge the literature gap.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0684.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: GNI; GDP; GNIpc; International Economy; Export; Import; Circle; Model
Online: 4 May 2021 (14:23:16 CEST)
In the book “Everyhing Is A Circle: A New Model For Orbits Of Bodies In The Universe”, and further in the Article “Distance Between Two Circles in Any Number of Dimensions is a Vector Ellipse”, it has been mathematically demonstrated that “distance between points on any two different circles in any number of multiple dimensions” is equivalent to “distance of points on a vector ellipse from another fixed or moving point”. Using this mathematical methodology, a method is provided in this Article as a measure for the amount of interaction between two international economies, which are two countries or economic zones, by modelling each economy in terms of a “circle in four dimensions”. Based on this method, the proximity of the two economies at the end of each fiscal period, which is generally a fiscal year, is then measured by the distance between points at the end of the given period on the two circles in four dimensions, associated with these two economies in our model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0151.v1
Subject: Keywords: Dwindling Economy; Nigeria Economic Sector; Fraud; Insecurity; Policy Implementation
Online: 6 August 2020 (10:26:16 CEST)
Dwindling Economy is otherwise known as depression economy or economy depression interchangeably and/or recess economy. It is an occurrence wherein an economy is in a state of financial turmoil, often the result of a period of negative activity based on the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) rate. However, this has become a global phenomenon; a good example of a necessitating factor is the global oil crash market and pandemics virus (Covid-19) ravaging the human race. That has conjointly led to the decline in the GDP growth per capital of a country; which forces degradation in the performances of economic sectors, retrenchment of staff and wrapping-up of industries. It is a lot worse than a recession, with GDP falling significantly, and lasts for periods of time. Pen ultimately, Nigeria has been in deteriorating financial state for years; her economy in the last few years has been going through some turbulence. A country that had recorded an average GDP growth of 6.5 per cent, one of the highest in the world less than a decade ago, is now projected to grow at about 2.3 per cent in 2016. It is no longer news that Nigeria's economy is experiencing total collapse and if nothing is done to put the peg in the right spot something worse than what we are witnessing may soon be on sight. Based on some of all these issues and other, Nigeria was said to be technically recess.In this paper, efforts were made to explore the state of the Nigeria economy in the last 36 years (1981-2017) and correlate it with the recent phenomena that conjointly constitute to its dwindling economy. Our comprehensive and elusive literary survey and extemporariness suggested way forwards to rescue the raveling situation of Nigeria dwindling economics, if not providing lasting solution but temporarys’ one that could stand test of time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0128.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: circular economy; education; reuse; sustainability; self-produced materials; waste
Online: 6 November 2018 (04:40:59 CET)
The article presents an experience based on the design of DIY materials (Do-It-Yourself) as a phenomenon that contributes to the circular economy, making use of household waste and organic binders. The development context is the southernmost Industrial Design School in Latin America, where students are educated through the transfer of knowledge emphasized on the experimentation and territory assessment. Methodology corresponds to the traditional industrial design process, inserting DIY design of materials in the strategic stage. Objective and subjective variables are determined applied in the definition of new materials, being able to determine a range of proposals based on household waste. Citrus × Sinensis, Peperomia caperata (Piperaceae), Radiata pine veneers, among them, which are conceived by students to be self-produced at the user level. The results are materials elaborated based on household waste, exemplified with three types based on organic husks. Beyond findings associated to technique, compatibilities between residual materials and results expressed in materials and catalogs, it is possible to educate future designers on the innovative theme, with the potential to improve life quality of people and their environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0540.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: circular economy; remanufacturing; fuel cells; data-driven; systems dynamics
Online: 31 August 2018 (05:31:03 CEST)
Remanufacturing is a viable option to extend the useful life of an end-of-use product or its parts, ensuring sustainable competitive advantages under the current global economic climate. Challenges typical to remanufacturing still persist, despite its many benefits. According to the European Remanufacturing Network a key challenge is lack of accurate, timely and consistent product knowledge as highlighted in a 2015 survey of 188 European remanufacturers. With more data being produced by electric and hybrid vehicles, this adds to the information complexity challenge already experienced in remanufacturing. Therefore, it is difficult to implement real-time and accurate remanufacturing for the shop floor; there are no papers that focus on this within an electric and hybrid vehicle environment. To address this problem this paper attempts to (1) identify the required parameters/ variables needed for fuel cell remanufacturing by means of interviews (2) rank the variables by Pareto analysis (3) develop a casual loop diagram for the identified parameters/ variables to visualise its impact on remanufacturing (4) model a simple stock and flow diagram to simulate and understand data and information-driven schemes in remanufacturing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0067.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: limonene; poly(limonene carbonate); bioeconomy; sustainable polycarbonates; solar economy
Online: 5 April 2018 (10:48:13 CEST)
Limonene epoxide (1,2 limonene oxide) readily reacts with carbon dioxide in a ring opening copolymerization reaction with insertion of CO2 and formation of polycarbonates of exceptional chemical and physical properties. Both poly(limonene carbonate) and poly(limonene dicarbonate) can be synthesized using low cost Zn or Al homogeneous catalysts. This study addresses selected relevant questions concerning the technical and economic feasibility of limonene and carbon dioxide polymers en route to the bioeconomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0260.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: sustainable development; SMEs; competitiveness, enterprises development; innovation; emerging economy
Online: 30 March 2018 (06:29:48 CEST)
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are the biggest group of enterprises in the European Union (EU); they are also characteristic for emerging economies. Given this situation, there is a need to provide instruments such as processes, which allows them to realize a model of sustainable development. The ability to classify processes and occurrences happening inside these processes often affects the condition of the enterprises. The implementation of innovations, as identified process, enables the directions of SME development towards sustainable development. The purpose of this article is to find out if the identification of processes such as innovations, have any influence on the competitiveness and sustainable development of SMEs. This study was based on pilot research, which examined small and medium enterprises at the regional level, at the example of Polish emerging economy region. It was researched under the angle of the identification of processes and changes happening inside enterprises in terms of understanding the sustainable development concept. Research composition allows to present an understanding by the SMEs of the problems analyzed. The novelty was in the new questionnaire, the definition of sustainable development, and matching those processes identified by the enterprises analyzed with the particular sustainable development dimensions suggested by the authors. In light of the analysis of the literature and the results of this research the important contributions of this study are as follows. This approach pointed the understanding and practical meaning of the identification of processes to be understood. The most important finding was that there is a need to make entrepreneurs aware of the fact that innovations are also processes in themselves, which often constitutes the sum of other supporting processes occurring in the enterprise. Support in the form of knowledge transfer from experts to SMEs would also be recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0146.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Circular Economy; sustainability; family business; model; case study; Mercadona
