REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0311.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Parenting; brain; development; fmri; child development
Online: 14 October 2020 (15:22:41 CEST)
Parenting has been robustly associated with offspring psychosocial development, and these effects are likely reflected in brain development. However, the claim that parenting influences offspring brain development in humans, as measured by structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), is subject to numerous methodological limitations. To interpret the state of the parenting and brain development literature, we review these limitations. Four limitations are common. First, most literature has been cross-sectional. Where longitudinal, studies rarely included multiple assessments of brain structure or function, precluding measurement of actual brain development. Second, parenting has largely been measured via selfor parent-report, as opposed to observational assessment. Third, there has been a focus on extreme forms of developmental adversity which do not necessarily lie on a continuum with normative parenting. Fourth, although not a limitation per se, studies have generally focused on negative as opposed to positive parenting behaviours. While not all studies are subject to all these limitations, the study of parenting in relation to offspring brain development is in its infancy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0056.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; Impacts; Nurturing Care; Early Childhood Development (ECD); Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health; Child Growth Development; Early Brain Development; Vulnerable Children and Families
Online: 3 September 2020 (04:54:37 CEST)
In Kenya, millions of children have limited access to nurturing care. With the COVID-19 pandemic, it is anticipated that vulnerable children will bear the biggest brunt of the direct and indirect impacts of the pandemic. This review aimed to deepen understanding of the effects of COVID-19 on nurturing care from conception to four years of age, a period where the care of children is often delivered through caregivers or other informal platforms. The review has drawn upon the empirical evidence from previous pandemics and epidemics, and anecdotal and emerging evidence from the ongoing COVID-19 crisis. Multifactorial impacts fall into five key domains: direct health; health and nutrition systems, economic, social and child protection, and child development and early learning. The review proposes program and policy strategies to guide the re-orientation of nurturing care, prevent the detrimental effects associated with deteriorating nurturing care environments, and support the optimal development of the youngest and most vulnerable children. These include the provision of cash transfers and essential supplies for vulnerable households, and strengthening of community-based platforms for nurturing care. Further research on COVID-19 and the ability of children’s ecology to provide nurturing care is needed, as is further testing of new ideas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0373.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: conduct disorder; comorbidities; schizophrenia; demographics; child; behaviour; child psychiatry
Online: 21 August 2018 (06:32:21 CEST)
Objective: To determine demographic predictors and comorbidities in hospitalized children with conduct disorder. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2012–2014). All patients were ≤18 years and cases with primary diagnosis of conduct disorder (N = 32345) and a comparison group with another psychiatric diagnosis (N = 410,479) were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. A logistic regression model was used to generate the Odds Ratio (OR) between both groups. Results: Children <11 years old have five times greater chances of admission for conduct disorder than adolescent (OR 5.339). African American males are more likely to be admitted for conduct disorder. Children with conduct disorder from low-income families have a 1.5 times higher likelihood for inpatient admission compared to high-income families. These children have about eleven times higher odds of comorbid psychosis (OR 11.810) and seven times for depression (OR 7.093) compared to the comparison group. Conclusion: Conduct disorders are more debilitating for children and families than many providers realize. African American male under 11 years is at the highest risk for inpatient management for conduct disorder. These patients have a higher risk of comorbid psychosis and depression which may further deteriorate the severity of illness and require acute inpatient care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0455.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: child maltreatment; child abuse, social costs of child abuse; residential care for children with disabilities; Japan
Online: 24 November 2022 (07:32:25 CET)
We sought to calculate the extra social costs resulting from child abuse in residential care facilities (RCFs) for children with disabilities (CWD) in Japan. We distributed a survey to 260 residential facilities for CWD in 2020 and obtained responses from 91 facilities. Among the children admitted to these facilities, 23–67% were affected by child abuse. We estimated the extra costs to be an average of USD 647.7 million. This study is meaningful in that there are no existing official statistics or research findings on the extra costs of residential care due to child abuse in Japan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0293.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Child protection, social work, participation, child abuse, inequalities, cultural capital
Online: 16 December 2022 (03:29:14 CET)
