ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0401.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Colorectal cancer; personalized medicine; biomarker; variant
Online: 15 April 2021 (08:10:42 CEST)
Discovery of novel variants from data derived from local population provides confident targets for developing biomarkers for personalized medicine. Biomarker discovery would be an important tool in advancing and utilizing the concept of precision and personalized medicine in the clinic. We identified the need to generate high quality sequencing data from local population and understand the pattern of occurrence of variants in colorectal cancer patients. In this report, we used archived samples from Saudi Arabia and used Ampliseq Comprehensive Cancer panel to identify novel somatic variants. We report a comprehensive analysis of next generation sequencing results with a coverage of >300X. We identified 466 novel variants which were previously unreported in COSMIC and ICGC databases. We analyzed the genes associated with these variants in terms of their frequency of occurrence, probable pathogenicity and clinicopathological features. Among pathogenic somatic variants, 174 were identified for the first time in large intestine. APC, RET and EGFR genes were most frequently mutated. Higher number of variants were identified in left colon. Occurrence of variants in ERBB2 was significantly correlated with those of EGFR and ATR genes. Network analyses of the identified genes provide functional perspective of the identified genes and suggest affected pathways and probable biomarker candidates. This report lays the ground work for biomarker discovery and identification of driver gene mutations in local population.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0341.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: colorectal cancer; new technologies; palliative care for colorectal cancer patients; stenting
Online: 15 November 2018 (04:59:37 CET)
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic placement of Self Expandable Metal Stents to relieve malignant colorectal obstruction has become a common therapeutic advancement in clinical practice. MATERIAL: In a 16 year period 167 patients had endoscopic placement of a Self Expandable Metal Stent in a center where gastroenterologists and surgeons cooperate in a daily basis, discussing indications. RESULTS: There was no operative mortality and no major complication in placement of the stent. Technical and clinical success was respectively 95.1% and 92.9%. Consultation among specialists changed the preoperative indication in 60 patients, during the same time period. CONCLUSIONS: Self expandable metal stents placement represents an important tool to treat patients with obstructing colorectal cancer and complications after colorectal resection . A proper training is required, and this training in operative endoscopy is not always available and possible. In this scenario, a close collaboration among specialists in selecting the most appropriate operative procedure is essential and brings to better results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1321.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: colorectal cancer; incidence; mortality; screening; survival
Online: 20 October 2023 (08:31:13 CEST)
Colorectal cancer is a frequent neoplasm in western countries, mainly due to dietary and behavioral factors. Its incidence is growing in developing countries for the westernization of foods and lifestyles. An increased incidence rate is observed in patients under 45 years of age. In last years the mortality for CRC is decreased, but this trend is slowing. The mortality rate is reducing in those countries where prevention and treatments have been implemented. The survival is increased to over 65%. This trend reflects earlier detection of CRC through routine clinical examinations and screening, more accurate staging through advances in imaging, improvements in surgical techniques and advances in chemotherapy and radiation. The most important predictor of survival is the stage at diagnosis. The screening programs are able to reduce incidence and mortality rates of CRC. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of incidence, mortality and survival rate for CRC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Targeted therapy; Clinical trial
Online: 21 February 2022 (03:05:05 CET)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Surgery or surgery plus radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy for patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) were accepted as the main therapeutic strategies until the early 2000s, when targeted drugs, like cetuximab and bevacizumab were developed. The use of targeted drugs in clinical practice has significantly increased patients’ overall survival. To date, the emergence of several types of targeted drugs has opened new possibilities and revealed new prospects for mCRC treatment. Therapeutic strategies are continually being updated to select the most suitable targeted drugs based on the results of clinical trials that are currently underway. This review discusses the up-to date molecular evidence of targeted therapy for mCRC and summarizes the Food and Drug Administration-approved targeted drugs including the results of clinical trials. We also explain their mechanisms of action and how these affect the choice of a suitable targeted therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1805.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: HDAC6; histone deacetylases inhibitors; colorectal cancer
Online: 28 November 2023 (10:13:23 CET)
Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) regulates many physiological processes that are involved in cancer development and progression such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, motility, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, by deacetylation of multiple substrates and association with interacting proteins. Due to its the ability to remove misfolded proteins, induce autophagy, and regulate unfolded protein response, HDAC6 plays a protective role in responses to stress and enables tumor cells survival. HDAC6 is often overexpressed in tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC) and is correlated with poor disease prognosis. However, it has been shown in animal models that HDAC6 is not essential for normal mammalian development. Therefore, it represents a good target for the development of novel cancer therapeutics. Selective inhibition of HDAC6 impairs growth and progression of many tumors without inducing major adverse events in experimental animals. In CRC, HDAC6 inhibitors have shown potential to reduce tumor progression and to enhance the therapeutic effect of other drugs. As HDAC6 is involved in regulation of immune responses, HDAC6 inhibitors have shown potential to improve antitumor immunity by increasing immunogenicity of tumor cells, augmenting immune cell activity and alleviating immunosuppression in tumor microenvironment. Therefore, HDAC6 inhibitors may represent promising candidates to improve the effect and to overcome resistance to immunotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: HMGA2; Colorectal cancer; Sema3A; VEGFA
Online: 20 October 2021 (11:25:53 CEST)
Background: HMGA2 encodes a small non histone chromatin-associated protein that has no intrinsic transcriptional activity, but can modulate transcription by altering the chromatin architecture. HMGA2 was found overexpressed in a variety of epithelial and mesenchymal tumors and promoted invasion and metastasis in most malignant epithelial tumors. A recent study showed that P53 inhibited CRC progression by targeting HMGA2. However, the mechanism by which HMGA2 affect angiogenesis in CRC has not been clarified. Methods: The expression of HMGA2 was analyzed by IHC, WB and bio infomatic analysis. Cbioportal and mexpress online tools were applied to explore the CNV and methylation of HMGA2 in CRC patients. Single cell data from GEO was used to examine the specific cell type that contribute to the high HMGA2 expression in CRC. Lentivirus was used to knock down HMGA2 in CRC cells and HUVECs was used to study angiogenesis. Results: In the current study, we first detected the expression pattern of HMGA2 in CRC patients and evaluated its clinical values and CNV amplification could possibly contribute to the up regulation of HMGA2 in CRC patients. By analyzing CRC single cell data we found that HMGA2 was specifically up regulated in the colorectal epithelial cells. Furthermore, knocking down of HMGA2 suppresses angiogenesis via dual regulation of VEGF-A and SEMA3A in CRC through inactivating VEGRR2 pathway in HUVECs. Conclusions: HMGA2 might be a promising prognostic marker and target for treating advanced CRC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0972.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: colorectal cancer; pharmacogenomics; biomarkers
Online: 14 July 2023 (08:19:14 CEST)
Colorectal cancer is a common disease, both in Chile and worldwide. The most widely used chemotherapy schemes are based on 5-fluorouracil (5FU) as the foundational drug. Genetic polymorphisms have emerged as potential predictive biomarkers of response to chemotherapy, but conclusive evidence is lacking. Additionally, the interplay between hereditary variations and acquired mutations in the EGFR pathway remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the role of genetic variants associated with 5FU-based chemotherapy on therapeutic effectiveness, considering their interaction with the EGFR pathway mutations. In a retrospective cohort of 63 patients diagnosed with metastatic colorectal cancer, a multivariate analysis revealed that liver metastases, DPYD, ABCB1 and MTHFR polymorphisms are independent indicators of a poor prognostic, irrespective of EGFR pathway mutations. BRAF V600E wild-type status and high-risk drug-metabolism polymorphisms correlated with a poor prognosis in this Chilean cohort. Additionally, findings from the genomics of drug sensitivity (GDSC) project demonstrated that cell lines with wild-type BRAF have higher IC50 values for 5-FU compared to BRAF-mutated cell lines. In conclusion, the genetic polymorphisms DPYD rs1801265, ABCB1 rs1045642 and MTHFR rs180113 may serve as useful biomarkers for predicting a poor prognosis in patients undergoing 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy, regardless of EGFR pathway mutations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1789.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: PTK6; Colorectal cancer; Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors
Online: 25 May 2023 (09:52:24 CEST)
PTK6, a Non-Receptor–Tyrosine-Kinase, modulates the pathogenesis of breast and prostate cancers, and is recognized as a biomarker of breast cancer prognosis. There are over 30 known substrates of PTK6, including signal transducers, transcription factors and RNA binding proteins. Many of these substrates are known drivers of other cancer types such as colorectal cancer. Colon and rectal tumours also express higher levels of PTK6 than the normal intestine suggesting a potential role in tumorigenesis. However, the importance of PTK6 in colorectal cancer remains unclear. PTK6 inhibitors such as XMU-MP-2 and Tilfrinib have demonstrated potency and selectivity in breast cancer cells when used in combination with chemotherapy, indicating the potential for PTK6 targeted therapy in cancer. However, most of these inhibitors are yet to be tested in other cancer types. Here, we discuss the current understanding of the function of PTK6 in normal intestinal cells compared with colorectal cancer cells. We review existing PTK6 targeting therapeutics and explore the possibility of PTK6 inhibitory therapy for colorectal cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0795.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: HER2; colorectal cancer; immune cell
Online: 13 October 2023 (07:08:38 CEST)
(1) Background: This study aimed to investigate the effect of increased HER-2 expression on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and determine its impact on the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients; (2) Methods: HER-2, CD4, CD8, CD19, LY6G, CD56, CD68, CD11b, and EpCam expression in CRC tissues and adjacent paracancerous tissues were assessed using multiplex fluorescence immunohistochemical staining. The correlation between HER-2 expression and the number of TILs in CRC tissues was analyzed. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze survival outcomes; (3) Results: The expression of HER-2 in tumor tissues was higher than that in paracancerous tissues (1.31 ± 0.45 vs. 0.86 ± 0.20, P < 0.05). Additionally, there was an increase in the numbers of CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, and CD68+ cells in CRC tissues (14.11 ± 1.10 vs. 3.40 ± 0.18, P < 0.005; 0.16 ± 0.12 vs. 0.04 ± 0.04, P < 0.005; 0.71 ± 0.46 vs. 0.25 ± 0.13, P < 0.0005; 0.27 ± 0.24 vs. 0.03 ± 0.11, P < 0.05). The increase in HER-2 expression was positively correlated with an increase in CD4, CD8, and CD19 (p < 0.0001). In HER-2-positive CRC tissues, CD68 expression was increased (0.80 ± 0.55 vs. 0.25 ± 0.22, P < 0.05). In HER-2-upregulated CRC tissues, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD68, CD11b, Ly6G, and CD56 expressions were elevated (0.70 ± 0.37 vs. 0.32 ± 0.17, P = 0.03; 0.22 ± 0.13 vs. 0.09 ± 0.06, P = 0.03; 0.31 ± 0.19 vs. 0.12 ± 0.08, P = 0.02; 1.05 ± 0.62 vs. 0.43 ± 0.21, P < 0.01; 1.34 ± 0.81 vs. 0.53 ± 0.23, P < 0.01; 0.50 ± 0.31 vs. 0.19 ± 0.10, P < 0.01; 1.26 ± 0.74 vs. 0.52 ± 0.24, P < 0.01). Furthermore, increased HER-2 expression is an independent risk factor for recurrence-free survival (RFS) in patients (P < 0.01, HR = 3.421); (4) Conclusions: The increased expression of HER-2 and its relationship with immune cells will provide new insights for immunotherapy in CRC patients.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0408.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Lynch syndrome variant heterozygotes; colorectal and non-colorectal cancers; frameshift muta-tions; neoantigens; immune responses; immunogenomic biomarkers
Online: 26 July 2022 (10:58:51 CEST)
Lynch syndrome (LS) is an inherited disorder in which affected individuals have a significantly higher-than-average risk of developing colorectal and non-colorectal cancers, often before the age of 50 years. In LS, mutations in DNA repair genes lead to a dysfunctional post-replication repair system. As a result, the unrepaired errors in coding regions of the genome produce novel proteins, called neoantigens. Neoantigens are recognised by the immune system as foreign and trigger an immune response. Due to the invasive nature of cancer screening tests, universal cancer screening guidelines unique for LS (including colonoscopy) are poorly adhered to by LS variant heterozygotes (LSVH). Currently, it is unclear whether immunogenomic components produced as a result of neoantigen formation can be used as novel biomarkers in LS. We hypothesize that: (i) LSVH produce measurable and dynamic immunogenomic components in blood, and (ii) these quantifiable immunogenomic components correlate with cancer onset and stage. Here, we discuss feasibility and propose the potential to: (a) identify personalised novel immunogenomic biomarkers, (b) reduce invasive cancer screening tests and thus increase non-invasive cancer surveillance, (c) improve compliance and adherence to recommended cancer screening guidelines in LSVH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer screening; SF-12
Online: 9 December 2022 (01:08:54 CET)
Background: Participation is low (43%) in Australia’s National Bowel Cancer Screening Program which provides a biennial Fecal Immunochemical Test kit mailed to the home of Australians aged 50-74 years. While several factors for non-participation have been identified, the role of mental and physical health on screening behaviour has not been assessed. Methods: Participants of the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry Cohort were asked to complete a questionnaire on their colorectal cancer screening in the past five years and a validated measure of mental and physical health. The association between mental and physical health and screening was determined for Australian participants aged 45-75 years who had never been diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for measured potential confounders. Results: Of the 1130 eligible participants, 819 reported colorectal cancer screening in the past five years (72%). After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no evidence that overall mental or physical health was associated with colorectal cancer screening. However, one specific scale, general health, was positively associated with colorectal cancer screening (p=0.014) with those reporting higher levels of general health undergoing screening.Conclusion: We found limited evidence that mental and physical health, as measured by a short questionnaire, are associated with colorectal cancer screening. A potential limitation is reverse causation where previous screening may have impacted mental or physical health. A more detailed study of physical and mental health as barriers or enablers of screening is needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0135.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: convolutional neural networks (CNNs); deep learning; computer-aided diagnosis; colorectal polyps; colorectal cancer; colonoscopy
Online: 8 October 2021 (10:50:53 CEST)
As a relatively high percentage of adenoma polyps are missed, a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool based on deep learning can aid the endoscopist in diagnosing colorectal polyps or colorectal cancer in order to decrease polyps missing rate and prevent colorectal cancer mortality. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is a deep learning method and has achieved better results in detecting and segmenting specific objects in images in the last decade than conventional models such as regression, support vector machines or artificial neural networks. In recent years, based on the studies in medical imaging criteria, CNN models have acquired promising results in detecting masses and lesions in various body organs, including colorectal polyps. In this review, the structure and architecture of CNN models and how colonoscopy images are processed as input and converted to the output are explained in detail. In most primary studies conducted in the colorectal polyp detection and classification field, the CNN model has been regarded as a black box since the calculations performed at different layers in the model training process have not been clarified precisely. Furthermore, I discuss the differences between the CNN and conventional models, inspect how to train the CNN model for diagnosing colorectal polyps or cancer, and evaluate model performance after the training process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: heterocyclic amines (HCAs); meat intake; colorectal cancer; colorectal adenomas; cancer prevention
Online: 9 May 2017 (06:13:18 CEST)
Several evidences suggest that the positive association between meat intake and colorectal adenoma (CRA) and cancer (CRC) risk is mediated by mutagenic compounds generated during cooking at high temperature. A number of epidemiological studies have estimated the effect of meat-related mutagens intake on CRC/CRA risk with contradictory and sometime inconsistent results. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus) to identify articles reporting the relationship between the intake of meat-related mutagens (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine: PhIP, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline: MeIQx, 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline: DiMeIQx, benzo(a) pyrene: (B(a)P) and “meat derived mutagenic activity”: MDM) and CRC/CRA risk. A random-effect model was used to calculate the risk association. Thirty-nine studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Polled CRA risk (15229 cases) was significantly increased by intake of PhIP (OR=1.20; 95%CI:1.13,1.28; p<0.001), MeIQx (OR=1.14; 95%CI:1.05,1.23; p=0.001), DiMeIQx (OR=1.13; 95%CI:1.05,1.21; p=0.001), B(a)P (OR=1.10; 95%CI:1.02,1.19; p=0.017) and MDM (OR=1.17; 95%CI:1.07,1.28; p=0.001). A linear and curvilinear trend was observed in dose-response meta-analisis between CRA risk in association with PhIP and MDM, MeIQx, respectively. CRC risk (21344 cases) was increased by uptake of MeIQx (OR=1.14; 95%CI:1.04,1.25; p=0.004), DiMeIQx (OR=1.12; 95%CI:1.02,1.22; p=0.014) and MDM (OR=1.12; 95%CI:1.06,1.19; p<0.001). No publication bias could be detected whereas heterogeneity was in some cases rather high. Mutagenic compounds formed during cooking of meat at high temperature may be responsible of its carcinogenicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1530.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Screening; COVID