Online: 22 February 2018 (10:33:56 CET)
Sustainability addresses environmental and social issues affecting this and future generations. When family businesses perceive that the community is disrupted, recognize an environmental problem and respond by implementing new environmental policies or regulations, the family business’s socio-emotional values press to transition to a more sustainable production system, such as the ‘Circular Economy.’ Drawing on the Dubin (1978) methodology—a paradigm for building models through deduction—we design a sustainable model, which shows family businesses’ responses to changes in the environment. It explains the reasons why family firms transition to the Circular Economy, based on the theory of Socio-Emotional Wealth (SEW). We check the model through the case study of the food retail leader in the Spanish market—Mercadona—which applies policies about energy, resources and waste to become a Circular Economy business model. Because of the strong family character of Mercadona, this case can be useful for the decision-making of other family businesses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: life cycle assessment; circular economy; material efficiency; recycling; reuse
Online: 18 December 2017 (06:36:56 CET)
Material efficiency is a key element of new thinking to address the challenges of reducing impacts on the environment and of resource scarcity, whilst at the same time meeting service and functionality demands on materials. Directly related to material efficiency is the concept of the Circular Economy, which is based on the principle of optimising the utility embodied in materials and products through the life cycle. Whilst steel, as a result of high recycling rates, is one of the most ‘circular’ of all manufactured materials, significant opportunities for greater material efficiency exist, which are yet to be widely implemented. In the field of Life Cycle Management, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is commonly used to assess the environmental benefits of recovering and recycling materials through the manufacturing supply chain and at end-of-life. As well as containing information to calculate environmental impacts, LCA models also provide the flows of materials through the product life cycle and can also be used to quantify material efficiency and the circularity of a product system. Using an example taken from renewable energy generation, this paper explores the correlation between product circularity and the environmental case for strategies designed to improve material efficiency. An LCA-based methodology for accounting for the recovery and re-use of materials from the supply chain, and at end-of-life, is used as the basis for calculating the carbon footprint benefits of five material efficiency scenarios. Resulting carbon footprints were then compared with a number of proposed material circularity indicators. Two conclusions from this exercise were that i) LCA methodologies based around end-of-life approaches are well placed for quantifying the environmental benefits of material efficiency and circular economy strategies and ii) when applying indicators relating to the circularity of materials these should also be supported by LCA studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0138.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Village-Owned Enterprises, Partnership, Competitor, Village Economy, village business sustainability
Online: 9 January 2023 (03:31:39 CET)
This study aims to understand the reality of Village-Owned Enterprises and their implications for rural communities. The focus of this research is to explore the role of Village-Owned Enterprises in carrying out their role as an engine for driving the economy of people in rural areas. Village-owned enterprises have turned into competitors for small rural enterprises. This research uses a qualitative approach, and the informants from Village-Owned Enterprises are the Chairman, Secretary, and Treasurer. Village-owned enterprises become a medium for rural business groups to develop economic potential. The results of the study indicate that the business fields that village-owned enterprises develop have in common with small businesses of rural communities, so it interferes with the sustainability of local communities' businesses. The development of Village-Owned Enterprises is based on building a business chain by involving local economic groups so that the sustainability of community economic business activities impacts the economy of rural areas. Practical implications — Provide academic considerations for regulators to evaluate and reorganize the role of Village-Owned Enterprises for the sustainability of small rural businesses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0372.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Keywords carbochlorination; spent lithium-ion batteries; circular economy; recycle; LiCl.
Online: 25 October 2022 (02:05:51 CEST)
The abundant use of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in a wide variety of electric devices and vehicles will generate a large number of depleted batteries, which contain several valuable metals such as Li, Co, Mn, and Ni present in the structure of the cathode material (LiMO2). The present work investigates chemical, technological, and environmental aspects in the treatment of such wastes, development of a methodology for the extraction of lithium, cobalt, nickel, manganese, and graphite by a carbochlorination pyrometallurgical process. Mixtures of cathode and anode materials (called black mass, mixed oxides of Li, Co, Ni, Mn, and graphite) from different LIBs, carbon black (as reducing agent), and CaCl2 (as chlorinating agent) were used. Non-isothermal thermogravimetric tests up to 850°C and isothermal tests at 700°C of the mixtures in an inert atmosphere were carried out. It was experimentally observed that the LiMO2-C-CaCl2 reaction takes place at 700°C. LiCl, Ni, and Co were obtained as final products, and to a lesser extent, CoO, NiO, and MnO2. CaCO3 was also obtained as a by-product. The obtained results show that carbochlorination is an efficient and effective alternative route for the extraction and recovery of metals from different LIBs, focused on the sustainability and circular economy
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0092.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: Circular Economy; Built Environment; Reuse; Upcycling; Industrial Waste; Urban Waste
Online: 7 March 2022 (09:14:42 CET)
The growing concern about climate change and the recognition of the planet’s limits led society to look for alternatives that promote the balance between the natural and the built environment. The circular economy emerges as an alternative to the linear economic model, inspired by natural metabolisms, by circulating resources in continuous loops, where their intrinsic value is maintained and improved. This research proposes a closed-loop strategy in the built environment by studying innovative constructive solutions that aim to find use, value, and inspiration in what is considered waste. A literature review is conducted on the circular design strategies, re-use and recycle typologies, and waste transformation processes. Then, the development of a methodology for qualitative evaluation and selection of re-used and upcycled construction materials from post-consumer waste and by-products is presented and then applied to thirty-five cases of constructive solutions from plastic, wood, paper, steel, aluminium, and agricultural waste. The research reports that the developed framework is adequate. The analysed alternative materials have good environmental performance and can be used as building materials despite their functional limitations, reflecting the enormous potential of waste as a resource for the construction industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0495.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: "The Belt and Road" initiative; Tourism Economy; DID; Parallel Trend