Children’s right to participation in child protection decision-making is supported by moral imperatives and international conventions. The fragmented implementation of this right reflects an already-conflicted discursive terrain that attempts to incorporate both children’s agency and their need for protection. This article uses two key theoretical lenses to further examine this terrain: child welfare inequalities and cultural capital. These theories draw attention to how social inequities and cultural capital relating to culture and class affect how participation plays out. An unintended consequence of constructing children within a traditional liberal account of rights, within neoliberal and ‘child focussed’ policy paradigms, is the reduction of an acknowledgment of the culturally contested nature of an individualistic construction of children, excising children from their social backgrounds and promoting the notion of a ‘universal child’. With a particular focus on class, culture and professional paradigms, I argue that the ways children’s views are elicited, the content of those views and how they are interpreted, become subject to a set of professional assumptions that tend to take little cognisance of the social backround of children, including norms relating to class, ethinicity and the oppressive structural relations relating to those two factors. This process is shored up with concepts such as attachment theory, the ‘adultification’ of children of colour, the diminishing of Indigenous concepts of children and childhood, and the pre-eminence of the ‘concerted cultivation’ middle class parenting style. The child’s cultural worldview and manner of expressing it may clash with professional cultures that emphasise an ability for verbal expression, independence, and entitlement when negotiating preferences with representatives of powerful social institutions such as child protection systems. Many children may not comply with this expectation due to both cultural and class socialisation processes, and the histories of the oppressive functions of child protection systems. The unspoken power of child protection organisations that must engage in constant translation of children’s cultural capital to ensure participation, may instead better serve children’s participation aims by devolving authority to affected communities. Communities reflecting children’s own, may be better able to offer recognition to children and enable their participation more effectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0339.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: digital-divide; malnutrition; child psychology; child-labor; COVID-19; India
Online: 25 May 2022 (03:49:43 CEST)
Since the origin of COVID-19, everyone is getting accustomed to the new rules and regulations, travel restrictions and new lifestyle. Constant changes in the government advisories and the COVID-19 guidelines poses a real challenge for children to adapt to causing stress, anxiety and other mental health issues. Therefore, it is imperative to raise awareness about the challenges that Indian children are dealing with to help them better cope with this stressful and frantic time. The focus of this review is on various child-related problems that the Indian government is trying to tackle such as stress, depression, malnutrition, school closures, digital divide, child labor, child trafficking in context of mental health issues caused by them during COVID-19. Highlights:The reader will come to appreciate that: Digital-divide caused by shifting offline learning to online mode. Strategies implemented by Indian government to combat malnutrition Effect of COVID-19 lockdown on children suffering from mental disorders Child labor and trafficking and the strategies that aim to decrease child labor during the pandemic Educating the children appropriately regarding COVID protocols
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0176.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: one-child policy; environment; OLG model; fertility; human capital; child tax
Online: 20 March 2018 (09:09:16 CET)
In this paper we take China’s one child policy as an example and investigate its environmental impact. We develop a model for an economy using a standard overlapping generation model extended with human capital, endogenous fertility, and changing life expectancy. To model the environmental impact of economic activities, we use a modified IPAT model. We show that China’s one child has a very strong positive impact on the environment, particularly if we consider the whole human legacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0449.v1
Online: 20 August 2020 (08:36:03 CEST)
Objectives: to assess the knowledge level of parents from the central region of Saudi Arabia about oral health and care of preschool children and its relation with sociodemographic variables, parents‟ self-perception toward their dental health, importance of teeth and frequency of dental visits. Methods: a random sample of 754 parents participated in this cross-sectional study and completed an internationally accepted questionnaire. Chi square test and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data (p<0.05). Results: mean knowledge score of the parents was 4.8 (out of 11). Less than 20% of the parents were knowledgeable about the best position for tooth brushing, the concentration of fluoride in a child‟s toothpaste, timing of first dental check-up, and best time to give a sugary snack. Mothers, parents with high educational level and family income, parents with positive attitude towards teeth and excellent self-perception of their dental health were significantly more likely to score higher (p<0.05). Conclusions: knowledge of parents about oral health and care of preschool children in the central region of Saudi Arabia was deficient. Gender, education level of parents, family income, attitude about teeth and self-perception of parents‟ own dental health were factors which influenced their knowledge. To improve parents‟ knowledge, role of health professionals should be improved and TV commercials directed toward the areas which had gaps in knowledge.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0149.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: sensory processing sensitivity; highly sensitive person; highly sensitive child; differential susceptibility; environmental sensitivity; temperament; personality; aetiology; animal model; neuroscience; cognition; mental health
