ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0463.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: earthquake; resilience; WhatsApp; emotional support
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:34:11 CEST)
The Ranau Earthquake that struck on 5, June 2015 and follow by February 2018 and April 2021, were a new disaster in Sabah and caused many Sabahan to panic. The unpredicted disaster also caused a serious impact on all aspects of life in Sabah. The earthquake has caused severe damage to eight primary schools in the vicinity of the epicenter; although no casualties were reported. However, the disaster has passing deep psychological effects among students. In this study, we examine how the primary school teachers enabled the student to be resilient during and after the disaster. Based on the interviews of 16 primary school students it was revealed that most of the teachers used WhatsApp to support resilience during and after the earthquake. Interviews with 16 primary school teachers revealed there were two main reasons for them to communicate with students namely, delivering emotional aid and monitoring their stress. Based on student interviews, five content categories of emotional support were identified: caring, reassuring, emotion sharing, belonging, and distracting. The main contribution of this study is social media can be used as a spontaneously and proactive tool to support student's resilience during and after the earthquake trauma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0407.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: geostatistics; geovisualisation; rshiny; earthquake; Indonesia
Online: 16 March 2021 (09:30:11 CET)
Significant earthquakes frequently occur in Indonesia. Indonesia is situated over three active tectonic plates, resulting in the formation of faults and trenches on the land and ocean floor. For the last 120 years since 1900, there have been more than 1,250 significant earthquake events in Indonesia. In this study, we analyse Indonesia's significant earthquake events using geostatistical and geovisualisation methods to produce an appropriate geospatial analysis platform using the RShiny package to build the WebGIS application. The results show that the earthquake events were spatially distributed from the Sumatera fault in the western part of Indonesia to the southern part of Indonesia, where the Java trench was located and the eastern part of Indonesia. The WebGIS application received a positive evaluation by respondents, with a mean value of 1.617 for pragmatic quality, 1.808 for hedonic quality, and 1.713 for overall quality. This means that the WebGIS application is of good quality based on respondents' impressions. The users also more easily gained insight into information as a result of geostatistical methods. The information gained by the users during the user interaction with the WebGIS platform overlapped with the information that the researcher started with, that is, the spatial cluster of significant earthquakes in Indonesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0397.v1
Online: 27 October 2021 (10:53:56 CEST)
This paper presents quantitative research results regarding the influence of demographic factors on the earthquake risk perception of the citizens of Belgrade. This research aims to determine how much the citizens of Belgrade are aware of the risk and prepared to react in the event of an earthquake. The relationship between gender, age, level of education, and facility ownership with risk perception was examined. T-test, One-way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to examine the relationship between the variables and the earthquake risk perception. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire that was given and then collected online among 235 Belgrade respondents during September 2020. The questions were divided into three categories. The first part of the questionnaire was consisted of general questions about the demographic characteristics of the respondents, then the questions that would determine the level of awareness of the respondents about earthquakes, and finally, the questions for determining the respondents' preparedness. The results of the research show that women have a higher perception of risk. It has been proven that the youngest respondents from the age category of 18-30 have the lowest risk perception. The influence of education level in no case showed a statistically significant correlation with risk perception.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: effective anesthesia; earthquake; orthopedic; victim’s management
Online: 25 February 2020 (12:14:03 CET)
Lombok earthquake that occurred in July 2018 has three large magnitude earthquakes that caused huge losses; 564 victims died, 1684 injured, 445 343 refugees, and 215 628 houses were damaged. The role of anesthesiology is very important to give prompt therapy for injured victims. This research gave an overview of the important role of Anesthesiologist and the selection of anesthesia techniques during the natural disasters’ victims’ management. This study was conducted by collecting data of all earthquake victims treated at the emergency room (ER) of RSUD NTB on August 6th and 7th 2018 and all victims operated during August 5 – 25th 2018. All data were recorded, analyzed, and presented in descriptive form using frequency, pie chart, and bar diagrams. The result shown that the highest number of patients treated in ER are during the first seven days after the earthquake and reduced to several weeks. The majority of patients treated are trauma patients who need orthopedic surgery. Since limited number of anesthesiologist should be considered with the right selection of anesthesia techniques, so that the disaster preparedness could be prepared well and the disaster management could run well. General anesthesia was widely used than regional anesthesia, but the different is not significant. The type of regional anesthetic drug usually used is lidodex in combination with catapres. The role of anesthesiologist during disaster is important to handle a safe and optimal surgical condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0275.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: liquefaction; vulnerability; earthquake; disaster mitigation; Pariaman
Online: 29 March 2019 (08:18:36 CET)
Knowledge about the liquefaction vulnerability in Pariaman city which is prone to an earthquake is very much needed in disaster mitigation based spatial planning. The liquefaction is an event of loss of the strength of the sandy soil layer caused by the vibration of the earthquake, where the liquefaction occurs in the sandy soil layer which has loose material in the form of sand that is not compact or not solid. This research was conducted by analyzing the potential of liquefaction vulnerability based on the Conus penetration to produce Microzonation of the susceptibility of subsidence due to liquefaction at 4 locations in Pariaman city, i.e., Marunggi village, Taluak village, Pauh Timur village and Padang Birik-Birik village. The Conus penetration testing is carried out using the piezocone (CPTU) method and mechanical Cunos penetration, and approach using Geographic Information System (GIS). The results showed that the potential of liquefaction was found at the sandy soil layer of sand and a mixture of sand and silt, which is characterized by the value of Cunos resistance and local resistance each smaller than 15 MPa and 150 kPa at varying depths. Based on the results of the analysis using this method, the critical conditions of liquefaction found in the medium sandy soil to solid. The fine sand layer which has the potential for liquefaction is in sand units formed from coastal deposits, coastal ridges and riverbanks. This liquefaction vulnerability zones analysis is limited to a depth of 6.00 m due to the limitations of the equipment used. The results of the analysis show that the fine sand layer which has the potential for liquefaction occurs at a depth of> 1.00-6.00 m with the division of zones, i.e., 1) High liquefaction in the sandy soil layer which has a critical acceleration (a) <0.10 g with shallow groundwater surface; 2) Medium liquefaction in the sandy soil layer which has a critical acceleration (a) between 0.10–0.20 g with shallow groundwater surface; and 3) Low and very low liquefaction in the sandy soil layer which has a critical acceleration (a) between 0.20–0.30 g with an average groundwater deep enough surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0154.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: sustainability indicators; natural hazards; earthquake; ELECTRE
Online: 24 August 2017 (12:37:08 CEST)
Natural hazards such as earthquakes take place around the world and when combined with humans create natural disasters. Earthquakes, a form of natural hazard, have, in recent years, caused damage and destruction in many rural areas due to the lack of sustainability in political, economic, social, physical and operational criteria. Thus, to overcome the damage caused by earthquakes in rural areas, an assessment of sustainability status seems necessary to plan and strengthen in relation to the status of sustainability indicators. Data collection was performed through field methods and questionnaires. To test the hypothesis, T statistical methods, correlation method and F-test were performed using SPSS software (V22.0, IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). The results of the study showed that villages were at a low and undesirable level for all aspects, except social index in terms of sustainability. Comparisons showed that there was a significant mean difference among villages in terms of sustainability. The multi-criteria decision-making analysis has been considered and applied to a ranking of villages in terms of sustainability against the hazard of earthquakes. Finally, in order to improve the sustainability indicators of villages, some strategies have been presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0201.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: piezoceramic sensor; reinforced concrete; force; earthquake; damage.