Online: 31 December 2021 (08:48:37 CET)
As an important component of modern service industry, tourism is regarded as a "green" driver to regional economic growth and industrial upgrading. Applying the "quasi-natural experiment" advocated by the “The Belt and Road” Initiative, this paper, based on the method of DID, as-sessed the influence of this initiative on regional tourism development by analyzing panel data collected from 286 prefecture-level cities in China over the period of 2007-2018. It is found that the "The Belt and Road" initiative has stimulated market dynamics and promoted tourism de-velopment in the regions along the route, and has significantly improved indicators such as per capita domestic and inbound tourism revenue and per capita domestic and inbound tourist re-ceipt. Also, the degree of contribution of domestic tourists to the tourism economy of the re-gions where the policy has been implemented is stronger than that of inbound tourists. In sum, the results of this paper not only confirm that the “The Belt and Road” Initiative has significantly contributed to the high-quality tourism development of Chinese provinces along the routes, but also provide important policy enlightenment for the upgrading of regional tourism industry and regional economic balance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0378.v1
Subject: Keywords: agriculture economy; mono-cropping; food import; sustainable agriculture; food security
Online: 22 September 2021 (11:42:38 CEST)
Malaysia is a developing country and agro-industries contribute country’s economy. However, it is largely unknown the scenarios of agricultural practice and food supply over the years. To understand the fact, this study was designed to explore the agricultural land use changes and domestic food supply for last 50 years in Malaysia. The result showed that oil palm plantation area and yield, both are increased by folds, conforming “oil palm” mono-culture practice. Rice cultivation area remained almost unchanged but the yield increased. However, both area of plantation and yield in case of rubber, coca and coconut were decreased. When, it comes to domestic food supply, in 1973 food grain (Rice, Wheat, Maize) import was lower than domestic production. However, the import increased more than 3 times than the domestic production in 2013. Domestic production of vegetables and vegetables import was almost 50:50. Fruits import increased almost 3 times of domestic production, though domestic production was increased. In conclusion, it is understood that Malaysian agriculture economy is standing on “oil palm” wearers domestic food supply is import dependent. It is high time to reshuffle the policy for sustainable development and achieving food sovereignty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0350.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Peer-to-peer economy; Income distribution; Unemployment compensation; Technological change
Online: 15 July 2021 (10:06:46 CEST)
We show that an exponential income distribution will emerge spontaneously in a peer-to-peer economic network that shares the publicly available technology. Based on this finding, we identify the exponential income distribution as the benchmark structure of the well-functioning market economy. However, a real market economy may deviate from the well-functioning market economy. We show that the deviation is partly reflected as the invalidity of exponential distribution in describing the super-low income class that involves unemployment. In this regard, we find, theoretically, that the lower-bound u of exponential income distribution has a linear relationship with (per capita) unemployment compensation. In this paper, we test this relationship for the United Kingdom from 2001 to 2015. Our empirical investigation confirms that the income structure of low and middle classes (about 90% of populations) in the United Kingdom exactly obeys exponential distribution, in which the lower-bound u is exactly in line with the evolution of unemployment compensation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0611.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Time-series analysis; Foreign Direct Investment; economic growth; Bangladesh economy
Online: 24 December 2020 (09:30:19 CET)
This study investigates the impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on economic growth and examines the causality between FDI and economic growth in Bangladesh during 1972-2013. Gross Domestic Product (GDP), export performance (EXP), Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), and Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) are considered to capture the objective of the study. The study methodology includes some systematic steps. As the data used in the study is time-series in nature, the author employs unit root tests, and in this case, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) tests are used. Then Johansen’s cointegration test, Granger causality test, regression with Newey-West Standard Error and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) are applied. By using the ADF and PP test the study reveals that the variables of four-time series are integrated of I (1) i.e. they are stationary at first difference. Regression analysis result demonstrates that FDI has a positive effect on economic growth. The Granger Causality test discloses that there is a unidirectional relationship between FDI and economic growth. But the VECM estimation finds that in the long run FDI negatively affects economic growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0044.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Scrap; waste; materials; trade; resource flows; embedded emissions; circular economy
Online: 2 October 2020 (13:56:05 CEST)
Growing evidence about the negative socio-environmental consequences of plastic pollution led to various initiatives for better plastic scrap governance and its trade. At the same time, an examination of recent data shows that plastic scrap represents only a fraction of recyclable materials which are traded internationally and are also subject to similar problems of cross-border environmental governance. A limited analysis comparing plastics, textiles, paper and ferrous metals suggests that ongoing momentum for improvement of plastic scrap governance and circularity should also be framed to consider other types of secondary materiais.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0012.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: lithium-ion battery; battery recycling; battery electric vehicle; circular economy
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:10:23 CEST)
Driven by the rapid uptake of battery electric vehicles, Li-ion power batteries are increasingly reused in stationary energy storage systems, and eventually recycled to recover all the valued components. Offering an updated global perspective, this study provides a circular economy insight on lithium-ion battery reuse and recycling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: neuroplasticity; neuroprogression; psychiatric disorders; brain economy; severe mental illness; biomarkers
Online: 3 December 2018 (16:18:31 CET)
Psychiatric disorders share the same pattern of longitudinal evolution and have courses that tend to be chronic and recurrent. These aspects of chronicity and longitudinal evolution of psychiatric disorders are currently studied under the neuroprogression framework. Interestingly, considering the plasticity of the brain, it is necessary to emphasize the bidirectional nature of neuroprogression. We review evidence highlighting alterations of the brain associated with the longitudinal evolution of psychiatric disorders from the framework of neuroplastic adaptation to pathology. This new framework highlights that substantial plasticity and remodelling may occur beyond the classic neuroprogressive framework, which is characterized only by loss of grey matter volume, decreased brain connectivity, and chronic inflammation. We also integrate the brain economy concept in the neuroplastic adaptation to pathology framework, emphasizing that to preserve its economy, i.e., function, the brain learns how to cope with the disease by adapting its architecture. This approach can disentangle both the specific pathophysiology of psychiatric symptoms and the adaptation to pathology, thus offering a new framework for both diagnosis and treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: residential house; deconstruction; resource harvesting; whole house reuse; circular economy