Online: 22 August 2023 (10:53:19 CEST)
Background: The interruption of the activity of the population-based organized colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs due to the COVID pandemic may have affected their results in terms of detection of preneoplastic lesions and CRC. We evaluated the impact of the COVID pandemic on the delays, participation, adherence to colonoscopies, lesions detected, and CRC stage at di-agnosis in a CRC screening program. Methods: We analyzed all the invitations between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2021. We defined the pandemic period as the period after March 12, 2020. We calculated the delay intervals (successive and all rounds), the rates of participation, adherence to colonoscopy after a positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT), and the diagnostic yield of colonoscopy, specifically CRC and colorectal neoplasia (CRC and/or adenoma), as well as CRC stage at diagnosis. Results: In the period analyzed, 976,187 invitations were sent (61.0% pandemic), 439,687 FIT were returned (62.4% pandemic) and 23,092 colonoscopies were performed (59.1% pandemic). Colon-oscopies were normal in 7,378 subjects (32.4%) and a CRC was detected in 916 subjects (4.0%). In successive rounds, the delay increased significantly seven months during the pandemic period (p<0.001). In all the invitations, the delay from the invitation to the colonoscopy increased sig-nificantly by 8 days (p<0.001). Once adjusted for the confounding variables, participation in the screening program increased significantly (OR=1.1; 95% CI=1.09-1.11), with no changes in the adherence to colonoscopy (OR=0.9; 95% CI=0.8-1.0). We found no differences in the diagnostic yield of colonoscopy in terms of CRC (OR=0.90; 95% CI=0.78-1.02) or colorectal neoplasia (OR=0.98; 95% CI=0.92-1.03) detection. Finally, we found no differences in CRC stage at diagnosis (p=0.2). Conclusions: Although the interruption of the CRC screening program due to the COVID pan-demic increased the delays, it did not reduce participation, adherence to colonoscopy, or the di-agnostic yield of colonoscopy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0257.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SLC15A4; germline variant; familial colorectal cancer; whole exome sequencing
Online: 9 March 2021 (10:24:33 CET)
About 15% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients have first-degree relatives affected by the same malignancy. However, for most families the cause of familial aggregation of CRC is unknown. In order to identify novel high-to-moderate penetrant germline variants underlying CRC susceptibility, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on four CRC cases and two unaffected family members of a Polish family without any mutation in known CRC predisposition genes. After WES, we used our in-house developed Familial Cancer Variant Prioritization Pipeline and identified two novel variants in the solute carrier family 15 member 4 (SLC15A4) gene. The heterozygous missense variant, p. Y444C, was predicted to affect the phylogenetically conserved PTR2/POT domain and to have a deleterious effect on the function of the encoded peptide/histidine transporter. The other variant was located in the upstream region of the same gene (GRCh37.p13, 12_129308531_C_T; 43bp upstream of transcription start site, ENST00000266771.5) and it was annotated to affect the promoter region of SLC15A4 as well as binding sites of 17 different transcription factors. Our findings of two distinct variants in the same gene may indicate a synergistic up-regulation of SLC15A4 as the underlying genetic cause and implicate this gene for the first time in genetic inheritance of familial CRC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1837.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: colorectal cancer; risk factors; oncogenesis; lifestyle; gut microbiota; prognosis
Online: 28 August 2023 (08:44:19 CEST)
Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Numerous pathophysiological mechanisms, such as abnormal cell proliferation, cell differentiation, resistance to apoptosis, invasion of structures adjacent to colorectal tumor cells, and distant metastasis, are involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. These processes are initiated by the complex interaction of a number of genetic and environmental factors, including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, alcohol consumption, smoking or gut microbiota. Despite the significant progress achieved in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients with colorectal cancer, there has been recently a noteworthy increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer in individuals below the age of 50 years. Early-onset colorectal cancer has a different frequency of oncogenic mutations, a higher prevalence of mucinous histology, a distinct deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation profile, a more distal location, and lower survival rates. A significant improvement in the prognosis of these patients can be achieved through the detection and removal of modifiable risk factors, along with the implementation of personalized screening strategies for individuals at high risk for this malignancy. Furthermore, gaining comprehension of the pathophysiological mechanisms by which these risk factors contribute to the process of oncogenesis may facilitate the discovery of novel therapeutic targets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0659.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: miRNAs; colorectal cancer; exosomes; liver; metastases
Online: 29 October 2018 (06:55:09 CET)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies with a high incidence and mortality. An essential challenge in colorectal cancer management is to identify new prognostic factors that could better estimate the evolution and treatment responses of this disease. Considering their role in cancer development, progression and metastasis, miRNAs have become an important class of molecules suitable for cancer biomarkers discovery. We performed a systematic search of studies investigating the role of miRNAs in colorectal progression and liver metastasis, published until October 2018. In this review, we present up-to-date information regarding the specific microRNAs involved in CRC development, considering their roles in alteration of Wnt/βcatenin, EGFR, TGFβ and TP53 signaling pathways. We also emphasize the role of miRNAs in controlling the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of CRC cells, a process responsible for liver metastasis in a circulating tumor cell-dependent manner. Furthermore, we discuss the role of miRNAs transported by CRC-derived exosomes in mediating liver metastases, by preparing the secondary pre-metastatic niche and in inducing liver carcinogenesis in a Dicer-dependent manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0975.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: BRAFV600E; colorectal cancer; microsatellite instability; mass spectrometry; N-glycosylation
Online: 14 June 2023 (04:02:04 CEST)
Aberrant glycosylation affects cancer progression and immune evasion. Approximately 15% of colorectal cancers (CRCs) demonstrate microsatellite instability (MSI) and display major differences in outcomes and therapeutic responses as compared to corresponding microsatellite stable (MSS) tumors. We compared the N-glycan profiles of stage II and IV MSI CRC tumors, further subdivided into BRAFV600E wild-type and mutated subgroups (n=10 in each subgroup), with each other and with those of paired non-neoplastic mucosal samples using mass spectrometry. Further, the N-glycans of BRAFV600E wild-type stage II MSI tumors were compared to corresponding MSS tumors (n=9). Multiple differences in N-glycan profiles were identified between MSI CRCs and control tissues, as well as between stage II MSI and MSS samples. MSI CRC tumors showed a lower relative abundance of high-mannose N-glycans than the control tissues or the MSS CRCs. Among MSI CRC subgroups, acidic N-glycans showed tumor stage and BRAF mutation status dependent variation. Especially large, sulfated/phosphorylated, and putative terminal N-acetylhexosamine containing acidic N-glycans differed between the MSI CRC subgroups, showing opposite changes in stage II and IV, when comparing BRAF mutated and wild-type tumors. Our results show that molecular subgroups of CRC have characteristic glycan profiles that may explain certain carcinogenic properties of MSI tumors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer; ddPCR; KRAS; NRAS; BRAF; EGFR
Online: 5 May 2022 (15:24:14 CEST)
Background: Biomarker profiles should represent a coherent description of the colorectal cancer (CRC) stage and its evolution. Methods: Using droplet digital PCR, we detected the allelic frequencies (AF) of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF and EGFR mutations from 60 tumors. We employed a pair-wise association approach to estimate the risk involving AF mutations as outcome variables for clinical data and as predicting variables for tumor-staging. We evaluated correlations between mutations AFs and also between the mutations and histopathology features (tumor staging, inflammation, differentiation and invasiveness). Results: KRAS G12/G13 mutations were present in all patients. KRAS Q61 was significantly associated with poor differentiation, high desmoplastic reaction, invasiveness (ypT4) and metastasis (ypM1). NRAS and BRAF were associated with the right-side localization of tumors. Diabetic patients had a higher risk to exhibit NRAS G12/G13 mutations. BRAF’s presence limited the invasiveness in the submucosa, co-existing with NRAS G12/G13 mutations. Conclusions: The associations we found and the mutational AF we reported may help to understand disease processes and may be considered as potential CCR biomarker candidates. In addition, we propose representative mutation panels associated with specific clinical and histopathological features of CRC, as a unique opportunity to refine the degree of personalization of CRC treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1971.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: DC-CIK; immunotherapy; colorectal cancer
Online: 29 May 2023 (05:03:40 CEST)
Background Successful treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who failed to response to first-line treatment has been a challenge due to their low response rate for later-line treatment and poor progression free survival and overall survival. The application of dendritic cell-cytokine-induced killer cells (DC-CIK) immunotherapy combined with conventional treat-ment, either surgical resection or chemotherapy, showed improvement in survivals in first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate the benefit of dendritic cell-cytokine-induced killer cells (DC-CIK) immunotherapy for patient with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. Methods A total of 20 patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer receiving cell-cytokine-induced killer cells (DC-CIK) immunotherapy were enrolled to this study. Among these patients, 11 patients responded to the treatment and the remaining 9 patients did not. All patients were followed for at least one years and the determination of treatment response was mainly based on image study at 6 months after the completion of treatment. Data were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Results The treatment response rate of the study group is 55% (11/20). The median progression free sur-vival (PFS) and median overall survival (OS) of responsive patients was 7 months and 12 months, respectively. The median overall survival of irresponsive patients was 9.5 months. Four responsive patients received subsequent metastectomy or cytoreduction plus hyperthermic in-traperitoneal chemotherapy surgery (CRS + HIPEC). Conclusion DC-CIK cell-based immunotherapy may provide benefits for patients with refractory mCRC with improved response rate and progression free survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer; CD133; siRNA; Oxaliplatin; combination therapy
Online: 19 July 2020 (21:01:21 CEST)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is considered as one of the leading types of cancer in the world. CD133, as a cancer stem cell marker, has a pivotal role in the development of drug resistance, migration, and stemness properties of CRC cells. This study designed to check the combined effect of CD133siRNA and Oxaliplatin on proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and stemness properties of CRC cells in HT-29 cell line.MTT assay was performed to define the combined effect of CD133siRNA and Oxaliplatin on the viability of HT-29 cells. In order to figure out the effect of this combination therapy on CD133 expression at the gene and protein level, qRT-PCR and western blot were exploited, respectively. The ability of cell migration was tested by wound healing assay as well. Also, colony formation and sphere formation were conducted to assess the stemness properties in the combination group. Flow cytometry was conducted to investigate the apoptosis, cell cycle, and surface expression of CD133 in different groups. Finally, the expression of migration-, and stemness-associated genes were measured by qRT-PCR. We indicated that silencing of CD133 reduces the migration and stemness properties of colorectal cancerous cells. This suppression makes HT-29 cells more sensitive to Oxaliplatin and reduces the effective dose of this chemical drug. Therefore, the suppression of CD133 in combination with Oxaliplatin treatment might be a promising therapeutic approach in the treatment of colorectal cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: colorectal cancer; gene expression; molecular classification; molecular subtyping
Online: 2 April 2018 (09:55:26 CEST)
Molecular classifications of colorectal cancer (CRC) are benefitting cancer research by providing insights into subtype-specific disease prognosis and better therapeutic intervention. So far different conventional DNA markers such as microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), chromosomal instability (CIN), and BRAF and KRAS mutations have been used to classify CRC patients but have not shown promising prognostic values. Here, for the first time, we show classification of CRC tumors from Saudi Arabian patients based on gene expression profile (GEP). An existing method of CRC subtyping has been applied to the GEP of tumors from Saudi CRC patients. Survival analysis was carried out on predicted CRC subtypes. In-silico functional analyses were conducted on the gene signature used for subtype prediction. The predicted subtypes showed distinct but statistically insignificant overall survival distribution (log-rank test, p = 0.069). Comparison of predicted subtypes in Saudi CRC patients with that of the French one showed significant dissimilarity in the two populations (Chi-square test, p = 0.0091). Functional analyses of the gene signature used for subtyping suggest their association with “cancer” and “gastrointestinal diseases”. Most of the signature genes were found differentially expressed in CRC tumors compared to adjacent normal tissues. Such a classification framework might help improve the treatment of colorectal cancer patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0483.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: next-generation sequencing; colorectal cancer; ATM mutation; FBXW7 mutation
Online: 20 September 2020 (15:20:52 CEST)
Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology detects specific mutations that can provide treatment opportunities for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We included 145 CRC patients who underwent surgery. We analyzed the mutation frequencies of common actionable genes and their association with clinicopathological characteristics and oncologic outcomes using targeted NGS. Approximately 97.9% (142) of patients showed somatic mutations. Frequent mutations were observed in TP53 (70%), KRAS (49%), and APC (47%). TP53 mutations were significantly linked to higher overall stage (p=0.038) and lower disease-free survival (DFS) (p=0.039). ATM mutation was significantly associated with higher tumor stage (p=0.012) and shorter overall survival (OS) (p=0.041). Stage 3 and 4 patients with ATM mutations (p=0.023) had shorter OS, and FBXW7 mutation was significantly associated with shorter DFS (p=0.002). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, ATM mutation was an independent biomarker for poor prognosis of OS (p=0.022). TP53 and FBXW7 mutations are independent biomarkers for poor prognosis of DFS (p=0.042 and 0.030, respectively). A comprehensive analysis of the molecular markers for CRC can provide insights into the mechanisms underlying disease progression and help optimize a personalized therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2179.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal neoplasm; Biomarkers; Bioplex; Immune checkpoint proteins
Online: 30 June 2023 (07:18:45 CEST)
The tumor microenvironment of colorectal cancer (CRC) is heterogenous; thus, it is likely that multiple immune-related and inflammatory markers are simultaneously expressed in the tumor. The aim of this study was to identify immune-related and inflammatory markers expressed in freshly frozen CRC tissues and to investigate whether they are related to the clinicopathological features and prognosis of CRC. Seventy patients with CRC who underwent curative surgical resection between December 2014 and January 2017 were included in this study. Tissue samples were obtained from tumor and non-tumor areas in the patients’ colons. The concentrations of immune-related markers (APRIL/TNFSF13, BAFF, LAG-3, PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4) and inflammatory markers (CHIT, MMP-3, osteocalcin, pentraxin-3, sTNF-R1, and sTNF-R2) in the samples were measured using the Bio-plex Multiplex Immunoassay system. The concentrations of APRIL/TNFSF13, BAFF, and MMP-3 in the samples were significantly high; thus, we conducted analyses based on the cutoff values for these three markers. The high APRIL/TNFSH13 expression group showed a significantly higher rate of metastatic lesions than the low expression group, whereas the high MMP-3 expression group had higher CEA levels, more lymph node metastases, and more advanced disease stages than the low expression group. The five-year disease-free survival of the high MMP-3 expression group was significantly shorter than that of the low expression group (65.1% vs. 90.2%, p=0.033). This study provides evidence that the APRIL/TNFSF13, BAFF, and MMP-3 pathway is overexpressed CRC tissues and is associated with unfavorable clinicopathological features and poor prognosis in CRC patients. These markers could serve as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for CRC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: colorectal cancer cells; metformin; apoptosis; oxidative stress
Online: 21 March 2018 (03:30:49 CET)
Accumulating evidence suggests that metformin, used as an antidiabetic drug, possesses anticancer properties. Metformin reduced the incidence and growth of experimental tumors in vivo. In a randomized clinical trial among nondiabetic patients, metformin treatment significantly decreased the number of aberrant crypt foci compared to the untreated group with a follow-up of 1 month. In our study, HT29 cells were treated with graded concentrations of metformin, 10 mM/25 mM/50 mM, for 24/48 hours. We performed immunofluorescence experiments by means of confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis to evaluate a panel of factors involved in apoptotic/autophagic processes and oxidative stress response. Moreover, HT29 cells treated with metformin were analyzed by flow cytometry assay to detect the cell apoptosis rate. The results demonstrate that metformin exerts growth inhibitory effects on cultured HT29 cells by increasing both apoptosis and autophagy; moreover, it affects the survival of cultured cells inhibiting the transcriptional activation of nuclear factor E2–related factor 2 (NRF-2) and nuclear factor–kappa B (NF-κB). The effects of metformin on HT29 cells were dose- and time-dependent. These results are very intriguing, since metformin is emerging as a multifaceted drug: it has a good safety profile and is associated with low cost, and it might be a promising candidate for the prevention or treatment of colorectal cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0040.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: APCDD1; HDAC5; germline variants; familial colorectal cancer; whole exome sequencing; promoter activity
Online: 1 February 2021 (14:04:24 CET)