Online: 16 June 2020 (08:34:24 CEST)
To quantify damage to reinforced concrete (RC) column members after an earthquake, an engineer needs to know the maximum applied force that was generated by the earthquake. Therefore, in this work, piezoceramic transducers are used to detect the applied force on an RC column member under dynamic loading. To investigate the use of post-embedded piezoceramic sensors in detecting the force that is applied to RC columns, eight full-size RC column specimens with various failure modes are tested under specific earthquake loadings. Post-embedded piezoceramic sensors are installed at a range of depths (70-80 mm) beneath the surface of a column specimen to examine the relationship between the signals that are obtained from them and the force applied by the dynamic actuator. The signals that are generated by the post-embedded piezoceramic sensors, which correlate with the applied force, are presented. These results indicate that the post-embedded piezoceramic sensors have great potential as tools for measuring the maximum applied force on an RC column in an earthquake. Restated, signals that are obtained from post-embedded piezoceramic sensors on an RC column in an earthquake can be used to determine the applied force and corresponding damage or residual seismic capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0225.v1
Online: 19 July 2019 (10:26:56 CEST)
Afterthe series of earthquakes in August 1953, most of Kefalonia’s building stock totally collapsed. The buildings that emerged as a result of a collective effort are commonly referred to as «arogi» buildings, with the term arogimeaning help or assistance. In this way, merely referring to these structures is a direct mention to the circumstances under which they were constructed. The reconstruction of the building stock of the island was based in a series of building types proposed from the authorities, and proceeded replacing the richness of the architectural forms that stood before the earthquake, with austere but necessary settlements. Nevertheless, it is these buildings that constitute today’s image of the island. This study wishes to introduce us to “arogi” buildings structural system, as it was applied in Kefalonia after 1953 earthquake, with reference to recent bibliography and the recent experience of 2014 earthquake. The purpose of setting the grounds for such a research would be to highlight the effectiveness of this structural system. Moreover, to emphasize the fact that “arogi” buildings and their construction procedure incorporate Kefalonia’s recent history and have eventually produced today’s available “traditional” architecture of the island.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0028.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: rockfall; susceptibility; GIS; rainfall; earthquake; fault; inventory
Online: 2 April 2019 (07:54:57 CEST)
The assessment of rockfall risks on human activities and infrastructure is of great importance. Rock falls pose a significant risk to a) transportation infrastructure b) inhabited areas and c) Cultural Heritage sites. The paper presents a method to assess rockfall susceptibility at national scale in Greece, using a simple rating approach and GIS techniques. An extensive inventory of rockfalls for the entire country was compiled for the period between 1935 and 2019. The rockfall events that were recorded are those, which have mainly occurred as distinct rockfall episodes in natural slopes and have impacted human activities, such as roads, inhabited areas and archaeological sites. Through a detailed analysis of the recorded data, it was possible to define the factors which determine the occurrence of rockfalls. Based on this analysis, the susceptibility zoning against rockfalls at national scale was prepared, using a simple rating approach and GIS techniques. The rockfall susceptibility zoning takes into account the following parameters: (a) the slope gradient, (b) the lithology, (c) the annual rainfall intensity, (d) the earthquake intensity and (e) the active fault presence. Emphasis was given on the study of the earthquake effect as a triggering mechanism of rockfalls. Finally, the temporal and spatial frequency of the recorded events and the impact of rockfalls on infrastructure assets and human activities in Greece were evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0545.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Irpinia; Seismic hazard; Earthquake; strain rate; GNSS, InSAR
Online: 27 October 2020 (11:16:25 CET)
The Apennine sector formed by Sannio and Irpinia is one of the most important seismic districts in Italy, representing a good case of study due to the plenty of recorded earthquakes that have therein occurred from Roman times up to nowadays. We have merged the historical record and the new satellite techniques that allow a precise determination of ground movements, and then derived physical dimensions like strain rate. In this way, we have verified that in Irpinia the hazard of new strong shocks forty years after one of the strongest known seismic events in the district is still high. This aspect must be considered very important from many points of view, particularly for Civil Protection plans, as well as civil engineering and urban planning development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0537.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: gradual strengthening; existing masonry houses; earthquake disaster; ferrocement; bandaging
Online: 29 November 2021 (12:43:21 CET)
Approximately 85 million people's houses are scattered all over Indonesia, and almost all are in strong earthquake areas. In every earthquake, the houses are generally damaged or collapsed. Therefore, those houses must be strengthened to make them earthquake resistant. This paper discusses a gradual strengthening of existing houses using ferrocement bandaging. The gradual strengthening is introduced due to limited funding of the people. It also serves as an educational tool to educate people to be self-sufficient in building their earthquake-resistant houses. The first step, maybe the sleeping room shall be strengthened so that if there is an earthquake during night-time, people will be safe, and if there is an earthquake during the daytime, people can immediately run to that particular room. A global analysis is made of a sample house shaken by Palu, Central Sulawesi earthquake 2018, and West Sumatra earthquake 2009, with one room strengthened to show that the strengthened room can survive the earthquakes. Then the analysis is continued gradually to the other rooms until the masonry house is fully strengthened by ferrocement bandaging. The results show that the masonry house strengthened by ferrocement layers is earthquake resistant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0192.v1
Subject: Keywords: rural village; earthquake; vulnerability index; vulnerability analysis; damage matrix
Online: 10 November 2021 (08:26:28 CET)
