ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0256.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: MVPA; VPA; social norms; children; adolescents; perception
Online: 5 June 2023 (07:47:16 CEST)
Our study points out that there is a discrepancy between the self-perceived levels of own MVPA and VPA and the perceived descriptive norms of peers’ MVPA and VPA. Adolescents underestimate the prevalence of sufficient MVPA and VPA, and thus perceived descriptive norms in MVPA and VPA are worse than levels of own MVPA and VPA. These findings indicate room for targeted intervention based on the social norms based approaches to increase the physical activity of adolescents or at least strengthen their actual positive behaviour.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0149.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; Mental Health; Children; Adolescents
Online: 4 March 2021 (09:53:18 CET)
Background: The COVID 19 pandemic and associated public health measures have disrupted the lives of people around the world. It is already evident that the direct and indirect psychological and social effects of the COVID 19 pandemic are insidious and affect the mental health of young children and adolescents now and will in the future. The aim and objectives of this knowledge-synthesis study were to identify the impact of the pandemic on children’s and adolescent’s mental health and to evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions employed during previous and the current pandemic to promote children’s and adolescent’s mental health. Methodology: We conducted the systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and included experimental randomized, nonrandomized controlled trials; observational studies; and qualitative studies. Results: Of the 5,828 articles that we retrieved, 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. We thematically analyzed and put up the major findings under the thematic areas of impact of pandemic on children and adolescent’s mental health. These studies reported that pandemics cause stress, worry, helplessness, and social and risky behavioral problems among children and adolescents (e.g., substance abuse, suicide, relationship problems, academic issues, absenteeism from work). Interventions such as art-based programs, support services, and clinician-led mental health and psychosocial services effectively decrease mental health issues among children and adolescents. Conclusion: Children and adolescents are more likely to experience high rates of depression and anxiety during and after a pandemic. It is critical that future researchers explore effective mental health strategies that are tailored to the needs of children and adolescents. Explorations of effective channels regarding the development and delivery of evidence-based, age-appropriate services are vital to lessen the effects and improve long-term capacities for mental health services for children and adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0329.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS); children; adolescents; lipid profile; cholesterol; generalized additive model
Online: 22 October 2021 (12:07:37 CEST)
Background: Residents of a large area of North-Eastern Italy were exposed for decades to high concentrations of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) via drinking water. Despite the large amount of evidence in adults of a positive association between serum PFAS and metabolic outcomes, studies focusing on children and adolescents are limited. We evaluated the associations between serum PFAS concentrations and lipid profile, blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) in highly exposed adolescents and children. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 6669 adolescents (14-19 years) and 2693 children (8-11 years) enrolled in the health surveillance program of the Veneto Region. Non-fasting blood samples were obtained and analyzed for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), total cholesterol (TC) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were measured and BMI z-score accounting for age and sex was estimated. The associations between ln-transformed PFAS (and categorized into quartiles) and continuous outcomes were assessed using generalized additive models. Analyses were stratified by gender and adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Among adolescents, significant associations were detected between all investigated PFAS and TC, LDL-C, and to a fewer extent HDL-C. Among children, PFOS and PFNA had significant associations with TC, LDL-C and HDL-C, while PFOA and PFHxS had significant associations with HDL-C only. Increased serum concentrations of PFAS, particularly PFOS, were associated with decreased BMI z-score. No statistically significant associations were observed between PFAS concentrations and BP. Conclusions: Our study supports a consistent association between PFAS concentration and serum lipids, stronger for PFOS and PFNA and with a greater magnitude among children compared to adolescents, and a negative association of PFAS with BMI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0237.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Social; Emotional; Intellectual Development; Children; Adolescents; Schools
Online: 16 June 2022 (10:46:01 CEST)
Educating children to be informed, responsible, socially adept citizens who care about others is an overarching purpose for schools. A rising variety of preventive and child development initiatives are being implemented in schools. Insufficient coordination with other school activities and neglect of implementation and assessment variables essential for a significant program impact these programs' current implications. They are not doomed to failure in the long term. The other challenges for scholars in school-based action research are identifying practical models to prevent problem characteristics, promoting positive child development, and supporting widespread development and sustainability of evidence-based preschool through educational practice. To conceptualize good youth development programs through Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) in schools, this research presents integrated social, emotional, and intellectual education (ISEIE). School interventions are necessary to implement the social and emotional skills on self-understanding, social knowledge, self-management, relationship management, responsibility, and decision-making. Schools are the best place to implement all these programs to create a better generation. To back up this viewpoint, this study looks at research from illustrative studies and research syntheses. In the end, this paper provides suggestions for implementing programs that combine social, emotional, and intellectual development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0249.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: sedentary behaviours; screen time; children; HBSC; disability
Online: 19 October 2018 (06:18:52 CEST)
Reducing sedentary behaviours can help prevent non-communicable diseases, particularly among young adolescents with long term illnesses or disabilities (LTID). Much of young people’s voluntary sedentary time is related to screen-time behaviours (STBs) such as TV viewing, playing computer games, and using the computer for other activities. Although public health data on adolescents’ STB is growing, information about adolescents with LTID is currently lacking in a European context. The purpose of this study is to compare time on STBs between adolescents with and without LTID in European Countries through the HBSC 2013/14 study. Young adolescents (n = 61,329; boys 47.8%) from 15 European countries reported the time spent on TV viewing, playing computer games, and using the computer for other purposes on weekdays and the weekend. STBs were dichotomised based on international recommendations of less than 2 h per day, and Chi-square tests of independence were performed to investigate differences. STB time was combined to produce a sum score as dependent variable in multiple analysis of covariance with age and family affluence as covariates. There were statistically significant differences in computer gaming among boys and other computer use among girls for both weekdays and weekends, whereby adolescents with LTID reported higher use. In addition, both boys and girls with LTID spent more time on STBs than their same sex peers without LTID (Boys, F = 28.17, p < 0.001; Girls, F = 9.60, p = 0.002). The results of this study indicate a need for preventive strategies to address high levels of STB among young adolescents with LTID and reduce the risk of poor health outcomes associated with higher levels of sedentary behaviour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1011.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Vitamin B12 deficiency; Folate deficiency; School-age children; Adolescents; CNNS
Online: 15 May 2023 (09:45:12 CEST)
Deficiencies of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate (FA) are of particular interest due to their pleiotropic role in 1-carbon metabolism. In addition to adverse birth outcomes, deficiencies of B12 and FA, or an imbalance in FA/B12 status, are linked to metabolic disorders. Indian diets that are predominantly plant food-based could be deficient in these vitamins, but there are no national estimates of the prevalence of B12 and FA deficiency in Indian children and adolescents, nor of their associations with age, sex, and growth indicators. The recent Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey (CNNS-2016-18) provided estimates of the prevalence of B12 and FA deficiency at the national and state level among preschool (1-4y: 9,976 and 11,004 children respectively), school-age children (5-9y: 12,156 and 14,125) and adolescents (10-19y: 11,748 and 13,621). Serum B12 and erythrocyte FA were measured by the direct chemiluminescence method and their deficiency was defined using WHO cut-offs. The prevalence of B12 and FA deficiency was high among adolescents (31.0%, CI: 28.7-33.5 and 35.6%, CI: 33.1-8.2), compared to school-age (17.3%, CI: 15.4-19.3 and 27.6%, CI: 25.5-29.9) and preschool children (13.8%, CI: 11.7-16.2 and 22.8%, CI: 20.5-25.2, respectively). The prevalence of both B12 and FA deficiency was significantly higher by 8 and 5% points respectively, in adolescent boys compared to girls. The prevalence of B12 deficiency was higher in moderately stunted school children (by 18.9% points) than in normal children, but no such difference was observed for FA deficiency. There was wide regional variation in the prevalence of B12 and FA deficiency, but no rural-urban differences were observed across all age groups. The national prevalence of B12 deficiency among preschool or school-age children was <20% (the cut-off that indicates a public health problem). However, FA deficiency in these age groups and both FA and B12 deficiencies in adolescents were >20%, which warrants further investigation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1273.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Diabetes; parents; children; adolescents; quality of life; stress; family burden
Online: 30 April 2023 (10:11:40 CEST)
Chronic diseases such as childhood DM are a complex and continuous struggle as well as a great challenge both for the children who face the disease and for their parents. Type 1 DM is characterized by the complex management of the therapeutic treatment thus causing physical and psychological complications in family members. There are many families who, upon hearing the diagnosis of their child with DM, stand still in front of these new facts as their lives change. All these unprecedented conditions cause parents intense stress, discomfort and mental burden as the only thing that concerns them now is how the family will survive in the face of the current conditions they are experiencing as well as the future of the sick child. The purpose of this brief literature review is to present the research findings which are related to the quality of life among parents of children and adolescents with diabetes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0225.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019; COVID-19; children; diabetes; type 1 diabetes; type 2 diabetes; recommendations
Online: 15 May 2020 (04:54:43 CEST)
Recent reports suggest that the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in previously healthy children is usually milder as compared to adults. However, children with comorbid conditions such as diabetes are at increased risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as well as morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19. Experience in adults with diabetes shows that they are prone to faster metabolic decompensation, develop diabetes-related complications, and have a poor prognosis when hospitalized with COVID-19. Data on children are limited. The aim of this mini-review is to discuss the possible risks to children and adolescents with diabetes during the current pandemic and the special considerations in management in those affected with COVID-19. The challenges for children who develop new-onset type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 lockdown, especially in accessing healthcare, are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: children, immunology, miRNA, partial remission phase, type 1 diabetes
Online: 5 October 2018 (09:29:15 CEST)
The objective of this study was to identify circulating miRNAs affected by disease duration in newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes. Forty children and adolescents from The Danish Remission Phase Cohort were followed with blood samples drawn at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 60 months after diagnosis. Pancreatic autoantibodies were measured at each visit. Cytokines were measured only the first year. miRNA expression profiling was performed by RT-qPCR and quantified for 179 human plasma miRNAs. The effect of disease duration was analyzed by mixed models for repeated measurements, adjusted for sex and age. Eight miRNAs (hsa-miR-10b-5p, hsa-miR-17-5p, hsa-miR-30e-5p, hsa-miR-93-5p, hsa-miR-99a-5p, hsa-miR-125b-5p, hsa-miR-423-3p and hsa-miR-497-5p) were found to significantly change expression (adjusted p-value < 0.05) with disease progression. Three pancreatic autoantibodies ICA, IA-2A, GADA65 and 4 cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IL-21, IL-22 were associated with the miRNAs at different time points. Pathway analysis revealed association with various immune-mediated signaling pathways. Eight miRNAs, involved in immunological pathways changed expression levels during the first five years after diagnosis in children with type 1 diabetes, and were associated with variations in cytokine and pancreatic antibodies, suggesting a possible effect on the immunological processes in the early phase of the disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: children; adolescents; burns; dressing changes; virtual reality; pain.