Germline mutations in predisposition genes account for only 20% of all familial colorectal cancer (CRC) and the remaining genetic burden may be due to rare high-to-moderate-penetrance germline variants that are not explored. With the aim of identifying such potential cancer predisposing variants, we performed whole exome sequencing on three CRC cases and three unaffected members of a Polish family and identified two novel heterozygous variants; a coding variant in APC down-regulated 1 gene (APCDD1, p.R299H) and a non-coding variant in the 5’ untranslated region (UTR) of histone deacetylase 5 gene (HDAC5). Sanger sequencing confirmed the variants segregating with the disease and Taqman assays revealed 8 additional APCDD1 variants in a cohort of 1705 familial CRC patients and no further HDAC5 variants. Proliferation assays indicated an insignificant proliferative impact for the APCDD1 variant. Luciferase reporter assays using the HDAC5 variant resulted in an enhanced promoter activity. Targeting of transcription factor binding sites of SNAI-2 and TCF4 interrupted by HDAC5 variant showed a significant impact of TCF4 on promoter activity of mutated HDAC5. Our findings contribute not only to the identification of unrecognized genetic causes of familial CRC but also underline the importance of 5´UTR variants affecting transcriptional regulation and the pathogenesis of complex disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0260.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer liver metastasis; heterogeneity; gene; transcriptome; protein; metabolism; immune; therapy
Online: 6 November 2023 (03:09:57 CET)
Colorectal cancer is a high-incidence tumor that has a high mortality rate due to its frequent metastasis to the liver. The difference in genes, proteins, and immune microenvironment between the primary and metastatic sites causes them to show different responses to treatment. Colorectal cancer liver metastasis patients also tend to show poorer treatment response and prognosis. Therefore, in this paper, we summarize the heterogeneity exhibited after colorectal cancer liver metastasis from five aspects (gene, transcriptome, protein, metabolism, and immunity), and we found that except for the genetic heterogeneity, the other four aspects exhibite significant heterogeneity, which might serve as a new therapeutic direction and a prognostic marker for patients with liver metastasis. Finally, the therapeutic modalities regarding tumors are rapidly evolving, and we have also summarize the new clinical therapeutic modalities currently proposed based on these heterogeneities, aiming to provide new therapeutic ideas for the clinical treatment of patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1289.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer; primary tumor resection; synchronous; metastasis; asymptomatic
Online: 18 August 2023 (07:25:39 CEST)
The role of upfront primary tumor resection (PTR) in patients with unresectable metastatic col-orectal cancer (CRC) without severe symptoms remains controversial. We retrospectively ana-lyzed the role of PTR in overall survival (OS) in different subgroups. Among 331 patients diag-nosed with synchronous metastatic CRC between 2010 and 2020, 223 were analyzed. The PTR group (n = 42) showed better performance (p = 0.038); higher frequencies of right-sided origin (p = 0.014), T4 stage (p = 0.005), M1a stage (p = 0.015), and <2 organ metastases (p = 0.002); and re-ceived fewer targeted agents (p < 0.001) than the chemotherapy group (n = 181). The PTR group showed longer OS (20.5 versus 14.0 months, p = 0.016), but PTR was marginally related to OS in multivariate analysis (p = 0.060). Male sex (p = 0.022), good performance status (p = 0.07), left-sided tumor (p = 0.069), low serum carcinoembryonic antigen level (p = 0.092), T3 stage (p = 0.029), M1a stage (p = 0.025), <2 organ metastases (p = 0.017), and administration of targeted agents, especially bevacizumab (p = 0.024), were related to survival benefit after PTR. Upfront PTR should be considered when selecting patients with favorable prognoses for bevacizumab administration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0722.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Theragnostics; nuclear medicine; thyroid cancer; neuroendocrine tumors; prostate cancer; colorectal cancer; cholangiocarcinoma; glioma
Online: 12 September 2023 (08:51:02 CEST)
Cancer theragnostics is a novel approach that combines diagnostic imaging and radionuclide therapy. It is based on the use of a pair of radiopharmaceuticals, one optimized for positron emission tomography imaging, through linkage to a proper radionuclide, and the other bearing a beta-emitter isotope that can induce significant damage to cancer cells. In recent years, the use of theragnostics in nuclear medicine clinical practice has increased considerably, and thus investigation has focused on the identification of novel radionuclides that can bind to molecular targets which are typically dysregulated in different cancers. The major advantages of the theragnostic approach include elimination of multi-step procedures, reduced adverse effects to normal tissues, early diagnosis, better predicting responses and personalized patient care. This review aims to discuss emerging theragnostic molecules that have been investigated in a series of human malignancies, including gliomas, thyroid cancer, neuroendocrine tumors, cholangiocarcinoma and prostate cancer, as well as potent and recently introduced molecular targets, like cell-surface receptors, kinases, and cell adhesion proteins. Furthermore, special reference has been made to copper radionuclides as theragnostic agents, and their radiopharmaceutical applications since they present promising alternatives to the well-studied gallium-68 and lutetium-177.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0448.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer screening; test; alternative; non-invasive; CRC; review
Online: 17 March 2021 (16:01:58 CET)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading cancer-related causes of death in the world. Since the 70s, many countries have adopted different CRC screening programs which has resulted in a decrease in mortality. However, current screening test options still present downsides. The commercialized stool-based tests present high false-positive rates and low sensitivity, which negatively affects the detection of early stage carcinogenesis. The gold standard colonoscopy has low uptake due to its invasiveness and the perception of discomfort and embarrassment that the procedure may bring.In this review, we collected and described the latest data about alternative CRC screening techniques that can overcome these disadvantages. Web of Science and PubMed were employed as search engines for studies reporting on CRC screening tests and future perspectives. The searches generated 555 articles, of which 93 titles were selected. Finally, a total of 50 studies, describing 14 different CRC alternative tests, were included. Among the investigated techniques the main feature that could have an impact on CRC screening perception and uptake was the ease of sample collection. Urine, exhaled breath and blood-based tests promise to achieve good diagnostic performance (sensitivity of 63-100%, 90-95%, 47-97%, respectively) while minimizing stress and discomfort for the patient.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: risk factors; second primary cancer (SPC); colorectal cancer; classification techniques; extreme gradient boosting
Online: 15 December 2019 (13:30:09 CET)
In Taiwan, colorectal cancer is ranked second and third in terms of mortality and cancer incidence, respectively. In addition, medical expenditures related to colorectal cancer are considered to be the third highest. While advances in treatment strategies have provided cancer patients with longer survival, potentially harmful second primary cancers can occur. Therefore, second primary colorectal cancer analysis is an important issue with regard to clinical management. In this study, a novel predictive scheme was developed for predicting the risk factors associated with second colorectal cancer in patients with colorectal cancer by integrating five data mining classification techniques, including support vector machine, random forest, multivariate adaptive regression splines, extreme learning machine, and extreme gradient boosting. In total, 4,287 patients in the datasets provided by three hospital tumor registries were used. Our empirical results revealed that this proposed predictive scheme provided promising classification results and the identification of important risk factors for predicting second colorectal cancer based on accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve metrics. Collectively, our clinical findings suggested that the most important risk factors were the combined stage, age at diagnosis, BMI, surgical margins of the primary site, tumor size, sex, regional lymph nodes positive, grade/differentiation, primary site, and drinking behavior. Accordingly, these risk factors should be monitored for the early detection of second primary tumors in order to improve treatment and intervention strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0988.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Colorectal cancer stem cells; LGR5; Wnt signaling pathway; Single-cell omics technology
Online: 17 October 2023 (05:48:24 CEST)
Once discovered, cancer stem cells have become a hot topic in the research of cancer therapy. These cells possess stem cell-like self-renewal and differentiation capacities and are important factors that dominate cancer metastasis, therapy- resistance and recurrence. What's worse, their own characteristics make them difficult to be eliminated. Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Targeting colorectal cancer stem cells (CRCSCs) can inhibit colorectal cancer metastasis, enhance therapeutic efficacy, and reduce recurrence. Here, we introduced the origin, marker proteins, identification, cultivation and research techniques of CRCSCs, summarized the signaling pathways that regulate the stemness of CRCSCs, such as Wnt, JAK/STAT3, Notch, and Hh signaling pathway. In addition to these, we also reviewed anti-CRCSC drugs targeting signaling pathways，markers，and other regulators in recent years. These will help researchers gain insight into the current agents targeting to CRCSCs, explore new cancer drugs, and propose potential therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer; CXCL14; gene silence; metastasis; DNA methylation
Online: 3 October 2023 (11:09:47 CEST)
CXCL14 is one of the most evolutionarily conserved members of the chemokine family and is constitutionally expressed in multiple organs, suggesting that it is involved in the homeostasis maintenance of the system. CXCL14 is highly expressed in colon epithelial cells and shows obvious gene silencing in clinical colon cancer samples, suggesting that its silencing is related to the immune escape of cancer cells. In this paper, we analyzed the expression profiles of multiple human clinical colon cancer datasets and mouse colon cancer models to reveal the variation trend of CXCL14 expression during colitis, colon polyps, primary colon cancer, and liver metastases. The relationship between CXCL14 gene silencing and promoter hypermethylation was revealed through the colorectal carcinoma methylation database. The results suggest that CXCL14 is a tumor suppressor gene in colorectal carcinoma, which is activated first and then silenced during the process of tumor occurrence and deterioration. Promoter hypermethylation is the main cause of CXCL14 silencing. The methylation level of CXCL14 is correlated with the anatomic site of tumor occurrence and positively correlated with patient age, and associated with prognosis. Reversing the hypermethylation of CXCL14 may be an epigenetic therapy for colon cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Nanobiotechnology; Biomarkers; Biosensors; Lung cancer; Skin Cancer; Colorectal Cancer
Online: 7 March 2022 (15:03:00 CET)
In the era of nanotechnology, researchers are implementing point to care service to cancer patients to detect malignancy beforehand and to reduce the mortality rate of cancers. Cancer is known to be the most fatal disease among all other diseases and the survivability from cancer is quite impossible if the stage of the cancer is an advanced level. Though the early detection of cancer can increase the chances of survival with a double fold. Biosensor is a part of nanotechnology which is capable to provide point to care service in the field of medicine. With the rising number of cancer occurrences being identified around the world and the increasing number of deaths because of the identification of advanced cancer, biosensors can play a significant part in the early detection of cancer. New molecular methods, including as genomic and proteomic approaches, are increasingly being used to study patient molecular profiles. When such diagnosis method is paired with bioinformatics tools, they generate new data that can be used to discover new disease biomarkers. Finding precise and sensitive indicators that are corelated to a specific disease, as with many other diseases, can be challenging. Furthermore, the concentration of biomarkers in biological fluids varies according to illness states and phases. Peptides, proteins, up or down regulated expression of gene markers, and gene alternation are all examples of molecular markers that are commonly used to diagnose cancer. In this article, we have highlighted six different deadliest cancers such as Ovarian, Breast, Prostrate, Lung, Colorectal and Liver cancer. The article contains distinct types of biomarkers which are normally found in these kinds of cancer and generally used as a potential diagnostic target in the medicine field. The article mainly summarized the application of different types of biosensors devices in the detection of the mostly found biomarkers in the above cancer types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0154.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Cancer stem cell; Neural progenitor cell; Wnt/β-catenin; K-Ras
Online: 10 March 2022 (14:26:20 CET)
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a tumor cell subpopulation that drives tumor progression and metastasis, leading to poor overall survival of patients. In colorectal cancer (CRC), hyper-activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by mutation of both Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and K-Ras increases the size of the CSC population. We previously showed that the CPD0857 inactivates Wnt/β-catenin signaling by promoting ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of β-catenin and Ras proteins, thereby decreasing proliferation and increasing apoptosis of CRC lines. CPD0857 also decreased growth and invasiveness of CRC cells harboring mutant K-Ras resistant to EGFR mAb therapy. Here, we show that CPD0857 treatment decreases proliferation and increases neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). CDP0857 effectively reduced expression of CSC markers and suppressed self-renewal capacity. CPD0857 treatment also inhibited proliferation and expression of CSC markers in D-K-Ras MT cells carrying K-Ras, APC and PI3K mutations, indicating inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling. Moreover, CPD0857-treated xenograft mice showed regression of tumor growth and decreased numbers of CSCs in tumors. We conclude that CPD0857 could serve as the basis of a drug development strategy targeting CSCs activated through Wnt/β-catenin-Ras MAPK-PI3K/AKT signaling in CRCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1602.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Tuberous sclerosis; The Cancer Genome Atlas
Online: 24 November 2023 (11:35:35 CET)
Background and objectives: TSC1 is a crucial component of the mTOR pathway, impacting cell growth, proliferation, and autophagy, while TSC2 is a tumor suppressor gene that regulates cell growth and is associated with the mTOR signaling pathway. In the present study, we analyzed TSC1 and TSC2 mRNA expression levels in rectal cancer, and evaluated the clinicopathological and prognostic characteristics of TSC1 and TSC2. Materials and Methods: TSC1 and TSC2 mRNA expression was examined in various cancer types. We further evaluated survival to determine the prognostic significance of TSC1 and TSC2 mRNA in CRC using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. Results: The study focused on rectal cancer, as it exhibited the most promising results. The patients were split into two subgroups, each comprising 50% of the total, based on the TSC gene expression levels. This division was made to assess the clinical characteristics associated with the expression of TSC1 and TSC2 genes. In the study, lower TSC1 expression was linked to venous invasion in rectal cancer patients, and there was also a related trend with lymphatic invasion, although it didn't reach statistical significance. Lower TSC2 expression was observed in younger patients and had some associations with sex and M stage, but these correlations were not statistically significant. When it came to survival analysis, TSC1 expression did not significantly impact overall survival, while higher TSC2 expression was associated with a poorer prognosis in rectal cancer. To enhance our comprehension, additional research, especially in larger case studies, is needed to explore the molecular mechanisms and clinical characteristics of TSC genes in colorectal cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1887.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Cell Glycolysis, Colorectal Cancer, Gens, ENO3, GPC1, P4HA1, IDUA, ANKZF1
Online: 28 September 2023 (04:40:08 CEST)
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Aerobic glycolysis precedes obtainment of oncogenic mutations and loss of tumor suppressors, promoting the progress of CRC. Although numerous biomarkers have been identified to be associated with prognosis and survival, a glycolysis-related gene signature in CRC has not been explored. Methods: mRNA expression profiling data in a group of CRC patients (n = 540) was extracted from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Gene set enrichment analysis (GESA) was performed to identify gene sets that were significantly different between CRC tissues and normal tissues. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to identify genes significantly associated with overall survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to establish a prognostic risk parameter formula. Kaplan–Meier survival estimates and the log-rank test were used to validate the significance of risk parameters for prognosis prediction. Results: Five glycolysis-related genes (ENO3, GPC1, P4HA1, IDUA, ANKZF1) were identified to be significantly associated with overall survival (AUC=0.754). Based on the five‑gene signature, patients with CRC were divided into high and low‑risk subgroups. CRC patients with a low-risk score had better survival benefits than those with a high one (P < 0.001). Conclusions: A five-gene signature associated with glycolysis for predicting the outcome of CRC patients was generated, serving as a valuable prognosis model with high efficiency and potential targeted therapy of CRC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0102.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: colorectal cancer; alternative splicing; mucins; biomarkers; precision medicine
Online: 3 June 2021 (11:30:37 CEST)
Colorectal cancer prognosis get worse with advancement of disease into metastatic stage. There is a pertinent need to develop prognostic biomarkers that can be used for personalized and precision medicine. Alternative splicing provides an insight into understanding of changes at isoform expression level which may not be evident at gene level. In this direction, we utilized our prior knowledge about significant alternatively spliced genes and chose ADAM12 and MUC4 for further characterization in a metastatic cell line model. These genes were found to be good prognostic indicators in The Cancer Genome Atlas database. We studied the gene organization and designed primers to specifically amplify a group of isoforms. Differential expression of these group of isoforms was observed in normal, primary and metastatic colorectal cancer cell lines. We further validated the results using sanger sequencing. Isoform expression was found to respond to the 5-fluorouracil treatment. RNAseq analysis of the cell lines further validated the differential expression of gene isoforms. Successful detection of ADAM12 and MUC4 in cell lysates varied according to the antibody used which may reflect differential expression of isoforms. This comprehensive study underscores the importance of studying alternatively spliced isoforms and their probable used as prognostic or predictive biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0679.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Keywords. Colorectal cancer, peritoneal metastasis, HIPEC, surgery, feasibility.