This study investigated and classified typical structures in rural village and analyzed the vulnerability of various typical types of structures. Based on the statistics of earthquake damages with magnitudes above 5 from 1996 to 2013 in China, the damage matrixes of different types of structures in rural village are obtained. And The vulnerability index and the vulnerability equation of structure are crucial to assess the earthquake losses of typical structures under different magnitudes earthquakes. According to the seismic loss of different types of structures under different earthquake magnitudes, there are possible to improve the seismic resilience of the buildings in rural village. Moreover, the regional vulnerability is analyzed by β probability distribution function, and the comprehensive seismic performance index of different types of agricultural buildings in the region is obtained. The main research is to predict the loss of different types of structures under different earthquake magnitudes in the future, and to provide technical support for different types of building in rural village reinforcement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0312.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: displacement; radar image processing; phase difference; interferometry; earthquake epicenter
Online: 18 January 2021 (09:58:01 CET)
This article described the technology of determining earthquake epicenter with radar remote sensing on the example of Sentinel-1A/B. To determine the epicenter of the earthquake, the Earth's crust displacements were analyzed using radar remote sensing data obtained for the ascending and descending flight orbits. Coordinates of Earthquake epicenters were found according to line-of-sight displacement images via its maximum value. Displacement of the Earth's crust was obtained by processing in the GMTSAR package in the VirtualBox virtual machine of the Linux Ubuntu 16.04 operation system. Two earthquakes that occurred in 2020 were studied to determine the accuracy of finding epicenters using the ascending and descending orbits Sentinel-1A/B. These earthquakes occurred in Western Xizang, China, and Doganyol, Turkey. The maximum deviation from the officially registered epicenter coordinates was 15.38 km for Doganyol and 3.2 km for the Western Xizang earthquake. The negative displacement was 90 mm for Doganyol and 50 mm for Western Xizang.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: sustainable tourism; tourism sensitivity; tourism vulnerability; natural disaster; earthquake
Online: 4 January 2021 (10:21:51 CET)
Despite increased global interest in the impacts of natural disasters on tourism, less study executes exploring how tourism sensitivity is addressed at the destination level. Generating a link between tourism and natural disaster management is vital in places that rely heavily on tourism and are prone to natural hazards. Ranau, Sabah (Malaysia) is one of the disaster-prone tourists' destination area. Hence, this paper applies the case study of Ranau earthquake 2015 to explore tourism sensitivity towards natural disasters. A qualitative of in-depth interview is applied to acquire information needed from the Ranau tourism entrepreneurs and operators. To analyse the qualitative data, a thematic analysis is conducted. Overall findings show that tourism activity in Ranau are identified to be sensitive towards the 2015 earthquake with a significant percentage of sensitivity level on two elements. These elements are known as Source and Power. The Source element includes tourism products, size of business, development, and natural disasters management with a significant sensitivity compared to the Power element (social capital). This provides insight to the need of specific tourism system adaptation as response to the earthquake and considering the integration of natural disaster management into tourism development to enhance long term sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0590.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: deformation; earthquake; InSAR; inversion; fault; convergence; Apulia; Epirus; Greece
Online: 27 August 2020 (04:06:29 CEST)
We identify the source of the Mw = 5.6 earthquake that hit west-central Epirus on March 21, 2020 00:49:52 UTC. We use synthetic aperture radar interferograms tied to one permanent Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) station (GARD). We model the source by inverting the INSAR displacement data. The inversion model suggests a shallow source on a low-angle fault (39°) dipping towards east with a centroid depth of 8.5 km. The seismic moment deduced from our model agrees with those of the published seismic moment tensors. This geometry is compatible with the Margariti thrust fault within the collision zone between Apulia and Eurasia. We also processed new GNSS data and estimate a total convergence rate between Apulia and Eurasia of 8.9 mm yr-1 , of which shortening of the crust between the Epirus coastal GNSS stations and station PAXO in the Ionian Sea is equivalent to ~ 50% of it or 4.6 mm yr−1. A 60-km wide deformation zone takes up nearly most of the convergence between Apulia-Eurasia, trending N318°E. Its central axis runs along the southwest coast of Corfu, along the northeast coast of Paxos, heading toward the northern extremity of the Lefkada island.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0365.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Songyuan earthquake; Songyuan site; sand liquefaction; hyperbolic model; discriminant formula
Online: 21 September 2021 (14:12:47 CEST)
Based on the 5.7-magnitude earthquake that stroke Songyuan (China) and 172 groups of liquefaction data collected in mainland China, the hyperbolic liquefaction discriminant formula originally proposed by Sun Rui was revised, and a new formula for the liquefaction of sand was put forward. Groups of data derived from the Bachu earthquake in Xinjiang and an earthquake that occurred in New Zealand (47 and 195 groups, respectively) were used to carry out a back-judgment test, then, the results were compared with those of the existing standard method. Overall, the results showed that the new formula for hyperbolic liquefaction discrimination compensates for the conservative liquefaction discrimination of the older formula; moreover, it has a good applicability to different intensities, groundwater levels, and the deep sand layer of the Songyuan site, reflected by a more balanced success rate. Therefore, combining the existing liquefaction discrimination methods and the research results of discrimination, it is necessary to establish a suitable regional identification method through the continuous accumulation of liquefaction data and expanding database.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Reliability; Earthquake damageability; Structural evaluation; Safety; Financial risk; MC simulation
Online: 14 May 2021 (13:46:04 CEST)