Online: 2 October 2020 (15:29:05 CEST)
Children and adolescents with severe burns require dressing changes, associated with pain. As immersive virtual reality (VR) gained prominence as non-pharmacological adjuvant analgesia, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of full immersive VR on pain experienced during dressing changes in hospitalized children and adolescents with severe burns. This exercise included quality and risk of bias assessment. The systematic reviewsearch resulted in eight studies and 142 patients. This exercise included quality and risk of bias assessment. Due to missing data, four studies were excluded from the meta-analysis. Fixed effects meta-analysis of the four included studies (n = 104) revealed a large effect size (ES) (SMD=0.94; 95% CI=0.62, 1.27; Z=5.70; p<0.00001) for adjuvant full immersive VR compared to standard care. In conclusion, adjuvant full immersive VR significantly reduces pain experienced during dressing changes in children and adolescents with burns. We therefore recommend implementing full immersive VR as an adjuvant in this specific setting and population. However, this requires further research into the hygienic use of VR appliances in health institutions. Furthermore, due to the high cost of the hardware, a cost-benefit analysis is required. Finally, research should also verify the long term physical and psychological benefits of VR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0049.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: vitamin-D deficiency; ALRI; Indian children
Online: 8 November 2016 (10:40:34 CET)
Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between poor vitamin D status and respiratory infections and diarrhea among young children. Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) and diarrhea are among the two most important causes of death in under-5 children. In this analysis, we examine the extent to which vitamin-D deficiency (<10 ng/ml) predicts these outcomes using data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of daily folic acid and/ or vitamin B12 supplementation for six months in 6 to 30 months old children conducted in Delhi, India. Of the 960 subjects who had vitamin-D concentrations measured, 331(34.5%) were vitamin-D deficient. We found, after controlling for relevant potential confounders (age, sex, breastfeeding status, wasting, stunting, underweight, anemia status at base line and season), the risk of ALRI was significantly higher among vitamin-D deficient (OR 1.26; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.55) compared to vitamin-D-replete children in the six months follow-up period. Vitamin-D status was not significantly associated with episodes of diarrhea and clinical pneumonia. The extent of causal relationship of vitamin-D status and ALRI needs to be explored in further studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0055.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: religious, children, Reading books, school, Iran
Online: 18 July 2016 (10:48:05 CEST)
Transmission of values and religious concepts to children is one of the most important issues in the third millennium and it has drawn varied and different views among experts and scholars in the world. Research specialized in religious literature for children and adolescents create new capacities in the presentation of religious concepts to the group. Plans have been considered to transfer values and religious concepts in the curricula of primary school children in the group in Iran. It is one of the topics that the authors note to the introduction of the minutiae of religion in the first three elementary grades. In this study, the collection and analysis methods providing content related to the minutiae of religion in reading books the first till third sections of the years 2013-2015. In addition, the plan includes aspects of other branches of religion in these books on information collected from text books that collected and classified. The result is that "definitely good and forbidding the evil" and "prayer" have the highest frequency of applications in the selected books. Further branches made of branches of religion in these books, represents the values of religious, moral and social as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0102.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Asperger; Atypically development; Covid19; Children; Adolescents; typically development; Parents; Adaptation; Well-being; Multi-informant
Online: 5 January 2023 (09:19:13 CET)
Mental health could worsen in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder during the Covid19 pandemic. In addition, their parents could be more at risk for an increase in anxiety and depression symptomatology. This study aims to understand the adaptation and the psychosocial well-being in a sample of 16 males aged 10-21 years old with Asperger syndrome after the quarantine for Covid19 when they return to school and partially to their activities in September 2020, The approach adopted is multi-informant with a battery of questionnaires on psychological health and adaptation given by a secure online web data Qualtrics both to adolescents and also to their parents. Paralleling matched peers with typically development were assessed adopting the same methodology. The results evidenced several difficulties in Asperger’s psychological health, especially in anxiety and socialization. Also adaptation is put in crisis, even if they reported a good comprehension and adoption of the behaviors anti-Covid19. Parents of children with Asperger reported similar psychological difficulties and general health than those of the group of children typically developing. Some clinical indications could be discussed for psychologists who follow children and adolescents with Asperger.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0084.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: long COVID; Post COVID-19 condition; sleep disorders, SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus; children
Online: 14 October 2022 (10:13:22 CEST)
Acute SARS-CoV-2 infections in children and adolescents are usually mild. However, they can suffer from ongoing symptoms generally referred as long COVID. Sleep disorders are one of the most frequent complaints in long COVID although precise data are missing. We assessed the sleep behavior of children and adolescents who presented at our outpatient clinic between January 2021 and May 2022 with the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ-DE). We compared sleep behavior at three different time points: pre-COVID-19, post-COVID-19 at initial presentation and post-COVID-19 at re-presentation. Data from 45 patients were analyzed. Of those, 64% were female and the median age was 10 years (range 0-18 years). Asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 disease was experienced in 89% of patients, whilst 11% experienced moderate disease. Initial presentation occurred at a median of 20.4 weeks (6 weeks - 14 months) after infection. The CSHQ-DE score increased significantly from pre-COVID-19 (45.82+8.7 points) to post-COVID-19 (49.40+8.3 points; p=<0.01). The score then normalized at re-presentation (46.98+7.8; p=0.1). The greatest changes were seen in the CSHQ-DE subscale score "daytime sleepiness". Our data show that children and adolescents with long COVID often suffer from sleep disturbance. For most children and adolescents these sleep disorders decreased over time without further medical intervention, aside from a basic sleep consultation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: wheat allergy; specific immunoglobulin E; children; gluten-related disorders
Online: 28 December 2016 (10:37:23 CET)
IgE-mediated wheat allergy is a gluten-related disorder. Wheat is one of the five most common food allergens in children. However, the natural history of IgE-mediated wheat allergy has seldom been described in the research literature. This study presents the current state of knowledge about the IgE-mediated wheat allergy in children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0331.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: children; adolescents; leukaemia; in treatment; healthy peers; life perceptions; hope; psychological wellbeing; cognitive problems
Online: 25 December 2019 (03:21:27 CET)
There is still little research on psychological wellbeing, life satisfaction and reported problems in preadolescents and adolescents under therapy for leukaemia, and also little research comparing them with their healthy peers. The present study aims to analyse the life satisfaction, hope, psychological wellbeing and reported problems’ intensity in patients aged 8-18 during the first year of therapy, to identify those more at risk and to compare their reports with matched healthy peers. After the parental written consent signature, a battery of self-reported questionnaires was administered during hospitalisation or day hospital admissions post 6 months and post 12 months from the diagnosis. Younger patients (aged 8–13 years) were more at risk than older ones in their problems’ intensity and psychological symptoms; females and Acute Myeloid Leukaemia patients reported lower current life satisfaction perceptions; hope was associated with lower depression symptoms and mood problems. Healthy peers have a better perception of current life, but reported a lower hope score, more anxiety symptoms and more cognitive problems than patients. The first 6 months were more critical for patients’ psychological health. The clinical aim was to identify the patients more at risk in order to prepare ad hoc psychological interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0558.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: road safety education; RSE; children; adolescents; risky road behaviors; road safety; traffic crashes
Online: 23 November 2018 (09:43:19 CET)
Road Safety Education (RSE) is widely known as a reliable determinant of future results for what concerns health and welfare, and as an undisputable factor which contributes to the social behavior of individuals and to their mid and long-term road safety outcomes. However, its development has been relatively scarce in most countries, fact which has contributed to letting matters as delicate as traffic crashes produced by road misbehaviors continue to be a prevalent problem, thus affecting the health of the community. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between demographic and RSE-related variables and the self-reported road risky behavior of Spanish students. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 4,062 (51.5 males and 48.5% females) participants attending primary (47.5%), secondary (40.7%) and high school (11.7%) was gathered through a national survey on RSE and road behaviors. Results: A set of significant associations between demographic factors, RSE variables and self-reported road behaviors was found. Furthermore, the SEM modelling allowed us to establish that age, observed misbehaviors, attitudes towards road safety and risk perception keep a direct link with the road risky behavior of children and young people. The knowledge of traffic rules was not a significant predictor of road behavior. Conclusions: The results of this study show that, together with demographic factors such as age, RSE-related variables have an effect on the road behavior of children and young people. They also suggest the need of strengthening actions to be implemented in road safety (Road Safety Education), into scholar and community levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0374.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; children and adolescents; machine learning; post-hoc explainability; model calibration
Online: 22 December 2021 (16:21:19 CET)
The global spread of COVID-19 led the World Health Organization to declare a pandemic on 11 March 2020. To decelerate this spread, countries have taken strict measures that affected the lifestyle and economy. Various studies have been focused on the identification of COVID-19 impact to mental health of children and adolescents via traditional statistical approaches. However, a machine learning methodology must be developed to explain the main factors that contribute to the change of mood state of children and adolescents during the first lockdown. Therefore, to this study an explainable machine learning pipeline is presented focusing on children and adolescents in Greece, where a strict lockdown was imposed. The target group consists of children and adolescents, recruited from children and adolescent mental health services, who present mental health problems diagnosed before the pandemic. The proposed methodology imposes: (i) data collection via questionnaires; (ii) a clustering process to identify the groups of subjects with amelioration, deterioration and stability to their mood state; (iii) a feature selection process to identify the most informative features that contribute to mood state prediction; (iv) a decision-making process based on an experimental evaluation among classifiers; (v) calibration of the best performing model and (v) a post-hoc interpretation of the features’ impact on the best performing model. The results showed that a blend of heterogeneous features from almost all feature categories is necessary to increase our understanding regarding the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on the mood state of children and adolescents.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: obesity; overweight; socioeconomic status; Health Behaviour of School-aged Children (HBSC) Study; trends
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:50:00 CEST)
The main objective of the study is to analyse time trends in excessive body weight (obesity, overweight) of Czech adolescents between 2002 and 2018 with regard to the socioeconomic status (SES) of adolescents’ families and to find SES-mediated correlates of adolescents’ obesity. A nationally representative sample of 29,879 adolescents (49.6% of them boys) aged 10.5-16.5 years was drawn from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional, self-reported questionnaire surveys conducted in 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014, and 2018 in the Czech Republic. Across the quadrennial surveys from 2002 to 2018, we observed a clear increase in the prevalence of excessive body weight (overweight/obesity) in all SES categories of adolescents, which was most striking (p < 0.05) in adolescents with low SES (boys: +5.2/+7.5 percent points (p.p.); girls +6.3/+2.4 p.p.). When all the survey cycles were compared, the highest prevalence of overweight/obesity was evident in the low-SES adolescents in 2018, both in girls (14.9%/5.1%) and boys (20.4%/12.0%). The lower odds of obesity were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with regular vigorous physical activity, participation in organized sport. An unreasonable increase in the prevalence of obesity in adolescents with low SES suggests that national health-related and sports programmes have the least impact on children from low-SES families.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0431.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depressive disorder; omega-3 fatty acids; lipid profile; fluidity of membrane; children and adolescents
Online: 20 August 2020 (05:48:48 CEST)
Depressive disorder (DD) is a psychiatric disorder whose molecular basis is not fully understood. It is assumed that reduced consumption of fish and omega-3 fatty acids (FA) is associated with DD. Other lipids like total cholesterol (TCH), LDL- and HDL-cholesterols (LDL-CH, HDL-CH) also play a role in depression. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between depressive disorder symptoms and lipid profile, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol subfractions, Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activities and erythrocyte membrane fluidity in 58 depressive children and adolescents, as well as the effect of omega-3 FA on the monitored parameters. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), lipid profile by standard biochemical procedures, LDL- and HDL-subfractions by the Lipoprint system. Basic biochemical parameters including lipid profile were compared with levels in 20 healthy children and were in the physiological range. We are the first to report that omega-3 FAs increase after 12 weeks of supplementation large HDL subfractions (anti-atherogenic) and decrease small HDL subfractions (pro-atherogenic) in depressed children. We found a negative correlation between CDI score and HDL-CH and large HDL subfraction, but not LDL-CH subfractions. CDI score was not associated with erythrocyte membrane fluidity. Our results suggest that HDL-CH and its subfractions, but not LDL-CH may play a role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0017.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Adolescent; children; cognitive bias; functional abdominal pain disorder; functional gastrointestinal disorders; interpretation bias; memory bias
Online: 1 June 2023 (04:16:01 CEST)
Cognitive biases towards disorder-specific stimuli are suggested to be crucial in the development and maintenance of symptoms in adults with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). Functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPD), a subtype of FGID, are common in children and adolescents, but the influence of cognitive biases is sparsely examined. The aim of this study was to 1) develop a new experimental design for assessing cognitive biases towards gastrointestinal stimuli in children and adolescents (age 8-17 years) and 2) test its feasibility on a healthy sample exploring potential sex- and age-related differences. The online experimental design – BY-FAP (Bias in Youth with Functional Abdominal Pain) includes a word task and a picture task. Stimuli in both tasks are related to general and gastrointestinal symptoms and the design includes three phases: 1) encoding, 2) free recall and 3) recognition. Results from 96 healthy participants (Mage = 12.3, 47.9% female) found no significant difference between sex or age groups in recall and recognition of either words or pictures. The results support that the design is feasible for children and adolescents. In the future, BY-FAP can be used to explore possible cognitive biases in children and adolescents with FAPD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0113.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: pedestrian; traffic; ultrafine particles; school; children; exposure
Online: 26 October 2016 (10:31:30 CEST)
Walking School Buses (WSBs) provide a safe alternative to being driven to school. Children benefit from the contribution the exercise provides towards their daily exercise target, it gives children practical experience with respect to road safety and helps to relieve traffic congestion around the entrance to their school. Walking routes are designed largely based in road safety considerations, catchment need and the availability of parent support. However, little attention is given to the air pollution exposure experienced by children during their journey to school, despite the commuting microenvironment being an important contributor to a child’s daily air pollution exposure. This study aims to quantify the air pollution exposure experienced by children walking to school and those being driven by car. A school was chosen in Bradford, UK. Three adult participants carried out the journey to and from school each carrying a P-Trak ultrafine particle (UFP) count monitor. One participant travelled the journey to school by car while the other two walked, each on opposite sides of the road for the majority of the journey. Data collection was carried out over a period of two weeks, for a total of five journeys to school in the morning and five on the way home at the end of the school day. Results of the study suggest that car commuters experience lower levels of air pollution dose due to lower exposures and reduced commute times. The largest reductions in exposure for pedestrians can be achieved by avoiding close proximity to traffic queuing up to intersections, and, where possible, walking on the side of the road opposite the traffic, especially during the morning commuting period. Major intersections should also be avoided as they were associated with peak exposures. Steps to ensure that the phasing of lights is optimized to minimize pedestrian waiting time would also help reduce exposures. If possible, busy roads should be avoided altogether. By the careful design of WSB routes, taking into account air pollution, children will be able to experience the benefits that walking to school brings while minimizing their air pollution exposure during their commute to and from school.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0294.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: rabies children postexposure profilaxis; children; zoonotic disease; vaccine
Online: 16 November 2022 (03:12:04 CET)
Rabies is a life-threatening and vaccine-preventable infectious disease and is triggered by an RNA virus, part of the Rhabdoviridae family, Lyssavirus genus. It is transmitted from infected saliva due to biting, but also from contact with infected blood or organs from rabid animals to humans. Children are at high risk due to their inability to defend themselves from infected animals and most deaths occur with a particularly high incidence in this category (under the age of 15 years). Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is standard and life-saving if given early after exposure. We are reporting the case of a ten-year-old female child, who was bitten by an unvaccinated cat ten days before admission to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit at National Institute for Infectious Diseases „Prof. Dr Matei Bals”, Bucharest. The child had category III cat bites and did not receive PEP. Suggestive clinical manifestations such as an altered general state, psychomotor agitation, auditory and visual hallucinations, and hypersomnia followed by aerophobia and hydrophobia were present. Despite the maximal treatment introduced from early admission (Human Rabies Immunoglobulin, anti-rabies vaccination, orotracheal intubation plus mechanical ventilation, vital functions’ support, parenteral feeding, symptomatic drugs) the evolution of the patient was unfavourable, namely death two months after admission. The diagnosis was established in both pre-mortem by identifying the rabies virus in the cerebrospinal fluid based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and post-mortem by a histopathological examination (which reveals the presence of Babes-Negri bodies in the hippocampus). The objective is to understand the mechanism of infection and mortality from rabies virus in children. Conclusion: The most effective prevention methods are early administration of specific prophylaxis (immunoglobulin and vaccination) and, most importantly, early elimination of animal rabies outbreaks, while rapid diagnosis is helpful in the management of human rabies in humans. The rate of human exposure may be significantly decreased by controlling rabies through pet immunization programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0573.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: children beaux-arts consumption; parents’ education; cultural capital theory; children educational performance; children reading behavior
Online: 24 July 2020 (06:07:34 CEST)