Online: 10 September 2018 (04:58:01 CEST)
Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS) is a trait describing inter-individual differences in sensitivity to environments, both positive and negative ones. SPS has attracted growing societal interest. However, (neuro)scientific evidence is lagging behind. We critically discuss how to measure SPS, how it relates to other theories of Environmental Sensitivity and other temperament and personality traits, how SPS interacts with environments to influence (a)typical development, what the underlying aetiologies and mechanisms are, and its relation to mental disorders involving sensory sensitivities. Drawing on the diverse expertise of the authors, we set an agenda for future research to stimulate the field. We conclude that SPS is a heritable, evolutionarily conserved trait, linked to increased risk for psychopathology and stress-related problems in response to negative environments, as well as to greater benefits (e.g., intervention responsivity, positive mood) in positive environments. We need advances in objective assessment of SPS, understanding mechanisms, differentiating it from (seemingly) related mental disorders, to exploit the potential of SPS to improve mental health, preserve human capital, and prevent adverse effects.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: behavior; neurodevelopment; infant; child; autism
Online: 19 October 2021 (10:13:55 CEST)
Background: Although widely believed to be safe for use in infants and children when used as directed, increasing evidence indicates that early life exposure to paracetamol (acetaminophen) may cause long-term neurodevelopmental problems. Further, recent studies in animal models demonstrate that cognitive development is exquisitely sensitive to paracetamol exposure during early development. In this study, evidence for the claim that paracetamol is safe was evaluated using a systematic literature search. Methods: Publications on PubMed between 1974 and 2017 that contained the keywords “infant” and either “paracetamol” or “acetaminophen” were considered. Of those initial 3096 papers, 218 were identified that made claims that paracetamol was safe for use with infants or children. From these 218, a total of 103 papers were identified as sources of authority for the safety claim. Results and Conclusions: A total of 52 papers contained actual experiments designed to test safety, and had a median follow-up time of 48 hours. None monitored neurodevelopment. Further, no trial considered total exposure to drug since birth, eliminating the possibility that the effects of drug exposure on long-term neurodevelopment could be accurately assessed. On the other hand, abundant and sufficient evidence was found to conclude that paracetamol does not induce acute liver damage in babies or children when used as directed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0575.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Child; Preschool; Language; Reward; Attention
Online: 28 October 2020 (09:56:08 CET)
Early childhood is important for future cognitive and educational outcomes. Programs overcoming barriers to engagement in early education for Indigenous children must address family cultural needs and target developmental delays. This systematic review identifies culturally adapted programs to improve cognitive, emotional and developmental delays among young children, in response to an identified priority of a remote Indigenous community. Five databases (the Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, Scopus and CINAHL) were searched for English language papers in January 2018. Study quality was assessed and findings analysed thematically. Findings were presented to the community at an event with key stakeholders, to determine their inclusion and face validity. Seven relevant studies, published between 1997-2013, were identified by the researchers and each study was supported by the community for inclusion. Two studies focused on Native American children and five studies included children from non-Indigenous disadvantaged backgrounds. Findings were reported narratively across four themes: Storytelling to improve educational outcomes; Family involvement improved development; Culturally adapted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to reduce trauma; Rewards-based teaching to improve child attention. Limited published research on culturally adapted and safe interventions for children with cognitive, emotional and developmental delay exists but these four themes from seven studies identify useful components.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: philosophy; family-centered care; nurse; child
Online: 22 September 2022 (08:04:33 CEST)
Family-Centered Care (FCC) as a philosophy is defined as a care provider that emphasizes and involves the important role of the family. However, there are several obstacles in implementing family center care for children where parents have different perceptions from health workers. Parents are angry when they are involved in a job they consider to be a nurse's job and the attitude of nurses prevents parents from participating. This difference in perception causes the implementation of Family Center Care (FCC) has not been carried out optimally, this has an impact on discomfort during treatment. Along with the not yet optimal implementation of family center care when providing care to children, further discussion is needed regarding the philosophy of child nursing with a family center care approach. The reasons for the importance of implementing family center care include building a collaborative system, focusing on family strengths and resources.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0525.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections; Child; Bronchiolitis; Survival.