Abstract: Seismic performance and loss assessments can have widely varying degrees of uncertainty. An essential issue is whether a particular assessed seismic loss or performance result has sufficient reliability to serve as the basis for risk management decisions and actions, including whether or not a code prescribed performance level is met, or if an assessed loss level is acceptable. A method is developed measuring the reliability of performance and loss assessments for individual buildings and for portfolios. Consideration is given to how well the building investigation and corresponding evaluation process have been performed, the qualifications of the person(s) doing the assessment, the thoroughness of the evaluation, and the technical validity of the assessment procedure or model. The approach characterizes the uncertainty of each component of the assessment procedure for each building in qualitative terms. The resulting reliability measure is likely to be most useful for the cases where an entity is determining whether/or not a building has acceptable life safety performance, or if a portfolio has an acceptably low risk of seismic damage loss over a given period of time. In both cases, the reliability must either be sufficient to warrant action, or serve to indicate need for improved assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: cylindrical latticed shell; damage accumulation; progressive collapse; Finite Element; earthquake
Online: 2 May 2020 (13:22:42 CEST)
In this paper, the results of finite element analyses of a single-layer cylindrical latticed shell under severe earthquake is presented. A 3D Finite Element model using fiber beam elements were used to investigate the collapse mechanism of this type of shell. The failure criteria of structural members are simulated based on the theory of damage accumulation. Severe earthquake of peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 500 gal was applied to the shell. The stress and defeomation of the shell were studied in detail. A three-stages collapse mechanism “double-diagonal -members-failure-belt” of this type of structure was discovered. Based on the analysis results, the measures to mitigate collapse of this type of structure is recomanded.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0213.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: earthquake multi-hazard and risk; coseismic landslide; outcrop study; liquefaction
Online: 18 December 2018 (04:37:30 CET)
Yogyakarta City is one of the big city which is located in Java Island, Indonesia. Yogyakarta City, including study area (Pleret Sub District), are very prone to earthquake hazards, because close to several active earthquake sources. For example, Sunda Megathrust which often generates a big earthquake which can affect the study area. The Sunda Megathrust extends from north to south and west to east along the Sumatra and Java Islands. Furthermore, an active normal fault called as Opak Fault pass through right in the middle of Study area and divides the study area into east and west zone. Recently, after the devastating earthquake in 2006, the population of the study area increases significantly. As a result, the housing demand is also increasing. However, due to the absence of earthquake building code in the study area, locals tend to build improper new houses. Furthermore, in some part of the mountainous area in the study area, there are some building found in unstable slopes area. Due to this condition, the multi-hazard and risk study needs to be done in Pleret. The increasing of population and improper houses in Pleret Sub-District can lead to amplify the impact. Thus, the main objective of this study is to assess the multi-hazards and risk of earthquake and other related secondary hazards such as ground amplification, liquefaction, and coseismic landslide. The method mainly utilised the geographic information system, remote sensing and was fit up by the outcrop study. The results show that the middle part of the study area has a complex geological structure. It was indicated by a lot of unchartered faults was found in the outcrops. Furthermore, the relatively prone areas to earthquake can be determined. In term of the coseismic landslide, the prone area to the coseismic landslide is located in the east part of the study area in the middle slope of Baturagung Escarpment. The highly potential area of liquefaction is dominated in the central part of the study area. In term of building collapsed probability, the result shows that the safest house based on statistical analysis is the residential house with the building attribute of wood structure, roof cast material, distance more than 15 km from the earthquake source, and located above the Nglanggran Formation. Finally, the multi-hazard and risk analysis show that the middle part of the study area is more vulnerable than the other part of Pleret Sub-District.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Stone pagoda; Masonry structure; Shaking table test; Earthquake resistance; Seismic behavior
Online: 4 March 2021 (09:15:13 CET)
In general, the stone pagoda structures with discontinuous surfaces are vulnerable to lateral forces and are severely damaged by earthquakes. After the Gyeongju earthquake in 2016 and the Pohang earthquake in 2017, the earthquakes damaged numerous stone pagoda structures due to slippage, rotation and the separation of stacked stone. To evaluate seismic resistance of masonry stone pagoda structure, we analyzed the seismic behavior of stone pagoda structure using shaking table test. Shaking frequency, permanent displacement, maximum acceleration, rocking, and sliding were assessed. Responses to simulations of the Bingol, Gyeongju, and Pohang earthquakes based on Korean seismic design standard (KDS 41 17 00) were analyzed for return periods of 1,000 and 2,400 years. We found that the type of stylobate affected the seismic resistance of stone pagoda structure. When the stylobates were stiff, seismic energy was transferred from lower to upper regions of the stone pagoda, which mainly resulted in deformation of the upper region. When the stylobates were weak, earthquake energy was absorbed in the lower regions; this was associated with large stylobate deformations. The lower part of tower body was mainly affected by rocking, because the structural members were slender. The higher part of the stone pagoda was mainly affected by sliding, because the load and contact area decreased with height.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0261.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: nuclear power plant; electric cabinet; tuned mass damper; earthquake; vibration control
Online: 23 September 2019 (06:13:10 CEST)
In this study, a tuned mass damper is proposed as a seismic acceleration mitigating technique of an electrical cabinet inside the nuclear power plant. In order to know the mitigation performance, the electrical cabinet and the tuned mass damper were modeled using SAP2000. The sine sweep wave was used to confirm the vibration characteristics of the cabinet over a wide frequency range, and the several various earthquakes were applied to the cabinet to verify the control performance of the tuned mass damper. After analyzing the numerical results, it is summarized that the application of the proposed technique can reduce the acceleration response of the cabinet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0005.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: liquid storage tanks; soil-structure interaction; seismic response; earthquake ground motions
Online: 1 December 2016 (10:36:42 CET)