One of the robust explanation related to sociological educational inequality is Bourdieu’s cultural reproduction theory. Admittedly, prior work investigated that children’s cultural capital (CC) have significant effects on educational success. Although, it remain unclear in the context of developing countries specifically Vietnam. Also, how children’s conversion mechanism of CC works and drive educational success. Meanwhile, Bourdieu theory argue that CC effects educations outcomes largely via teachers biasness by using support of school grades, in contrast some of the scholars argue that absorption of children’s CC may directly transmit into educational abilities and skill development. This study employed partial least square structural equation modelling to analyze 5th grades students’ data collected from educational policy and data center. This study argue that conversion mechanism grounded on CC dimensions. This study provide implications for the policy makers and future researchers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: brucellosis; elevated liver enzymes; hepatomegaly; children
Online: 29 August 2019 (17:22:42 CEST)
Background and Objective: In the present study, the purpose was to compare the demographic, clinical and laboratory results of pediatric brucella cases who had liver involvement and who had no specific organ involvement. Material and Methods: The data of 248 patients between 2 and 18 years of age diagnosed with Brucellosis between July 2017 and August 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients who had liver involvement and who did not have other specific organ involvement were compared in terms of presentation, physical examination findings, age, gender, hemogram, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, bilirubines, sedimentation, CRP, clinical and laboratory findings, and culture and relapse rates. Results: No significant differences were detected between the patients who had liver involvement (n=92) and who did not have specific organ involvement (n=156) in terms of diagnosis age and gender. Loss of appetite, nausea and sensitive stomach were higher in the patients who had hepatic involvement, and weariness was determined to be more in the control group patients. In the patients who had hepatic involvement, the hemoglobin and platelet values were lower, and the sedimentation, CRP and blood culture growth were higher. The relapse rates were lower in patients who had liver involvement. Conclusion: In patients who have liver involvement, in addition to elevated hepatomegaly and transaminase levels, the growth rate of the acute-phase reactants and brucella is higher in blood culture; and the relapse rate is lower after treatment. Brucellosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of hepatomegaly and transaminase elevation where brucellosis is seen endemically. We believe that early diagnosis of brucellosis is important in treatment response.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0437.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: teicoplanin, anaphylaxis, children
Online: 24 August 2018 (14:22:07 CEST)
Teicoplanin is now increasingly used as a first-line prophylactic therapy for major surgical procedures, treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, and for those with reported penicillin allergy. Teicoplanin is rarely associated with anaphylaxis and there is limited information on the prevalence of teicoplanin- induced perioperative anaphylaxis. Here, we describe a case of a 12-year-old child with teicoplanin anaphylaxis peri-operatively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0040.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: human bocaparvovirus; acute gastroenteritis; children
Online: 4 April 2023 (05:19:34 CEST)
Human bocavirus (HBoV) is an emerging virus that has been detected worldwide that could be associated with cases of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). However, its contribution to AGE has not been elucidated. This study aimed to describe the frequency, clinical features, and HBoV genotypes circulation in children up to 5 years with or without AGE symptoms in Acre, Northern Brazil. A total of 480 stool samples were collected between January and December 2012. Fecal samples were used for extraction, nested PCR amplification, and sequencing for genotyping. Statistical analysis was applied to verify the association between epidemiological and clinical characteristics. Overall HBoV-positivity was 10% (48/480), being HBoV-positivity rates of 8.4% (19/226) and 11.4% (29/254) recorded among diarrheic and non-diarrheic children, respectively. The most affected age group was between 7 and 24 months (50%). HBoV infection was more frequent in children living in urban areas (85.4%), using water from the public network (56.2%), and living with adequate sewage facilities (50%). Co-infection with other enteric viruses was 16.7% (8/48) and the most prevalent coinfection was RVA+ HBoV (50%, 4/8). HBoV‐1 was the most frequent species detected, responsible for 43.8% (21/48) of cases, followed by HBoV-3 (29.2%, 14/48) and HBoV-2 (25%, 12/48). In the present study, HBoV infections are not associated with AGE, as most HBoV cases belonged to the non-diarrheal group without AGE symptoms. Future studies are warranted to determine the role of HBoV in causing acute diarrhea disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0228.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Trans fatty acids; saturated fatty acids; ultra-processed foods; children; Tunisia
Online: 4 November 2021 (11:26:56 CET)
Excessive intake of fat and fatty acids is associated with major health hazards such as obesity or chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to provide the first data on total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA) and trans fatty acids (TFA) intakes and their major food sources in Tunisian children. A total of 1200 children, aged 3 to 9 years old (yo), were randomly selected from primary schools and kindergarten under a cross-sectional design. The 24-hour recall method and food frequency questionnaire were used to assess dietary intake. The energy percentages of total fat, SFA and TFA in Tunisian children were respectively 29.6, 11.4 and 0.15. No sex differences were found. The WHO recommendations for total fat, SFA and TFA were adopted by 58 %, 39 % and 89 % of the study population, respectively. The leading food groups of fat and fatty acids were ultra-processed foods, breakfast cereals and dairy products. The meat, fish, eggs and fish alternatives were the fifth main contributors to the total fat and SFA intakes in Tunisian children. The implementation of a relevant strategy for fat reduction, especially from ultra-processed foods, considered as low nutrient energy-dense products, is needed to promote health among children and prevent diet-related chronic diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0335.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: children; digital media; attention; development; cognition
Online: 18 August 2022 (09:03:44 CEST)
Using digital media has become the most popular leisure activity for children and adolescents. The effects of digital media use on the developing brain and cognitive processes of children are subject to debate. Here, we examine the effect of digital media use on attention subdomains in children aged 6 to 10 years. In total, 77 children participated in the study. Selective and divided attention as well as switching between attentional demands were quantified by the SwAD task. Parents were asked to assess the screen time of their children (TV, smartphone, laptop/PC, game console, tablet). Results show no main or interaction effects of screen time on any of the attention conditions investigated. Based on the present findings, as well as previous studies, we suggest a possible non-linear relationship between the amount of screen time and attention function. Furthermore, we emphasize the relevance of considering the socio-economic background of children and a need for longitudinal studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: screen view time; children; risk factors; India
Online: 4 April 2022 (10:57:14 CEST)
Screen viewing time is the total time spent by a child on any digital/electronic device. The objective of the present study was to determine the incidence and predictors of excessive screen viewing time in children in Ujjain, India. This cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted through house-to-house survey by using the three-stage cluster sampling method in 36 urban wards and 36 villages of Ujjain district, India. Excessive screen viewing time was defined as screen viewing for > 2 h/day. The prevalence of excessive screen viewing time was 17.83%. Risk factors identified using the multivariate logistic regression model were: age (OR: 1.5, P < 0.001); mobile phone use before bedtime (OR: 3.17, P = 0.008); parents’ perception about the child habituated to screen (OR: 14.03, P < 0.001); television in bedroom (OR: 48.69, P < 0.001); morning mobile screen viewing time (OR: 9.27, P < 0.001); not reading books other than textbooks (OR: 9.71, P < 0.001); and lack of outdoor play for >2 h (OR: 4.20, P < 0.001). Presence of eye pain was a protective factor for excessive screen viewing time (OR: 0.12, P = 0.011). The study identified multiple modifiable risk factors for excessive screen viewing time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0350.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Children; Malnutrition; India; Overweight; Stunting; Anaemia
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:22:25 CEST)
The study examines malnutrition's triple burden, including anaemia, overweight, and stunting, among children aged 6-59 months. Using data from the National Family Health Survey-5 (2019-21), the study identifies risk factors and assesses the contribution at different levels to existing malnutrition burden. A random intercept multilevel logistic regression model and spatial analysis are employed to identify child, maternal, and household level risk factors for stunting, overweight, and anaemia. The study finds that 34% of children were stunted, 4% overweight, and 66% anaemic. Stunting and anaemia prevalence were higher in central and eastern regions, while overweight was more prevalent in the north-eastern and northern regions. At macro-level, the coexistence of stunting, overweight, and anaemia circumstantiates the triple burden of childhood malnutrition with substantial spatial variation (Moran’s I: stunting-0.53, overweight-0.41 and anaemia-0.53). Multilevel analysis reveals that child, maternal, and household variables play a substantial role in determining malnutrition burden in India. The nutritional health is significantly influenced by a wide range of determinants, necessitating multilevel treatments targeting households to address this diverse group of coexisting factors. Given the intra-country spatial heterogeneity, the treatment also needs to be tailor-made for various disaggregated levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0271.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: long covid; children; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 9 March 2021 (12:37:24 CET)
Background The World Health Organization has recently recognized Long COVID, calling the international medical community to strengthen research and comprehensive care of patients with this condition. However, if Long COVID pertains to children as well is not yet clear. Methods An anonymous, online survey was developed by an organization of parents of children suffering from persisting symptoms since initial infection. Parents were asked to report signs and symptoms, physical activity and mental health issues. Only children with symptoms persisting for more than four weeks were included. Results 510 children were included (56.3% females) infected between January 2020 and January 2021. At their initial COVID-19 infection, 22 (4.3%) children were hospitalized. Overall, children had persisting COVID-19 for a mean of 8.2 months (SD 3.9). Most frequent symptoms were: Tiredness and weakness (444 patients, 87.1% of sample), Fatigue (410, 80.4%), Headache (401, 78.6%), Abdominal pain (387, 75.9%), Muscle and joint pain (309, 60.6%), Post-exertional malaise (274, 53.7%), rash (267, 52.4%). 484 (94.9%) children had had at least four symptoms. 129 (25.3%) children have suffered constant COVID-19 infection symptoms, 252 (49.4%) have had periods of apparent recovery and then symptoms returning, and 97 (19.0%) had a prolonged period of wellness followed by symptoms. Only 51 (10.0%) children have returned to previous levels of physical activity. Parents reported a significant prevalence of Neuropsychiatric symptoms. Conclusions Our study provides further evidence on Long COVID in children. Symptoms like fatigue, headache, muscle and joint pain, rashes and heart palpitations, and mental health issues like lack of concentration and short memory problems, were particularly frequent and confirm previous observations, suggesting that they may characterize this condition. A better comprehension of Long COVID is urgently needed..
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: play therapy; anxiety; children
Online: 5 April 2021 (14:33:27 CEST)
Play therapy is an approach to providing assistance in overcoming problems using media such as toys, art media, games, and communication. The purpose of this paper is to find out that play therapy can reduce anxiety in children. The research design used in this study was a study-literature review. The data used in this research comes from the results of research that have been conducted and published in national and international online journals. The method of analysis used in this study is the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0159.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: lung ultrasound; children; pneumothorax
Online: 8 January 2021 (13:21:27 CET)
Objectives- We prospectively analyzed children with acute chest pain and clinical suspicion of pneumothorax (PNX) evaluated at the pediatric Emergency Department. Methods- After clinical examination and before Chest X-Ray, children underwent LUS to evaluate the presence of PNX. We enrolled 70 children, 13 (18,57%) received a final diagnosis of PNX. Results- In all 13 (100%) patients LUS showed the “bar-code sign”, the absence of lung sliding and the absence of B lines while in 12 (92,3%) there was the lung point, giving a diagnosis of PNX. All cases had PNX features on CXR. The “bar-code sign”, the absence of lung sliding and the absence of B lines had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100%. The “bar-code sign” had a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 100% for the detection of PNX. Conclusions- LUS is highly accurate in detecting or excluding pneumothorax in children with acute chest pain evaluated in the pediatric emergency department.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0078.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: animal therapy; anxiety; children
Online: 4 September 2020 (03:29:10 CEST)
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of animal therapy in alleviation of anxiety in pre-school children.Method: The study was carried out as a quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test design and control group. The study population consisted of 33 anxious 5-7years old children (participated in a welfare anxiety screening plan held by Counseling Center, Tehran-Iran) between 2018 and 2019. The participants took part in the study voluntarily.The subjects were randomly divided into experimental and control groups (10 in each group). The experimental group was exposed to 8 sessions of animal therapy. The research instrument was Spence Preschool Anxiety Scale (Parent Form) and the data were analyzed on SPSS 21 software.Results: The results showed that animal therapy had a significant effect on general anxiety score after adjusting for post-test scores (f= 32.49 and p= 0.001) with the effect equal to 0.70. In addition, the effect of animal therapy on anxiety of separation (f= 5.63, p= 0.03), generalized anxiety disorder (f= 8.56, p= 0.01), social phobia (f= 14.58, p= 0.002) and specific anxiety (f= 11.63, p= 0.005) was significant with effects equal to 0.30, 0.40, 0.53, and 0.47, respectively. The results also showed that the effect of animal therapy on obsession was not significant (p>0.05).Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that Animal therapy is effective in alleviating anxiety in children.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: seizures; status epilepticus; children
Online: 6 October 2018 (11:38:35 CEST)
Seizures are defined as a transient occurrence of signs and symptoms due to the abnormal, excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain characterized by an abrupt and involuntary skeletal muscles activity. An early diagnosis, treatment and specific medical support must be performed to prevent Status Epilepticus (SE). Seizures’ onset, especially in children population, is related to specific risk factors like positive family history, fever, infections, neurological comorbidity, premature birth, mother’s alcohol abuse and smoke in pregnancy. Early death risk in children without neurological comorbidity is similar to the general population. Diagnosis is generally based on the identification of continuous or recurrent seizures but EEG evaluation could be useful if SE condition in suspected. The main goal of therapy is to contrast pathological mechanism which occurs in SE before neural cells are irreversibly damaged. According to latest International Guidelines and Recommendations of seizures’ related diseases, it is proposed a schematic and multi-stage pharmacological and diagnostic approach especially in the management of SE and its related causes in children. First measures should focus on early and appropriate drugs administration at adequate dosage, airway management, monitoring vital signs, PICU admission and management of parents’ anxiety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0087.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: public space; smart-city; children; affordance; Sardinia
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:41:08 CEST)
The global process of urbanization, and the modification of social interaction determined by the pandemic crisis poses the issue of the place of vulnerable users, and in particular children, within the contemporary city. This research aims to elaborate a theoretical and methodological framework, based on the concepts of affordance and capability, for analyzing the potential of public spaces to enable and support children’s independent activities. This potential, or meaningful usefulness, is expressed by the Index of Meaningful Usefulness of public Urban Spaces (IUIS). The latter is calculated via the tool ‘Opportunities for Children in Urban Spaces’ (OCUS). This methodology is applied to the analysis of significant public spaces within the historic center of the city of Iglesias in Sardinia, Italy. The results reveal adequate usefulness of the selected spaces, while underlining criticalities related to intrinsic spatial and physical attributes. The application to the case study confirms the validity of the theoretical and methodological framework embodied in the OCUS tool for supporting urban design and planning by orienting place-shaping processes towards the acknowledgement of children’s needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0298.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: emotional intelligence; organized sport; children; elementary education
Online: 15 October 2018 (10:31:47 CEST)
Taking into account Bar-On’s postulations about social-emotional intelligence, the aim of the current work is to find out the differences in the five dimensions of this intelligence between children that practice organized sport and those children that do not practice it at elementary school level, to show that an increasing in the number of hours per day performing this activity causes differences in some of these dimensions. Hence, a sample of 940 children from elementary schools, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years old, attending different schools from the Autonomous Community of Extremadura (Spain), was used. Results showed that children who practiced organized sport had better coping abilities for stress, adaptability, and mood states, and that they are more emotionally intelligent than those who did not. Moreover, children who practiced for fewer hours daily (up to 2 hours) had better stress coping than those who practiced more. To conclude, it is important to promote the sport federative practice in elementary education, in order to ensure that children learn to better regulate and manage their emotions, without increasing it to an excessive number of hours per day, which may generate greater stress that might be difficult to control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0194.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Children; Growth; Development Modeling; Role Modeling; Stunting
Online: 14 June 2022 (05:28:12 CEST)
Stunting, during the Covid-19 pandemic, is increasingly becoming a big problem in the world, especially in poor and developing countries. Observational studies have shown that stunting is associated with poor nutrition, especially a plant-based diet, inflammation, caused by infection, enteric dysfunction, an environment with clean water, inadequate sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and endogenous inflammation associated with excess adiposity. This causes nutritional interventions to be often unsuccessful (Kemenkes RI, 2018).The government intervenes to reduce stunting to the target party, which is divided into two categories. The first category is specific nutrition intervention, namely monitoring children under five at the posyandu, giving immunizations, giving vitamin A, giving Supplementary Foods (PMT), and others. The second category is sensitive nutrition interventions, namely the provision of drinking water and proper sanitation, postnatal family planning (KB) services, providing information related to stunting, food social assistance, conditional cash assistance, and others. (KEMEN-PMK, 2018). WHO states, that the impact of stunting can be divided into short-term and long-term impacts. The short-term impacts are; increased incidence of morbidity and mortality; cognitive, motor, and verbal development in children is not optimal; and increased healthcare costs. While the long-term impact; Posture that is not optimal as an adult (shorter than usual); Increased risk of obesity and other diseases; The decline in reproductive health; Less than optimal learning capacity and performance during school years; and Low productivity and work capacity (Kemenkes RI, 2018). The nursing goal is to help people achieve quality, holistic health. Implementation of Modeling and Role Modeling Theory is an option in implementing nursing care for children with stunting. “Modeling” is gaining an understanding of the client’s world from the client’s perspective. That is to build a “model” of the client’s worldview. “Role‑Modeling” is based on the assumption that all humans want to interact with others, they want to carry out selected roles in society. Role-Modeling is using the client’s model of the world to plan interventions that meet his or her perceived needs, grow, develop and heal. Role-Modeling requires that we aim to build trust, promote a positive orientation and a sense of control, affirm strengths and set specific mutual goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0456.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: children; digital games; executive function; motor skills.