Online: 3 September 2018 (13:49:34 CEST)
This study analyses the case study of a deconstruction project called the ‘Whole House Reuse’ (WHR) which aimed, firstly, to harvest materials from a residential house, secondly, to produce new products using the recovered materials, and thirdly, to organize exhibition for the local public to promote awareness on resource conservation and sustainable deconstruction practices. The study applies characterization of recovered materials through deconstruction. In addition to the material recovery, the study assesses the embodied energy saving and greenhouse gas emission abatement of the deconstruction project. Around twelve tonnes of various construction materials were harvested through a systematic deconstruction approach, most which would otherwise be disposed to landfill in the traditional demolition approach. The study estimates that the recovered materials could potentially save around 502,158MJ of embodied energy and prevent carbon emission of around 27,029kg (CO2e). Deconstruction could eventually contribute to New Zealand’s national emission reduction targets. In addition, the project successfully engages local communities and designers to produce 400 new products using the recovered materials and exhibited to the local people. The study concludes that there is a huge prospect in regard to resource recovery, emission reduction, employment and small business opportunities using deconstruction of the old house. The socio-cultural importance of the WHR project is definitely immense; however, the greater benefits of such projects are often ignored and remain unreported to wider audiences as most of the external and environmental costs have not been considered in the traditional linear economy. It is acknowledged that under a favourable market condition and with appropriate support from local communities and authorities, deconstruction could contribute significantly to resource conservation and environmental protection despite its requirement of labour intensive efforts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0159.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: circular economy; industry 4.0; data; 9R’s; digital technologies; digital intelligence
Online: 8 August 2018 (05:31:47 CEST)
The Circular Economy has been of growing significance within academic, policymaking and industry groups. Latest developments in the field of Circular Economy has led to an expansion of CE studies focused on interrogating CE as a paradigm, its relationship with sustainability and concepts and definitions of the Circular Economy. Research has also identified the significant potential of applying circular approaches to areas of the economy, including manufacturing and Industry 4.0, which, with data, is enabling latest the advances in digital technologies. This is the first review paper to integrate the fields of CE and digital technologies resulting in a framework which provides directions for policymakers and guidance for future research. To achieve this, we conduct a systematic literature review of the empirical literature related to digital technologies, industry 4.0 and circular approaches, from the point of the 9 Rs. The systematic literature review (SLR) is based on peer-reviewed articles published between 2000-2018. The findings reveal that while research on the circular economy has been on an annual rise, research on digital technologies enabled circular economy is still relatively an untouched area of research across all nine (9) circular approaches. As such this is an area rife for further research. This paper also presents illustrative charts and graphs to summarize the current trends in circular economy research in manufacturing. From this, a framework for future circular economy research for manufacturing for digital technologies is proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0383.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Accountability; Management; Non-Profit Organisations; Social Economy; Social Solidarity Institutions; Transparency.
Online: 23 December 2021 (11:32:17 CET)
The Social Economy (SE) emerges as an interesting alternative to deal with social problems that often cannot be met by the services provided by the State. However, one of the concerns relates to the ability of these institutions to meet the demands of stakeholders concerning accountability. In this sense, the present work aimed to determine if the IPSS are prepared to meet the management requirements by increasing their accountability. For that purpose, we conducted qualitative research, with an exploratory focus, with 31 Portuguese Private Social Solidarity Institutions (IPSS). The interviews took place between June and July 2019, with those responsible for managing the entities. The interviews were guided on a semi-structured script based on the literature review. After Content Analysis, it was found that, in most of the institutions interviewed, the board does not use management tools, such as performance analysis, social impact assessment, strategic planning and quality management systems, even recognising the importance of using them. The fact is due to the lack of access or knowledge about its use. In addition, the majority of the IPSS interviewed showed concern about the transparency and ethics of managers. Current strategic management practices are remarkably targeted at companies in the for-profit sector and can compromise the principle of investments in human and social issues. Thus, the introduction of new activities can further reinforce the pressure felt by these institutions in carrying out operational activities.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0391.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: XTerra; trail running; W’; MTB; off-road cycling economy; cross triathlon
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:36:37 CEST)
(1) Background: This report examines the unique demands of off-road triathlon (XT) by presenting physiological, field, and race data from a national champion off-road triathlete using several years of laboratory and field data to detail training and race intensity. (2) Methods: Laboratory and field data were collected when the athlete was at near peak fitness and included oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), power output (W), and blood lactate (BLC) during cycling and running, while HR, cycling W, and running metrics were obtained from training and race data files over a period of seven years. Intensity was described using % HR max zones (Z) 1 < 75%, 2 = 75 - 87%, and Zone 3 > 87%, and W. An ordinary least squares analysis was used to model differences between event types. (3) Results: Weather conditions were not different across events. XT events had twice the elevation change (p<0.01) and two-three times greater W’ (p< 0.001) than road triathlon (ROAD), but similar HR intensity profiles (max, avg, and zones); both events are predominately performed at > Z2 or higher intensity. Championship XT events were longer (p<0.01) , with higher kJ expenditure (p<0.001). OLS modelling suggested three variables were strongly related (R2 = 0.84; p < 0.0001) to cycling performance: event type (XT vs ROAD), total meters climbed, and total bike duration. Championship XT runs were slower than either regional (p<0.05) or ROAD (p<0.01) runs, but HR intensity profiles similar. OLS modelling indicates that slower running is linked to either greater total bike kJ expenditure (R2 = 0.57; p<0.001), or total meters gained (R2 = 0.52; p<0.001). Race simulation data support these findings but failed to produce meaningful differences in running. Conclusions: XT race demands are unique and mirror MTB and trail running demands. XT athletes must be mindful of developing anaerobic fitness, technical ability, and aerobic fitness, all of which contribute to off-road cycling economy. It is unclear whether XT cycling affects subsequent running performance different from ROAD cycling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0226.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: activated carbon; hydrothermal carbonization (HTC); exergy analysis; thermoeconomic analysis; circular economy.