Soil-structure interaction (SSI) could affect the seismic response of structures. Since liquid storage tanks are vital structures and must continue their operation under severe earthquakes, their seismic behavior should be studied. Accordingly, the seismic response of liquid storage tanks founded on half space soil is scrutinized under different earthquake ground motions. To better comparison, the six considered ground motions are classified based on their pulse like characteristics, into two groups, named far and near fault ground motions. To model the liquid storage tanks, the simplified mass-spring model is used and the liquid is modeled as two lumped masses known as sloshing and impulsive, and the interaction of fluid and structure is considered using two coupled springs and dashpots. The SSI effect, also, is considered using a coupled spring and dashpot. Besides, four types of soils are used to consider wide variety of soil properties. To this end, after deriving the equations of motion, the MATLAB programming is employed to obtain the time history responses. Results show that although the SSI effect leads to decrease the impulsive displacement, overturning moment and normalized base shear, the sloshing (or convective) displacement is not affected by such effects due to its long period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0339.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Great East Japan Earthquake; disaster; cardiovascular disease; psychological factors; evacuation; prospective study
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:01:44 CEST)
Evidence regarding the effect of psychological factors and evacuation on cardiovascular disease occurrence after large-scale disasters is limited. This prospective study followed up a total of 37,810 Japanese men and women aged 30–89 years from the Fukushima Prefecture with no history of stroke or heart disease at baseline (2012), until 2017. This period included 3000 cardiovascular events recorded through questionnaires and death certificates. The participants’ psychological distress, trauma reaction, and evacuation status were defined, and divided into four groups based on combinations of psychological factors and evacuation status. We calculated the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for only psychological, only evacuation, or both of them compared with neither using Cox proportional hazard models. Psychological factors along with evacuation resulted in approximately 5% to 25% higher magnitude of stroke and heart disease risk than psychological factors only among men. Compared to neither, the multivariable hazard ratios of those with both psychological distress and evacuation were 1.75 for stroke and 1.49 for heart disease, and those of both trauma reaction and evacuation were 2.01 and 1.57, respectively, among men. Evacuation combined with psychological factors increased the risk of stroke and heart disease risks especially in men after the Great East Japan Earthquake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Computer Vision; Synthetic Data; Physics-based Graphics Models; Deep Learning; Post-earthquake Inspections
Online: 8 November 2021 (15:06:45 CET)
Manual visual inspections typically conducted after an earthquake are high-risk, subjective, and time-consuming. Delays from inspections often exacerbate the social and economic impact of the disaster on affected communities. Rapid and autonomous inspection using images acquired from unmanned aerial vehicles offer the potential to reduce such delays. Indeed, a vast amount of re-search has been conducted toward developing automated vision-based methods to assess the health of infrastructure at the component and structure level. Most proposed methods typically rely on images of the damaged structure, but seldom consider how the images were acquired. To achieve autonomous inspections, methods must be evaluated in a comprehensive end-to-end manner, incorporating both data acquisition and data processing. In this paper, we leverage recent advances in computer generated imagery (CGI) to construct a 3D synthetic environment for simulation of post-earthquake inspections that allows for comprehensive evaluation and valida-tion of autonomous inspection strategies. A critical issue is how to simulate and subsequently render the damage in the structure after an earthquake. To this end, a high-fidelity nonlinear finite element model is incorporated in the synthetic environment to provide a representation of earthquake-induced damage; this finite element model, combined with photo-realistic rendering of the damage, is termed herein a physics-based graphics models (PBGM). The 3D synthetic en-vironment with PBGMs provide a comprehensive end-to-end approach for development and validation of autonomous post-earthquake strategies using UAVs, including: (i) simulation of path planning of virtual UAVs and image capture under different environmental conditions; (ii) au-tomatic labeling of captured images, potentially providing an infinite amount of data for training deep neural networks; (iii) availability of the ground truth damage state from the results of the finite-element simulation; and (iv) direct comparison of different approaches to autonomous as-sessments. Moreover, the synthetic data generated has the potential to be used to augment field datasets. To demonstrate the efficacy of PBGMs, models of reinforced concrete moment-frame buildings with masonry infill walls are examined. The 3D synthetic environment employing PBGMs is shown to provide an effective testbed for development and validation of autonomous vision-based post-earthquake inspections that can serve as an important building block for ad-vancing autonomous data to decision frameworks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0484.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: 2018 Palu earthquake, pull-apart basin, basin-shortcut fault, lateral spreading, optical correlation
Online: 18 June 2021 (15:08:26 CEST)
Our understanding of pull-apart basins and their fault systems has been enhanced by analog experiments and simulations. However, there has been no opportunity to compare the faults that constitute pull-apart basins with surface ruptures during earthquakes. In this study, we investigated the effects of a 2018 earthquake (Mw 7.5) on a pull-apart basin in the Palu-Koro fault system, Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, using geomorphic observations in digital elevation models, optical correlation with pre- and post-earthquake satellite images. A comparison of active fault traces determined by geomorphology with the locations of surface ruptures from the 2018 earthquake shows that some of the boundary faults of the basin are inactive and that active faulting has shifted to basin-shortcut faults and relay ramps. We also report evidence of lateral spreading, in which alluvial fan materials moved around the end of the alluvial fan. These phenomena may provide insights for anticipating the location of future surface ruptures in pull-apart basins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0230.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: finite element method; earthquake induced landslide; static and dynamic analysis; deformation based failure