Online: 29 October 2021 (14:03:58 CEST)
Studies show that executive functions and motor development are associated among each other and with learning ability. A more technological lifestyle, related with digital culture, should be considered an important component to stimulate children. In addition, digital games constitute an element of the digital culture in which children are inserted. The aim of this study is to present a systematic mapping of the literature involving executive functions, motor development and the use of digital games in intervention programs for elementary school children, from 6 to 11 years old. Four databases were searched: PubMed, Scielo, Science Direct and SCOPUS, including publications between 2012 and March 2021. The initial results indicated 4881 works. After the selection process, 15 investigations that presented the central theme of the study were selected. The main results indicate that intervention strategies are quite heterogeneous. Most of the studies demonstrated significant positive effects after intervention protocols and were conducted in Europe and 46% of the studies were conducted in a school environment. No researches were identified that involved technological solutions involving executive functions, motor development and digital games in an integrated manner, constituting a field of future scientific research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0284.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Autism; polychlorinated biphenyls; environmental chemicals; children; neurodevelopment
Online: 15 October 2018 (06:23:08 CEST)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impaired social communication and repetitive or stereotypic behaviours. In utero exposure to environmental chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), may play a role in the etiology of ASD. We examined the relation between plasma PCB concentrations measured during pregnancy and autistic behaviours in a subset of children aged 3–4 years old in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a pregnancy and birth cohort of 546 mother-infant pairs from Canada (enrolled: 2008-2011). We quantified the concentrations of 6 PCB congeners that were detected in >40% of plasma samples collected during the 1st trimester. At age 3–4 years, caregivers completed the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS), a valid and reliable measure of children’s reciprocal social and repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. We examined SRS scores as both a continuous and binary outcome, and we calculated Bayesian predictive odds ratios for more autistic behaviours based on a latent variable model for SRS scores >60. We found no association between plasma PCB concentrations and autistic behavior, However, we found small and imprecise increases in the mean SRS score and odds of more autistic behaviour for the highest quartile of plasma PCB concentrations compared with the lowest quartile; for instance, an average increase of 1.1 [95%PCI: −0.5, 2.6] in the mean SRS (exposure contrast 4th versus 1st quartile) for PCB138 translated to an odds ratio of 1.6 [95%PCI: 1.0, 2.5]. Our findings illustrate the importance of measuring associations between PCBs and autistic behaviour on both continuous and binary scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine hesitancy; children; pediatrics; public health
Online: 1 September 2022 (02:25:22 CEST)
Background: This study describes the attitudes and practices of Brazilian adults regarding the mandatory vaccination for COVID-19 and the hesitancy to children´s vaccination. Methods: The participants answered an online questionnaire disseminated on social networks. An adaptation of the SAGE-WG questionnaire was used to measure the children's vaccination hesitancy. Results: Among 1,007 participants, 677 (67.4%) believed that vaccination for COVID-19 among adults should be mandatory. Just over half of the participants (51.5%) believe that parents and guardians should be free to decide whether their children should be vaccinated against COVID-19, and 9.1% were unsure about this. Younger, non-religious people who have higher self-perceptions of risk for COVID-19, and who evaluate the federal government's performance in combating the disease as bad or very bad, have a higher agreement with mandatory vaccination, a lower agreement that parents and guardians should be free to vaccinate their children, and lower child vaccination hesitancy scores. Conclusion: In Brazil, mandatory COVID-19 vaccination for adults is far from a consensus, and an expressive part of the population believes that parents and guardians should be free to choose whether or not to vaccinate their children. These perceptions and vaccine hesitancy for children are associated with religious and political inclinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0364.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Working memory training; intervention; developmental language disorder; children
Online: 28 March 2022 (13:43:53 CEST)
Recent research has suggested that working memory training interventions may benefit children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD). The current study investigated a short and engaging adaptive working memory intervention that targeted executive skills and aimed to improve both language comprehension and working memory abilities in children with DLD. Forty-seven 6- to 10-year-old children with DLD were randomly allocated to an executive working memory training intervention (n=24) or an active control group (n=23). A pre-test/intervention/post-test/9-month-follow-up design was used. Outcome measures included assessments of language (to evaluate far transfer of the training) and working memory (to evaluate near transfer of the training). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for pre-intervention performance and age found group to be a significant predictor of sentence comprehension and of performance on six untrained working memory measures at post-intervention and 9-month follow-up. Children in the intervention group showed significantly higher language comprehension and working memory scores at both time points than children in the active control group. The intervention programme showed potential to improve working memory and language comprehension in children with DLD and demonstrated several advantages: it involved short sessions over a short period; caused little disruption in the school day; and was enjoyed by children.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: mast cells; mastocytosis; mediator-related symptoms; anaphylaxis; children
Online: 1 February 2021 (11:36:31 CET)
Mastocytosis is characterized by pathological accumulation of mast cells (MC) in various organs. In these patients, MC may degranulate and thereby contribute to clinical symptoms, especially when a concomitant allergy is present. However, MC activation can not only be induced by high-affinity receptors for IgE, but also by anaphylatoxins, neuropeptides, IgG immune complexes, complement-components, drugs, products of bacteria or parasites, as well as physical factors such as heat, cold, vibration, stress, sun, or physical effort. Symptoms due to mediators released by activated MC may develop in adults suffering from systemic mastocytosis, but also evolve in children who usually have cutaneous mastocytosis (CM). Clinically, CM is otherwise characterized by typical brown, maculopapular skin lesions or mastocytoma associated with a positive Darier’s sign. Pruritus and flushing are common and blistering may also be recorded, especially in diffuse CM (DCM). Pediatric patients with mastocytosis may also have gastrointestinal, respiratory, and neurologic complaints. Although anaphylaxis is not a typical finding, pediatric patients with massive skin involvement and high tryptase levels have a relatively high risk to develop anaphylaxis. This paper reviews MC mediator-related symptoms and anaphylaxis in children with mastocytosis, with special emphasis on risk factors, triggers, and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0068.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: ESBLs; CTX-M; E. coli; Children; Cameroon
Online: 2 May 2023 (07:37:53 CEST)
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) mediating resistance in Enterobacterales is a global public health issue, especially in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) such as Cameroon. ESBL-producing Enterobacterales reduce therapeutic options and lead to the use of last resort drugs such as carbapenems even in vulnerable populations like children under five years. This study aims at determining the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-Ec) isolated from children under five years with and without diarrhoea in two health care facilities in Dschang. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 3 February to 19 May 2022 in two hospitals in the city of Dschang, Cameroon. Stool collected were cultured on Eosine Methylen Blue (EMB) medium. Enterosystem 18 R kit was used for bacterial identification. Evaluation of the resistance patterns and detection of ESBL production were performed with, the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method and CHROMagar® ESBL medium, respectively. The genomic DNA of ESBL-Ec was extracted using the boiling method and subjected to conventional and multiplex PCRs for detection of blaSHV, blaCTX-M and blaTEM genes. Data were entered into ExcelTM 2016. Epi info and R software were used for statistical analyses with a p-value <0.05 considered statistically significant. Out of the 125 children enrolled, 67.2% (84/125) were colonized by E. coli. Among these, 57.14% (48/84) were colonized by ESBL-Ec. ESBL- Ec isolates showed high levels of resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (96.22%), cefotaxime (75.47%), ceftriaxone (73.58%), ofloxacin (67.92%), levofloxacin (56.6%) and ciprofloxacin (54.71%). Children aged between 1-3 years (47.62%, p=0.09) and those who had taken an antibiotic one week prior to collection (70.83%, p=0.04) had a higher prevalence of ESBL-Ec with statistical significance. The majority of ESBL-Ec isolates (52.83%; 28/53) were co-producers of blaCTX-M and blaTEM. Infection prevention and control measures coupled with antimicrobial stewardship strategies need to be strengthened to reduce emergence and dissemination of ESBL-Ec among this vulnerable population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0451.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: coping; pain; children; sedation; analgesia; treatment effects
Online: 31 January 2022 (11:43:26 CET)
Children with leukaemia experience difficulties adapting to medical procedures and to the chemotherapy’s adverse effects. Study’s objectives were to identify which coping strategies could be associated with the treatments’ factors and with the dosage of sedation analgesic drugs during bone marrow aspirates. 125 patients (M = 6.79 years; SD = 3.40), majority with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (90.4%) and their parents received, one month after diagnosis, the PPCI. Data on the severe treatment effects and on the dosage of drugs in sedation-analgesia were also collected. An ANCOVA model (R2=0.25) showed that, weighing the age factor (F=3.47; df=3; p=0.02), the number of episodes of fever (F=4.78; df=1; p=0.03), nausea (F=4.71; df=1; p=0.03) and mucositis (F=5.81; df=1; p=0.02) influenced the use of distraction. Cognitive self-instructions (R2=0.22) were influenced by the number of hospitalizations (F=5.14; df=1; p=0.03) and mucositis (F=8.48; df=3; p=0.004) and by child’s age (F=3.76; df=3; p=0.01). Children who sought parental support more frequently (F=9.7; df=2; p=0.0001) and who tended not to succumb to a catastrophic attitude (F=13.33; df=2; p=0.001) during the induction treatment phase required lower drug dosages, especially propofol. The clinical application of these results could be to encourage the use of cognitive self-instructions and search for social support.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: psychological basic needs; autonomous motivation; education; school; teenagers; children
Online: 5 January 2021 (11:53:46 CET)
The Self-determination theory and The Vallerand's Hierarchical Model has been studied with different types of social factors that can bring different consequences. The purpose of this work was if responsibility and social climate could predict the social and prosocial behaviors and vio-lence. For this, 429 students (M = 11.46, SD = 1.92) participated in this study answering a ques-tionnaire with five variables: school climate, responsibility, motivation, satisfaction of psycholog-ical needs, prosocial and antisocial behaviors and violence. The main results saw that the most part of variables were correlated positive and directly except with antisocial behaviors and vio-lence. On the other hand, prediction model (X2 = 584.145 (98); RMSEA = 0.104 [90% CI = 0.096, 0.112]; TLI = 0.849; CFI = 0.894) showed that responsibility and school climate can predict psy-chological basic needs and these needs, can improve the autonomous motivation and finally have positive consequences improving prosocial behaviors and reducing antisocial behaviors and vio-lence. In conclusion, school climate and responsibility can improve positive consequences to the classroom, specifically, prosocial behaviors and reducing violence and antisocial behaviors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0238.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Quality-of-Life; children; asthma
Online: 5 June 2023 (05:00:52 CEST)
Asthma, like other chronic diseases, affects children prone to transitions of various aspects of their lives. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the level quality of life of children with bronchial asthma and to what extent the disease affects them their everyday life. The literature search was conducted a review of the articles was done in Greek and English, through electronic databases PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus. The terms and conditions their combinations used for the search were: “kids”, “children”, "pediatric asthma", "quality of life (QOL)", "health", "adolescents". The search was limited to the last five years (2015 – 2020) and finally 12 were selected articles. The most important areas negatively affected by quality of life of children with asthma are physical activity, their emotional state, school performance and sleep quality when it is connected to other factors. Important role in quality of life of these children has asthma management, disease severity and other environmental factors. Medical and nursing staff need to guide them asthmatic children and their families to have a good everyday life. Having the necessary knowledge needed for the quality-of-life health professionals should include in their medical nursing caring methods of achieving and maintaining a lifestyle that is no different than that of healthy children.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0312.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: procedural sedation; children; dexmedetomidine; imaging
Online: 17 August 2022 (09:44:28 CEST)
There is an increasing need for effective anxiety and pain reduction during medical imaging procedures in children. This is a complex issue, addressed by both non-pharmacological or pharmacological approaches. Dexmedetomidine is a fairly recently marketed, selective α2-adrenergic agonist, and can be administered intranasally. To develop an evidence-guided clinical protocol, we investigated its (side)-effects, preconditions and safety aspects following intranasal dexmedetomidine in children (1 month-5 years) for procedural sedation during medical imaging. To do so, a systematic search (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL (12/2021)) was performed to identify clinical studies on intranasal dexmedetomidine for procedural sedation for medical imaging (Computer Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging). Following screening and quality assessment, 8 studies were retained. Nasal nebulization was considered the best administration method, dosing varied between 2 to 4 µg/kg (age-dependent) 30-45 minutes prior to imaging, and contra-indications or restrictions on oral intake were somewhat consistent across studies. Valid sedation scores were routinely used to assess sedation and the need for rescue dosing, while discharge was generally based on the Aldrete score (score ≥9). Heart rate, blood pressure and saturation were routinely monitored, with commonly observed bradycardia or hypotension (decrease by 20%). Based on these findings, a roadmap for evidence-guided clinical protocol was generated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0143.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: coping strategies; children; imprisoned parents; interventions; systematic review
Online: 19 May 2017 (06:14:31 CEST)
Children of imprisoned parents have a two times greater risk for health problems, including difficulties in their environment, academic and behavioural problems as well as social stigma. Focusing on children who have parents in prison has not been a priority for research. This review aims to describe current knowledge on children who have imprisoned parents in a global context and highlight areas for additional research. This review highlights the coping strategies that children of imprisoned parents use and explore interventions that exist to support children of imprisoned parents. This review employed a qualitative narrative synthesis. The database search yielded 1989 articles, of which 11 met inclusion and quality criteria. Stigmatizing children due to parental imprisonment was a widespread problem. Children’s coping strategies included maintaining distance from the imprisoned parent, normalizing the parent’s situation and taking better control over their lives through distraction, sports, supportive people and therapy. Children received the best support in school-based interventions or mentoring programmes. The overall low quality of the included studies indicates a need for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: digital devices; digital media; toddler; children; language abilities
Online: 3 August 2020 (11:39:57 CEST)
Background: Over the past decade, the use of digital tools has grown and research evidence suggests that traditional media and new media offer both benefits and health risks for young children. The abilities to understand and use language represent two of the most important competencies developed during the first 3 years of life through the interaction of the child with people, objects, events, and other environmental factors. The main goal of our study is to evaluate the relationship between digital devices use and language abilities in children between 8-36 month, considering also the influence of several variables. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study on 260 healthy children (140 males = 54%) aged between 8-36 months (mean=23.5±7.18 months). All the parents completed a self-report questionnaire investigating the use of digital devices by their children, and a standardized questionnaire for the assessment of language skills (MacArthur). Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between different variables. Subsequent moderation analysis were performed to verify the influence of other factors. Results: W found a statistically significant negative correlation between the total daily time of exposure to digital devices and the Actions and Gestures Quotient (ß=-0.397) in children between 8-17 months, and between the total daily time of exposure to digital devices and Language Quotient (ß=-0.224) in children between 18-36 months. Sex, level of education/job of parents, modality of use/content of digital device do not significantly affect these relationships. Conclusion: In our study we found that a longer time of exposure to digital devices was related to lower mimic-gestural skills in children from 8-17 months and to lower language skills in children between 18-36 months, regardless of age, sex, socio-economic status, content and modality of use. Further studies are needed to confirm and better understand this relationship, but parents and pediatricians are advised to limit the use of digital devices by children and encourage the social interaction to support the learning of language and communication skills in this age group.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0397.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Children; Eating disorders; Eating behavior; Feeding practices; Obesity