Online: 27 November 2020 (08:49:39 CET)
.Background: Prophylactic hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) showed promising results in patients with colorectal carcinoma at high risk of recurrence but still without clinically and radiologically evident signs of peritoneal spread. This study aims to analyze the feasibility of this proactive, early phase, multimodality approach. Methods: A mono-institutional, prospective, parallel, two-stage phase II trial enrolled 49 patients to standard surgery or surgery plus intraoperative HIPEC. Before the procedure and during surgery, patients received intravenous fluorouracil (and leucovorin to potentiate oxaliplatin activity. Data analysis included length of hospital stay, surgery duration, type of surgery and chemotherapy-related complications risk score. Results: No significant difference was seen in the median time spent in the hospital with a median stay of 7 days in both groups (p=0.5720). The surgical procedure's median duration was longer in the HIPEC group than in the control one. Side-effects and surgical complications did not cross at any time the Pocock-type boundary for side/effect monitoring (p=0.80, N.S.). Conclusions: The present prospective study results demonstrate the feasibility and safety of the colorectal surgery plus HIPEC treatment in patients with colorectal cancer patients at high-risk for peritoneal invasion, although clinically and radiologically undetectable.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0434.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer, cancer stem cells, mesenchymal stromal cells, stem cell markers, chemoresistance, treatment personalization, biomarkers, cancer stem cell markers
Online: 21 September 2018 (10:07:54 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Treatment failure in primary as well as metastatic cancer patients, caused by chemo and radio resistance, has truncated the research for the applicability of personalized medicine. The use of stem cells and cancer stem cells in such a treatment approach will be reviewed in this study. RESULTS: CRC stem cells prove to be a promising asset for CRC treatment optimization both by serving as biomarkers for the current therapy modalities by means of treatment personalization and patient/tumor stratification, as well as in the development of targeted therapies, selective for the stem cell population. Similar conclusions are drawn, regarding mesenchymal stromal cells and their effect in CRC therapy; while resident stromal cells of tumor microenvironment seem to promote the tumorigenic and metastatic processes in addition to conferring to the chemo- and radio resistance, under certain conditions they are able to improve the treatment outcome of CRC chemotherapy, e.g. by targeted enzyme/prodrug treatment of CRC cells. CONCLUSION: This review, truncates the dynamic potential of cancer stem cells and other stem cell types in CRC treatment personalization as well as, in the improvement of current treatment approaches opting to a higher therapeutic rate, improved prognosis, survival and quality of life for CRC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1909.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Photodynamic therapy; Apoptosis; Porphyrin; Metalla-assemblies; Arene ruthenium; Chemotherapy
Online: 28 September 2023 (04:03:48 CEST)
Treatment regimens are regularly evolving, together with novel therapies and drugs. Such evolution is necessary to circumvent resistance mechanisms and to give patients the best possible health care. When dealing with cancer, most regimens involve multiple treatments (surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, etc.). The purpose of this study was to associate in a single compound metal-based drugs and photosensitizers to combine chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. Two arene-ruthenium tetrapyridylporphyrin compounds (2H-TPyP-arene-Ru and Zn-TPyP-arene-Ru) have been synthesized and evaluated on two colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT116 and HT-29). The cytotoxicity and phototoxicity have been evaluated. In addition, the anticancer mechanism and the cell death process mediated by the two compounds were studied. The results showed that the two arene-ruthenium photosensitizer-containing complexes have a strong phototoxic effect after photoactivation. The 2H-TPyP-arene-Ru induced outstanding cytotoxicity when compared to the Zn-TPyP-arene-Ru analogue. Moreover, under light, these two arene-ruthenium photosensitizers induce an apoptotic process in human colorectal cancer cell lines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0366.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: β-Apopicropodophyllin; Radiosensitizer; Topoisomerase inhibitor; ROS, Apoptosis; Colorectal cancer
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:54:40 CET)
β-apopicropodophyllin (APP), a derivative of podophyllotoxin (PPT), has been identified as a potential anti-cancer drug. This study tested whether APP acts as an an-ti-cancer drug and can sensitize colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to radiation treatment. APP had an anti-cancer effect against the CRC cell lines HCT116, and DLD-1, SW480 and COLO320DM with IC50 values of 7.88 nM, and 8.22 nM, 9.84 nM and 7.757 nM, respec-tively induction of DNA damage. Colonogenic and cell counting assays indicated that the combined treatment of APP and γ-ionizing radiation (IR) showed greater retardation of cell growth than either alone, suggesting that APP sensitizes CRC cells to IR. Annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) assays and immunoblot analysis showed that the combined treatment of APP and IR increased apoptosis in CRC cells compared with either APP or IR alone. Results obtained from the xenograft experiments also indicated that the combination of APP and IR enhanced apoptosis in in vivo animal model. Apoptosis induction by the combined treatment of APP and IR resulted from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Inhibition of ROS by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) restored cell viability and decreased the induction of apoptosis by APP and IR in CRC cells. Taken together, these results indicate that a combined treatment of APP and IR might promote apoptosis by inducing ROS in CRC cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0047.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: colorectal neoplasm; nutrition assessment; body composition; electric impedance; prognosis
Online: 5 September 2022 (07:33:30 CEST)
Background: Some studies have shown that an increase in visceral fat is associated with postoperative clinical and oncologic outcomes. However, no studies have used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to determine the effects of visceral fat on the oncologic outcomes of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between visceral fat area (VFA) and clinical, and oncologic outcomes in CRC. Methods: This study included 203 patients who underwent anthropometric measurements by BIA before surgical treatment for CRC between January 2016 and June 2020. Results: According to the cutoff level of VFA by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 85 (40.5%) patients had a low VFA, and 119 (59.5%) had a high VFA. Multivariate analysis found that preoperative CRP (hazard ratio [HR], 3.882; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001–15.051; p=0.050) and nodal stage (HR, 7.996; 95% CI, 1.414–45.209; p=0.019) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival, while sex (HR, 0.110; 95% CI, 0.013–0.905; p=0.040), lymphovascular invasion (HR, 3.560; 95% CI, 1.098–11.544; p=0.034), and VFA (HR, 4.263; 95% CI, 1.280–14.196; p=0.040) were independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS). Conclusion: High VFA preoperatively measured by BIA was associated with inflammations and was an independent prognostic factor for DFS.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1639.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: colorectal cancer; laparoscopic surgery; robotic surgery; open-air surgery
Online: 22 June 2023 (15:14:42 CEST)
Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic-therapeutic prob-lem of pelvic recurrence of rectum cancer, highlighting current surgical standards and the possi-ble role of the minimally invasive approach. This retrospective analysis of our surgical case study wishes to enter this debate while suggesting a possible line of action, based on the site of recur-rence. Materials and Methods: We examined, retrospectively, all the patients diagnosed, between 2008 and 2018, with cancer of the rectum at the "Pietro Valdoni" Department of Surgery and monitored their follow-up for 5 years. The sample consisted of 368 patients with rectal neoplasm, 136 females and 232 males, with an average age of 65.8 (ranging from 37 to 86). In 103 of the cases, the neo-plasm was located in the upper rectum (28%), in 119 cases in the middle rectum (32.3%), in 102 cases in the lower rectum (27.7%), in 31 cases (8.4%) at the level of the right/sigma junction and in 13 cases it was not possible to define the site with certainty (3.5%). Results: We examined all patients diagnosed with cancer of the rectum between 2008 and 2018 at the "Pietro Valdoni" Department of Surgery retrospectively and monitored their follow-up for 5 years. The sample consists of 368 patients with rectal neoplasm, 136 females and 232 males. Conclusions: The discussion remains open as to which approach is best at surgical level, whether laparoscopic, robotic or open-air. Our experience informs us that the most dangerous site remains on the anastomotic site.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0277.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer; survival; KRAS; median; codon; metastasis; sided; tumour
Online: 13 July 2020 (03:03:23 CEST)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer, with rising incidence due to lifestyle and diet. 40% of CRC cases are found to have KRAS mutations. In this study, we investigate the survival outcome of metastatic Colorectal cancer mCRC) patients in Brunei Darussalam restrospectively. Chi-squared test was used to compare the survival outcomes of mCRC patients, and Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the median ages of both groups. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were drawn and logrank test was used to compare the survival outcome between two groups. There was a total of 105 patients with stage IV CRC being treated during the study period. 81.6% (n=62) of mCRC patients were found to have the primary tumours on the left side of the colon. 19 of these 26 (73.1%) mutant KRAS mCRC patients died, while 23 of 50 (46.0%) wild-type KRAS mCRC patients died at the end of the study period, contributing to death rates of 45.2% and 54.8%, correspondingly. 30.3% (n=23) of the study population had a single metastatic site detected (either liver, or lung or any other organs), while 69.7% (n=53) of the 76 mCRC patients had two (double) or more metastatic sites. 69.2% (n=18) and 30.8% (n=8) of the mutant KRAS mCRC patients had mutations within codons 12 and 13, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Brunei Darussalam to analyse both the survival outcomes of metastatic CRC patients and those of mutant KRAS mCRC patients. Chi-squared analysis showed a significant difference between the survival outcomes of wild-type KRAS and mutant KRAS mCRC patients (p-value = 0.024). There was a significant difference in the survival outcome between the mutant KRAS mCRC patients with RCC and mutant KRAS mCRC with LCC patients. There was no significant difference between the survival outcomes of mutant KRAS patients with mutations in either codon 12 or 13 of the KRAS gene (Table 3). However, there is a significant difference in the median survival periods between the mutant KRAS mCRC patients with mutations in codon 12 and those with mutation in codon 13 of the KRAS gene (p-value = 0.003). In conclusion, we found that mutant KRAS mCRC patients had a significantly poorer OS, which was shown to be worse when the primary tumours were found at the left side of the colon. Mutant KRAS mCRC patients with mutations in codon 12 were found to have shorter survival median periods than those with mutations within codon 13.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1044.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer; second-line treatment; angiogenesis inhibitor; VEGF-A; VEGF-D
Online: 15 August 2023 (02:47:40 CEST)
Colorectal cancer is the third most common disease and the second most common cause of death in the world. The drug for second-line treatment depends on the drugs used in first-line treatment and biomarker status. As biomarkers, the RAS gene, BRAF gene, and dMMR/MSI-H, TMB-H, and HER2 statuses have been established in clinical practice, and the corresponding molecularly targeted therapeutic agents are selected based on biomarker status. Given the frequency of biomarkers, it is assumed that when patients move on to second-line treatment, an angiogenesis inhibitor is selected in many cases. For second-line treatment, three angiogenesis inhibitors, bevacizumab (BEV), ramucirumab (RAM), and aflibercept (AFL), are available, and one of them is combined with cytotoxic agents. These three angiogenesis inhibitors are known to inhibit angiogenesis through different mechanisms of action. Although no useful biomarkers are established for selecting angiogenesis inhibitors, previous biomarker studies have suggested that angiogenesis-related factors such as VEGF-A and VEGF-D might be predictors of therapeutic efficacy of angiogenesis inhibitors. These biomarkers are measured as protein levels in plasma and are considered to be hopeful biomarkers. We consider that the rationale for selecting among these three angiogenesis inhibitors should be clarified to benefit patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1576.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer; adipose tissue; miRNAs; serum biomarkers; obesity
Online: 23 May 2023 (05:03:00 CEST)
This work aims to investigate the expression levels of four preselected miRNAs previously linked to Cancer and/or Obesity, with the purpose of finding potential biomarkers in the clinical management of Colorectal Cancer (CRC) developed by obese and non-obese patients. We analyzed samples from a total of 65 subjects, 43 affected by CRC and 22 without cancer. Serum and both subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues (SAT and OAT) were analyzed, as well as tumor and non-tumor colorectal tissues in the case of the CRC patients. The relative expression (2-∆∆Ct) levels of 4 miRNAs (miR-181a-5p, miR-143-3p, miR-132-3p and miR-23a-3p) were measured by RT-qPCR. Serum, SAT and OAT expression levels of these miRNAs showed significant differences between subjects with and without CRC, especially in the group of overweight/obese subjects. In CRC serum levels of miR-181a-5p, miR-143-3p and miR-23a-3p correlated with their levels in both SAT and OAT. Moreover, in the case of miR-181a-5p, these correlations were significantly influenced by the body mass index (BMI). From these data, we can conclude that both adiposity and CRC induce changes in the expression of the miRNAs investigated, demonstrating the potential utility of this panel of miRNAs in the diagnosis and prognosis of CRC patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0265.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: extracellular polymeric substance (EPS); tumor microenvironment (TME); tumor microbiome (TM); tumor-associated macrophages (TAM); colorectal cancer (CRC); Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn); Helicobacter py
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:47:22 CEST)
There is a growing body of evidence supporting the significant role of bacterial biofilms in the pathogenesis of various human diseases including cancer. Biofilms are polymicrobial communities enclosed within an extracellular matrix composed of polysaccharides, proteins, extracellular DNA, and lipids. This complex matrix provides protection against antibiotics and host immune responses, enabling the microorganisms to establish persistent infections. Moreover, biofilms induce anti-inflammatory responses and metabolic changes in the host, further facilitating their survival. Many of these changes are comparable to those observed in cancer cells. This review will cover recent research on the role of bacterial biofilms in carcinogenesis, especially in colorectal (CRC) and gastric cancers, emphasizing the shared physical and chemical characteristics of biofilms and cancer. This review will also discuss the interactions between bacteria and the tumor microenvironment, which can facilitate oncogene expression and cancer progression. This information will provide insight into developing new therapies to identify and treat biofilm-associated cancers, such as utilizing bacteria as delivery vectors, using bacteria to upregulate immune function, or more selectively targeting biofilms and cancer for their shared traits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0320.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Butyrate; Colorectal cancer; Gut microbiota; Diet; omega-3 PUFAs
Online: 21 January 2022 (11:33:23 CET)
Knowledge regarding the influence of the microbial community in cancer promotion or protection has expanded even more through the study of bacterial metabolic products and how they can modulate cancer risk, which represents an extremely challenging approach for the relationship between intestinal microbiota and colorectal cancer (CRC). This review discusses research pro-gresses in the effect of bacterial dysbiosis from a metabolic point of view, particularly on the bio-chemical mechanisms of butyrate, one of the main short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) with an-ti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties in CRC. Increased daily intake of omega-3 polyun-saturated fatty acids (PUFAs) significantly increases the density of bacteria that are known to produce butyrate. Omega-3 PUFAs have been proposed as a treatment to prevent gut microbiota dysregulation and lower the risk or progression of CRC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0121.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Familial colorectal cancer; SRC; germline variant; whole genome sequencing
Online: 3 March 2021 (09:52:06 CET)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) shows one of the largest proportions of familial cases among different malignancies, but only 5-10% of all CRC cases are linked to mutations in established predisposition genes. Thus, familial CRC constitutes a promising target for the identification of novel, high- to moderate-penetrance germline variants underlying cancer susceptibility by next generation sequencing. In this study, we performed whole genome sequencing on 3 members of a family with CRC aggregation. Subsequent integrative in silico analysis using our in-house developed variant prioritization pipeline resulted in the identification of a novel germline missense variant in SRC gene (V177M), a proto-oncogene highly upregulated in CRC. Functional validation experiments in HT-29 cells showed that introduction of SRCV177M resulted in increased cell proliferation and enhanced protein expression of phospho-SRC (Y419), a potential marker for SRC activity. Upregulation of paxillin, β-Catenin and STAT3 mRNA levels, increased levels of phospho-ERK, CREB and CCND1 proteins and downregulation of the tumor suppressor p53 further proposed the activation of several pathways due to the SRCV177M variant. The findings of our pedigree-based study contribute to the exploration of the genetic background of familial CRC and bring insights into the molecular basis of upregulated SRC activity and downstream pathways in colorectal carcinogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0211.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Colorectal cancer; SYK; Prognostic Significance; Genetic Alteration; Molecular dynamics simulations
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:20:54 CEST)