Online: 22 August 2019 (10:45:22 CEST)
Globally 30% of landslides occur in the northeastern part of India . One of the major earthquake events in Sikkim, India occurred on 18th September 2011 (Mw 6.9) led to over 300 landslides and 122 human deaths . These landslides not only controlled by natural disasters but initiated due to human activities. The present study considered Lungchok landslide occurred in south district of Sikkim due to 2011 seismic event. The study focused on the failure mechanism of the landslide based on finite element analysis by adopting eight different cases. The deformation characteristic was investigated for dry and saturated slope conditions under static and dynamic behavior considering vehicle loads using GeoStudio software. The FEM analysis has been carried out using load deformation and linear elastic. The analysis shows that the failure of the slope was not sudden due to the 2011 earthquake event, but progressive failure was observed with time and construction activity. The paper demonstrates that, an increase in infrastructure development including construction by hill cutting increased the initiation of landslide with soil erosion. The cracks developed after 2011 earthquake event led to further deformations during future disasters required effective stabilization measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0466.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Lake Van; Van earthquake; aftershock hypocenters; rupture complexity; azimuthal distribution; aftershock clusters; microseismicity
Online: 28 June 2018 (11:26:31 CEST)
This study presents an analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the two large destructive earthquakes that occurred in Lake Van area on October 23, and November 9, 2011, together with the azimuth-dependent distribution of the seismic activity and microseismicity clusters after the mainshocks, associated with the complex rupture processes of their aftershock sequence. The sequence began with the magnitude Mw 7.1 earthquake of 23 October and a second destructive earthquake of Mw 5.6. The aftershock sequences of the two mainshocks were linked to the local crustal faults beneath Lake Van area, followed successively and produced unusually intense activity and significant damage in the area. The main purposes of this study are to document the spatial and temporal distribution and evolution of the October 23, 2011 aftershock hypocenters and the azimuth-dependent distribution of seismic activity, and to understand the spatial and temporal character of the aftershock sequence using the distributional and evolutional patterns of the aftershock hypocenters. A total of 10,000 aftershocks were obtained from seismic data with a high signal-to-noise ratio over collected over three years from October 23, 2011 to March 2014. These aftershocks were plotted for the time periods from November 2011 through March 2012 to March 2014 and ≈ 5000 aftershocks were retained in the depth versus distance cross-sections to detect the clusters in the first step of study (November 2011–March 2012). The focal depth distribution of the aftershock clusters, the migration of hypocenter activity and microseismicity clusters were analyzed and the distributional patterns of the detected clusters were assessed using the geometric distribution of the aftershock hypocenters. The spatial and temporal distribution of aftershocks reveal interesting key features of the deep rupture complexity of the Van earthquake: (1) most prominent aftershocks have been located in the upper crust at depths shallower than 10 km beneath ruptured area, indicating that the upper crust is brittle and seismogenic; (2) two spatial clusters have been detected at 8-10 km depths and the upward extrapolation of these clusters intersects with faults; the main cluster (60 km wide) bounded by inferred reverse faults (f3 and f4) and the central cluster (25–30 km wide) bounded by faults (f1 and f2); (3) these spatial clusters form the largest volumetric pattern of the conical-shaped cluster at depths of about 25–30 km of the azimuth-dependent rotational projections, suggesting azimuthal distributions of deep rupture characteristics; and (4) the strongest temporal cluster of microseismicity derived from temporal distribution of aftershocks has been detected within an area of about 2.5–3.0 km2 and it is spatially observed at 20 km depth within the central cluster, suggesting progressive failure of the adjacent patches of possible fault.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0092.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: hydrogeological effects; hydro-geomechanical modelling; Andalusia 1884 Earthquake; pore pressure effects; poroelasticity and seismicity
Online: 3 August 2022 (12:25:08 CEST)
The 1884 Andalusia Earthquake, with an estimated Magnitude between 6.2 and 6.7, is one of the most destructive events that shook the Iberian Peninsula, causing around 1200 casualties. Ac-cording to both paleoseismology studies and intensity maps, the earthquake source relates to the normal Ventas de Zafarraya Fault (Granada, Spain). Diverse hydrological effects were registered and later studied: landslides, rockfalls, soil liquefaction, all-around surge and loss of springs, alter-ations in the phreatic level, discharge in springs and brooks, and well levels, along with changes in water properties. Further insight into these phenomena found an interplay between hy-dro-geomechanical processes and crust surface deformations, conditions, and properties. This study focuses on simulating the features involved by the major 1884 event and aims at elucidating the mechanisms concerning the mentioned effects. It encompasses conceptual geological and kinematic models, and a 2D finite element simulation to account for the processes undergone by the Zafarraya Fault. The study focuses on the variability of hydro-geomechanical features and the time evolution of the ground pore-pressure distribution in both the preseismic and coseismic stag-es, matching some of the shreds of evidence found by field studies. This methodology can be ap-plied to other events registered in the National Catalogues of Earthquakes to reach a deeper in-sight, further knowledge, and better understanding of past earthquakes.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: ULFgeomagnetic signature, Mw6.4 earthquake, geomagnetic data, BPOL, BPOL* and BPOL*(PAG-SUA) time series
Online: 15 January 2021 (12:57:21 CET)