Online: 16 November 2018 (10:31:50 CET)
Abstract: Given the links between parental obesity and eating psychopathology in their children, it is important to understand the mechanisms via which unhealthy relationships with eating are passed from parents to children. The aim was to review research focusing on food-related parenting practices (FPPs) used by parents with overweight/obesity. Web of Science, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched. Twenty studies were included in the review. Single studies suggest differences between parents with healthy-weight vs overweight/obesity with respect to; food accessibility, food availability and modelling. Multiple studies suggest that several parenting strategies do not differ according to parental weight status (child involvement, praise, use of food to control negative emotions, use of food-based threats and bribes, pressure, restriction, meal and snack routines, monitoring, and rules and limits). There was inconclusive evidence with respect to differences in parental control, encouragement and use of unstructured FPPs among parents with healthy-weight vs overweight/obesity. The findings of this review imply some differences between parents with overweight/obesity and healthy-weight and the use of some food-related parenting practices, however they should be interpreted with caution since research remains limited and is generally methodologically weak. The review highlights opportunities for further research and to improve current measures of FPPs and help clarify current study findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: rabies; school children; knowledge; attitude; practice; education; Bhutan
Online: 19 January 2021 (12:42:55 CET)
Rabies is endemic in southern Bhutan and children were reported to be the most frequent victims. We surveyed the knowledge, attitude, and practices on rabies among school children in three schools located in southern Bhutan. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed to analyze the level of knowledge and variation of perception towards rabies among secondary school children. A total of 701 students (57.9% female, 42.1% male) had participated in the survey of which 98.2% heard about rabies. Most of the students demonstrated a good level of knowledge (59.7%) and a favorable perception towards rabies (57.7%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed the importance of previous rabies awareness campaign increasing the likelihood of positive knowledge about rabies at the individual student and the school level. Similarly, higher grades of students’, employed mothers of the students, and students from villages were associated with more favorable perceptions. Overall, our study in rabies endemic areas of Southern Bhutan showed that most of the students have good knowledge and favorable perception towards rabies. However, we identified several knowledge gaps. Therefore, efforts should be made to address the knowledge gaps through regular awareness programs by actively engaging key stakeholders such as school-teachers and parents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: celiac disease; body composition; gluten free diet; children
Online: 15 October 2018 (13:19:09 CEST)
The primary and proven therapy, in cases of celiac disease (CD), is a rigorous gluten-free diet. However, there are reports of its negative effects in the form of nutritional deficiencies, obesity and adverse changes in body composition. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of a gluten free diet (GFD) on the body composition of children with CD. In a case-controlled study (n = 41; mean age 10.81 y; SD = 3.96) children with CD, in various stages of treatment, underwent medical assessment. The control group consisted of healthy children and adolescents, strictly matched for gender and age in a 1:1 case-control manner. More than half of the examined children (n = 26) followed a GFD. CD children had significantly higher mean values of the fat free mass (FFM% = 80.68 vs. 76.66, p = 0.015), and total body water (TBW% = 65.22 vs. 60.47, p = 0.012), and lower mean values of the fat mass (FM% = 19.32 vs. 23.34, p = 0.015). Children who were on a GFD presented slightly higher, but not statistically significant, mean values of FM and FFM, than children who did not follow dietary recommendations (FM [kg] = 7.48 vs. 5.24, p = 0.064; FM% = 20.81 vs. 16.73, p = 0.087; FFM [kg] = 28.19 vs. 22.62, p = 0.110). After minimum one year of a GFD, CD children showed significantly higher values of FFM [kg] (p = 0.001), MM [kg] (p < 0.001), TBW [L] (p < 0.001) and BCM [kg] (p < 0.001). Furthermore, CD children who were on a GFD presented significantly higher weight (p = 0.034) and body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.021) increase. The children adhering to a GFD demonstrate a tendency towards higher indices of selected body composition components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0187.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: WASH; Hygiene; Sanitation; Under-five children; Nutrition status; Bangladesh
Online: 13 January 2022 (11:04:48 CET)
This study aimed to assess knowledge and practice of caregivers and its relationship to the disease and nutritional status of children under five years of age in rural areas of Sylhet, Bangladesh. A total of 110 households having 6 to 59 months aged children was selected by simple random method from ten rural communities of three Upazila of Sylhet during September 2019 to February 2020. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the WASH knowledge & practice and multivariate chi-square analyses were performed to assess associations among diseases & nutritional status with WASH following a structured questionnaire. The study found a significant association of WASH with childhood disease and nutritional status, and 65% of children were found to be in a diseased state and 35% of children were found to be in a disease-free state within the last six months. The findings sketched that mother with poor wash knowledge and practice was at greater risk for disease outbreaks, disease frequency and duration. The highest incidence of diarrhea was 17% in children aged 12 to 23 months. Significant effect of WASH was also found in children nutrition status, that was reflected in the ratio of stunted, underweight and wasted children. Integrated convergent work focusing on the provision of clean water within the household, stop open defecation, promotion of hand washing, behavior change and poverty alleviation is needed to improve the situation. Health, nutrition and livelihood programs should be uninterrupted, and mothers or caregivers should be encouraged to participate in these programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0312.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Health cadres; knowledge; motivation; stunting children; stunting prevention
Online: 20 December 2021 (12:40:36 CET)
Stunting in children is a serious problem of nutritional disorders and is strictly monitored by the Indonesian government, it is not only cause physical but also cognitive abnormalities in the form of less intelligence in children so that when they grow up, their productivity will decrease. The incidence of stunting in 2018 in Indonesia was 30.8 %, while in West Java was 29.92%, still at a moderate to high level, consequently, prevention and early detection efforts need to be carried out by various parties, including health professionals and health cadres. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between the socio demographic characteristics factors as well as the knowledge and motivation of health cadres in the stunting prevention in West Java. A correlational study with a cross-sectional approach was employed with the samples of health cadres from 8 districts/cities in West Java Province: Karawang, Tasikmalaya, Garut, Bandung, Subang, Sukabumi, Cianjur, and West Bandung. A total of 363 health cadres participated and the sampling technique used is the stratified method. The data were collected using a questionnaire developed specifically for this study and were analyzed using a correlation with Chi-Square test and presented in the form of a frequency distribution. The study findings found that majority of the health cadres have good knowledge of 81.27%, which was significantly influenced by education level and marital status with p <0.05. Meanwhile, approximately half of the respondents had moderate motivation with 47.66%, while one-third or 39.12% had high motivation. This motivation was significantly influenced by education level, marital status, and age with p <0.05. It was concluded that health cadres need to further enhance the roles and functions in the prevention and early detection of stunting in West Java by providing continuous guidance, stunting training prevention and award presentations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: gaming; IGD; adolescents; children; adult; internet; Saudi Arabia
Online: 17 January 2023 (01:45:28 CET)
Abstract: Objective: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is an emerging psychiatric disorder that has received attention over the past decade. Few studies have attempted to describe this disorder in the Saudi population. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of IGD and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted using translated Arabic and a validated questionnaire targeting both genders in Saudi Arabia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study using a validated questionnaire (IGD-20) and targeting Arabic-speaking children, youth, and transitional age including both genders. A snowball approach was used to sample our population using an electronic survey. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with IGD diagnosis. The study was guided by the STROBE statement. Results: Among 419 individuals who participated in the study, 171 were classified as non-IGD, 167 were at risk for IGD (RIGD), and 72 were IGD. There is no significant association between IGD diagnosis and gender, nationality, residence, and family income. Time playing per week was significantly associated with IGD diagnosis (X2=49.256, p<0.01). There is a significant association between IGD-20 groups and categorical age groups (X2=10.096, p<0.01). Among our sample, the percentages of males (54.2%) and females (45.8%) who met the criteria for IGD were comparable. Conclusion: IGD and RIGD prevalence was significantly high in both age groups. Both males and females were affected similarly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0178.v4
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: nutrition; children; greenhouse gas emissions; school meals; sustainability; Agenda 2030
Online: 8 July 2019 (14:52:09 CEST)
There is great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) from public sector meals. This paper aimed to develop a strategy for reducing GHGE in the Swedish school food supply without compromising nutritional adequacy, affordability, and cultural acceptability. Amounts, prices and GHGE-values for all foods and drinks supplied to three schools over one year were gathered. The amounts were optimized by linear programming. Four nutritionally adequate models were developed: Model 1 minimized GHGE while constraining relative deviation (RD) from observed food supply; Model 2 minimized total RD while imposing stepwise GHGE reductions; Model 3 additionally constrained RD for individual foods to an upper and lower limit; and Model 4 further controlled how ratios between food groups could deviate. Models 1 and 2 reduced GHGE by up to 95% but omitted entire food categories or increased the supply of some individual foods by more than 800% and were deemed unfeasible. Model 3 reduced GHGE by up to 60%, excluded no foods, avoided high RDs of individual foods, but resulted in large changes in food group ratios. Model 4 limited changes in food group ratios but resulted in a higher number of foods deviating from the observed supply and limited the potential of reducing GHGE. Cost was reduced in almost all solutions. An omnivorous, nutritionally adequate, and affordable school food supply, with considerably lower GHGE is achievable with moderate changes to the observed food supply. Trade-offs will always have to be made between achieving GHGE reductions and preserving similarity to the current supply.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0014.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: aflatoxin M1; milk; dairy products; risk assessment; children
Online: 1 November 2021 (12:26:43 CET)
The present study was conducted to estimate the exposure and risk characterization of the children population of Serbia to Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) from milk and milk-based food. A total of 3404 samples comprising of milk and different milk-based food samples were collected from various regions of Serbia from 2017 to 2019. Evaluation of the AFM1 exposure was carried out using the deterministic method, whereas risk characterization was evaluated with the calculation of the Margin of Exposure (MOE) and the risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Detection rates for AFM1 in milk and milk-based food samples ranged between 2% and 79%, with the highest incidence (79%) and mean level (22.34 0,018 ng kg-1) of AFM1 was detected in pasteurized and UHT milk. According to the three consumption estimates, the values of EDI were higher for toddlers as compared with children. Children aged 1–3 years had the highest risk of exposure to AFM1 in milk, with an estimated daily intake of 0.164 and 0.193 ng kg-1 bw day-1 using a lower bound (LB) and the upper bound (UB) exposure scenarios, respectively. Such difference could result from the higher consumption versus weight. Based on the EDI found in this study, the risk of AFM1 due to consumption of milk and milk-based food was low since MOE values obtained were 10000. In addition, the risk of HCC cases/year/105 individuals of different age groups showed that the value of HCC using potency estimates of 0.0017 (mean) was maximum (0.00034) in the age group 1–3 years which indicates no health risk for the evaluated groups. The present study revealed the importance of controlling and preventing AFM1 contamination in milk through continuous monitoring and regular inspection to reduce the risk of AFM1 exposure, especially in children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Cognitive function; arthrogryposis; obstetrics palsy; children; motor disorder
Online: 6 December 2022 (02:31:36 CET)
Cognitive function, arthrogryposis, obstetrics palsy, children, motor disorder
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0434.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease; histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis; prognosis; children; age
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:37:36 CEST)
Background: Little information exists regarding the differences in the clinical and laboratory characteristics of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) according to age. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of KFD according to age. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients diagnosed with KFD at Pusan National University Hospital between 2010 and 2020. Results: Eighty patients (46 children and 34 adults) with a mean age of 21.5 ± 11.8 years (range, 3–49 years) were included in the study. Among children, the male sex ratio was higher, in adults, the female sex ratio was higher. Fever, tenderness in the lymph node, and skin rashes were more common in children, while myalgia and weight loss were more common in adults. In children, the recurrence rate was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.8% vs 0.0%, P=0.001). EBV and ANA positivity rates were higher in boys than in girls. In adults, the recurrence rate was significantly higher in women than in men (18.2% vs 0.0%, P=0.005). ANA positivity rates were higher in women than in men. Conclusion: The clinical features, laboratory findings, and recurrence of KFD may differ depending on age and sex. Clinicians should be aware of this.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0636.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; stress; mental anxiety; depression; children and attributes
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:27:39 CEST)
Coronavirus is believed to have originated from a wet market in Wuhan, China, and has spread all over the world, resulting in a large number of hospitalizations and deaths. Social scientists are just beginning to understand its consequences on human behavior. One policy that public health officials put in place to help stop the spread of the virus were stay-at-home/shelter-in-place lockdown-style orders. Schools, Colleges and Universities across the country have now been shut down till now due to Covid-19. Some Governments in India impose lockdown to reduce the crises created by this unknown virus. It is now difficult to make final assessments by school, school leaving examinations and entrance tests for undergraduate and post-graduate courses. This disruption implies for students across the socio-economic spectrum, both in terms of learning outcomes , food and economic security. Here the aim is to discuss the implications of lockdown-induced in schools in both urban and rural areas in India.The whole world implemented a nationwide lockdown to curb the transmission of the virus. A survey was over Five hundred families to complete a questionnaire with questions around symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, and family affluence. The humans who do not have enough supplies to sustain the lockdown were most affected Families with affluence were found to be negatively correlated with stress, anxiety, and depression. Stress, anxiety, and depression more than others are seen in students and healthcare professionals. The main aim of the paper is to find out how symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress on parents due to COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: children; infectious disease; lower respiratory tract infections; gastrointestinal
Online: 12 May 2020 (12:59:25 CEST)
The objective of this study was to describe the overall pattern of morbidity and mortality of children seen at the Thai Binh Pediatric Hospital in Vietnam, with a focus on infectious diseases. A retrospective review of hospitalisation records was conducted from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2019. Data were obtained from a total of 113,999 records. The median age of patients was 18 months, with 83.98% of patients aged <5 years. Infectious diseases accounted for 61.0% of all cases. The most prevalent diseases were lower respiratory tract infections (32.8%), followed by gastrointestinal infections (13.3%) and confirmed influenza (5.4%). Most infections were not microbiologically documented. A total of 81.4% patients received at least one antibiotic. Most patients (97.0%) were hospitalised for less than 15 days. Regarding outcomes, 87.8% patients were discharged home with a favourable outcome. 12.0% were transferred to the Vietnam National Children’s Hospital because their condition had worsened and 0.1% died. In total, infectious diseases accounted for 40.4% of deaths, followed by neonatal disorders (34.6%). Our data serves a basis for the identification of needs for diagnostic tools and for future evaluation of the effect of the targeted implementation of such facilities. Point-of-care tests, including real-time PCR assays to identify common pathogens should be implemented for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate antibiotic use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0384.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; children; clinical features; comorbidities; male genderSARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, children, clinical features, comorbidities, male gender
Online: 26 July 2022 (04:43:02 CEST)