Background: Colorectal cancer is considered the third most fetal among all type of cancer. Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a non-receptor type tyrosine-protein that plays crucial role in signaling mediated via immune receptor. We adopted an onco-informatics analysis to evaluate the SYK expression and prognostic value of SYK in colorectal cancer, and identification of potential phytochemicals which may inhibit overexpression of SYK protein as well as minimized colorectal cancer. Materials & Methods: Differential expression of SYK gene was analyzed using the several transcriptomic databases including Oncomine, UALCAN, GENT2 and GEPIA2. The server, cBioPortal was used to analyze mutation and copy number alterations whereas GENT2, GEPIA, OncoLnc and PrognoScan were employed to examine the survival rate. A protein-protein interaction network of SYK and co-expressed genes of SYK was conducted via GeneMANIA. Considering SYK gene encoding protein as drug target, selected phytochemicals were assessed by molecular docking using PyRx 0.8 packages. YASARA molecular dynamics simulators were applied for the post validation of the molecular docking data. Results: We have observed significant overexpression of mRNA expression levels of SYK gene colorectal adenocarcinoma (COAD) samples compared with normal tissues. Significant methylation level and various genetic alterations are assembled in SYK gene which can lead to the development of colorectal cancer. As a result, lower level of SYK expression was related to the more chances of patients’ survival by which all the outcomes from the multiple bioinformatics platforms and web resources have demonstrated the significant evidences that the SYK kinsase can possess as a potential biomarker for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Here, aromatic phytochemicals namely, Kaempferol and Glabridin targeting SYK showed more stability compared to controls and may be useful for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Conclusion: Our study showed dysregulated expression of SYK in colorectal cancer and potentiality to act as a biomarker for the prognosis of CRC. Moreover, we have shown phytochemicals (Kaempferol and Glabridin) target SYK as potential treatment strategies and drug repositioning potentiality in colorectal cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0641.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: licochalcone H (LCH); oxaliplatin; colorectal cancer; EGFR; AKT; apoptosis
Online: 9 August 2023 (03:01:44 CEST)
Licochalcone H (LCH), a regioisomer of licochalcone C derived from the root of Glycyrrhiza inflata. CRC treatment has always been challenged by the development of resistance. We investigated the antiproliferative activity of LCH in oxaliplatin (Ox)-sensitive and -resistant CRC cells. LCH significantly inhibited cell viability and colony growth in both Ox-sensitive and Ox-resistant CRC cells. We found that LCH decreased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and AKT kinase activities and related activating signaling proteins including phospho (p)-EGFR and pAKT. A computational docking model indicated that LCH may interact with EGFR, AKT1, and AKT2 at the ATP-binding sites. LCH induced ROS generation, as verified by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) treatment, and increased the expression of the ER stress markers. LCH treatment of CRC cells induced depolarization of MMP and increased. Multi-caspase activity was induced by LCH treatment and confirmed by Z-VAD-FMK treatment. LCH increased the number of subG1 cells and arrested the cell cycle at the G1 phase. LCH inhibits the growth of Ox-sensitive and Ox-resistant CRC cells by targeting EGFR and AKT, and inducing ROS generation and ER stress-mediated apoptosis. Therefore, LCH could be a potential therapeutic agent for improving not only Ox-sensitive but also Ox-resistant CRC treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0497.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: ONC201; colorectal cancer cells; DDIT3; CHOP; BAK/BAX pathway
Online: 19 November 2020 (08:42:43 CET)
The imipramine ONC201 exerts a novel anti-proliferative activity over a wide spectrum of cancer cell types. ONC201 activates integrated stress response pathway that is associated with induction of Damage Inducible Transcript 3 (DDIT3, also known as C/EBP homologous protein or CHOP). We questioned whether the ONC201/CHOP crosstalk is regulated by diverse signaling pathways in non-metastatic versus metastatic cancer cell lines. Therefore, the Dukes' type B colorectal adenocarcinoma non-metastatic (SW480) and metastatic (LS-174T) cell lines were treated with ONC201. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by MTT assay, flow cytometry analysis, gene expression was assessed by Affymetrix microarray, and key regulatory proteins were validated by Western blot assays. Unlike LS-174T cells, SW480 cells were resistant to ONC201 treatment. Gene ontology pathway enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed substantial differences between LS-174T and SW480 responsiveness to ONC201 treatment. In both cell lines, CHOP expression was upregulated in response to ONC201 treatment, however, its upstream regulatory mechanisms were not identical. Although, PERK, ATF6 and IRE1 ER-stress pathways were found to upregulated CHOP in both cell types, the BAK/BAX pathway was a notable regulator of CHOP in the metastatic LS-174T cells alone. In addition, CHOP RNA splicing profiles were varied between the two cell lines, which was further modified in response to ONC201 treatments. In conclusion, we delineated the signaling mechanisms regulating the expression of CHOP in non-metastatic versus metastatic colorectal cells in response to ONC201 treatment. The observed differences were related to cellular plasticity and metabolic reprogramming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0032.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Dehydrodiisoeugenol (DEH); Autophagy inhibition; Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress; anti-cancer agent
Online: 1 December 2020 (14:57:00 CET)
Dehydrodiisoeugenol (DEH), a novel lignan component extracted from the Nutmeg seeds, displays noticeable anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects in digestive system diseases. However, the mechanism of its anti-cancer activity in gastrointestinal cancer is still to be investigated. Here, the anti-cancer effect of DEH to human colorectal cancer and its underlying mechanism were evaluated. The DEH treatment arrests the cell cycle of colorectal cancer cells at G1/S phase, which leading to a significant cell growth inhibition. Moreover, it can induce strong cellular autophagy and the autophagy would be inhibited through autophagic inhibitors with reducing EDH-induced inhibition of cell growth in colorectal cancer cells. Further studies indicated that DEH can also induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and could subsequently stimulating autophagy through activating PERK/eIF2α and IRE1α/XBP-1s/CHOP pathways. Knockdown of PERK or IRE1α can significantly decrease the DEH-induced autophagy and retrieve cell viability in cells treated with DEH. What’s more, DEH exhibits significant anti-cancer activities through CDX- and PDX-model as well. Taken together, our studies strongly suggest that DEH might be a potential anti-cancer agent against colorectal cancer via activating ER stress-induced autophagy inhibition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1905.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes; tumor-stroma ratio; colorectal cancer; inter-observer
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:36:13 CEST)
Background: To implement the new marker in clinical practice, reliability assessment, validation, and standardization of utilization must be applied. This study evaluated the reliability of TILs and TSR assessment through conventional microscopy by comparing observers’ estimations. Methods: Intratumoral and tumor-front stromal TILs, and TSR were assessed by three pathologists using 86 HE slides CRC. TSR and TILs were categorized using one and four different proposed cut-off systems, respectively and agreement was assessed using the intraclass coefficient (ICC) and Cohen’s kappa statistics. Pairwise evaluation of agreement was performed using the Fliess Kappa statistic and the concordance rate and it was visualized by Bland-Altman plots. Results: For the evaluation of intratumoral stromal TILs, ICC of 0.505 (95% CI:0.35-0.64) was obtained, Kappa values were in the range of 0.21 to 0.38, and concordance rates in the range of 0.61 to 0.72. For the evaluation of tumor-front TILs, ICC was 0.52 (95% CI:0.32 - 0.67), the overall kappa value ranged from 0.24 to 0.30, and the concordance rate ranged from 0.66 to 0.72. For estimating the TSR, the ICC was 0.48 (95% CI:0.35 - 0.60), the kappa value was 0.49 and the concordance rate was 0.76. Conclusion: The agreement between pathologists in estimating these markers corresponds to poor to the moderate agreement, however, implementing immune scores in daily practice requires more concentration in inter-observer agreements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: laparoscopic; open surgery; non-metastatic colorectal cancer; single surgeon experience
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:25:43 CEST)
The oncologic merits of laparoscopic technique for colorectal cancer surgery remain debatable. Eligible patients with non-metastatic colorectal cancer who were scheduled for an elective resection by only one surgeon in a medical institution were randomized to either laparoscopic or open treatment. During this period, total 188 patients received laparoscopic surgery and other 163 patients to open approach. The primary endpoint was cancer-free 5-year survival after operative treatment and secondary endpoint was the tumor recurrence incidence. We found there was no statistically significant difference between open and laparoscopic groups regarding average number of lymph nodes dissected, overall mortality rate, cancer recurrence rate or cancer-free 5-year survival. Nevertheless, laparoscopic approach was more effective for colorectal cancer treatment with shorter hospital stay and less blood loss despite operation time was significantly longer. Meanwhile fewer patients receiving laparoscopic approach developed postoperative urinary tract infection, wound infection, pneumonia or anastomosis leakage, which reached statistical significance. For non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients, laparoscopic surgery resulted in better short-term outcomes whether in total complications and intra-operative blood loss. Though there was no significant statistical difference in terms of cancer-free 5-year survival and tumor recurrence, we favor patients receiving laparoscopic surgery if not contraindicated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0453.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Michael acceptor; safe covalent drugs; oxidative stress inducers; trans-cinnamaldehyde; curcumin; colorectal cancer
Online: 29 February 2020 (04:22:03 CET)
Curcumin and trans-cinnamaldehyde are acrolein-based Michael acceptor compounds that are commonly found in domestic condiments, and known to cause cancer cell death via redox mechanisms. Based on the structural features of these compounds we designed and synthesized several 2-cinnamamido-N-substituted-cinnamamide (bis-cinnamamide) compounds. One of the derivatives, (Z)-2-[(E)-cinnamamido]-3-phenyl-N-propylacrylamide 1512 showed a moderate antiproliferative potency (HCT-116 cell line inhibition of 32.0 µM), good selectivity profile (no inhibition of normal cell lines), and proven cellular activities leading to apoptosis. SAR studies led to more than 10-fold increase in activity. Our most promising compound, [(Z)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-N-propyl-2-[(E)-3-(thien-2-yl)propenamido)propenamide] 4112 killed colon cancer cells at IC50 = 0.89 µM (Caco-2), 2.85 µM (HCT-116) and 1.65 µM (HT-29), while exhibiting much weaker potency on C-166 and BHK normal cell lines (IC50 = 71 µM and 77.6 µM, respectively). Cellular studies towards identifying the compounds mechanism of cytotoxic activities revealed that apoptotic induction occurs in part as a result of oxidative stress. Importantly, the compounds showed inhibition of cancer stem cells that are critical for maintaining the potential for self-renewal and stemness. The results presented here show discovery of covalently-acting Michael addition compounds that potently kill cancer cells by a defined mechanism, with minimal effect on normal noncancerous cell.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0712.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: dietary fibers; short chain fatty acid; gut microbiota; colorectal cancer prevention; epigenetics
Online: 29 March 2021 (22:22:00 CEST)
Dietary factors play an important role in shaping the gut microbiome which, in turn, regulates the molecular events in colonic mucosa. The composition and resulting metabolism of the gut microbiome have been implicated in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Diets low in dietary fibers and phytomolecules as well as other lifestyle-related factors may predispose to CRC. Emerging evidence demonstrates that the predominance of microbes, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, can predispose the colonic mucosa to malignant transformation. Dietary and lifestyle modifications have been demonstrated to restrict the growth of potentially harmful opportunistic organisms. In this study, we aim to present evidence regarding the relationship of dietary factors to the gut microbiome and development of CRC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: endoscopes; medical diagnostic imaging; microwave antenna arrays; microwave imaging; colorectal cancer
Online: 7 June 2022 (09:55:21 CEST)
This study assesses the efficacy of a microwave colonoscopy algorithm to detect colorectal cancer precursors or polyps in an ex-vivo human colon model. The algorithm works with a device composed of a cylindrical ring-shaped switchable antenna array, which can be attached to the tip of a conventional colonoscope as an accessory. The accessory is connected to an external processing unit that generates an acoustic signal when a polyp is detected. Nowadays, 22% of polyps go undetected with conventional colonoscopy and the risk of cancer after a negative colonoscopy can be up to 7.9%. Fifteen ex-vivo freshly excised human colons with cancer (n=12) or polyps (n=3) were examined with the microwave-assisted colonoscopy system simulating a real colonoscopy exploration. Successive measurements of the colon were taken with the microwave-based colonoscopy device and processed with a microwave imaging algorithm. After the experiment, the dielectric properties of the specimens were measured with a coaxial probe and finally the samples underwent a pathology analysis. The results show that all the neoplasms were detected with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87.4%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0508.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Angiotensin-II Type-I receptor; renin-angiotensin system; valsartan; colorectal cancer
Online: 22 July 2020 (09:49:51 CEST)
Dysregulation of the angiotensin-II Type-I receptor (AT1R) and its pathway was reported to associate with poor-prognosis in several malignancies, including colorectal-cancer (CRC). We have explored the therapeutic-potential of targeting AT1R using valsartan, and its pharmacological-interaction with Fluorouracil (5-FU) in CRC. Anti-proliferative function was evaluated in 2-/3-dimensional cells and in vivo models. Anti-proliferative, anti-migratory, apoptotic function and effect on cell-cycle was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), wound-healing test, and Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), respectively, while gene-expression was determined at mRNA/protein levels. By histogical analysis and measuring of oxidative/antioxidant markers, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of valsartan. Valsartan suppressed cell-growth and impacted the anti-tumor-activities of 5-FU by apoptosis-induction. Valsartan inhibited the cells migration by perturbation of Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP1). Furthermore, valsartan inhibited tumor-growth and metastasis, and this was more notable in valsartan/5-FU combination-treated-group. The mechanism was plausible to be via the induction of Reactive-oxygen-species (ROS) and down-regulation of Superoxide-dismutase (SOD), thiol/catalase (CAT) as well as Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Valsartan may protect cells against intestinal fibrosis by modulation of pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory components include fibronectin, Interleukin) IL-1β (, Tumor necrosis factor alpha) TNF-α (, Interferon gamma) INF-γ (, and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 (MCP-1). Our findings demonstrated that targeting the AT1R receptor may inhibit tumor-growth and ameliorate fibrosis and inflammation associated with CRC via modulation of AT1 and TGF-β pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0437.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Colorectal cancer; flippase; ion transporter; tumor suppressor gene; chromosome 18q; lipid transport
Online: 16 November 2020 (17:09:08 CET)
Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through distinct molecular events. Loss of 18q chromosome is a conspicuous event in the progression of adenoma to carcinoma. There is limited information regarding the molecular effectors of this event. Earlier, we had reported ATP8B1 as a novel gene associated with CRC. ATP8B1 belongs to the family of P-type ATPases (P4 ATPase) that primarily function to facilitate the translocation of phospholipids. In this study, we attempt to implicate ATP8B1 gene located on chromosome 18q as a tumor suppressor gene. We studied indigenous patient data and confirmed the reduced expression of ATP8B1 in tumor samples. CRC cell lines were engineered with reduced and enhanced levels of ATP8B1 which provided a tool to study its role on cancer progression. Forced reduction of ATP8B1 expression either by CRISPR/Cas9 or shRNA was associated with increased growth and proliferation of CRC cell line - HT29. In contrast, overexpression of ATP8B1 resulted in reduced growth and proliferation of SW480 cell line. We generated a network of genes that are downstream of ATP8B1. Further, we provide predicted effect of modulation of ATP8B1 levels on this network and possible effect on fatty acid metabolism related genes. These results provide evidence in support of ATP8B1 being a tumor suppressor that may affect fatty acid metabolism in CRC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0023.v1
Subject: Oncology And Oncogenics, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: colorectal cancer; rehabilitation; fatigue; ability to work; symptom clusters
Online: 1 December 2023 (03:33:02 CET)
In colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, apart from fatigue, psychological and physical symptoms often converge, affecting their quality of life and ability to work. Our objective was to ascertain symptom clusters within a year following CRC treatment and their longitudinal association with persistent fatigue and reduced work ability at the 3-month follow-up. We used data from MIRANDA, a multicenter cohort study enrolling adult CRC patients who are starting a 3-week in-patient rehabilitation within a year post-curative CRC treatment. Participants completed questionnaires evaluating symptoms at the start of rehabilitation (baseline) and after three months. We performed an exploratory factor analysis to analyze the clustering of symptoms at baseline. Longitudinal analysis was performed using a multivariable linear regression model with dichotomized symptoms at baseline as independent variables, and the change of fatigue and ability to work from baseline to 3-month-follow-up as separate outcomes, adjusted for covariates. We identified six symptom clusters: fatigue, gastrointestinal symptoms, pain, psychosocial symptoms, urinary symptoms, and chemotherapy side effects. At least one symptom from each factor was associated with higher fatigue or reduced ability to work at the 3-month follow-up. This study highlights the interplay of multiple symptoms in influencing fatigue and work ability among CRC patients post rehabilitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2147.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: FUT8 knockdown; core fucosylation; TRAIL-induced apoptosis; DR4; colorectal cancer
Online: 30 June 2023 (02:17:17 CEST)
Epithelial cells can undergo apoptosis by manipulating the balance between pro-survival and apoptotic signals. In this work, we show that TRAIL-induced apoptosis can be differentially regulated by the expression of α(1,6)fucosyltransferase (FucT-8), the only enzyme in mammals that transfers the (1,6)fucose residue to the pentasaccharide core of complex N-glycans. Specifically, in the cellular model of colorectal cancer (CRC) progression formed using the human syngeneic lines SW480 and SW620, knockdown of the FucT-8-encoding FUT8 gene significantly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in SW480 cells. However, FUT8 repression did not affect SW620 cells, which suggests that core fucosylation differentiates TRAIL-sensitive premetastatic SW480 cells from TRAIL-resistant metastatic SW620 cells. In this regard, we provide evidence that phosphorylation of ERK1/2 kinases can dynamically regulate TRAIL-dependent apoptosis and that core fucosylation can control the ERK/MAPK pro-survival pathway in which SW480 and SW620 cells participate. Moreover, the depletion of core fucosylation sensitises primary tumour SW480 cells to the combination of TRAIL and low doses of 5-FU, oxaliplatin, irinotecan or mitomycin C. In contrast, combination of TRAIL and oxaliplatin, irinotecan or bevacizumab reinforces resistance of FUT8-knockdown metastatic SW620 cells to apoptosis. Consequently, FucT-8 could be a plausible target for increasing apoptosis and drug response in early CRC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Cerebrovascular-specific mortality; Cerebrovascular-specific diseases; Incidence; Risk factors