An earthquake of Mw6.4 hit the coastal zone of Albania on 26 November 2019, at 02:54:11 UTC. It was intensively felt at about 34km far away, in Tirana City, where damages and lives lost occurred. To emphasize a geomagnetic signature before the onset of this earthquake, the data collected on the interval 15 October–30 November 2019, at the Panagjurishte (PAG)-Bulgaria and Surlari (SUA)-Romania observatories are analyzed by using both the polarization parameter (BPOL)-time invariant in non-seismic conditions, becoming unstable before this seismic event, and the strain effect for geomagnetic signal identification. Consequently, BPOL time series and its standard deviations are performed for the both sites using ULF-FFT band-pass filtering. A statistical analysis, based on a standardized random variable equation, was applied to emphasize on the BPOL*(PAG) and ABS BPOL*(PAG) time series the anomalous signal’s singularity and, to differentiate the transient local anomalies due to Mw6.4earthquake, from the internal and external parts of the geomagnetic field, taken PAG observatory as reference. Finally, the ABS BPOL*(PAG-SUA) time series are obtained on the interval 1-30 November, 2019, where a geomagnetic signature greater than 2.0, was detected on 23 November and the lead time was 3 days before the onset of Mw6.4earthquake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0080.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: earthquake; source observations; body wave modeling; seismicity; ionian sea; gnss; machine learning; neural network
Online: 4 September 2020 (04:08:49 CEST)
During the period January 2014 – October 2018, four strong earthquakes occurred in the Ionian Sea, Greece. A rich aftershock sequence followed each event of them. More analytically, according to the manual solutions of National Observatory of Athens, the first event (K1), occurred on 26 January 2014 in Kefallinia Island with magnitude ML = 5.8, which was followed by another in the same region (K2) on 3 February 2014 with magnitude ML = 5.7. The third event occurred on 17 November 2015, ML = 6.0 in Lefkas Island (L1) and the last on 25 October 2018, ML = 6.6 in Zande Island (Z1). The first three of these earthquakes caused moderate structural damages mainly in houses and produced particular unrest to the local population. This work presents first the calculation of the source parameters of the strong events as well as for all earthquakes with magnitude ML > 4.0, using the methodology of the Moment tensor inversion and secondary data from permanent GPS stations were analyzed to confirm the findings from seismological data and to investigate the displacement due to the earthquakes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0048.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: emergency rainwater tanks; earthquake; Wellington; health hazards; drinking-water quality; E. coli; lead; zinc
Online: 13 October 2016 (05:41:48 CEST)
The greater Wellington region, New Zealand, is highly vulnerable to large earthquakes because it is cut by active faults. Bulk water supply pipelines cross the Wellington Fault at several different locations, and there is considerable concern about severe disruption of the provision of reticulated water supplies to households and businesses in the aftermath of a large earthquake. A number of policy initiatives have been launched encouraging householders to install rainwater tanks to increase post-disaster resilience. However, little attention has been paid to potential health hazards associated with consumption of these supplies. To assess health hazards for householders in emergency situations, six 200-litre emergency water tanks were installed at properties across the Wellington region, with five tanks being allowed to fill with roof-collected rainwater and one tank being filled with municipal tapwater as a control. Such tanks are predominantly set aside for water storage, and once filled, feature limited drawdown and recharge. Sampling from these tanks was carried out fortnightly for one year, and samples analysed for E. coli, pH, conductivity, a range of major and trace elements, and organic compounds, enabling an assessment of the evolution of water chemistry in water storage tanks over time. Key findings were that the overall rate of E.coli detections in the rain-fed tanks was 17.7%, which is low in relation to other studies. We propose that low incidences of E.coli may be due to biocidal effects of high zinc concentrations in tanks, originating from unpainted galvanised steel roof cladding. Lead concentrations were high compared to other studies, with 69% of rain-fed tank samples exceeding the World Health Organisation’s health-based guideline of 0.01 mg/L. Further work is required to determine risks of short-term consumption of this water in emergency situations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Buildings; earthquake safety assessment; extreme events; urban sustainability; seismic 16 assessment; rapid visual screening; reinforced concrete buildings
Online: 6 February 2020 (10:50:33 CET)
Earthquake is among the most devastating natural disasters causing severe economic, environmental, and social destruction. Earthquake safety assessment and building hazard monitoring can highly contribute to urban sustainable development through identification and insight into optimum materials and structures. While the vulnerability of structures mainly depends on the structural resistance, the safety assessment of buildings can be highly challenging. In this paper, we consider Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) method which is a qualitative procedure for estimating structural scores for buildings suitable for medium- to high-seismic cases. This paper presents an overview of the common RVS methods, i.e., FEMA P-154, IITK-GGSDMA, and EMPI. To examine the accuracy and validation, a practical comparison is performed between their assessment and observed damage of reinforced concrete buildings from a street survey in the Bingöl region, Turkey, after the 11 May 2003 earthquake. The results demonstrate that the application of RVS methods for preliminary damage estimation is a vital tool. Furthermore, the comparative analysis showed that FEMA P-154 creates an assessment that overestimates damage states and is not economically viable while EMPI and IITK-GGSDMA provide for more accurate and practical estimation, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0182.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: optimization; metaheuristic; earthquake algorithm; bat algorithm; particle swarm optimization; PID controller; DC motor; fuzzy logic; mamdani; geo-inspired computing
Online: 11 September 2018 (04:57:11 CEST)
A novel metaheuristic optimization method is proposed based on an earthquake that is a geology phenomenon. The novel Earthquake Algorithm (EA) proposed, adapts the principle of propagation of geology waves P and S through the earth material composed by random density to ensure the dynamic balance between exploration and exploitation, in order to reach the best solution to optimization complex problems by searching for the optimum into the search space. The performance and validation of the EA are compared against the Bat Algorithm (BA) and the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) by using 10 diverse benchmark functions. In addition, an experimental engineering application is implemented to evaluate the proposed algorithm. Early results show a feasibility of the proposed method with a clearly constancy and stability. It is important highlight the fact that the main purpose of this paper is to present a new line of research, which is opened from the novel EA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0581.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: panelised construction; lightweight frames; hybrid systems; cold formed steel; hot rolled steel; design for earthquake, lateral force resisting system