Background: Given the potential for additional development to clarify a better knowledge of the overall impact of COVID-19 on the pediatric population, the clinical symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents are still being explored. Morbidity in children is characterized by a variable clinical course. Our study's goal was to compare clinical aspects of 230 pediatric patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were hospitalized between April 2020 and March 2022. Methods: In a retrospective analysis, we compared two groups hospitalized in the infectious diseases clinical ward IX at the National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Prof. Dr. Matei Bals," Bucharest, Romania. The first group of 88 patients was admitted between (April–December 2020) and their clinical manifestations were compared with the second group of 142 children followed between July 2021 and March 2022. Results: Of 230 children, the median age was 4.5 (interquartile range 0.6-17) years, 53.9% were male. 88 (36.21%) patients (first group) were admitted during the second wave in Romania, mostly aged < 5 years old, and experienced digestive manifestations like fever (p=0.001), and diarrhoea (p=0.004). The second group experienced different clinical signs when compared with the first group, with higher temperature and increased respiratory symptoms analogous to those of acute respiratory viral infections. The proportion in the second group increased, and 64.5% had symptoms for a median interval of 5 days; age (0-4 -years old) and length of stay were both proportionally inversely (p<0.01) and with correlation with hospital admission (p = 0.04). We report two Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome (PIMS) in the second group, with favourable evolution under treatment. Comorbidities were risk factors for complications appear (p < 0.001) in both groups. All paediatric cases admitted to our clinic evolved favourably and no death was recorded. Conclusions: In the first group children experienced digestive symptoms, whereas the second group experienced mild and moderate respiratory symptoms. We confirmed risk factors for severe cases as manifestations across the age spectrum, 0-4 (digestive symptoms) and 5-12 years old (for respiratory symptoms), associated comorbidities, fever, and male gender. The potential effects of COVID-19 infection in children older than 5 years should encourage caregivers to vaccinate and improve the prognosis among pediatric patients at risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: germectomy; marginal flap; para-marginal flap; third molars; children
Online: 16 May 2023 (08:31:56 CEST)
Introduction: Third molar surgery can cause post-operative complications to the patient due to the presence of wound from the incision. The study aimed to compare marginal flap with para-marginal flap on postoperative complications by the measurements on pre and post-surgical plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BoP), maximum opening of the mouth (MOM), pain perception (PP) and post-surgical tumefaction (PT). Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 40 patients were recruited and randomly allocated in two groups. In Group 1, third molar extraction was carried out after a marginal flap design was performed, while in group 2 a para-marginal flap was per-formed. Plaque Index, Bleeding on Probing, Maximum Mouth Opening, and Distal Probing were assessed right before and one week after surgery, while Post-operative Pain Perception and Post-operative Swelling were accounted one week following sur-gery. Results: Statistically significant difference are reported between treatment groups, as the para-marginal flap led to better outcomes for all the measured indexes. Conclusion: The para-marginal flap design may decrease the occurrence of post-operative compli-cations and discomforts after mandibular third molar surgery, compared to marginal flap design.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0160.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Sars-Cov2; Covid-19; Children; Kawasaki disease; toxic shock syndrome
Online: 9 May 2020 (09:01:24 CEST)
In the end of April nearly 100 cases of children aged between 6 month and 9 years with Kawasaki like disease were reported (mostly in Europe) probably linked to COVID-19. With the increasing awareness of this condition the number of cases reported is increasing worldwide. We aim to sum up the known data about this new entity based on published data (in a case report, a series of 8 cases and in newspapers and society statement) and using our knowledge of classical Kawasaki disease. It seems to be a post infectious disease with an onset between 2-4 weeks after the infection, probably in genetically predisposed children aged between 6 month to 17 years. A very rough estimation of incidence based on current data from Bergamo, Italy, and New York State and a lot assumption is between 0.016% (95% CI:0.013-0.02%) - 0.31% (95% CI: 0.2-0.47%) of infected children. Clinical signs overlaps with Kawasaki disease in some children, but another feature is prominent gastrointestinal manifestations. For the 9 detailed patients most had incomplete presentation for Kawasaki disease (with a mean 1.7 (+/-1.2) criteria per patient for the 5 non fever criterion) and only one had a classical form. In some cases, presentation is closer to toxic shock syndrome or isolated myocarditis. Persistent fever seems to be constant and biological exploration are consistent with inflammation (elevated CRP, ferritin and D-Dimers). Management is described as supportive and children seem to improve rapidly, but can require cardiac or respiratory support. In date of 11 may 2020 there is 4 deaths confirmed linked to these new entities (1 in UK and 3 in New York). Paediatricians and general practitioners need to be aware of these possible evolution following COVID-19 infection. However it seems to be rare and children are probably still spared from most morbidities and mortality linked to COVID-19 infection .There are need of published detailed cohorts to better delineate these entities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0205.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: diarrhoea; severity; severe dehydration; children; risk factors; Ujjain; India
Online: 16 January 2020 (03:21:03 CET)
Diarrhoea contributes significantly in the under-five childhood morality and mortality worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital in Ujjain, India from July 2015 to June 2016. Consecutive children aged 1 month to 12 years having “some dehydration” and “dehydration” according to World Health Organization classification were eligible to be included in the study. Other signs and symptoms used to assess severe dehydration were capillary refill time, urine output, and abnormal respiratory pattern. A questionnaire was administered to identify risk factors for severe dehydration, which was the primary outcome. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to detect independent risk factors for severe dehydration. The study included 332 children, with mean ± standard deviation age of 25.62 ± 31.85 months; out of which, 70%(95% confidence interval [CI] 65 to 75) were diagnosed to have severe dehydration. The independent risk factors for severe dehydration were: child not exclusive breast fed in the first six months of life (AOR 5.67, 95%CI 2.51 to 12.78; p<0.001), history of not receiving oral rehydration solution before hospitalization (AOR 1.34, 95%CI 1.01 to 1.78; p=0.038), history of not receiving oral zinc before hospitalization (AOR 2.66, 95%CI 1.68 to 4.21; p<0.001) and living in overcrowded conditions (AOR 5.52, 95%CI 2.19 to 13.93; p<0.001). The study identified many risk factors associated with severe childhood dehydration; many of them are modifiable though known and effective public health interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1927.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: COVID19; Children; Epilepsy; Adolescents; Pediatric; Pandemic
Online: 26 May 2023 (11:00:40 CEST)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted health care worldwide. As the pandemic has been prolonged, quarantine restrictions have been lightened gradu-ally, which can influence outcomes of pediatric patients with chronic disease such as epi-lepsy by increase of susceptibility of the COVID-19 infection. The aim of this study was to determine impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on seizure control and identify potential risk factors that might worsen seizure attacks during the pandemic in children with epilepsy. We performed a retrospective chart review of 48 pediatric patients with epilepsy during the COVID-19 pandemic from January 2016 to July 2022. During the COVID-19 pandemic period, 25% of pediatric patients experienced sei-zure worsening, showing an increase in seizure frequency or duration or both. Factors associated with worsening seizures during pandemic were: diagnosis of epi-lepsy less than one year, comorbid conditions with cerebral palsy or having a tracheosto-my or a PEG, and infection with other viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus A, influenza virus B) rather than COVID-19 infection. Our finding highlights the need to proactively monitor and regularly follow up (es-pecially short period of time) patients after they are diagnosed with epilepsy. It is also important to properly manage those who are susceptible to serious illness and keep sea-sonal viral infections under surveillance to manage exacerbated seizure in children with epilepsy. Furthermore, pediatric physicians should not overlook surveillance of seasonal respiratory viruses since quarantine restrictions are getting eased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0565.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: food rewards; children; sport; motivation; participation
Online: 31 January 2023 (02:32:29 CET)
(1) Background: Children who are physically active and involved in organized sport report having the unhealthiest diets. Research suggests excessive calories may be attributed to the prevalence of fast food and candy which are often provided as rewards in sport. This study explored the use of food as a reward in youth sport and the perceived impact it has on children’s motivation to participate in recreational soccer and ice hockey; (2) Methods: A multiple instrumental case study approach was utilized. Children aged 4-12 (n = 64), parents (n = 30), and coaches (n = 18) were recruited within central and northeastern Ontario, Canada to participate in focus groups and individual interviews. Transcribed audio recordings underwent inductive thematic analysis; (3) Results: Key themes included: Fun and fast: The culture of food in youth soccer and hockey; (Un)importance of food rewards: The how and why of motivating children in sport; and Youth sport is expensive: Gratitude for sponsorship in youth sport; (4) Children’s participation and effort would continue without food rewards; however, they continue to be offered food to motivate and celebrate performance in youth sport. Findings highlight the need to increase knowledge and awareness among parents and coaches on what truly motivates children to help foster healthier strategies for celebrating success and supporting lifelong physical activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Bullying; Oral health; Indigenous; Children; Australia
Online: 23 February 2022 (05:26:35 CET)
Making life better for Indigenous peoples is a global priority. Although bullying and oral health have always been a topic of concern, there is limited information regarding the impact of this problem in the general population, with no evidence in this regard among the Australian Indigenous population. Thus, we aimed to quantify the relationship between bullying victimization and oral health problems by remoteness among 766 Australian Indigenous children aged between 10–15-year-olds using data from the LSIC study. Bivariate and multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression analyses were employed. Findings indicated children self-reported bullying more than parents reported their children were being bullied (44% vs 33.6%), with a higher percentage from rural/remote areas than urban areas. Parents reported oral health problem increases the probability (OR 2.20, p<0.05) of being bullied in Indigenous children living in urban areas. Racial discrimination, lower level of parental education and poor child oral hygiene increase the risk of bullying victimization. Parental happiness with life and a safe community was associated with a lower risk of bullying. Dental problems are linked with Australian Indigenous children experiencing bullying victimization. Cultural resilience and eliminating discrimination maybe two modifiable paths to ameliorating health issues associated with bullying in the Australian Indigenous community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0261.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Tropheryma whipplei; epidemiology; children; immunocompromised; Iran
Online: 10 February 2021 (13:44:17 CET)
Background: Tropheryma whipplei is the causative pathogen of Whipple’s disease and other acute and chronic manifestations. Children have been identified as reservoirs of this bacterium especially in low-middle income countries. No information is currently available on the dissemination of T. whipplei in Iran. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of T. whipplei in children with immunodeficiency. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed from July 2018 to February 2019 in Qom province (central Iran). Stool samples were collected from immuno-compromised children. T. whipplei was tested by SYBR Green and Taq-Man Real-time PCR assays. For confirmation, sequencing of the isolated bacteria was done. Results: One hundred and 30 children with a mean age of 56.7 months were enrolled. Acute lymphocytic leukemia was the most reported immunodeficient disease (77%), followed by non-Hodgkin lymphoma and retinoblastoma. The majority of the children were undergoing chemotherapy during the study. Thirteen (10%) children had T. whipplei DNA in the collected stools. Sequencing results confirmed T. whipplei identification in all the cases. Eight out of 70 (11.4%) children under 5 years old resulted positive. Conclusion: This is the first study showing the circulation of T. whipplei among immunocompromised children in Iran. More epidemiological studies are needed to evaluate the prevalence of this pathogen in different risk groups in Iran and to increase the knowledge of its rare clinical manifestations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0498.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: children; resilience; disaster; behavior; school; factor
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:10:04 CET)
Annually, millions of people (including children) across the world face minor to severe impact from natural or human-induced disasters. Diverse models have been conceptualized and adopted at global scale to increase resiliency of children from disasters focusing on preparedness, response and recover. As children spend most of their lives at school or at home, this paper discusses on factors contributing towards improving or degrading resiliency of children from disasters. Giving low priority to institutional resilience, this paper highlights the behavioral aspects of children which becomes their strength on demonstrating appropriate practices to mitigate disaster risks on self at school, home and community. While doing so, attributes from Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior has been linked with the components of resilience to explain the causative factors. Adopting desk review, this paper describes behavioral attributes of children and emphasizes on need of having multi-dimensional framework to enhance resiliency of children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: clinical characteristics; febrile children; Kawasaki disease
Online: 20 February 2019 (09:10:15 CET)
Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a form of vasculitis that primarily affects children under the age of 5 years old. Patients may be missed diagnosis when initial clinical symptoms do not fulfill the traditional criteria. We aimed to analyze factors that clinicians could use to differentiate febrile children suspected of KD. Method: We retrospectively enrolled a total of 83 febrile children who were initially suspected of KD, but they did not meet the American Heart Association (AHA) criteria for a diagnosis. However, some of these patients were diagnosed with KD during their second visit. We analyzed patients' characteristics, clinical symptoms, and laboratory data. Results: In total, 50 patients were enrolled in the study. Of those, ten patients were diagnosed with KD on their second visit (group 1), while the other 40 patients still did not fit a KD diagnosis (group 2). A patient with a neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio greater than 1.33 combined with a C-reactive protein more than 33 mg/L was more likely to have KD. Conclusion: Among patients suspected of KD that did not initially meet the criteria, clinicians should pay special attention to elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios and CRP levels and closely follow up such patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: medical fear; children; psychometric properties; cross-cultural adaptation; Spanish
Online: 8 November 2021 (14:33:48 CET)
Having valid and reliable tools that help health professionals to assess fear in children undergoing medical procedures is essential to offer humanized and quality of care in the paediatric population. The aim of this study was to develop the cross-cultural adaptation and the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the “Child Medical Fear Scale” in its shortened version (CMFS-R). The design consisted of two phases, first of cross-cultural adaptation and second of the psychometric validation of the CMFS-R with a sample of 262 children from Spain. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess construct validity and the Cronbach alpha and the adjusted item-total score correlation coefficients were performed to study reliability. The results confirmed internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the CMFS-R, indicating that the scale has an acceptable level of validity and reliability. Therefore, this study brings a new version of the scale to assess fear related to medical procedures for use in the Spanish paediatric population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0474.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Covid-19; children and adolescents; Rwanda; structural inequalities; post colonialism
Online: 28 March 2023 (05:33:08 CEST)
COVID-19, the fear it engendered, and the policy measures to manage its spread have disproportionately impacted the wellbeing of children and adolescents (CAs). We present an intensive critical realist case study of the impact of COVID-19 on the health and wellbeing of CAs in Rwanda, seeing it as much a social and political crisis as a medical and public health one. To do this, we carried out interviews with a purposive sample of 25 leaders with a working knowledge of children and young people; they were more likely than the CAs themselves to observe changes across the CA population within their remit and more likely to be looking for general explanations rather than individual experiences. The findings show that CAs' responses to the changes wrought on their lives by Covid-19 were conditioned by their age, gender, social class and if they lived in urban or rural areas. However, Covid19 has not just revealed the structural weakness of the Rwandan health system but of education, social protection, child protection, employment, family, and financial systems. The pathway to (adverse) impacts of COVID-19 on CAs is conditioned by these institutions and their interactions together with structural socioeconomic inequalities both within Rwanda and globally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0105.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Rwanda; stunting; children; poor; household; factors; intimate partner violence
Online: 7 December 2022 (01:30:54 CET)