Online: 12 November 2021 (16:47:45 CET)
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent diseases and the second leading cause of death worldwide. However, the relationship between CRC and cerebrovascular-specific mortality (CVSM) remains elusive and less is known about the influencing factors associated with CVSM in CRC. Here, we aimed to analyze the incidence as well as the risk factors of CVSM in CRC. Methods: Patients with a primary CRC diagnosed between 1973 and 2015 were identified from Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database with follow-up data available until 31 December 2016. Conditional standardized mortality ratios were calculated to compare the incidence of CVSM between CRC patients and the general US population. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses with a competing risk model were used to interrogate the risk factors for CVSM. Results: A total of 563298 CRC individuals were included. The CVSM in CRC patients was significantly higher than the general population in all age subgroups. Among competing causes of death in patients, the cumulative mortality caused by cerebrovascular-specific diseases steadily increased during study period. While age and surgery positively influenced CVSM on both univariate and multivariate analyses, male patients and those who had radiotherapy, chemotherapy, more recent year (2001-2015) of diagnosis as well as multiple primary or distant tumors experienced a lower risk of CVSM. Interpretation: Our data suggest a potential role for CRC in the incidence of CVSM and also identify several significant predictors of CVSM, which may be helpful for risk stratification and therapeutic optimization of cerebrovascular-specific diseases in CRC patients.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; colorectal cancer; cancer immune therapy
Online: 10 April 2018 (08:05:27 CEST)
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have been found to be modulators of immune function. Additionally, they may affect the growth of colorectal cancer (CRC). With the advent of novel treatment approaches in oncology targeting immune checkpoint inhibition and aiming to boost the immune response against tumors the exact role of n-3 and n-6 PUFA in inflammation as well as in CRC needs to be re-evaluated in order to understand potential interactions with these new treatment paradigms. Interestingly, for the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor aspirin a possible synergistic effect together with a PD1-Ligand antibody has been shown. However, could n-3 PUFA be disadvantageous in the context of immune tumor therapy due to an immune suppressive effect that has been described for these fatty acids in the past, or could they also enhance the effect of immune checkpoint inhibition? In this paper, we discuss the current data regarding the immune modulatory as well as the anti-CRC effect of n-3 PUFA. Arguing towards an immune-activating effect of n-3 PUFA, we demonstrate the results of a pilot study. Here, we show that incubation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) significantly decreases CRC-cell supernatant-triggered secretion of IL-10 and increases secretion of TNF-a, while the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) arachidonic acid (AA) reduced TNF-a secretion. These changes in cytokine secretion upon incubation with DHA demonstrate a possible enhancing effect of n-3 PUFA on an anti-tumor immune response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Oncolytic virus; Mesenchymal stem cell; Prodrug activation; P53 mutant tumor; Colorectal cancer
Online: 2 August 2020 (12:31:32 CEST)
Although oncolytic viruses are currently being evaluated for cancer treatment in clinical trials, systemic administration is hindered by many factors that prevent them from reaching the tumor cells. When administered systemically, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) target tumors, and therefore constitute good cell carriers for oncolytic viruses. Methods: MSCs were primed with trichostatin A under hypoxia, which upregulated the expression of CXCR4, a chemokine receptor involved in tumor tropism, and coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor that plays an important role in adenoviral infection. After priming, MSCs were loaded with conditionally replicative adenovirus that exhibits limited proliferation in cells with a functional p53 pathway and encodes Escherichia coli nitroreductase (NTR) enzymes (CRAdNTR) for targeting tumor cells. Results: Primed MSCs increased tumor tropism and susceptibility to adenoviral infection, and successfully protected CRAdNTR from neutralization by anti-Adenovirus antibodies both in vitro and in vivo, and specifically targeted p53-deficient colorectal tumors when infused intravenously. Analyses of deproteinized tissues by UPLC-MS/QTOF revealed that these MSCs converted the co-administered prodrug CB1954 into cytotoxic metabolites, such as 4-hydroxylamine and 2-amine, inducing oncolysis and tumor growth inhibition without being toxic for the host vital organs. Conclusion: This study shows that the combination of oncolytic viruses delivered by MSCs with the activation of prodrugs is a new cancer treatment strategy that provides a new approach for the development of oncolytic viral therapy for various cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1905.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Colorectal cancer; pharmacovigilance; BRAF inhibitors; regorafenib; encorafenib; adverse drug reactions; renal disorders
Online: 28 July 2023 (02:34:59 CEST)
Background: This study assessed the nephrotoxicity of oral BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi), regorafenib (REG) and encorafenib (ENC), in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), through an analysis of re-ports from the US Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) da-tabase. Methods: A descriptive and disproportional analyses were performed for all reports with ENC and REG as the primary suspect. Results: A total of 379 reports had at least one renal ADR, mainly related to REG (93.1%). Potential safety signals for REG particularly included chromaturia (n = 44; ROR = 12.00, CI 95% = 8.92-16.16; IC = 2.36, IC025-IC075 = 2.06-2.66), hydronephrosis (10; 8.70, 4.67-16.19; 1.85, 1.23-2.47), nephrotic syn-drome (7; 5.73, 2.73-12.03; 1.47, 0.73-2.21), renal impairment (53; 4.16, 3.17-5.45; 1.39, 1.12-1.66), dys-uria (19; 3.06, 1.95-4.81; 1.06, 0.61-1.52), renal failure (38; 1.66, 1.20-2.28; 0.49, 0.17-0.81), and acute kidney injury (AKI) (43; 1.46, 1.08-1.97; 0.37, 0.07-0.67). For ENC, consistent disproportionalities were observed for AKI (n = 11; ROR = 3.79, CI 95% = 2.09-6.90; IC = 1.32, IC025-IC075 = 0.72-1.91) and dysuria (4; 6.50, 2.43-17.39; 1.86, 0.88-2.85). Conclusions: These findings highlighted some not extensively reported renal ADRs that required further investigations to better characterize the safety profile of BRAFi in patients with mCRC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0368.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: circulating tumor DNA; colon cancer; colorectal cancer; minimal residual disease; adjuvant chemotherapy
Online: 27 May 2022 (03:52:10 CEST)
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), the tumor-derived cell-free DNA fragments in the bloodstream carrying tumor-specific genetic and epigenetic alterations, represents an emerging novel tool for minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment in patients with resected colorectal cancer (CRC). For many decades, precise risk-stratification following curative-intent colorectal surgery has remained an enduring challenge. The current risk stratification strategy relies on clinicopathologic characteristics of the tumors that lacks precision and results in over-and undertreatment in a significant proportion of patients. Consequently, a biomarker that can reliably identify patients harboring MRD would be of critical importance in refining patient selection for adjuvant therapy. Several prospective cohort studies have provided compelling data suggesting that ctDNA could be a robust biomarker for MRD that outperforms all existing clinicopathologic criteria. Numerous clinical trials are currently underway to validate the ctDNA-guided MRD assessment and adjuvant treatment strategies. Once validated, the ctDNA technology will likely transform the adjuvant therapy paradigm of colorectal cancer, supporting ctDNA-guided treatment escalation and de-escalation. The current article presents a comprehensive overview of the published studies supporting the utility of ctDNA for MRD assessment in patients with CRC. We also discuss ongoing ctDNA-guided adjuvant clinical trials that will likely shape future adjuvant therapy strategies for patients with CRC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0363.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer; metastasis; tumor heterogeneity; spatial proteomics; mass spectrometry imaging; MALDI imaging; formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues
Online: 21 February 2023 (11:21:41 CET)
About 50% of colorectal cancer patients develop liver metastases. Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have 5-year survival rates below 20% despite new therapeutic regimens. Tumor heterogeneity has been linked with poor treatment response and clinical outcome, but was so far mainly studied via bulk genomic analyses. In this study we performed spatial proteomics via MALDI mass spectrometry imaging on six patient-matched CRC primary tumor and liver metastases to characterize interpatient, intertumor and intratumor hetereogeneity. We found several peptide features that were enriched in vital tumor areas of primary tumors and liver metastasis and tentatively derived from tumor cell specific proteins such as annexin A4 and prelamin A/C. Liver metastases of colorectal cancer showed higher heterogeneity between patients than primary tumors while within patients both entities show similar intratumor heterogeneity sometimes organized in zonal pattern. Together our findings give new insights into the spatial proteomic heterogeneity of primary CRC and patient-matched liver metastases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0525.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer; immunotherapy; checkpoint blockade; adoptive cell therapy; monoclonal antibodies; oncolytic viruses; anti-cancer vaccines; cytokine; T cell; NK cell
Online: 31 December 2021 (15:14:39 CET)
Though early-stage colorectal cancer has a high 5-year survival rate of 65-92% depending on the specific stage, this probability drops to 13% after the cancer metastasizes. Frontline treatments for colorectal cancer such as chemotherapy and radiation often produce dose-limiting toxicities in patients and acquired resistance in cancer cells. Additional targeted treatments are needed to improve patient outcomes and quality of life. Immunotherapy involves treatment with peptides, cells, antibodies, viruses, or small molecules to engage or train the immune system to kill cancer cells. Preclinical and clinical investigations of immunotherapy for treatment of colorectal cancer including immune checkpoint blockade, adoptive cell therapy, monoclonal antibodies, oncolytic viruses, anti-cancer vaccines, and immune system modulators have been promising, but demonstrate limitations for patients with proficient mismatch repair enzymes. In this review, we discuss preclinical and clinical studies investigating immunotherapy for treatment of colorectal cancer and predictive biomarkers for response to these treatments. We also consider open questions including optimal combination treatments to maximize efficacy, minimize toxicity, and prevent acquired resistance and approaches to sensitize mismatch repair proficient patients to immunotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1804.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: EVs; Macrophages 1; STAT3, AKT; NF-κB; metastasis; colorectal cancer.
Online: 25 May 2023 (10:48:17 CEST)
Despite the numerous advances in target therapy for the treatment of colorectal cancer, aggressive colorectal cancer remains an incurable disease whose negative modulation of the immune system in the tumor microenvironment is still critical for improving the patient's prognosis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have received attention for their use as cell-membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles and drug delivery systems in nanomedicine derived by nearly all cell types for intercellular communication and regulation in the tumor microenvironment (TME). In this study, M1 Macrophage EVs (M1EVs) were used as nanocarriers of oxaliplatin (M1EV1) associated with retinoic acid (M1EV2) and Libidibia ferrea (M1EV3), or combined together with retinoic acid and Libidibia ferrea (M1EV4) to evaluate their antiproliferative and immunomodulatory potential on CT-26 and MC-38 colorectal cancer cell lines, as well as their capacity to prevent metastases in mouse models of colorectal cancer such as allographic and peritoneal. Tumors were evaluated by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The cell death profile and epithelial-mesenchymal transition process (EMT) were analyzed in vitro in colorectal cancer cell lines. Polarization of murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) was also carried out. M1EV2 and M1EV3 used alone or especially combined (M1EV4) downregulated the tumor progression by TME immunomodulation, leading to a decrease in primary tumor size and metastases in peritoneum, liver and lungs. STAT3, NF-kB and AKT were the major genes downregulated by systems of M1EVs. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) switched M2 phenotype (CD163) towards M1 (CD68) reducing levels of IL-10, TGF-β and CCL22. Furthermore, malignant cells showed overexpression of FADD, APAF-1, caspase-3, and E-cadherin, and decreased expression of MDR-1, survivin, vimentin, CXCR4, and PD-L1 after treatment with systems of M1EVs. The results obtained in this study provided evidence that EVs from M1 antitumor macrophages can transport drugs and increase their immunomodulatory and antitumor activity by stimulating activation or blockage of pathways involved in cell proliferation, migration, cell survival, and drug resistance processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0176.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: colorectal cancer screening; breast cancer screening; BC; CRC; cancer prevention; cancer screen-ing; FOBT; mammography; Flanders
Online: 20 May 2022 (12:03:16 CEST)
Despite the recognized benefits of fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and mammography screenings, participation in breast (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs is still suboptimal. This study investigates municipal characteristics associated with their BC/CRC screening uptake profiles among women aged 55–69 years. Using data from 308 municipalities of Flanders from 2014 to 2017, a profile for each municipality based on its BC/CRC screening uptake compared with the median screening uptake was created. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to assess the associations between municipal characteristics and BC/CRC screening uptake profiles. The overall median uptake of cancer screening was higher for CRC (57.4%) than for BC (54.6%). The following municipal characteristics were associated with worse performance in terms of only CRC, only BC, or both CRC and BC screening uptake, respectively: foreign nationality, self-employment rate, (early) retirement rate, diabetes, disabilities; (early) retirement rate; age group 65–69, foreign nationality, self-employment rate, (early) retirement rate, wage-earners, diabetes. The following municipal characteristics were associated with better performance in terms of only CRC, only BC, or both CRC and BC screening uptake respectively: residential stability, having a partner, having children, jobseeker rate, GP visits, preventive dental visits; having children, GP visits; age group 55–59, residential stability, having a partner, having children, jobseeker rate, higher education, GP visits, preventive dental visits. This study’s results regarding the interrelation between the BC and CRC screening could be used to tailor interventions to improve the participation of the target population in both programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0492.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: low-molecular-weight fucoidan; colorectal cancer; HCT116 cell; Caco-2 cell; fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy; complementary therapy
Online: 21 June 2021 (08:55:12 CEST)
This study investigated the roles of low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMWF) in enhancing the anti-cancer effects of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy. HCT116 and Caco-2 cells were treated with LMWF and 5-FU. Cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, and migration were analyzed in both cell types. Potential mechanisms underlying how LMWF enhances the anti-cancer effects of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy were also explored. The cell viability of HCT116 and Caco-2 cells was significantly reduced after treatment with a LMWF-5-FU combination. In HCT116 cells, LMWF enhanced the suppressive effects of 5-FU on cell viability through the 1) induction of cell cycle arrest in the S phase and 2) late apoptosis mediated by the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. In Caco-2 cells, LMWF enhanced the suppressive effects of 5-FU on cell viability through both c-mesenchymal–epithelial transition (MET)/ Kirsten Rat Sarcoma virus (KRAS)/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-MET/ phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/ protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathways. Moreover, LMWF enhanced the suppressive effects of 5-FU on tumor cell migration through the c-MET/ matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 signaling pathway in both HCT116 and Caco-2 cells. Our results demonstrated that LMWF is a potential complementary therapy for enhancing the efficacies of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy in colorectal cancers (CRCs) with the wild-type or mutated KRAS gene through different mechanisms. However, in vivo studies and in clinical trials are required to validate the results of the present study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: circulating tumor cells; CTC, liquid biopsy; KRAS; colorectal cancer; EpCAM; CellSearch; IsoFlux; castPCR; intratumor heterogeneity
Online: 21 November 2016 (09:52:20 CET)
Circulating tumor cells (CTC) have shown to be prognostic in advanced colorectal cancer (advCRC), but their value for predicting response to treatment or as a source of molecular data is debated. We compared CellSearch® (Janssen Diagnostics, LLC) and IsoFluxTM (Fluxion Biosciences Inc, South San Francisco, CA) systems for the enumeration of CTC in patients with newly diagnosed advCRC (group 1; n=34). Using castPCRTM we studied KRAS status in CTC isolated with IsoFluxTM and compared it with that of the primary tumor in patients from group 1 and in KRAS wild-type (KRASWT) patients with progressive disease (group 2; n=22). Median number of CTC detected with CellSearch® (groups 1 and 2) was 1 (range: 0-78) and with IsoFluxTM (group 1) was 8 (range: 0-419), showing a modest correlation (r=0.345, P=0.036), which improved if lung metastases (r=0.805, P=0.016) or if lung and liver metastases were present (r=0.812, P=0.05). A Bland-Altman plot showed that the higher the number of CTC detected the larger the difference between both methods in favor of IsoFluxTM. After a median follow-up since CTC collection of 16 months (range: 1-30) CellSearch® ≥ 3 CTC (HR 2.77, 95% CI 0.77-9.95) and IsoFluxTM ≥ 11 CTC (HR 4.14, 95% CI 1.05-16.19) were established as the best cutoff points for predicting survival. Using castPCRTM we found KRAS mutations in CTC in 4 out of 8 patients from group 1 and in 2 out of 3 patients from group 2. None of these mutations were found in the primary tumor using standard methods, possibly reflecting intratumor heterogeneity or treatment selection pressure. We conclude that IsoFluxTM is more efficient than CellSearch® in the isolation of CTC in patients with advCRC, achieving, in a majority of cases, the established minimum of CTC for castPCRTM-based genetic analyses.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1168.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: colorectal cancer; recurrent rectal cancer; laparoscopic surgery; robotic surgery; openair surgery; controlled case report
Online: 19 September 2023 (07:37:03 CEST)