Online: 30 July 2018 (10:24:10 CEST)
A new lateral force-resisting wall panel is presented for applications in mid-rise prefabricated lightweight steel construction in seismic prone regions. This panelised system is composed of a hot-rolled frame and cold-formed studs and tracks, which works as a lateral force resisting system in lightweight steel framing. The proposed hybrid panel system exhibits proper ductility and energy dissipation behaviour. The hysteretic responses of full-scale panel experiments demonstrate that the system can safely resist high cyclic loads. The hot-rolled steel part, on the other hand, can significantly improve the initial lateral stiffness of the total system that will control the maximum allowable drift of multi-story buildings. Finally, in a case study, by applying the proposed system to the design of a mid-rise building in a high seismic area, the performance of the hybrid panels, are compared with those of fully hot-rolled systems (moment resisting frames) and fully cold formed systems. The findings indicate that applying hybrid panels will result in lower weights and better performance in seismic prone regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0389.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Digital twin, Damage diagnosis, Finite element model updating, Bayesian inference, Soil-structure interaction, Foundation input motion, Rapid post-earthquake assessment
Online: 23 December 2021 (11:57:54 CET)
Rapid post-earthquake damage diagnosis of bridges can guide decision-making for emergency response management and recovery. This can be facilitated using digital technologies to remove the barriers of manual post-event inspections. Prior mechanics-based Finite Element (FE) models can be used for post-event response simulation using the measured ground motions at nearby stations; however, the damage assessment outcomes would suffer from uncertainties in structural and soil material properties, input excitations, etc. For instrumented bridges, these uncertainties can be reduced by integrating sensory data with prior models through a model updating approach. This study presents a sequential Bayesian model updating technique, through which a linear/nonlinear FE model, including soil-structure interaction effects, and the foundation input motions are jointly identified from measured acceleration responses. The efficacy of the presented model updating technique is first examined through a numerical verification study. Then, seismic data recorded from the San Rogue Canyon Bridge in California are used for a real-world case study. Comparison between the free-field and the foundation input motions reveals valuable information regarding the soil-structure interaction effects at the bridge site. Moreover, the reasonable agreement between the recorded and estimated bridge responses shows the potentials of the presented model updating technique for real-world applications. The updated FE model is considered as the digital twin of the bridge and can be used to analyze the bridge and monitor the structural response at element, section, and fiber levels to diagnose the location and severity of any potential damage mechanism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0714.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Earthquake reconnaissance; damage assessment; data sources; data collection; fieldwork surveys; closed-circuit television videos (CCTV); remote sensing (RS); crowdsourcing platforms; social media (SM)
Online: 4 October 2021 (14:54:59 CEST)
Earthquakes are one of the most catastrophic natural phenomena. After an earthquake, earthquake reconnaissance enables effective recovery by collecting building damage data and other impacts. This paper aims to identify state-of-the-art data sources for building damage assessment and provide guidance for more efficient data collection. We have reviewed 38 articles that indicate the sources used by different authors to collect data related to damage and post-disaster recovery progress after earthquakes between 2014 and 2021. The current data collection methods have been grouped into seven categories: fieldwork or ground surveys, omnidirectional imagery (OD), terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), remote sensing (RS), crowdsourcing platforms, social media (SM) and closed-circuit television videos (CCTV). The selection of a particular data source or collection technique for earthquake reconnaissance includes different criteria depending on what questions are to be answered by this data. We conclude that modern reconnaissance missions can not rely on a single data source and that different data sources should complement each other, validate collected data, or systematically quantify the damage. The recent increase in the number of crowdsourcing and SM platforms used to source earthquake reconnaissance data demonstrates that this is likely to become an increasingly important source of data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0083.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: earthquake; anomaly detection; Google Earth Engine; outliers; interquartile range (IQR); multiparameter; brightness temperature (BT); latent heat flux (LE); land surface temperature; wind speed
Online: 9 January 2019 (11:59:14 CET)
One of the most destructive natural disasters is the earthquake which brings enormous risks to humankind. The objective of the current study was to determine the Earthquake’s remote sensing multiparameter (i.e. land surface temperature (LST), air temperature, specific humidity, precipitation and wind speed) spatiotemporal anomaly of many earthquake samples occurred during 2018 around the world. In this research 11 earthquake (M > 6:0) studied (4 samples selected in a land with transparent sky situations, 3 samples in land within cloudy situations and 4 samples in marine earthquakes). The interquartile range (IQR) and mean ± 2σ methods utilized to improve the efficiency of anomalous differences. As a result, based on the IQR method, negative anomaly before the event detected during the daytime in Mexico and during the nighttime in Afghanistan. In addition, a negative outlier of brightness temperature (BT) detected in Alaska before, after and during the event. In contrast, based on IQR and mean ± 2σ positive anomaly detected in precipitation before and after the event in all investigated examples. According to mean ± 2σ, negative anomaly LST, specific humidity, sea surface temperature (SST_100) and wind detected in most examined earthquake samples. In contrast, positive SST_0 anomaly observed in Fiji and Honduras after the earthquake. Our results suggested in marine earthquakes, for earthquake forecasting we can merge a prior negative anomaly in the wind speed and SST_100. Regarding the in land cloudy sky earthquakes, merging anomaly parameters could be the negative prior anomaly in BT, skin temperature, in contrast, a positive anomaly in precipitation. In land transparent sky earthquake, usually negative prior anomalies in air temperature, specific humidity and LST.