Online: 6 November 2020 (08:07:04 CET)
An activated carbon manufacturing process using winemaking waste is analyzed and designed at industrial scale. Starting from experimental research, the chemical transformations and thermodynamics during pruning wood conversion are studied as a basis for plant design. In this way, mass and energy balances of hydrothermal carbonization and physical activation are fulfilled and a thermoeconomic methodology is applied to develop an energy-integrated plant. To achieve this target, a network of heat exchangers is allocated to minimize heat consumption and supply hot domestic water, while a cogeneration cycle is designed to provide electricity and satisfy the remaining heat demand. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to determine the influence of the production scale and other operation parameters, such as annual workload, service life, and capital and feedstock costs, on the economic viability of the plant. The energy balance of the plant indicates that the energy integration design manages to provide 48.9% of the overall process energy demand by crossing hot and cold streams and recovering heat from residual flue gas. On the other hand, the exergy cost analysis identifies the combustion of pruning wood used to provide heat demands as the main source of exergy destruction, confirming the suitability of integration to improve the thermodynamic performance. Including activated carbon production, electricity, and hot domestic water, the exergy efficiency of the plant stands at 11.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0368.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Boom bust economy; Resilience; Single industry; Social ecological system; Sustainable development
Online: 17 September 2020 (03:29:07 CEST)
This paper reports on the changing dynamics of a small town’s social-ecological system (SES) concerning oil and gas industry boom-bust economic cycles and both the vulnerability and resilience of the town over the past 30 years. With the goal to understand how resource-based single industry impact social-ecological systems, we developed indicators of human and environmental well-being and assessed them. Seven indicators include labor force distribution, education, oil price, household income, water quality, air quality, and land cover land use. Over this period, Drayton Valley, Canada quadrupled in size, with more than 20% of the population working in the oil and gas sector. Median income rose to 42% above the national average despite the population lagging national benchmarks for educational attainment. There have also been dramatic fluctuations in levels of fluoride, phosphorus, and other chemicals in water quality samples, implying a correlation with fossil fuel extractive activities over this period. Land cover land use change analysis shows a decreased area of water bodies, wetland, and forests, and increased built capital and agricultural land. While economic boom cycles have led to cash inflows, an exclusive focus on the benefits of the oil and gas industry may leave those dependent on the industry vulnerable to social and environmental risk factors during bust cycles that are beyond their control in the everchanging global oil economy. This phenomenon which has been referred to as the “resource curse” suggests the need to anticipate cyclical (or more sustained) periods of low levels of oil and gas production. These results suggest that single boom-bust economies impact every aspect of social-ecological systems. Therefore, a sustainable development plan that comprehensively considers not only economic growth, but also diversification, environment protection, and strategic land use planning is indispensable to ensure the long-term development of communities that depend upon extractive industries.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: NADH cofactor regeneration; ethylene glycol utilization; biocatalysis; atom economy; enzyme kinetics
Online: 2 September 2020 (09:56:19 CEST)
Although cofactor regeneration is an established system in biocatalysis, work remains in developing new and alternative cofactor regeneration systems with greater efficiency, ease of use, and higher atom economy. In addition, cofactor regeneration system only works if the cofactor regeneration reaction operates at similar kinetics compared to the biotransformation reaction. This meant that only specific cofactor regeneration system is capable of coupling with particular biotransformation reaction. This then leaves open the field for the development of a plethora of alternative cofactor regeneration systems each capable of coupling with different biotransformation reaction of different kinetics. This short write-up examines the possibility of tapping on the NADH regenerated from a two-step ethylene glycol utilization pathway. Current knowledge suggests that this angle has not been explored; thereby, opening up possibilities for future experimental investigations into the feasibility of coupling ethylene glycol utilization pathway with biotransformation reaction as a coupled cofactor regeneration system.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0245.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: COVID19; economic paradigm shift; economic failures; post-COVID19 economy; 5G technology
Online: 15 May 2020 (03:35:16 CEST)
This conceptual article is aimed at evaluating the COVID19 impacts on the global economy and to postulating an ‘economic paradigm shift’. We argue that the existing economic, political, and trade principles have been challenged due to the global pandemic issue. We also compare the COVID19 impact on Western countries and Eastern countries with their control mechanisms. The emerging of new economies is due to the travel restrictions and disrupt of the global economies are discussed that pave a gateway to the economic paradigm shift. The article finally assesses the advent of 5G technology and its implications to face any future health threats that will lead to the next economic paradigm shift in the modern world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0210.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: coordinated development degree; agricultural water resources; socio-economy development; Shanxi Province
Online: 20 August 2019 (10:20:33 CEST)
Conflict between agricultural water resources and socio-economy development is a global problem. Accurate evaluation of coordinated development of agricultural water resources and socio-economy and risk mitigation is necessary for sustainable development. An evaluation method, including selection of criteria, data collection, determination of weight, evaluation of coordinated development, prediction of parameters, and judgment of coordinated development state, has been proposed to study coordinated development degree. To deal with uncertainties, Monte Carlo method and fuzzy set method were used. The method is demonstrated to solve a real-world evaluation problem in Shanxi Province in the middle of China. Results show that coordinated development degrees were (0.7, 0.8) for most of the cities of Shanxi in 2015, indicating that coordinate development state was intermediate coordinate. To achieve balanced development, more attention should be put on socio-economic development in Taiyuan and Yanquan, and agricultural water resources utilization in Jinzhong, Yuncheng and Xinzhou. The average coordinated development degree is 0.758, and coordinate development state was intermediate coordinate from 2006 to 2015. Coordinated development degree has a trend of decreasing markedly, coordinate development state will be barely coordinated, and agricultural water resources utilization lags behind socio-economic development in 2020. The study demonstrates the practicability of the improved method, by evaluating coordinated development degree under uncertainty and forecasting future risks, which will conduce to promote sustainable development of agricultural water resources and socio-economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Circular economy; sustainability; environmental management; resource management; strategy; motivations; knowledge; challenges.