(1) Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic-therapeutic problem of pelvic recurrence of rectum cancer, highlighting current surgical standards and the possible role of the minimally invasive approach. This retrospective analysis of our surgical case study wishes to enter this debate while suggesting a possible line of action, based on the site of recurrence; (2) Methods: We examined, retrospectively, all the patients diagnosed, between 2008 and 2018, with cancer of the rectum at the "Pietro Valdoni" Department of Surgery and monitored their follow-up for 5 years. The sample consisted of 368 patients with rectal neoplasm, 136 females and 232 males, with an average age of 65.8 (ranging from 37 to 86); (3) Results: In 103 of the cases, the neoplasm was located in the upper rectum (28%), in 119 cases in the middle rectum (32.3%), in 102 cases in the lower rectum (27.7%), in 31 cases (8.4%) at the level of the right/sigma junction and in 13 cases it was not possible to define the site with certainty (3.5%); (4) Conclusions: The discussion re-mains open as to which approach is best at surgical level, whether laparoscopic, robotic or open-air. Our experience informs us that the most dangerous site remains on the anastomotic site.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: sulphur amino acids; anticancer activity; metastasis; cancer metabolism; colorectal cancer; ovari-an cancer; renal cancer; methionine; cysteine; taurine; amino acids
Online: 22 January 2023 (04:09:19 CET)
The sulfur-containing amino acids methionine (Met), cysteine (Cys) and taurine (Tau) are common dietary constituents with important cellular roles. Met restriction is already known to exert in vivo anticancer activity. However, since Met is a precursor of Cys, and Cys produces Tau, the role of Cys and Tau in the anticancer activity of Met-restricted diets is poorly understood. In this work, we screened the in vivo anticancer activity of several Met-deficient artificial diets supplemented with Cys, Tau or both. Diet B1 (6% casein, 2.5% leucine, 0.2% Cys and 1% lipids) and diet B2B (6% casein, 5% glutamine, 2.5% leucine, 0.2% Tau and 1% lipids) showed the highest activity and were selected for further studies. Both diets induced a marked anticancer activity in two animal models of metastatic colon cancer, which were established by injecting CT26.WT murine colon cancer cells in the tail vein or peritoneum of immunocompetent BALB/cAnNRj mice. Diets B1 and B2B also increased the survival of mice with disseminated ovarian cancer (intraperitoneal ID8 Tp53 -/- cells in C57BL/6JRj mice) and renal cell carcinoma (intraperitoneal Renca cells in BALB/cAnNRj mice). The high activity of diet B1 in mice with metastatic colon cancer may be useful in colon cancer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1369.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer; stage III; molecular profiling; IDEA study; whole exome sequencing; bioinfor-matics
Online: 18 August 2023 (10:51:10 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to investigate the molecular profiles of stage III CRC patients from the international IDEA study. It also sought to correlate these profiles with Toll-like and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms, clinicopathological and epidemiological characteristics, and patient outcomes. Methods: Whole Exome Sequencing and PCR-RFLP on surgical specimens and blood samples, respectively, were performed to identify molecular profiling and the presence of Toll-like and vitamin D polymorphisms. Bioinformatic analysis revealed mutational status. Results: Among the enrolled patients, 63.7% were male, 66.7% had left-sided tumors, and 55.7% received CAPOX as adjuvant chemotherapy. Whole exome sequencing identified 59 mutated genes in 11 different signaling pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) CRC panel. On average, patients had 8 mutated genes (range, 2-21 genes). Mutations in ARAF and MAPK10 emerged as independent prognostic factors for reduced DFS (p=0.027 and p<0.001, respectively), while RAC3 and RHOA genes emerged as independent prognostic factors for reduced OS (p=0.029 and p=0.006, respectively). Right-sided tumors were also identified as independent prognostic factors for reduced DFS (p=0.019) and OS (p=0.043). Additionally, patients with tumors in the transverse colon had mutations in genes related to apoptosis, PIK3-Akt, Wnt, and MAPK signaling pathways. Conclusions: Molecular characterization of tumor cells can enhance our understanding of the disease course. Mutations may serve as promising prognostic biomarkers, offering improved treatment options. Confirming these findings with require larger patient cohorts and international collaborations to establish correlations between molecular profiling, clinicopathological and epidemiological characteristics and clinical outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0201.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer stem cells; colorectal cancer; label-free cell sorting; chemoresistance; intratumoral cellular heterogeneity
Online: 16 May 2022 (09:11:01 CEST)
Cancer stem cells play a crucial role in tumor initiation, metastasis and therapy resistance. Cellular heterogeneity and plasticity challenge the isolation of cancer stem cells. The impact of intratumoral cellular heterogeneity in the context of treatment resistance using a label-free approach remains understudied. Here, we use the sedimentation field-flow fractionation technique to separate, without labeling, cell subpopulations of colorectal cancer cell lines and primary cultures according to their biophysical properties. One of the three cell subpopulations sorted by SdFFF exhibits cancer stem cell traits, including high tumorigenicity in vivo, and a higher frequency of tumor-initiating cells compared to the other subpopulations. In vitro two- and three-dimensional chemosensitivity assays emphasize the therapeutic relevance of this cancer stem cell-like subpopulation due to its chemoresistance. Therefore, our findings highlight a label-free cell sorting approach to reveal intratumoral cellular heterogeneity and its implication in therapy resistance. This approach enables the study of the individualized response of each sorted cell subpopulation by breaking down the tumor, thus offering new perspectives for personalized therapy.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal Cancer Cells; Gastric Cancer Cells; Cholangiocarcinoma Cells; Hepatocarcinoma Cells; Exosomes; FZD 10 protein; FZD10-mRNA; FZD10-mRNA Silenced Cells; Cell Proliferation
Online: 9 July 2019 (14:19:22 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in intercellular communication during carcinogenesis and cancer cells are able to secrete EVs, in particular exosomes containing molecules, that can be transferred to recipient cells to induce pathological processes and significant modifications, as metastasis, increase of proliferation and carcinogenesis evolution. FZD proteins, a family of receptors comprised in the Wnt signaling pathway, play an important role in carcinogenesis of gastroenteric tract. Here, a still unrecognized role of Frizzled 10 (FZD10) protein was identified. In particular, the presence of FZD10 and FZD10-mRNA in exosomes extracted from culture medium of the untreated colorectal, gastric, hepatic and cholangio cancer cell lines, was detected. A substantial reduction in the FZD10 and FZD10-mRNA level was achieved in FZD10-mRNA silenced cells and in their corresponding exosomes and, concomitantly a significant decrease in viability of the silenced cells compared to their respective controls was observed. Interestingly, the incubation of silenced cells with exosomes extracted from culture medium of the same untreated cells promoted a remarkable restoration of the cell viability and, also, of the FZD10 and FZD10-mRNA level, thus indicating that the FZD10 and FZD10-mRNA delivering exosomes may be potential messengers of cancer reactivation and play an active role in long-distance metastatization
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: optical properties of tissues; tissue spectroscopy; differentiated pigment content; colorectal cancer; optical cancer detection; absorption coefficient; scattering coefficient; scattering anisotropy; light penetration depth
Online: 30 October 2020 (09:02:45 CET)
The study of the optical properties of biological tissues for a wide spectral range is necessary for the development and planning of noninvasive optical methods to be used in clinical practice. In this study, we propose a new method to calculate almost all optical properties of tissues as a function of wavelength directly from spectral measurements. Using this method and with the exception of the reduced scattering coefficient, which was obtained by traditional simulation methods, all the other optical properties were calculated in a simple and fast manner for human and pathological colorectal tissues. The obtained results are in good agreement with previous published data, both in magnitude and in wavelength dependence. Since this method is based on spectral measurements and not on discrete-wavelength experimental data, the calculated optical properties contain spectral signatures that correspond to major tissue chromophores such as DNA and hemoglobin. Analysis of the absorption bands of hemoglobin in the wavelength dependence of the absorption spectra of normal and pathological colorectal mucosa allowed to identify differentiated accumulation of a pigment in these tissues. The increased content of this pigment in the pathological mucosa may be used for the future development of noninvasive diagnostic methods for colorectal cancer detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0018.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: colorectal cancer; differentially expressed genes; biomarkers; protein-protein interaction; reporter biomolecules; candidate drugs; systems biology; drug repositioning
Online: 29 December 2018 (07:05:05 CET)
Background and objectives: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the world, but early diagnosis ameliorates the survival of CRC. This report directed to identify molecular biomarker signatures in CRC. Materials and Methods: We analyzed two microarray datasets (GSE35279 and GSE21815) from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) to identify mutual differentially expressed genes (DEGs). We integrated DEGs with protein-protein interaction and transcriptional/post-transcriptional regulatory networks to identify reporter signaling and regulatory molecules; utilized functional overrepresentation and pathway enrichment analyses to elucidate their roles in biological processes and molecular pathways; performed survival analyses to evaluate their prognostic performance; and applied drug repositioning analyses through Connectivity map (CMap) and geneXpharma tools to hypothesize possible drug candidates targeting reporter molecules. Results: A total of 727 up-regulated and 99 down-regulated DEGs were detected. The PI3K-Akt signaling, Wnt signaling, ECM-interaction, and cell cycle were identified as significantly enriched pathways. Ten hub proteins (ADNP, CCND1, CD44, CDK4, CEBPB, CENPA, CENPH, CENPN, MYC, and RFC2), 10 transcription factors (ETS1, ESR1, GATA1, GATA2, GATA3, AR, YBX1, FOXP3, E2F4, and PRDM14) and 2 miRNAs (miR-193b-3p and miR-615-3p) were detected as reporter molecules. The survival analyses through Kaplan Meier curves indicated remarkable performance of reporter molecules in estimation of survival probability in CRC patients. In addition, several drug candidates including anti-neoplastic and immunomodulating agents were repositioned. Conclusions: This study presents biomarker signatures at protein and RNA levels with prognostic capability in CRC. We think that the molecular signatures and candidate drugs presented in this study might be useful in future studies indenting development of accurate diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarker screens and efficient therapeutic strategies in CRC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0383.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: colorectal; fluorescence; ICG; ICG-NIR; colorectal surgery; intraoperative staining; q-ICG
Online: 24 April 2023 (03:23:17 CEST)
Background: This literature review investigates qualitative and quantitative uses of indocyanine green (ICG) in surgical treatment, as this novel technique has become increasingly popular in ORs (operating rooms) worldwide due to its many advantages. Method: An extensive literature review was performed by searching for relevant terms in 5 international databases (www.pubmed.gov, www.sciencedirect.com, www.scopus.com, www.Oxfordjournals.com, www.reaxys.com). The results of this search were summarized into the main advantages of employing ICG in colorectal surgery as follows: a) intraoperative fluorescence angiography capability; b) fluorescence-guided identification of lymph node involvement in colorectal cancer and the sentinel lymph node method; c) positive fluorescence flagging of a liver tumour as small as "only" 200 tumour cells; d) facilitation of fistula diagnosis; and e) tumour tattooing. Moreover, in addition to qualitative intraoperative ICG use, this technique can be combined with quantitative methods and parameters, such as maximum intensity, relative maximum intensity, and different inflow parameters (time-to-peak, slope, and t1/2max). The conclusion of this article is that fluorescence surgery with ICG aided by near-infrared (NIR) light is a relatively recent technology, an advantage of which is improving the specific anatomic and functional information provided, thus allowing more comprehensive and safer tumour removal as well as preservation of important structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0063.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: S-allylcysteine; caffeic acid; hybrid compounds; in silico studies; colorectal cancer; cell death; apoptosis
Online: 7 April 2022 (14:16:48 CEST)
Conventional chemotherapy for colorectal cancer (CRC) gives only a small increase in patient survival, since it is often diagnosed in late stages, when tumor has disseminated to other organs. Besides, it is common to observe that malignant cells acquire tumor escape mechanisms which leads to therapy resistance. Considering these facts, the discovery of new molecules with therapeutic potential has become an invaluable tool in chemoprevention. In this context, we previously evaluated two hybrids (SAC-CAFA-MET and SAC-CAFA-PENT) which exhibited selective cytotoxicity against SW480, with better results than the conventional chemotherapeutic agent (5-fluorouracil; 5-FU). Here, we investigated a little deeper in the possible mechanism of these molecules to identify potential therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of CRC. Both compounds induced cell damage and reduced ROS formation. Further evaluations showed that SAC-CAFA-MET induces cell death independent from caspases and p53, but probably mediated by the negative regulation of the proapoptotic Bcl-2. In addition, the lack of activation of caspase 8 and the positive regulation of caspase 3 induced by SAC-CAFA-PENT suggest this compound acts through an apoptotic mechanism, probably initiated by intrinsic pathway. Besides, the down regulation of IL-6 by SAC-CAFA-PENT suggests it also induces a significant anti-inflammatory process. In addition, docking studies would suggest caspase-3 modulation as the primary mechanism by which hybrids elicits apoptosis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma SW480. Meanwhile, DFT calculations suggest that hybrids would produce effects in modulation of ROS in SW480 cells via hydrogen atom transfer pathway (HAT). Finally, both, SAC-CAFA-MET and SAC-CAFA-PENT displayed a favorable pharmacokinetic profile. The current work highlights the potential of the lead compounds SAC-CAFA-MET and SAC-CAFA-PENT as potential agents for colorectal cancer chemoprevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0276.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: colorectal cancer; cancer stem cells; extracellular vesicles; high frequency dielectrophoresis; mi-crofluidic lab-on-a-chip
Online: 19 October 2022 (10:03:50 CEST)
Cancer stem cells remain a challenge to isolate and characterize because of their plastic phenotype. Using a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip based on ultra-high frequency dielectophoresis, we measured the electromagnetic signature of colorectal cancer cells and demonstrated that cancer stem cells show a distinct and lower electromagnetic signature than differentiated cells. The release of extracellular vesicles from tumor cells can drive tumor progression and metastasis development. As extracellular vesicles from cancer stem cells carry more aggressive content, we treated colorectal cancer cells with these vesicles to test whether the lab-on-a-chip can detect a change in phenotype. The electromagnetic signature of treated cells is modified in comparison to untreated cells and sometimes even when no biological change is observed. The lab-on-a-chip provides rapid and relevant result without prior labeling compared to conventional biological approaches. It could be useful in the clinic for early detection of cancer stem cells in the tumor mass and for monitoring the aggressive potential of extracellular vesicles in the bloodstream in order to adapt therapeutic management and prevent relapse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0582.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Liquid-based 3D culture; tumoroid; cisplatin resistance; imatinib (gleevec); tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI); organoid; spheroid; metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC)
Online: 23 December 2020 (10:15:46 CET)
Researchers have developed and used several three-dimensional (3D) culture systems, including spheroids, organoids, and tumoroids. Drug resistance is a crucial issue involving recurrence in cancer patients. Many studies on anticancer drugs have been done in 2D culture systems, where-as 3D cultured tumoroids have many advantages for assessing drug sensitivity and resistance. Here, we aim to investigate whether Cisplatin (a DNA crosslinker), Imatinib (a multiple tyro-sine kinase inhibitor), and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU: an antimetabolite) alter tumoroid growth of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). To establish a liquid-based 3D multiplexing reporter assay system, LuM1 (a murine mCRC cell line) was stably transfected with the Mmp9 promoter-driven ZsGreen reporter gene, which was designated as LuM1/m9 cells and cultured in NanoCulture Plate (NCP), a 3D culture device. The larger tumoroids were not sensitive to Cisplatin and ex-pressed ABCG2 (a marker of cancer stem cells, a.k.a. a drug efflux transporter), whereas smaller cell-aggregates were more sensitive to Cisplatin. Both Imatinib and Cisplatin significantly in-creased tumoroid growth (larger than 300 μm2) and Mmp9 promoter activity and were not cytotoxic to the mCRC tumoroids. On the other hand, 5-FU was cytotoxic to the tumoroids and significantly inhibited tumoroid growth, although not completely. Thus, platinum resistance and imatinib resistance in mCRC were modeled using the liquid-based 3D cultured tumoroid system. The tumoroid culture is useful and easily accessible for the assessment of drug sensitivity and resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1572.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Gut microbiome; Archaea; DPANN group; MvhB-type polyferredoxin; Ferroglobus placidus; VNatrinema sp. J7-2; Archaeal biomarker
Online: 22 August 2023 (11:48:13 CEST)
Background & Aims: Gut microbial imbalances are linked to colorectal cancer (CRC), but archae-a's role remains underexplored. Here, we performed bioinformatic and statistical analysis looking for archaeal taxonomic and functional signatures related to CRC. Methods: We analyzed pub-lished fecal metagenomic data from 390 subjects, comparing the archaeomes of CRC and healthy individuals. We conducted a biostatistical analysis to investigate the relationship between Candi-datus Mancarchaeum acidiphilum (DPANN superphylum) and other archaeal species associated with CRC. Using the Prokka tool, we annotated the data focusing on archaeal genes, subsequently linking them to CRC and mapping them against UniprotKB and GO databases for specific ar-chaeal gene functions. Results: Our analysis identified enrichment of methanogenic archaea in healthy subjects, with an exception for Methanobrevibacter smithii, which correlated with CRC. Notably, CRC showed a strong association with archaeal species, particularly Natrinema sp. J7-2, Ferroglobus placidus, and Candidatus Mancarchaeum acidiphilum. Furthermore, the DPANN ar-chaeon exhibited a significant correlation with other CRC-associated archaea (p < 0.001). Func-tionally, we found a marked association between MvhB-type polyferredoxin and colorectal can-cer. We also highlighted the association of archaeal proteins involved in the biosynthesis of leucine and the galactose metabolism process with the healthy phenotype. Conclusion: The archaeomes of CRC patients show identifiable alterations, including a decline in methanogens and an increase in Halobacteria species. MvhB-type polyferredoxin, linked with CRC and species like Candidatus Mancarchaeum acidiphilum, Natrinema sp. J7-2 and Ferroglobus placidus emerge as potential archaeal biomarkers. Archaeal proteins may also offer gut protection, underscoring archaea’s role in CRC dynamics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0263.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer; tumor stroma; gut microbiome; gut-associated lymphoid tissue; Wnt signaling pathway; tumor budding; Conserved Oncogenic Signatures; metastasis