Online: 28 December 2022 (02:37:39 CET)
Background: The respiratory syncytial virus infection (RSV) spread has been unusually high during 2022 and increasing trends have been documented We aimed to assess the survival experience of children hospitalized due bronchiolitis by laboratory-confirmed RSV. Methods: A nationwide and retrospective cohort was conducted in Mexico and data from 436 children aged 5 years and younger, with symptoms onset from August 2021 to November 2022, were analyzed. Survivor functions and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed by using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The survival rates were high, particularly within the first three weeks of admission. The 3-day survival was 99.8% (CI 95% 98.4-99.9%) and went to 98.9% (CI 95% 96.5-99.7%), 97.5% (CI 95% 91.9-99.3%), 86.7% (95% CI 48.2-97.2%), and 69.4% (95% CI 24.2-91.0%) on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 of hospital stay, respectively. We documented 5 fatal outcomes, and the mortality rate was 2.1 per 1,000 person-days. Conclusions: We analyzed a large set of pediatric patients with bronchiolitis by RSV and the presented results contribute to achieving a better understanding of the in-hospital evolution of this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0591.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Child labor; Working conditions; Poverty; Schooling; Bangladesh
Online: 28 January 2021 (15:39:54 CET)
1) Background: A significant proportion of child laborers are compelled to work in exploitative environments, experience both deteriorating health and financial loss. The present study sought to determine the factors affecting child labour and the characteristics of their working environment. 2) Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted with 80 child labourers aged 5 to 17 years. Alongside descriptive statistics, a newly devised technique known as Influencing Causes Index (ICI) was administered and tested. 3) Results: The startling demographic findings reveal that peak share of child labourers are young children (12-14 years) and 32.5% child laborers had never attended school. The thorough assessment of determinants reflects that not only poverty, but schooling expenses and lack of access opportunity to primary schools are also the top-ranked push factors to trigger children towards labour. Around 72.5% of children work for over 8 hours a day. A significant proportion of participants received no leave, training, or access to hygiene facilities. The existing pattern of employment and working conditions resulted in musculoskeletal pain and dermatological infections among child labourers (p<0.05). 4) Conclusion: This research suggests that income measures for households, and an education programme for both children and parents would expedite the abolition of child labour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0638.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: BMI, Child Obesity; Convergence; Clubs; Gender differences
Online: 25 November 2020 (12:52:34 CET)
Infant obesity has become one of the most serious global health challenges of our time. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity has rapidly increased worldwide during the last two decades, especially in some developing countries where obesity is reaching levels on a par with some industrialized countries, or even higher. This fast growth has occurred especially in countries in the midst of rapid social-economic transitions. Most international comparisons focus on the adult population while analyses focusing on the child population are more limited. Using the methodology developed by Phillips and Sul , this paper studies the worldwide evolution of infant body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity prevalence for a large sample of countries during the period 1975-2016. Our results indicate that the figures for BMI or the prevalence of obesity in different countries do not converge, while the opposite is the case for overweight prevalence in children. Furthermore, there is a non-linear relationship between obesity and income or human capital, indicating that low and middle-income countries require a strong initiative for health policies targeting obesity prevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: child protection; poverty; inequality; neoliberalism; new paradigm
Online: 10 April 2018 (08:21:26 CEST)
This article sets out to deconstruct and challenge the psychologised and pathologising approach that has come to dominate child protection practice in Aotearoa-New Zealand and comparable societies in neoliberal times. Within a risk and protection focused paradigm circumstances and behaviours associated with material deprivation are construed as indicators of heightened danger and harm as opposed to a means of better understanding family life. In this way, although poverty may be classified as an issue that is worthy of attention in the realm of broader economic and social policy, structural inequality is rendered largely irrelevant to the practice of statutory child protection. This article sets out to trouble this construction. It will be argued that understandings of how the effects of material inequality are played out in the lives of children and their families are critical to the development of more effective child protection social work. This ‘life-world’ is generally populated by young women parenting in poverty. Poverty exacerbates the everyday struggle of parenting - it shames and dis-empowers; reducing confidence and perceptions of competence (Gupta, 2015). A paradigm shift is needed. Child protection policy and practice needs to re-engage with the every-day struggles that accompany the lives of socially marginalised families in increasingly stratified late capitalist society. The future of social work in child protection depends on it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0140.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Child nutrition; Religion; Ramadan fasting; In-utero exposure
Online: 9 February 2022 (16:00:34 CET)
In this study, we analyse if in-utero exposure to Ramadan fasting period is negatively associated with child nutrition? The data for the analyses come from a retrospective assessment of 924,198 children from 103 demographic and health surveys (DHS) across 56 countries during the period 2003-2020. Considering the month-long Ramadan exposure as a natural experiment, we implement an intent-to-treat framework, comparing outcomes among individuals who were exposed to Ramadan at any time in-utero to those who were not exposed. Our findings do not show significant evidence to conclude that in-utero exposure to Ramadan fasting period is negatively associated with child nutrition. On the contrary, except for stunting in children who had in-utero exposure to Ramadan during the first trimester, among Muslims, we find slightly better nutritional outcomes among children exposed in-utero to Ramadan period. The better nutritional outcomes among children exposed in-utero can be attributed to high nutritious food intake and better hygienic practices during holy months of Ramadan compared to usual months. Our main results are robust to multiple robustness checks.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0601.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: MLL-SEPT6; TRAF3; FGFR3; Acute Myelogenous Leukemia; Child.