Online: 18 June 2018 (14:15:28 CEST)
The move towards a new Circular Economy (CE) economic model has been advocated and supported in Portugal, however, there is limited research on this topic. To address this gap, a quantitative research based on an online survey was carried out among 99 Portuguese organizations, encompassing a wide range of sectors and sizes. The results show that CE is regarded as a strategic and relevant issue for profitability and value creation. Furthermore, the perception that it requires the adoption of new business models in addition to the classical “reduce, reuse, and recycle” approach is growing. Moreover, based on the hypotheses raised, results suggest that the level of CE adoption is positively impacted by the status of the EMS (Environmental Management System) certification and the willingness to improve the environmental performance and achieve a sustainable business model. However, CE activities are still relatively modest and a friendlier context (fiscal, legal, organizational, etc.) and the stronger support from supply chain agents and consumers are required. Future research should focus on how to design and shape the transition from a linear to a CE economy, and to ascertain if the positive attitude towards CE is materialized in changing the way business is done.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0049.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: community trust; social trust; the philosophy of sufficiency economy; local sustainability
Online: 18 July 2016 (10:44:31 CEST)
The concept of economic self-reliance, widely known by Thai people as the philosophy of sufficiency economy, has been widely promoted in rural Thai societies. By practicing this philosophy, it is expected that the citizens’ quality of life and local environments could be sustainably improved. This study aims to explore the contribution of the community practices of the sufficiency economy philosophy to rural villagers’ quality of life improvement, and to investigate potential factors that determine the trust of villagers in the philosophy. With the purpose to propose strategies which could enhance trust and promote villagers’ practices of the philosophy, the study investigated influences of three relevant factors on trust towards the philosophy. Those factors included factors related to cognitive-based trust, factors related to emotional-based trust, and factors related to demographic characteristics. Questionnaire surveys and in-depth interviews with community leaders and local villagers were conducted in the Ban Jamrung community, in Thailand’s Rayong province. The results of the statistical analysis revealed that the residents who applied the sufficiency economy philosophy in their daily lives experienced a relatively better quality of life. Additionally, it was found that trust in the philosophy could be predicted more by rational factors than by emotional factors. These findings could be utilized to develop strategies to maintain and enhance the trust of the people in the philosophy of sufficiency economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0024.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: resource efficiency; zero waste; resource recovery from waste; low-carbon economy; circular economy infrastructure; clean growth; resource productivity; sustainable development goals; transdisciplinary research; participatory action research
Online: 5 February 2018 (03:27:02 CET)
The UK economy is overly reliant on unsustainable production and consumption practices, depleting finite resources at rates that will increase production costs, business risk and economic instability. This over-consumption produces emissions and waste that cause climate change and environmental degradation, impacting on the wellbeing of people in the UK and beyond. The Resource Recovery from Waste programme (RRfW) promotes a transition towards waste and resource management in a circular economy that restores the environment, creates societal benefits and promotes clean growth by engaging relevant actors in the transition process. RRfW collaborates with academia, government, and industry to co-produce a shared vision and approach to realise such a transition. Reflecting insights from RRfW’s government engagement, this article presents a positive outlook for changing the UK economy and society. It envisions a long-term future for waste and resource management that maximises the value of materials by circulating them in the economy for as long as possible. Four themes and an approach are proposed, including recommendations for regulatory instruments and a stable policy framework. It recommends further collaborative research to capitalise on opportunities for economic growth, innovation and resilient infrastructure whilst contributing to quality jobs and welfare in all four UK nations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0567.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Keywords: Integrated biorefinery; Circular economy; Lignocellulosic biomass; Pretreatment; Valorization; Enzymes; Biofuels; Biochemicals
Online: 30 November 2022 (08:50:21 CET)
An upsurge in global population over the years and rapid urbanization have accelerated huge dependence on petroleum-derived fuels and consequent environment concerns owing to green-house gas emissions in the atmosphere. An integrated biorefinery uses lignocellulosic feedstock as raw material for the production of renewable biofuels, and other fine chemicals. The sustain-able bio-economy and the biorefinery industry would benefit greatly from the effective use of lignocellulosic biomass obtained from agricultural feedstocks to replace petrochemical products. Lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and other extractives, which are essential components of ligno-cellulosic biomass, must be separated or upgraded into useful forms in order to fully realize the potential of biorefinery. The development of low-cost and green pretreatment technologies with effective biomass deconstruction potential is imperative for an efficient bioprocess. The abun-dance of microorganisms along with their continuous production of various degradative en-zymes makes them suited for the environmentally friendly bioconversion of agro-industrial wastes into viable bioproducts. The present review highlights the concept of biorefinery, ligno-cellulosic biomass and its valorization by green pretreatment strategies into biofuels and other biochemicals. The major barriers and challenges in bioconversion technologies, environmental sustainability of the bioproducts and promising solutions to alleviate those bottlenecks are also summarized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0045.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: circular economy; eco-design; business education; economics education; competencies; Management Education; ADKAR
Online: 5 May 2022 (15:57:09 CEST)
The Circular Economy is matter of recent discussions and quite popular, however the meaning has not been understood by most Business stakeholders. This Case study proposes to illustrate the Circular Economy importance and its status now. The contribution that UAE education sector can make to the Circular Economy is immense and is the focus of this study. Circular Economy awareness and its inner meaning can be only spread by the education sector and the author emphasizes the role of the education can play in implementing the Circular Economy. The study shows the way for the future Managers and Business stakeholders to participate in this crucial endeavor of Businesses to follow the Circular Economy. The ADKAR change management can be adopted to inspire the CE initiatives of the UAE Education sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Social Economy; Social Solidarity Institutions; Sustainable Development; Corporate Social Responsibility; Environmental Responsibility.
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:48:06 CET)
Social Economy institutions seek to provide answers to social problems, given that they naturally have a socially responsible mission. This study aims to answer the research question: how sustainable practices, namely environmental behaviour, have been adopted by Portuguese Private Social Solidarity Institutions (IPSS) with the purpose of contributing to Sustainable Development? To achieve this objective, qualitative research was carried out in 31 IPSS, which was framed within the scope of the TFA project (Theoretical framework for promotion of accountability in the social economy sector: the IPSS case). Semi-structured interviews were conducted, with a script based on the literature review, from May to July 2019, with those responsible for the management of these entities. A content analysis was conducted, using the NVivo12 Version 12.6.0 software, which enables data to be coded and categorised, reducing any researcher bias. The results indicate that most entities carry out activities of an environmental nature, related to the reuse of materials, the recycling of waste, the sale of materials for recycling, and user awareness. Several entities expressed financial limitations to the implementation of Environmental Management Systems and their accomplishment. However, the objections presented are not impossible to overcome, according to studies presented in other countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0270.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sediments; circular economy; cement; ternary eco-binders; flash calcination method; mixture design
Online: 15 September 2021 (15:25:47 CEST)