We assessed the prevalence and correlates of stunting among children aged 6-23 months from poor households in Rwanda. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 817 mother-child dyads living in poor households from five districts with a high prevalence of stunting. We used descriptive statistics to determine the prevalence of stunting, bivariate analysis, and a multivariate logistic re-gression model to measure the strength of the Association between childhood stunting and exposure variables. Stunting was at 34.1%. Children aged 19-23 months (AOR = 4.410, 95% CI: [1.911-10.173], p-value=0.01), children aged 13-18 months (AOR=2.788, 95% CI: [1.302-5.968], p-value=0.08), children from households that do not have a vegetable garden (AOR=2.165, 95% CI: [1.201-3.905], p-value<0.01) were more likely to be stunted. On the other hand, children whose mothers were not exposed to physical violence (AOR= 0.145, 95% CI: [0.074-0.287], p-value<0.001), children whose fathers were working (AOR=0.036, 95% CI: [0.005-0.242], p-value=0.001), children whose both parents were working (AOR=0.208, 95% CI: [0.051-0.851], p-value=0.029) and children whose mothers had good hand-washing practice (AOR=0.181, 95% CI: [0.091-0.362], p-value<0.001) were less likely to be stunted. Our findings underscore the importance of integrating the promotion of hand-washing practices, owning vegetable gardens, and intimate partner violence prevention in the interventions to fight stunting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0083.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Cardiorespiratory Fitness; Muscle Strength; Feeding Patterns; Life Style; Children
Online: 6 February 2020 (10:27:07 CET)
Background: The relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) and both physical fitness (PF) and physical activity (PA) level has been analysed in several studies. The aim of this research was to describe, compare and analyse the level of PF and PA in schoolchildren aged 6-13 in the Region of Murcia, according to adherence to the MD. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed. A total of 370 schoolchildren (44.9% girls) aged 6-13 (8.7±1.8) from six primary schools in the Region of Murcia (Spain). Results: Only 25.9% of the schoolchildren had optimal adherence to the MD. Regarding the scores of the different PF tests in MD groups, only statistically significant differences were found for CRF (p=0.048) in boys. PA level, showed statistically significant differences in both boys (p=0.040) and girls (p=0.016). A positive relationship was found between the KIDMED index and CRF (ρ=.127), standing broad jump (ρ=.133) and PA level (ρ=.235). A higher probability of having a greater CRF (OR=1.17; CI95%=1.02–1.34) and PA level (OR=7.84; CI95%=2.84–21.60) was found in High MD group. Conclusion: These results suggest that an optimal adherence to the MD is associated with higher CRF and PA level in the selected schoolchildren.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: knowledge; food consumption behaviors; hematocrit level; school-age children
Online: 19 October 2022 (10:06:28 CEST)
Anemia is a significant public health problem among children, especially school-age children because their body quickly produces red blood cells to provide sufficient blood volume with plasma expansion to maintain blood concentration. This research aimed to study the anemia situation, knowledge about anemia, food consumption behaviors, and the association between knowledge, food consumption behaviors, and hematocrit level among school-age children in primary school, in Thasala district, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. This is a descriptive study among 408 students, Grades 4 to 6, aged 9-12 years. Research instruments included the demographic data of the children and their knowledge about anemia, food consumption behaviors, and hematocrit assessment. Data were analyzed using descriptive, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, and logistic regression statistics. The results revealed that 23.2% of the samples had anemia, whereas 22.22% had mild anemia and 0.98% had moderate anemia. The children knew about anemia, where the mean score was at a moderate level (Mean= 6.63; SD= 2.51) out of 10. The mean score on food consumption behaviors was in the moderate level (Mean= 17.49; SD= 3.68) out of 24. There were significantly positive correlations between the knowledge about anemia and the hematocrit level at a moderate level (r= 0.45, p< 0.001). Correlation analysis revealed moderate food consumption behaviors with the hematocrit level (r= 0.40, p< 0.001). When confirm with Logistic regression found that knowledge about anemia (OR = 9.15, 95% CI: 4.57-18.34), and food consumption behaviors (OR = 19.09, 95% CI: 9.71-37.53) were significantly associated with the hematocrit level. Conclusions: This study showed that knowledge and appropriate food consumption behaviors are associated with hematocrit levels. Enhancing knowledge about anemia and food consumption behaviors may be reduced the prevalence of anemia in school-age children. The health care providers in primary care should be encouraged children to have health education and eat sufficient food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0208.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: children; young people; COVID-19; Eastern and Southern Africa; health systems
Online: 17 June 2020 (07:58:53 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has created extraordinary challenges and prompted remarkable social changes around the world. The implications of the novel coronavirus and the public health control measures that have been implemented to mitigate its impact are likely to be accompanied by a unique set of consequences for specific populations living in low income-countries that have fragile health systems and pervasive social-structural vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the implications of COVID-19 and related public health interventions for children and young people living in Eastern and Southern Africa. Actionable prevention, care, and health promotion initiatives are proposed to attenuate the negative effects of the pandemic and government-enforced movement restrictions on children and young people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0045.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: children with leukemia; parents; health locus of control; depression; life perceptions
Online: 4 March 2020 (04:32:14 CET)
Health locus of control is the set of beliefs a person has about his or her personal influence on health. The current study aimed at identifying types of locus of control in parents of leukemia children and possible association with depressive symptomatology and current life perception. 104 parents were recruited at the Haematology-Oncologic Clinic of Padua post 1 month from the leukemia diagnosis. Participants were Caucasian with a mean age of 37.28 years (SD=5.89), mostly mothers (87.5%) and with a mean of 12.16 years of education (SD=3.82). After signing the informed consent, they filled in the Ladder of Life questionnaire, the BSI-18 and the Parents Health Locus Of Control (PHLOC). Paired-samples t-test (t= -14.42; df=103; p=0.0001) showed that parents of leukemia children were more inclined to have an external locus of control than an internal one. Hierarchical regression analysis model (R2=0.34; F=4.32; p=0.0001) identified health professional influence (ß= -0.28; p=0.004), current life perception (ß= -0.3; p=0.013) and future life perception (ß= -0.26; p=0.012) as significantly predictors on Parental depression. Improving trust in the medical staff care and parental life perceptions could be a preventive program to cope with parental depression symptomatology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0667.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Zinc deficiency; children; non-pregnant women; national micronutrient status survey; Nepal
Online: 25 December 2020 (14:22:32 CET)
Zinc deficiency, a common malnutrition in children and women is a global public health problem.Burden of zinc deficiencyis more in countries with low meat and high cereal food consumption like Nepal. Nationally representative data on zinc status in Nepal is lacking at present. This study analysed the data from the recent Nepal National Micronutrient status survey 2016(NNMSS-2016) to determinethe prevalence of zinc deficiency and associated risk factors among children aged 6-59 months (n=1462) and non-pregnant women aged 15-49 years(n=1923) from three ecological zones, Hill, Terai, and Mountainof the country. Venous blood was collected from the participants to measure micronutrients such as zinc, markers of anaemia, vitamin A, and markers of inflammation. Stool was collected to assessthe soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and Helicobacterpylori infection. Socio-demographic, household and other relevant information were collected by a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the predictors of zinc deficiency among the participants.The overall zinc deficiency in children was found to be 22.9% while it was higher in non-pregnant women (24.7%). Predictors associated with zinc deficiency among enrolled children in the study were,living in rural areas (AOR=2.25, 95% CI, [1.13, 4.49]),occurrence of diarrhoea during the two weeks preceding the survey (AOR=1.57, 95% CI, [1.07, 2.30]), household wealth quintile (AOR= 0.48, 95% CI,[0.25, 0.92]) and vitamin A status (AOR=0.49, 95% CI,[0.28, 0.85]. Risk factors associated with zinc deficiency among the non-pregnant women were being underweight (AOR=1.60, 95% CI,[1.15, 2.23]), fever occurrence during two weeks preceding the survey (AOR=1.45, 95% CI,[ 1.06, 1.99]), H. pylori in the stool (AOR=1.32, 95% CI, [1.03, 1.70]), being rich (AOR=0.64, 95% CI,[0.42, 0.98]) and being in the risk of folate deficiency (AOR=0.60, 95% CI,[0.37, 0.96]). We conclude that community focused intervention programs including health and nutrition counselling and livelihood opportunities focusing groups at high-risk may improve the zinc status in Nepal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0650.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: bidirectional endoscopy; children; propofol; patient time requirements
Online: 8 June 2023 (14:07:20 CEST)
The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of propofol-based sedation and midazo-lam sedation in same-day bidirectional endoscopy (BDE) in children. The charts of children (≤15 years old) who had undergone same-day BDE were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, indications, sedatives and their dosages, clinical outcomes, endoscopic findings, adverse events, and patient time requirements were compared in cases with propofol-based and midazolam se-dation. A total of 91 children [51 boys, mean age 13 years (range 9-15)] were enrolled. Propofol alone or in combination with midazolam and/or pentazocine was given in 51 (propofol-based sedation group) while midazolam alone or in combination with pentazocine was given in 40 (midazolam sedation group). The mean doses of propofol, midazolam and pentazocine were 96 mg (range 40–145 mg), 4.1 mg (range 3–5 mg) and 7.5 mg in the propofol group while the mean doses of midazolam and pentazocine were 6.2 mg (range 4–10 mg) and 15 mg in the midazolam group, respectively. The total procedure times and endoscopic findings between the two groups were similar, but the median patient time requirement in the propofol group was significantly shorter than that of the midazolam group (7.3 h vs. 8.4 h, P<0.001). No adverse events occurred in either group. Propofol-based sedation shortened patient time requirements in same-day BDE compared with midazolam sedation in children.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1381.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: chronic viral hepatitis; socio-economic status; children
Online: 19 May 2023 (05:07:14 CEST)
In the present research, chronic viral hepatitis in children is approached from a multidisciplinary point of view, considering social status, economic and medical aspects. We conducted a 4-year observational prospective study. A questionnaire regarding the socio-economic status of pediatric patients diagnosed with chronic viral hepatitis B or C was applied. In total, 159 patients were included, 52 % from urban areas, 2.5 % coming from centres for abandoned children. Among 119 school-aged children, 66% were attending classes. All patients are registered with a general practitioner. Regarding the monthly income per family, 49% had less than 1000 RON (5 RON = 1$), of which 17% had no income, 28% had an income ranging between 1000 and 2000 RON and in only 23% of cases the income exceeded 2000 RON (5% had more than 4000 RON). There were between 3 and 12 members per family. Concerning parents` educational level, the average years of study for mothers was 7.8, while for fathers, it was 8.2. For 17 % of children, at least one of the parents was illiterate, and for 5.6 %, both parents were illiterate. For a third of patients, both parents were unemployed. Regarding social living conditions, 38.4% did not have water facilities or sewerage, and 32 % used personal objects (scissors, nail clippers) in common. The socio-economic level can have a significant impact on disease epidemiology (infectiousness) and access to treatment, and it is tightly related to educational level and access to information, which are critical factors in disease prevention through general and specific measures and in disease management (treating infected patients and limiting the transmission).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1071.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: peanut allergy; children; anaphylaxis; allergen components; severity
Online: 27 April 2023 (10:16:16 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Peanut allergy is the most common single cause of anaphylaxis in children. The risk factors for anaphylaxis in children with peanut allergy are not well defined. Therefore, we aimed to identify epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics of children with peanut allergy that may predict the severity of allergic reaction and anaphylaxis. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study and included 94 children with peanut allergy. Allergy testing was performed, including skin prick testing and determination of specific IgE levels to peanut and its Ara h2 component. In case of discordance between patient history and allergy testing, an oral food challenge with peanut was performed. Results: Anaphylaxis, moderate and mild reactions to peanuts occurred in 33 (35.1%), 30 (31.9%) and 31 (33.0%) patients, respectively. The severity of the allergic reaction only weakly correlated (p = 0.04) with the amount of peanuts consumed. The median number of allergic reactions to peanut was 2 in children with anaphylaxis compared with 1 in other patients (p = 0.04). The median level of specific IgE to Ara h2 was 5.3 IU/ml in children with anaphylaxis compared to 0.6 IU/ml and 10.3 IU/ml in children with mild and moderate peanut allergy (p = 0.06). The optimal cutoff for distinguishing between anaphylaxis and a less severe allergic reaction to peanut was a specific IgE Ara h2 level of 0.92 IU/ml with 90% sensitivity and 47.5% specificity for predicting anaphylaxis (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the patient cannot predict the severity of allergic reaction to peanut in children. Even standard allergy testing, including component diagnostics, is a relatively poor predictor of the severity of allergic reaction to peanuts. Therefore, more accurate predictive models including new diagnostic tools are needed to reduce the need for oral food challenge in most patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0433.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: cavovarus foot; conservative treatment; V osteotomy; children
Online: 27 March 2023 (02:38:52 CEST)
The cavovarus deformity is characterized by a pathologic longitudinal arch elevation caused by a severe hindfoot varus and forefoot equinus deformity. This disorder includes multiple anomalies and therapies and affects 25% of the population. Cavus feet usually indicate neurologic illness, which affects sensory and motor nerves. Clinical and radiological evaluations are needed to establish each patient's optimum therapy. Failure to identify a neurologic illness may lead to inappropriate surgical treatment, recurrence, and reconstructive failure. In progressive anomalies, surgical procedures must be performed quickly in a phased protocol to prevent the malalignment from worsening. Soft tissue surgeries, osteotomies, and arthrodesis are surgical options for patients. To aid and lead practitioners in selecting the most appropriate therapy for their patients daily, we have included the most common therapeutic options currently available in this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0471.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: children; seroprevalence; antibodies; SARS-CoV-2; Vietnam
Online: 31 October 2022 (07:37:55 CET)
Background: The robustness of sero-surveillence has delineated the high burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children; however, these existing data showed wide variation. This study aimed to identify the serostatus of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and associated factors among children following the fourth pandemic wave in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Vietnam National Children’s Hospital (VNCH) between March 13 and April 3, 2022. 4,032 eligible children seeking medical care for any medical condition not related to acute Covid-19 infections was tested for IgG SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies by ADVIA Centaur® SARS-CoV-2 IgG (sCOVG) assay using the residuals of routine blood samples. Results: The median age of enrolled children was 39 (IQR=14-82) months. The overall seropositive prevalence was 59.2%, and the median antibody titer was 4.78 [IQR 2.38-9.57] UI/mL. The risk of seropositivity and the median antibody titer was not related to gender (58.6% versus 60.1%, 4.9 versus 4.6 UI/mL, all p>0.05). Among age groups, the highest seroprevalence was reported in the children aged 13 to <36 months old. Children aged ≤12 months were likely to be seropositive compared to children aged 36 to <60 months (59.2% versus 57.5%, p=0.49) and those aged ≥144 months (59.2% versus 65.5%, p=0.16). Children aged ≥144 months exhibited a significantly higher titer of protective COVID-19 antibodies than other age groups (p <0.001). In multivariate logistic regression, we observed independent factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity, including the age 13 to <36 months (OR=1.29, 95%CI=1.06-1.56, p=0.01), 60 to <144 months (OR=79, 95%CI=0.67-0.95, p=0.01), ≥144 months (OR=1.84, 95%CI=1.21-2.8, p=0.005), the presence of infected household members (OR=2.36, 95%CI=2.06–2.70, p<0.001), participants from Hanoi (OR=1.54, 95%CI=1.34-1.77, p<0.001), underlying conditions (OR=0.71, 95%CI=0.60-0.85, p<=0.001), and using corticosteroids or immunosuppressants (OR=0.64, 95%CI=0.48-0.86, p=0.003). Conclusions: This study highlights a high seroprevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among children seeking medical care for non-COVID-19-related conditions in a tertiary children’s hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. In the context of reopening in-person schools and future emerged COVID-19 variants, this point will also be a key message about the necessity of “rush-out” immunization coverage for children, especially those under the age of three years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0116.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: parents’ motive to vaccinate; coronavirus disease; children
Online: 8 September 2022 (03:11:45 CEST)
Background: Vaccinating children against COVID-19 is an essential public health strategy in order to reach herd immunity and prevent illness among children and adults. Parents are facing tremendous stress in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic and the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccination program for children. In this study, we aimed to investigate parents’ willingness to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 in North Kivu province (DRC). Methods: A cross-sectional survey between December 01, 2021 to January 20, 2022 in 6 health zones (Goma, Karisimbi, Butembo, Beni, Kamango and Katwa) was conducted in the province of North Kivu. In each health zone, we selected 5 clusters (Health area) using the method of probabilistic selection proportional to population size. In total, 522 parents participated in our study. Results: Overall, 32.8% of parents intended to vaccinate their children. In the multivariate analysis, younger age of parents (aOR : 2.40, CI : [1.50-3.83]), higher level of fear that “a member of my family” could contract COVID-19 (aOR : 2.35, CI : [1.38-4.02]), higher level of perceived vulnerability to COVID-19 within the family (aOR : 1.70, CI : [1.005-2.2881]), higher level of perceived susceptibility to COVID-19 within the family (aOR : 3.07, CI : [1.80-5.23]), and history of vaccination against COVID-19 among parents (aOR : 16.47, CI : [8.39-32.33]), were significantly associated with the intention to have their children or adolescents vaccinated. Conclusion: Willingness of parents to vaccinate their children against the COVID-19 vaccination was low in North Kivu. There is undeniably in this region a need to reinsure the populations about vaccine safety for both children and adults. Public health authorities should also address widespread misinformation about vaccines in a timely manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0169.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: sex differences; syntactic development; Mandarin-speaking children