Online: 24 March 2021 (16:20:43 CET)
The MLL gene is a site of frequent rearrangement in acute leukemia with multiple fusion partners, but MLL-SEPT6 rearrangement is rare in clinical leukemia practice, and only 13 cases have been reported. We describe the case of an acute myelogenous leukemia child with MLL-SEPT6 rearrangement whose age of onset and accompanying gene mutations differs from previous reports. Considering the poor prognosis of leukemia children with MLL-SEPT6 rearrangement and the unsatisfactory results of existing treatments, the study of this case may provide new theories for diagnosis and treatment of MLL-SEPT6-associated childhood acute leukemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0257.v1
Online: 10 February 2021 (12:44:24 CET)
In some parts of Nigeria, many girls do not attend school, and among those sent to school, many still drop out early. This and other socio-cultural factors affect girls psychologically. There is no doubt that girls need consistent love and tutoring to guide them through the turbulent teen years and beyond. They need a mentor who acts as a friend and a role model. The Mobile-based Mentoring Platform seeks to leverage on mobile technology's affordances to focus on the needs of the girl-child, such as improvement in academic achievement, guidance in career choice, development of self-concept, and esteem. The girl-mentees comments revealed that using the platform provided them frequent access to mentors and access to learning opportunities. The challenges they faced include epileptic internet network, intrusions by parents, and others. Therefore, this paper examined the challenges and benefits of mentoring girls via a mentoring platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0319.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Anxiety; Child; Attention bias; Eye-tracking; Gaze; Development.
Online: 10 November 2020 (14:10:54 CET)
(1) Background: There is robust evidence of an attention bias-anxiety relationship in children, but lack of appropriate methods has limited the number of studies with children younger than 8 years old. This study used eye-tracking as a measure of overt attention in young children. The aim of this study was to assess anxiety related attention bias in children aged 4 to 8 years. Age was considered as a moderator and the influence of effortful control was investigated. (2) Method: A community sample of 104 children were shown pairs of happy-neutral and angry-neutral faces. Growth curve analyses were used to examine patterns of gaze over time. (3) Results: Analyses revealed moderation by age and anxiety, with distinct patterns of anxiety-related biases seen in different age groups in the angry-neutral face trials. Effortful control did not account for age related effects. (4) Conclusions: Results support a moderation model of the development of anxiety in children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: diabetes; vegetarian; diet; nutrition; metabolic syndrome; disparity; child
Online: 17 October 2019 (15:24:37 CEST)
The national rate of obesity in US Hispanic/Latinos exceeds all other major ethnic subgroups and represents an important health disparity. Plant-based diet interventions that emphasize whole plant foods with minimal processing and less refined grains and sugar have shown have shown great promise in control of obesity, but there is a paucity of data translating this treatment effect to disparity populations. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and scalability of the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Program (HELP) – a hospital-based, family centered, culturally tailored, plant-based diet intervention for Hispanic/Latino pediatric obesity patients and their families. Our evaluation methods included: 1) a quasi-experimental, one group, longitudinal study to measures changes in BMI at 0, 6, and 18 weeks of follow-up, and 2) A stakeholder analysis consisting of six key informant interviews of HELP program staff. We found a significant decrease in body mass index across all adults (-0.2 kg/m2 p=0.0047), that was much stronger in men. For children ages 5-12 years, there was also a significant decrease in BMI Z score from pre- to post- intervention (p=0.04). Program strengths were the cultural tailoring of the plant-based diet choices, and allowing a tiered approached that did not require adherence to strict vegetarianism. Our pilot study findings from HELP raise the possibility that incorporating plant-based diet choices into the treatment of pediatric obesity patients and their families can be an effective addition to a culturally responsive care model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0435.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: chronic kidney disease; hemodialysis; cardiovascular disease; echocardiography; child
Online: 4 July 2019 (10:37:00 CEST)