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:09:47 CEST)
This review systematically examines the multifaceted relationship between the tumor microenvironment, stromal interactions, and colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and metastasis. The analysis begins by assessing the gut microbiome's influence on CRC development, emphasizing its association with gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). The role of the Wnt signaling pathway in CRC tumor stroma is scrutinized, elucidating its impact on disease progression. Tumor budding, its effect on tumor stroma, and implications for patient prognosis are investigated. The review also identifies conserved oncogenic signatures (COS) within CRC stroma and explores their potential as therapeutic targets. Lastly, the seed and soil hypothesis is employed to contextualize metastasis, accentuating the significance of both tumor cells and the surrounding stroma in metastatic propensity. In summary, this review highlights the intricate interdependence between CRC cells and their microenvironment, providing valuable insights into prospective therapeutic approaches targeting tumor-stroma interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: CEA 1; colorectal cancer 2; follow-up 3; tumor markers 4; early intervention 5; adjuvant chemotherapy 6
Online: 7 May 2022 (04:09:32 CEST)
Carcinoembriogenic antigen (CEA) is a routine marker for follow-up of colo-rectal cancers. We aimed to determine whether a CEA increase within the normal range can be linked to a recurrence risk. We included 78 consecutive patients with colo-rectal cancer, who underwent curative surgical treatment with or without chemo- or radiotherapy. As reference, we used the smallest value of the CEA during follow-up. A total of 34/78 patients (43.6%) had fluctuations of CEA of at least 1.1 ng/ml, with or without increases above 5 ng/ml. In 27/34 patients (79.4%) increases of CEA were explained either by recurrence (15/34 patients, 44.1%), adjuvant chemotherapy (7/34 patients, 20.6%) or benign pathology (5/34 patients, 14.7%). In 5 of 22 recurrences (23%) a CEA increase of at least 1.1 ng/ml, but below 5 ng/ml preceded the clinical relapse by a median of 8 months (range 3-22 months). The 4-year disease-free survival was 89% in patients with postoperative CEA <2.5 ng/ml, and 55% in patients with CEA >2.5 ng/ml. CEA increase by at least 1.1 ng/ml within the normal range, after curative treatment of colorectal cancer can be either an early sign of relapse or can be usually explained by other pathological processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0246.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: fluoropyrimidine; metronomic maintenance therapy; oxaliplatin-based regimen; stage III colorectal cancer; epidermal growth factor receptor
Online: 19 December 2019 (07:04:39 CET)
Background: This retrospective study evaluates the survival effects of metronomic maintenance therapy with fluoropyrimidine in patients with stage III colorectal cancer (CRC) according to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. Methods: We enrolled 197 patients with stage III CRC who had undergone radical resection and FOLFOX regimen adjuvant chemotherapy. The clinicopathological features and effects of metronomic maintenance therapy on survival according to treatment group and EGFR expression were analyzed. By conducting an in vitro cell line study and in vivo study through knockdout of EGFR gene, we analyzed the capacities of cell proliferation and migration. Results: Postoperative relapse and mortality were significantly more common in the FOLFOX group. Metronomic maintenance therapy was a significantly independent predictive factor of postoperative relapse and mortality, as well as a prognostic factor of disease-free survival and overall survival. The significant differences of survival between the two groups were only observed in patients with positive EGFR expression. Conclusions: The present study suggested EGFR expression as the prognostic factor in patients with stage III CRC receiving metronomic maintenance therapy. By analyzing EGFR expression, we can identify the potential candidates with optimal survival benefit from metronomic maintenance therapy in patients with stage III CRC.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: ulcerative colitis; inflammatory bowel disease; pediatrics; FMT; probiotics; synbiotics; antibiotics; prebiotics; fecal microbiota transplant; colitis-associated cancer; colorectal cancer; CAC; CRC; dysbiosis
Online: 20 September 2021 (14:20:39 CEST)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic autoimmune disorder affecting the colonic mucosa. UC is a subtype of inflammatory bowel disease along with Crohn’s disease and presents with varying extraintestinal manifestations. No single etiology for UC has been found, but a combination of genetic and environmental factors is suspected. Research has focused on the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of UC, including the effects of dysbiosis on the integrity of the colonic mucosal barrier, priming and regulation of the host immune system, chronic inflammation, and progression to tumorigenesis. Characterization of key microbial taxa and their implications in the pathogenesis of UC and colitis-associated cancer (CAC) may present opportunities for modulating intestinal inflammation through microbial-targeted therapies. In this review, we will discuss the microbiota-immune crosstalk in UC and CAC, as well as the evolution of microbiota-based therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: fluoropyrimidine; metronomic maintenance therapy; oxaliplatin-based regimen; stage III colorectal cancer; epidermal growth factor receptor
Online: 4 September 2019 (00:53:56 CEST)
Background: This retrospective study evaluate the survival effects of metronomic maintenance therapy with fluoropyrimidine in patients with stage III colorectal cancer (CRC) according to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. Methods: We enrolled 197 patients with stage III CRC who had undergone radical resection and FOLFOX regimen adjuvant chemotherapy. The clinicopathological features and effects of metronomic maintenance therapy on survival according to treatment group and EGFR expression were analyzed. By conducting an in vitro cell line study and in vivo study through knockdout of EGFR gene, we analyzed the capacities of cell proliferation and migration. Results: Postoperative relapse and mortality were significantly more common in the FOLFOX group. Metronomic maintenance therapy was a significantly independent predictive factor of postoperative relapse and mortality, as well as a prognostic factor of disease-free survival and overall survival. We also demonstrated that EGFR-knockout Caco2 cells are more sensitive to the inhibition effect of fluoropyrimidine than the control those. Conclusions: The present study suggested EGFR expression as the prognostic factor in patients with stage III CRC receiving metronomic maintenance therapy. By analyzing EGFR expression and treatment strategies, we can identify the potential candidates with optimal survival benefit from metronomic maintenance therapy in patients with stage III CRC.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0687.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Ampicillin; Antibiotics prophylaxis; cefazolin; Colorectal surgery
Online: 9 August 2023 (02:59:05 CEST)
Aim The use of prophylactic antibiotics prior to colorectal surgery reduces surgical site infections. Cefazolin and metronidazole is a standard regimen. Ampicillin-sulbactam may be an alternative, but the data are limited. We compared the efficacy of ampicillin-sulbactam with cefazolin and metronidazole as prophylactic antibiotics. Methods Patients who underwent colorectal surgery at Inha University Hospital between 2010 and 2020 were treated prophylactically with cefazolin and metronidazole or ampicillin-sulbactam, and observed for 30 days following surgery. The primary outcome was surgical site infections. Secondary outcomes were deep/organ infections and the need for drainage. Results SSIs occurred in 2.6% (17/646) of the ampicillin-sulbactam group and was not inferior to the occurrence in the cefazolin and metronidazole group (3.8%, 21/556). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the secondary outcomes. Conclusion Compared with the cefazolin and metronidazole combination, the ampicillin-sulbactam group is non-inferior as a preoperative prophylactic antibiotic regimen for colorectal surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1737.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: liver surgery; colorectal cancer; laparoscopy; survival
Online: 25 May 2023 (05:14:42 CEST)
Abstract Introduction Minimally invasive approaches to oncological liver resection is common in many hepatobiliary centres. This study aims to compare the key oncological and survival outcomes of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) undergoing laparoscopic or open resections using propensity score matching (PSM). Methods A single-centre retrospective study was performed using a prospective database of patients undergoing liver resection for CRLM between January 2016 and December 2019. Different co-variates were selected for matching using PSM. Pre-matching and post-matching analyses were compared. Surgical and survival outcomes were analysed. Results In total, 303 patients who met the inclusion criteria were identified: 214 underwent open liver resection (OLR) and 91 laparoscopic liver resection (LLR). LLR had a significantly reduced length of intensive treatment unit (ITU) and overall in-patient stay but longer pringle and operative times. In the unmatched cohort, the median overall and disease-free survival time was significantly longer in patients undergoing laparoscopic compared with open surgery. A PSM model demonstrated significantly reduced blood loss and length of hospital stay, with a significantly greater Pringle and operative time in the LLR group. Differences seen in overall and disease-free survival were lost with propensity score matching, possibly due to lack of bi-lobar disease within the minimally invasive group. Conclusion In selected patients with CRLM, LLR presents similar survival and oncological outcomes with the advantages of the short-term results associated with the laparoscopic approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1126.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer; homologous recombination; prognosis; Mre11
Online: 16 May 2023 (08:30:40 CEST)
Background: Homologous Recombination (HR) is the most accurate repair pathway for double-strand breaks and replication fork disruption that is capable of faithfully restoring the original nucleotide sequence of the broken DNA. The deficiency in this mechanism is a frequent event in tumorigenesis. Therapies that exploit defects in HR have been explored essentially in breast, ovarian, pancreas, and prostate cancers, but poorly in colorectal cancers (CRC) although CRC ranks second in mortality worldwide. Methods: Tumor specimens and matched healthy tissues from 63 patients with CRC were assessed for gene expression of HR key components and MMR status, which were correlated with clinicopathological features, progression-free survival, and overall survival (OS). Results: Enhanced expression of MRE11A, the gene encoding a key molecular actor for resection is significantly overexpressed in CRC, is associated with the occurrence of primary tumors particularly T3-T4 and is found in more than 90% of the right-side of CRC, the location with worst prognostic. Importantly, we also found that high MRE11A transcript abundance is associated with 16.7 months shorter OS and a 3.5 higher risk of death. Conclusion: Monitoring MRE11 expression could be used both as a predictor of outcome and as a marker to select CRC patients for treatments thus far adapted for HR deficient cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0399.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: CD44; CD44v9; monoclonal antibody; colorectal cancer
Online: 22 March 2023 (14:21:41 CET)
Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, and has been shown as a cell surface marker of cancer stem-like cells in various cancers. Especially, the splicing variants of CD44 (CD44v) are overexpressed in cancers, and play critical roles in cancer stemness, invasiveness, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Therefore, the understanding of the function of each CD44v is indispensable for the CD44-targeting therapy. CD44v9 contains the variant 9-encoded region, and its expression predicts poor prognosis in patients with various cancers. CD44v9 plays critical roles in the malignant progression of tumors. Therefore, CD44v9 is a promising target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Here, we developed sensitive and specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CD44 by immunizing mice with CD44v3–10-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary CHO-K1 (CHO/CD44v3–10) cells. We first determined their critical epitopes using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and characterize their applications to flow cytometry, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. One of the established clones, C44Mab-1 (IgG1, kappa) reacted with a peptide of the variant 9-encoded region, indicating that C44Mab-1 recognizes CD44v9. C44Mab-1 reacted with CHO/CD44v3–10 cells or colorectal cancer cell lines (COLO201 and COLO205) by flow cytometry. The apparent dissociation constant (KD) of C44Mab-1 for CHO/CD44v3–10, COLO201, and COLO205 was 2.5 × 10−8 M, 3.3 × 10−8 M, and 6.5 × 10−8 M, respectively. Furthermore, C44Mab-1 was able to detect the CD44v3–10 in western blotting, and endogenous CD44v9 in immunohistochemistry using colorectal cancer tissues. These results indicated that C44Mab-1 is useful for detecting CD44v9 not only in flow cytometry or western blotting but also in immunohistochemistry against colorectal cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: CD44; CD44v6; monoclonal antibody; colorectal cancer
Online: 9 January 2023 (09:02:06 CET)
CD44 is a cell surface glycoprotein, and its isoforms are produced by the alternative splicing with the standard and variant exons. The CD44 variant exon containing isoforms (CD44v) are overexpressed in carcinomas. CD44v6 is one of the CD44v, and its overexpression predicts poor prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. CD44v6 plays critical roles in CRC adhesion, proliferation, stemness, invasiveness, and chemoresistance. Therefore, CD44v6 is a promising target for cancer diagnosis and therapy for CRC. In this study, we established anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by immunizing mice with CD44v3-10-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO) cells. We then characterized them using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. One of the established clones (C44Mab-9; IgG1, kappa) reacted with a peptide of variant 6-encoded region, indicating that C44Mab-9 recognizes CD44v6. Furthermore, C44Mab-9 reacted with CHO/CD44v3-10 cells or CRC cell lines (COLO201 and COLO205) by flow cytometry. The apparent KD of C44Mab-9 for CHO/CD44v3-10, COLO201, and COLO205 was 8.1 × 10−9 M, 1.7 × 10−8 M, and 2.3 × 10−8 M, respectively. C44Mab-9 detected the CD44v3-10 in western blotting, and partially stained the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CRC tissues in immunohistochemistry. Collectively, C44Mab-9 is useful for detecting CD44v6 in various applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0324.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: UQCRB; mROS; Autophagy; Colorectal cancer; Lysosome
Online: 21 January 2022 (12:59:47 CET)
Human colon carcinomas, including HCT116 cells, often exhibit high basal autophagic flux under nutrient deprivation or hypoxic conditions. Mitochondrial ROS (mROS) is known as a “molecular switch”’ for regulating the autophagic pathway, which is critical for directing cancer cell survival or death. In early tumorigenesis, autophagy plays important roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis and contributes to tumor growth. However, the relationships between mROS and the autophagic capacities of HCT116 cells are poorly understood. Ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase binding protein (UQCRB) has been reported as a biomarker of colorectal cancer, but its role in tumor growth has not been clarified. Here, we showed that UQCRB was overexpressed in HCT116 cells compared to CCD18co cells, a normal colon fibroblast cell line. Pharmacological inhibition of UQCRB reduced mROS levels, autophagic flux, and the growth of HCT116 tumors in a xenograft mouse model. We further investigated mutant UQCRB-overexpressing cell lines to identify functional links in UQCRB-mROS-autophagy. Notably, an increasing level of mROS caused by UQCRB overexpression released Ca2+ by activation of lysosomal TRPML1 channels. This activation induced transcription factor EB nuclear translocation and lysosome biogenesis, leading to autophagy flux. Collectively, our study showed that increasing levels of mROS caused by overexpression of UQCRB in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells could be linked to autophagy for cell survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0360.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: EpCAM; monoclonal antibody; recombinant antibody; colorectal carcinoma
Online: 28 March 2022 (10:11:34 CEST)
The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a cell surface glycoprotein, which is widely expressed on normal and cancer cells. EpCAM is involved in cell adhesion, proliferation, survival, stemness, and tumorigenesis. Therefore, EpCAM is thought to be a promising target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we established anti-EpCAM monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method. We characterized them using flow cytometry, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. One of the established recombinant anti-EpCAM mAbs, recEpMab-37 (mouse IgG1, kappa), reacted with EpCAM-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells (CHO/EpCAM) or a colorectal carcinoma cell line (Caco-2). In contrast, recEpMab-37 did not react with EpCAM-knocked out Caco-2 cells. The KD of recEpMab-37 for CHO/EpCAM and Caco-2 was 2.0 × 10-8 M and 3.2 × 10-8 M, respectively. In western blot analysis, recEpMab-37 detected EpCAM of CHO/EpCAM and Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, recEpMab-37 could stain formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded colorectal carcinoma tissues by immunohistochemistry. Taken together, recEpMab-37, established by CBIS method, is useful for detecting EpCAM in various applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: ERAS Protocol; nutrition support; fasting; colorectal surgery
Online: 2 October 2018 (22:31:38 CEST)
Traditionally, overnight fasting before elective surgery has been the routine in medical practice for risk reduction of pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. Several original study and international societies recommend a 2‐h preoperative fast for clear fluids and a 6‐h fast for solids in most elective patients. We conducted a narrative review of the literature, searching electronic databases (Medline and CINAHL). We used PICO approach. The results of our review suggest that nutrition support in the perioperative period is very important to reduce length of hospital stay and reduced postoperative complication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0399.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Amino acids, lipids, diet, low-fat diet, cancer therapy, cancer metabolism, triple-negative breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer, metastasis
Online: 21 December 2022 (10:05:50 CET)
Patients with metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) need new therapies to improve the low survival rates achieved with standard treatments. In this work, we show that the survival of mice with metastatic TNBC can be markedly increased by replacing their normal diet with artificial diets in which the levels of amino acids (AAs) and lipids are strongly manipulated. After observing selective anticancer activity in vitro, we prepared five artificial diets and evaluated their anticancer activity in a challenging model of metastatic TNBC. The model was established by injecting 4T1 murine TNBC cells into the tail vein of immunocompetent BALB/cAnNRj mice. First-line drugs doxorubicin and capecitabine were used as positive controls. AA manipulation led to modest improvements in mice survival when the levels or lipids were normal. Reducing lipid levels to 1% markedly improved the activity of several diets with different AA content. Mice fed the artificial diets as monotherapy lived longer than mice treated with doxorubicin and capecitabine. An artificial diet without 10 non-essential AAs, with reduced levels of essential AAs, and with 1% lipids improved the survival not only of mice with TNBC but also of mice with other types of metastatic cancers.