Online: 14 February 2022 (09:19:51 CET)
This study aimed to verify the sex differences in early syntactic development among Cantonese-speaking children by Tse et al. (2002), with the same corpus design but a different Chinese language: Mandarin. The utterances produced during half-hour play activities by 192 Beijing children, ranging from 3 to 6 years, were collected in the Early Child Mandarin Corpus (Li & Tse, 2011) and analyzed for this study. Their syntactic development was measured in terms of mean length of utterance (MLU), sentence type and structure, syntactic complexity, and verb pattern. The statistical analyses indicated significant age differences in MLU, sentence types and structures, and syntactic complexity. However, no sex or age-by-sex differences were found. This negative evidence indicates that sex difference is neither universal nor cross-language. The implications for early childhood education and future studies are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: children; face masks; school; cognitive impairment; concentration
Online: 6 December 2021 (17:31:38 CET)
In the current Sars-CoV-2 pandemic, wearing a face mask was mandatory and is still desired during school lessons. There are no controlled studies in children to date indicating an effect on cognitive performance wearing face masks. In a randomized controlled trial, we analysed the influence of face masks on cognitive performance of pupils during regular school lessons. Pupils (n=133, 5th to 7th grade) were randomized by alternating allocation into control (with masks, n=65) and intervention groups (without mask, n=68). After two school lessons with (control) and without (intervention) face masks in class all pupils performed digital tests for cognitive performance regarding attention and executive functions (Switch, CORSI block tapping, 2-back and flanker task). Overall, there were no significant differences in cognitive performance between both groups, masks vs. no masks. Wearing face masks has no significant influence on attention and executive functions of pupils and can still be recommended during school lessons.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0513.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: lung ultrasound; LUS, children; asthma; personalized medicine
Online: 29 November 2021 (07:48:13 CET)
In recent years, lung ultrasound (LUS) has been increasingly used for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases in both adult and pediatric patients. However, asthma is a field in which the use of LUS is not yet well defined or is in development. In the following case series, we describe clinical, laboratory, radiological results as well as detailed lung ultrasound findings of 6 children with asthma: some of them with acute asthma attack and with inadequately controlled allergic asthma or childhood asthma; others with acute asthma and allergic or infantile asthma adequately controlled by preventive therapy. Finally we describe the clinical, laboratory and imaging parameters of a child with severe allergic asthma in the absence of exacerbation. In these cases, albeit at different times, LUS played an important role in both the initial diagnostic process and follow-up. It also showed different ultrasound features depending on the severity of the individual asthma based on the type of asthmatic phenotype and control of it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0479.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: cerebral palsy; perinatal risks; children; pregnancy; childbirth
Online: 28 September 2021 (21:54:37 CEST)
Introduction: Cerebral palsy is the most common childhood disability Aims: Analyze and determine the main risk factors for the development of cerebral palsy in the population of Kazakhstan Materials and methods: Retrospective, analytical "case" - "control". Core group "case" - medical records of 100 pregnant women whose children at different ages has been diagnosed with cere-bral palsy Results: Thus, a retrospective analysis revealed the following features and complications in the perinatal period, which could promote the formation of cerebral palsy in children. Analytical results of the study are set significant results in cerebral palsy development Conclusion: Premature birth and urinary tract infections turned out to be the largest contribu-tors to the development of cerebral palsy, however, according to statistics, the rate of preterm birth, as well as the detection of infections, stably remains at the same level, while the number of cerebral palsy has been steadily growing since the early 1990s in Kazakhstan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0383.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: children; advertising literacy; advertising; media; buying behaviour
Online: 15 June 2021 (07:35:47 CEST)
Advertising is a very important tool in influencing the customer´s buying behaviour. However, customers tend to have various levels of understanding and decoding advertising messages. Even though children do not have purchasing power themselves, they still create a key customer segment that can influence the purchase decision of the whole family. The paper focuses on how media usage by children and their attitudes towards advertisements determines their buying behavior. We analyze the development of their advertising literacy and the most important predictors of this development. The empirical study was carried out by designing a questionnaire which was filled by Slovak children between the age of 11 and 15. We evaluated the impact of advertising and the degree of influence of the selected types of advertising media on children's consumer behavior. We also evaluated the degree of the disruptive effect of the selected types of advertising media on children and the perception of a selected medium within gender. We identified the most and the least influential type of media and we found out that there is no significant difference within gender in the case of advertising media perception by children. According to the results, we can state that children´s buying behaviour is mostly influenced by advertising on social media platforms. Therefore, the study recommends for marketers also take into account children as consumers when they employ an advertising strategy on social media.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0026.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: wearable devices; ethics; children; privacy; large data; right to an open future; living in the spot-light
Online: 25 June 2021 (11:00:42 CEST)
Wearable and mobile technology has advanced in leaps and bounds in the last decade with technological advances creating a role from enhancing healthy living to monitoring and treating disease. However, the discussion about the ethical use of such commercial technology in the community, especially in minors, is lacking behind. In this paper, we first summarize the major ethical concerns that arise from the usage of commercially available wearable technology in children, with a focus on smart watches, highlighting issues around the consent process, mitigation of risk and potential confidentiality and privacy issues, as well as the potential for therapeutic misconceptions when used without medical advice. Then through a relevant thought experiment we move on to outline some further ethical concerns that are connected to the use of wearables by minors, to wit the issue of informed consent in the case of minors, forcing them to live in the spotlight, and compromising their right to an open future. We conclude with the view that mitigating potential pitfalls and enhancing the benefits of wearable technology especially for minors requires brave and comprehensive moral debates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: children; histamine intolerance; nutrition; diagnostic algorithm; epidemiology
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:19:00 CET)
Histamine intolerance is defined as disequilibrium of accumulated histamine and the capacity for histamine degradation. This clinical term addresses a non-immunologically mediated pathology when histamine ingested with food is not particularly high, but its degradation is decreased. Clinical picture of histamine intolerance in children is similar to that observed in adults apart from male predominance found in paediatric patients. Both in children and adults, histamine-free diet seems to be the treatment of choice. Diamine oxidase supplementation offers another treatment option. There is no symptom and\or test pathognomonic for histamine intolerance. Nevertheless, manifestations of chronic gastrointestinal symptoms, measurement of diamine oxidase deficits, positive results of histamine provocation tests and improvement of symptoms with histamine-free diet greatly increase the probability of histamine intolerance diagnosis. These factors have been included in the proposed in this paper diagnostic algorithm for histamine intolerance. In children histamine intolerance probably co-occur with allergies and bowel diseases, which creates an additional diagnostic challenge. As the evidence for children is weak, further research is needed the establish epidemiology, validate diagnostic algorithms and establish possible treatment options regarding histamine intolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0132.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: children with autism, caregivers, personalised learning, intervention
Online: 11 December 2018 (13:55:39 CET)
The prevalence of autism in children in the world is estimated as one per 62 children, higher levels reported in some countries. These children experience significant problems with the development of social, behavioural and verbal and non-verbal communication skills. The skills impairment levels varies from an individual to another and that made teaching autistics a challenge for caregivers such as teachers and relatives. Hence, there are quite a number of frameworks of a software learning systems which focus on gaining the children’s attention using representational visual illustration as a learning method instead of the textual form. However, majority of these tools are lacking the personalisation ability to suite everyone in the spectrum. Assistive technology offers an alternative way to attract children with autism to use. Therefore, this research is proposing Autism Content Management Learning System (ACMLS) Framework to assist caregivers to produce, design and fine-tune or customise the learning materials appropriately so that the system interface and the materials are suitable for every individual in the spectrum according to each child personal profile aiming to make learning attractive and to contribute in improving their social, communication and behavioural skills and nonetheless, their attention level to the delivered educational topics. The ACMLS framework design adopts four main components which are: (1) Design component: which covers the visual design, design principles and the mental model of the children with autism. (2) Technology component: which covers the assistive technology tools and the architecture of the ACMLS system. (3) Education component: Which covers the learning objectives, styles, strategies, methods and the cognitive model. (4) Participants component: which covers the main participants who’re playing a role in the ACMLS framework such as: caregivers and children with autism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0205.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: cognates; kindergarten children; recall; recognition; vocabulary retention
Online: 8 November 2018 (10:49:05 CET)
This study investigates five-year-old learners’ vocabulary retention through case studies, on a one week, one month, three months, and five months basis. It concerns the vocabulary learning of kindergarten children learning English as a second language (L2). This study attempts to seek answers to the questions of to what extent the presentation of the three different sets of words more effective than the other two is, both on recall and recognition and whether the recall and recognition levels showed differences in the three sets of words in course of time. In the literature, some studies have favoured semantic mapping in which new words are presented and organized in terms of associated lexical meanings. Some other studies have disfavoured semantic mapping. This study has administered three different sets of vocabulary: semantically related, cognates and semantically unrelated words. This study indicated that all participants were more successful with semantically related words on word recall and with cognates on word recognition. The results of this study do not support those which claim that making semantic associations may cause interference and hinder vocabulary learning. This study further suggests that semantically related words should be taught thematically to facilitate vocabulary teaching, particularly on word recall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0129.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: negatively factors; pertussis; preschool children; vaccine immunity
Online: 8 June 2018 (11:28:56 CEST)
Introduction: The top priority of active immunoprophylaxis of pertussis is immunisation of infants as they can develop severe multiple-organ complications or even die from this disease. Objectives: The aim of the work is the identification of factors negatively affecting vaccine immunity to pertussis in preschool children prior to the administration of the first booster. Patients and Methods: The research was conducted on 352 children from 4.5 to 5.9 years of age who were hospitalised in the University Children’s Hospital in Lublin (Poland) from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2015. The children taking part in the study had been administered all the mandatory vaccines from their birth to the age of 2 or 2.5 years old according to the Polish Immunisation Program 2008-2009. The immunoenzymatic method ELISA was applied to assess vaccine immunity to tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), poliomyelitis (IPV), mumps, rubella and measles. The level of vaccine antibodies to hepatitis type B was determined chemilumiscently. Results: The protective antibody titer was not found in 41 (11.65%) children before the administration of the booster. To verify the collective impact of parameters analised on antibody titer to pertussis, the Generalized Linear Model (GLZ) was used. Gender, type of vaccine, asthma, Hib and mumps antibody titers have been shown to be predicators of vaccine immunity to pertussis. Conclusions: Immunomodulation considered on the example of titer of IgG antibody to pertussis can serve as a useful model of the assessment of development of acquired immunity after mandatory vaccinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0384.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Cardiovascular factors; Network analysis; Obese children; Physical activity; Sedentary behaviour.
Online: 22 February 2023 (10:45:17 CET)
This study analysed through the perspective of networks the association between physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight low-income schoolchildren from the perspective of complex systems. Methods: The sample consisted of 41 overweight children between 6 and 10 years old (56% girls). PA and SB were analysed by accelerometer, and the measures of cardiovascular factor risk were: anthropometric and hemodynamic measurements, body fat, lipid profile and glucose, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), left ven-tricular mass (LVM), and Sokolov-Lyon. Network analysis with Boot-strap-1000 was performed to analyze the association between PA, SB and the cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Moderate to vigorous PA was positive related with Waist circumference (WC; 0.499), HDL-C (0.307), and CRF (0.276), and negatively associated with BMI (-0.251) and Fat (-0.341). For SB, positive associations were seen with WC (0.326), CRF (0.296), LVM (0.250) and Sokolov (0.215). Adicionalment, the centrality indicators highlighted WC as the most important variable in the network. Conclu-sion: Interventions that aim to mitigate the harmful effects of obesity on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight children should consider WC as an important variable in of system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0593.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: social work; families with children; child welfare services; social mobility
Online: 27 August 2020 (06:05:09 CEST)
Abstract The aim of our study is to analyse the perception of the families and concerned social workers. The research was conducted in an underprivileged and disadvantaged microregion in North Hungary. The main focus was the perception on the available health, educational, child welfare and social services and supports. The starting point was to enquire the target group’s knowledge of these services. The study examines the extent to which social work is able to provide support to disadvantaged, marginalized families with children, and the way how the dysfunctional operation of the system contributes to the perpetuation of the clients’ life conditions. Analysing the quality of these services and supports is crucial to understand the social mobility chance of the children living in this microregion. The results show that without capability and talent development for the children and given the lack of welfare services, the mobility chance and opportunities of these families are extremely low in Hungary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0492.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Malaria parasitaemia; Risk factors; Malaria Diagnosis; infectious mode in children
Online: 28 March 2023 (14:58:24 CEST)
Background: Malaria remains a serious public health concern worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions, and the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in children especially among those aged under five in developing countries. Malaria can be fatal if not promptly and accurately diagnosed, especially in children.This study was carried out to determine the level of malaria infection and its associated risk factors among febrile children.Methods: Blood samples were collected and analyzed from two- hundred (200) systematically selected febrile children aged 1-10 years old. assay of samples collected were carried out using standard methods.data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. Results: Results obtained from study subjects shows that, of the eighty-seven (87) infected subjects, 34 (39.1%) were aged 1-5 years, while 52 (59.8%) were within the range of 6 years and above.severity of infection showed 48 (55.2%) with scanty parasitic infection while 25 (28.7%) showed moderate infection, and 13 (14.9%) showed heavy infection.The association of age and level of parasitemia showed that 34 (58.8% ) subjects below 5 years, recorded scanty malaria compared to 14.7% with severe malaria within the age range.Considering gender, of the 33 infected female subjects, 45.5% had scanty malaria, 36.4% showed moderate malaria, while 18.2% had severe malaria, compared to the males subjects.Conclusion: This study reveals the prevalence of malaria infection with some level of severity among children at our study location.The need for prompt diagnosis and improved access to all malaria interventions becomes relevant,with a special focus on the high risk group.