Assessment of cardiac function is the leading parameter when evaluating the state of the cardiovascular system of patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. The aim of the paper: to assess the state of the cardiovascular system of these patients using new sensitive echocardiography and Doppler techniques and thus advance the prevention of cardiovascular disease.Method: Twenty children with end-stage renal insufficiency on chronic hemodialysis and twenty healthy controls underwent echocardiographic monitoring using standard Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging. Structural and functional changes in the left ventricle were evaluated.Results: Patients on hemodialysis had significantly greater left ventricular mass indices compared to the controls (p<0.001). The patients on hemodialysis had preserved systolic function – their fractional shortening, ejection fraction and Sm (systolic myocardial velocity) did not differ significantly compared to the controls (p>0.05). Early diastolic function in children on hemodialysis was also preserved: the E/A and Em/Am ratio did not differ significantly from the control group (p>0.05). Children on hemodialysis exhibited impaired late diastolic function (compliance index), that is, considerably higher E/Em compared to controls (p<0.00). Myocardial Performance Index values showed statistically significant elevation in children on hemodialysis compared to the control group (p<0.001).Conclusion: Tissue Doppler in tandem with conventional Pulsed Doppler can provide additional information on left ventricular filling pressures (E/Em) in children on hemodialysis. It is therefore recommended to perform routine measuring of Em waves and the E/Em ratio, not only in order to evaluate myocardial relaxation and ventricular filling pressures, but primarily to stratify risk and provide a prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0461.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: behavioral problems; calcium; child; maternal intake; prebirth cohort
Online: 27 August 2018 (13:32:41 CEST)
In recent years, more attention has been paid to behavioral problems in children. However, for the most part, risk factors for these problems have yet to be determined. The current prebirth cohort study investigated the relationship between maternal calcium consumption during pregnancy and behavioral problems in five-year-old Japanese children. Subjects were 1199 mother-child pairs. Dietary intake was assessed using a diet history questionnaire. Emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity problems, and peer problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for four behavioral problems under study according to the quartile of calcium intake, with the lowest quartile as the reference. Adjustment was made for maternal age, gestation at baseline, region of residence at baseline, number of children at baseline, maternal and paternal education, household income, maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy, maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, maternal smoking during pregnancy, child's age, child's birth weight, postnatal secondhand smoke exposure at home during the first year of life, and breastfeeding duration. Higher maternal calcium intake during pregnancy was independently associated with a decreased risk of childhood emotional and hyperactivity problems; the adjusted ORs between extreme quartiles (95% CIs, P for trend) were 0.46 (0.27–0.79, 0.01) and 0.60 (0.37–0.97, 0.046). No such inverse associations were observed for childhood conduct problems or peer problems. Maternal calcium intake during pregnancy may decrease the risk of childhood emotional and hyperactivity problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: neurogenic bladder, botulinum toxin, bladder overactivity, urodynamics, child
Online: 23 July 2018 (12:48:56 CEST)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of cystoscopic injection of Botulinum-A toxin (BTX) in the detrusor wall in the treatment of children with decreased bladder capacity due to neurogenic bladder. The prospective, randomized non placebo controlled trial is conducted in our institution since year 2006 with the approval of the local Ethics Committee. 556 cystoscopic injections of BTX were performed in 141 children with neurogenic bladder in age 1 to 18 years. In all cases decreased bladder capacity and bladder overactivity with urine incontinence were estimated. The pre-and post-treatment evaluations included determination of urinary continence status, bladder function in frequency/volume chart of catheterized urine and in urodynamic studies. Parameters measured in urodynamic investigations included maximal cystometric capacity, detrusor reflex volume, maximal detrusor pressure. Parameters were analyzed before the cystoscopy and during the follow-up examinations in 5 age groups. Values of all measured parameters improved significantly and equally after therapy in every from 5 age groups. The results obtained from the study confirmed that endoscopic administration of BTX improves function of urinary bladder in children with neurogenic bladder, and the method represents an alternative approach to conservative treatment and surgical augmentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: child abuse; maltreatment; intervention; drum playing; salivary; oxytocin
Online: 9 November 2017 (08:43:01 CET)