CO2 emissions resulting from the production of cement is a major issue, but can be limited by the partial substitution of cement by low-carbon-impact additions. The aim of this study was the formulation of a ternary binder based on ordinary Portland cement (OPC), ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) and flash-calcined sediment (FCS), a dredged waste which was valorized after applying a new heat treatment: flash calcination. The used materials were physically, chemically and mineralogically characterized. The composition of the formulations was optimized using mixture designs. Five formulations, one reference formulation RM (100% OPC), one binary formulation (50% OPC/50% GGBS), and three ternary formulations with a variable FCS rate (10%, 15%, 20%), were selected and characterized fresh and hardened. Results showed that the incorporation of FCS reduced the workability and increased the density. In addition, a decrease in the initial setting time and the heat of hydration peak were observed. In the hardened state, the formulation containing 10% FCS showed 90-day mechanical strengths superior to that of RM. The use of FCS in ternary binders could reduce the environmental impact by reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0496.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: carbon farming; carbon foot printing; low carbon agriculture; carbon sequestration; carbon economy
Online: 25 August 2021 (15:01:05 CEST)
Carbon farming is a capable strategy for more sustainable production of food and other related products. It seeks to produce the diverse array of natural farming methods and marketable products simultaneously. In agroforestry system, carbon sequestration is done by incorporating carbon dioxide (CO2) into plant biomass via photosynthesis. Carbon is, thus, stored in reserves of above-ground biomass, such as timber or branches, and below-ground biomass such as roots, or organic carbon in the soil. In addition to the significance of carbon sequestration in climate change mitigation, soil organic carbon (SOC) is an imperative indicator for the soil health as well as fertility. The change in SOC can explain whether the land use pattern degrades or improves the soil fertility. SOC, found in the soil in the form of soil organic matter (SOM), helps to improve soil health either directly or indirectly. Its direct consequence is related to the process of mineralization. Further, agroforestry is highly capable of generating huge amounts of bio-mass. In fact, agroforestry is believed to be particularly suitable for replenishment of SOC. Therefore, efforts should be made to convince farmers for their resource-use efficiency and soil conserving ability in order to get maximum benefits out of agriculture. According to food and agriculture organization (FAO,) agriculture, forestry, and other land use practices account for 24% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and total global livestock emissions of 7.1 gigatons of CO2-equivalent per year, representing 14.5% of total anthropogenic GHG emissions. Agroforestry system that deliberately integrates trees and crops with livestock in the agricultural production could potentially increase carbon sequestration and decrease GHG emission from the terrestrial ecosystems, thus, helping in global climatic change mitigation. This study, therefore, aimed at clarification about carbon farming, modifications in carbon cycle and carbon sequestration during agricultural development in addition to benefits of agroforestry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0359.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Digital Economy; Industrial Structure Upgrade; High-Quality Economic Development; Mediation Effect Model
Online: 14 June 2021 (12:04:09 CEST)
Based on panel data of 31 provincial-level administrative units (excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) in China from 2015 to 2019, using fixed effect model and mediation effect model, this paper makes an empirical analysis on the interaction among digital economy, industrial structure upgrade and high-quality economic development. The results show that, from the overall effect, the digital economy can significantly promote the high-quality development of the economy, and there are regular regional differences, and the relationship between the promotion intensity and the development level of the digital economy is proportional. From the mediation effect, in the relationship between digital economy and high-quality economic development, the upgrade of industrial structure has played a significant part of the mediation effect, the proportion of mediation effect is 25.17% . In addition, the mediation effect of industrial structure upgrade has obvious regional difference, the western area is the strongest, the eastern area is the second, the central area is the weakest. Based on the above research,the concrete policy suggestions are given to promote the development of digital economy and upgrade the level of industrial structure to promote the high-quality development of economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0186.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: sharing economy; sharing workers; human resource management practices; service performance; work engagement
Online: 10 May 2021 (12:39:44 CEST)
Based on the Organizational Support Theory, this study examines the relationship between human resource management practices and service performance of sharing workers by demonstrating the mediation role of work engagement. We tested this theoretical model using an in-person interview questionnaire survey of 318 downwind drivers. Results showed that: (1) the main effect of human resource management practices of sharing workers on service performance was significant; (2) work engagement played a prominent mediation role between human resource management practices and service performance of sharing workers; (3) the mediation role of employee vigor between the platform incentives and the performance of employee services was significant; (4) employee dedication had an obvious and indirectly positive mediating effect between sharing workers' dimensions of human resource management practice and their service performance; (5) employee absorption on the mediation role between the various dimensions of the sharing human resources management practices (platform support, platform incentives and platform constraints) and employee service performance was significant. This study has important value for the study on human resource management practices in the context of sharing economy, and provides practical enlightenment for employee management of the sharing economy platform.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Peer-to-peer energy trading; distributional impacts; realist review; Airbnb; sharing economy
Online: 18 January 2021 (14:03:00 CET)
Peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading – where energy prosumers transact directly between each other – could help enable transition to a low-carbon energy system. If it is to be supported in policy and regulation, it is important to anticipate the distributional impacts (or how it might impact segments of society differently). However, real-world evidence on P2P energy trading is currently extremely limited. To address this challenge in the short- to medium-term, this study aimed to explore what might be learned from the extensive body of research on a comparable offering in the accommodation sector: Airbnb. A realist review approach was employed to maximise transferability of findings, focused on what mechanisms are thought to lead to what distributional outcomes, in what contexts. On the basis of the review, participation in (and receipt of benefits of) P2P energy trading schemes would be expected to represent disproportionately those living in areas with network management challenges, who are younger and more highly educated. The review also raised the prospect of discrimination on the basis of characteristics such as race and gender where there are high levels of individual choice over who to trade with. Recommendations include monitoring, incentivising diversity, anonymization, and limiting trading choices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0034.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: IntegroPectin, lemon, grapefruit, pectin, waste citrus peel, -terpineol, hydrodynamic cavitation, circular economy
Online: 1 December 2020 (15:07:35 CET)
The HS-SPME GC-MS analysis of the volatile compounds adsorbed at the outer surface of lemon and grapefruit pectins obtained via hydrodynamic cavitation of industrial waste streams of lemon and grapefruit peels in water only suggests important new findings en route to understanding the powerful and broad biological activity of these new pectic materials. In agreement with the ultralow degree of esterification of these pectins, the high amount of highly bioactive α-terpineol and terpinen-4-ol points to limonene decomposition catalyzed by residual citric acid in the citrus waste peel residue of the juice industrial production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0023.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: anchovy; omega-3; limonene; circular economy; fish processing waste; marine fishery discards
Online: 3 February 2019 (02:58:23 CET)