Many emotionally disturbed children who have been maltreated and are legally separated from their parents or primary caregivers live in group homes and receive compulsory education. Such institutions provide various special intervention programs. Taiko, a Japanese style of group drumming, is one such program because playing drums in a group may improve children’s emotional well-being. However, evidence for its efficacy has not been well established at the biological level. In this study, we measured salivary levels of oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide associated with social memory and communication, in three conditions (recital, practice, and free sessions) in four classes of school-aged children. Following the sessions, OT concentrations showed changes in various degrees and directions (no change, increases, or decreases). However, the mean OT concentration changes after each session increased, ranging from 112% to 165%. Plasma OT concentrations were equally sensitive to drum playing in school-aged boys and girls. However, the difference between practice and free play sessions was only significant among elementary school boys aged 8-12 years. The results suggest that younger boys are most responsive to this type of educational music intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: child anxiety disorders; screening; SCARED-C; psychometrics; dental practice
Online: 24 November 2021 (12:48:07 CET)
SCARED-C instrument (the child version, 41 items) is used for screening anxiety in children between 8 to 18 years old and has been first introduced by Birmaher & collab. in 1995, with good psychometric data - internal consistency from α =.74 to .93 - and good discriminative validity indices in the original versions (1997, 1999). Since then, many countries have adopted the scale, for its utility in identifying five subsets of anxiety disorders (subscales): somatic/panic disorder, generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, social phobia, and school avoidance. The present study contains the first Romanian translated and adapted version of the SCARED-C instrument on a community sample of 477 children (8-18 years old) from Mureș county schools. The instrument showed moderate to good internal consistency (α Cronbach from to .63 to .91 for the total scale) and good test-retest reliability (.70) on a subset of 85 children sample. A confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA) was conducted to test the factor structure of the Romanian version of SCARED-C; results showed that SCARED-C has good psychometric properties to be used for screening anxiety in Romanian children and adolescents. The implications for using SCARED-C in dental practice are discussed. Future studies need to be conducted for exploring convergent and discriminative validity of the instrument and the sensitivity to current DSM-V criteria. Application on a dental pediatric sample is also required.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Child-pugh C cirrhosis; voriconazole; trough concentrations; administration; CYP2C19
Online: 12 August 2021 (15:33:44 CEST)
This prospective observational study aimed to describe voriconazole administrations and trough concentrations in patients with Child-pugh class C clinically, and to investigate the variability of trough concentration. A total of 144 voriconazole trough concentrations from 43 Child-pugh class C patients were analyzed. The majority of patients (62.8%) received adjustments. The repeated measured trough concentration was higher than the first and final ones generally (median, 4.33 vs. 2.99, 3.90 mg/L). Eight patients with ideal initial concentration later got supratherapeutic with no adjusted daily dose, implying accumulation. There was a significant difference in concentrations among the six groups by daily dose (P=0.006). The bivariate correlation analysis showed that sex, CYP2C19 genotyping, daily dose, prothrombin time activity, international normalized ratio, platelet, and Model for end-stage liver disease score were significant factors for concentration. Subsequently, the first four factors mentioned above entered into a stepwise multiple linear regression model (variance inflation factor < 5), implying that CYP2C19 testing makes sense for precision medicine of Child-pugh class C cirrhosis patients. The equation fits well and explains the 34.8% variety of concentrations (R^2 = 0.348). In conclusion, it needs more cautious administration clinically due to no recommendation for Child-pugh class C patients in the medication label. The adjustment of the administration regimen should be mainly based on the results of repeated therapeutic drug monitoring.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0132.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: child; play; risky play; adventurous play; school; qualitative synthesis
Online: 6 July 2021 (11:27:45 CEST)
Adventurous play, defined as exciting, thrilling play where children are able to take age-appropriate risks has been associated with a wide range of positive outcomes. Despite this, it remains unclear what factors might aid or hinder schools in offering adventurous play opportu-nities. The purpose of this systematic review is to synthesise findings from qualitative studies on the perceived barriers and facilitators of adventurous play in schools. A total of nine studies were included in the final synthesis. The review used two synthesis strategies: a meta-aggregative syn-thesis and narrative synthesis. Findings were similar across the two syntheses, highlighting that key barriers and facilitators were: adults’ perceptions of children; adults’ attitudes and beliefs about adventurous play and concerns pertaining to health; and, safety and concerns about legis-lation. Based on the findings of the review, recommendations for policy and practice as provided to support adventurous play in schools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0777.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: statistical learning; experiment interaction; phonology; child speech; language acquisition
Online: 31 May 2021 (13:37:09 CEST)