Fish oil rich in polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids is extracted in high yield from anchovy filleting waste using d-limonene as green biosolvent in a simple solid-liquid extraction performed by mechanically stirring and maceration followed by limonene removal via evaporation under reduced pressure. As limonene is renewably obtained from waste orange peel, this protocol establishes a circular bioeconomy method to obtain valued omega-3 extracts from biowaste available worldwide in several million t/year amount. The method closes the materials cycle and opens the route to full valorisation of an important biological resource so far mostly discarded as waste. Significant economic opportunities benefiting local communities, the ecosystem and public health are anticipated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0270.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: wood-based sector, intersectoral cooperation, intermunicipal cooperation, Poland, partnership, new institutional economy
Online: 8 August 2018 (10:38:25 CEST)
Intersectoral and intermunicipal cooperation are still underdeveloped spheres of public and economic development policies. Academic discussions are invariably focused on pro-competitive activities, the economic efficiency of which is not always sufficient. In this paper the authors attempt to identify factors leading to cooperation between local government authorities and economic entities, focusing on examples from the forest and wood-based sector in Poland. These processes are analysed in the framework of the New Institutional Economy, both in the theoretical and practical context.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0166.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Bimodal Dependent Variable; Normal-Power; Non-Linear; Least Square Estimation; Economy-Tourism Model
Online: 11 March 2022 (10:07:40 CET)
Regression models are mostly used in all fields of sciences for modelling the relationship between a dependent variable and independent variable(s). The least square method is often used to estimate the parameters in a linear model because it is the best linear unbiased estimator. These estimates can only be reliable if the assumption of normality is satisfied. In some cases the dependent variable might be bimodal and shows a non-linear relationship with the independent variable(s). In this case, a non-linear model should be used. In non-linear model, the standard errors are often obtained by linearizing the nonlinear function around the parameter, assuming central limit theorem. After the linearization, the least square parameter estimates are obtained. It should be noted that the error of the non-linear model is different from that of the transformed linear model. Thus, there is a need to transform back to the original non-linear model. In this note, a novel non-linear function was developed into a non-linear regression model, called Normal-Power model. The least square method was used to estimate the parameter of the transformed model. Its usefulness in regression model was demonstrated using real data of Nigeria Economy-Tourism model.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0418.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: natural cycles; air pollution; asthma; chronic obstructive airways disease; mining; sustainability; circular economy
Online: 4 March 2022 (12:58:14 CET)
Natural cycles underpin the very stuff of life. In this commentary we consider unnatural cycles: that is, anthropogenic activities which have a circularity, but whose nature is to have a detrimental effect on human health, exacerbating existing problems. Natural cycles have feedback loops, some of which have recently come to light, with an understanding that everything is connected in some way. In health, feedback loops are imperative in homeostatic mechanisms. However, in the unnatural cycle the feedback loops serve to reinforce (and in some cases amplify) negative problems. We offer a commentary on an unnatural cycle moving from air quality to lung function and back to air quality; we call this the lung disease unnatural cycle. We suggest where links occur, and where wider consideration of interactions between various disciplines can lead to breaking this unnatural (or vicious) cycle, changing it to a healthy cycle where individual health can be improved, along with better global scale outcomes. We suggest that many activities within this unnatural cycle occur within silos. However, the improved cycle incorporates joint activities at geological, health, and financial levels, to the mutual benefit of all, breaking the unnatural cycle, and improving health, life and financial costs.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0508.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Power-to-X; Space; energy storage; in-situ resource utilisation; ammonia; circular economy;
Online: 26 November 2021 (13:07:24 CET)
Extensive in-situ resource utilisation (ISRU) will be essential to enable long-duration stays on Luna and Mars and reduce reliance on resupply from Earth. Early development of ISRU technologies has focused on standalone capabilities for specific targets related to life support and ascent propellant. An unexplored opportunity remains for greatly expanding the scope of materials that can be supplied by ISRU, and for integrating various technology platforms into a larger system. Recent advances in power-to-X technology aimed at decarbonising the global economy have made it possible to drive key chemical processes using electricity with small-scale, modular reactor. This paper proposes a vision for an integrated system of ISRU processes based on power-to-X technology to produce oxygen, hydrogen, water, methane, polymers, metal alloys, and synthetic fertilisers, using Martian regolith, atmosphere, and ice. A ‘building block’ strategy is adopted to convert raw materials into versatile intermediaries, which can then be combined to form essential products. A wider range of raw materials are available on Mars compared to Luna, suggesting greater opportunity for ISRU deployment to compensate for the greater time and cost requirements for a Mars resupply mission.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Bioenergy; marine fermentation; seawater; marine yeast; microalgae; seaweed; circular economy; high value chemicals
Online: 1 October 2021 (12:19:47 CEST)
Biofuels have many environmental and practical benefits as a transportation fuel. They are among the best alternatives to fossil fuels due to their capacity for negative carbon emissions, which is vital for archiving the global ambition of a Net-Zero Economy. However, conventional biofuel production takes place on inland sites and relies on freshwater and edible crops (or land suitable for edible crop production), which has led to the food vs fuel debate. It also suffers technical and economical barriers due to the energy balance and the cost of production compared to fossil fuels. Establishing a coastal integrated marine biorefinery (CIMB) system for the simultaneous production of biofuels, high-value chemicals, and other co-products could be the ultimate solution. The proposed system is based on coastal sites and relies on marine resources including seawater, marine biomass (seaweed) and marine microorganisms (marine yeasts and marine microalgae). The system will not require the use of arable land and freshwater in any part of the production chain and will be linked to offshore renewable energy sources to increase its economic and environmental value. This article aims to introduce the CIMB system as a potential vehicle for addressing global warming and speeding the global effort on climate change mitigation as well as increasing global water, food and energy security. I hope this perspective may serve to draw attention into research funding for this approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0264.v1
Subject: Keywords: recycling; composting; waste-to-energy; incineration; municipal solid waste; circular economy; green jobs
Online: 17 March 2020 (03:46:53 CET)
Sharing the same raw material, recycling and composting are in direct conflict with incineration of municipal solid waste in combined heath and power plants. Indeed, waste-to-energy plants in regions with high recycling rates import urban waste from other countries to use otherwise unused capacity, and raise revenues. Using the case of Italy’s second largest and economically most developed region, I discuss the economic viability of municipal solid waste incineration to produce electricity and heath in the context of the increasing role of electricity production from renewable energy sources as well as of the emerging mass-scale uptake of bioplastics. Four lessons and three guidelines aimed to local authorities and policy makers emerge from the present study.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: photovoltaics; solar energy; Father Verspieren; solar energy in Africa; solar economy; solar pump
Online: 6 March 2020 (04:12:12 CET)
Almost fifty years after the first installations, I identify the main lessons learned from fighting drought and poverty in Africa with direct solar-powered pumps thanks to Father Bernard Verspieren and Mali Aqua Viva. Six main findings and three main recommendations emerge from the present analysis which are of direct relevance to all Africa’s countries whose population has gone from 438 million in 1977 to 1308 million in 2019, with about 600 million still having no access to electricity. In place of “awareness campaigns”, I recommend to organize practice-oriented workshops on solar-powered irrigation and rainwater harvesting held by professional educators of newly established solar energy national institutes. In agreement with today’s expanded approach to education in solar energy, and with the key adult learning principle of motivation to learn, said education will include the economic and social aspects of distributed “generation” of energy and water from sunlight and rainfall.