When participants in a statistical learning paradigm are asked to learn from two incompatible or competing inputs, they often fail to learn from one or both inputs. This study presents the results of two experiments that were both completed by one group of typically developing four-year-old children. One experiment targeted word-medial consonant patterns (phonotactics), whereas the other targeted strong-weak and weak-strong stress patterns (prosody). The order of the experiments was critical for learning outcomes in the phonotactics experiment: When children learned phonotactics first, their production accuracy increased following exposure to a high frequency input. When children learned phonotactics second, however, their production accuracy dropped when they were exposed to the high frequency input. Results from the prosody experiment were inconclusive, with limited evidence of any learning effect. Overall, the results suggest that children may conflate learning experiences, and patterns learned from an initial experimental input compete with patterns in a subsequent experiment. When considering natural language acquisition, the results suggest that an isolated episode of learning may lead to generalizations that are incompatible with later input, and possibly, with larger patterns in the language.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Treatment adherence; child; adolescent; trend; outpatient clinic; new patient
Online: 14 May 2021 (08:48:07 CEST)
This study analysed trends of first-time patients visiting the paediatric psychiatry clinic in a university hospital. The medical records from 2009 to 2016 of first-time patients visiting the Kyung Hee university hospital were reviewed, focusing on children in grades 1–12. We analysed the prevalence rate of psychiatric disorders per 100,000 general populations by gender and grade, and the characteristics of patients who sought outpatient care more than three times. The study included 1,467 participants, of which 931 were males (63.5%). The number of male patients per 100,000 populations significantly decreased from 4.14 in 2009 to 2.03 in 2016. While hyperkinetic disorders had the highest prevalence in males, neurotic disorders were most frequent in females. Prevalence of disruptive behaviour disorders in males and mental retardations in females decreased significantly during the study period. The factors affecting continuity were being female, studying in grades 7–12, and diagnosis of depressive, hyperkinetic, and tic disorders. Physicians should consider the new paediatric patients’ gender, grade, and expected diagnosis from their first visit to improve treatment compliance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0146.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: child seats; car accidents; car crash analyses; children safety
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:30:38 CET)
The study presents a comparison of the common Child Restraint Systems (CRS) which reduces the value of dynamic loads affecting the child's body during car accidents. The analyzed systems were: child seats, Combi Booster Seats, and straps adjusting vehicle seat belts to children's sizes. The effectiveness of the analyzed devices was assessed on the basis of experimental tests carried out in the accredited laboratory approving the Child Restraint Systems. The tests were carried out accordingly to the new Regulation No. 129 UN / ECE. Whether the tested devices meet the guidelines of the new Regulations No. 129 despite approval in accordance with Regulation No. 44. Based on the research result, better safety parameters of some new solutions dedicated to children’s safety could be observed. The final results show that there is still space for improving the safety of young vehicle passengers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0098.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: child seats; car accidents; car crash analyses; children safety
Online: 8 December 2019 (15:45:04 CET)
The study presents a comparison of the common Child Restraint Systems (CRS) which reduces the value of dynamic loads affecting the child's body during car accidents. The analyzed systems were: child seats, Combi Booster Seats, and straps adjusting vehicle seat belts to children's sizes. The effectiveness of the analyzed devices was assessed on the basis of experimental tests carried out in the accredited laboratory approving the Child Restraint Systems. The tests were carried out accordingly to the new Regulation No. 129 UN / ECE. Whether the tested devices meet the guidelines of the new Regulations No. 129 despite approval in accordance with Regulation No. 44. Based on the research result, better safety parameters of some new solutions dedicated to children's safety could be observed. The final results show that there is still space for improving the safety of young vehicle passengers.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: infant; newborn; Cambodia; child mortality; perinatal mortality; health services
Online: 22 May 2019 (08:44:44 CEST)
Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe potential factors contributing to neonatal mortality in Takeo, Cambodia through assessment of verbal autopsies collected following newborn deaths in the community. The mortality review was nested within a trial of a behavioral intervention to improve newborn survival, and was conducted after the close of the trial, within the study setting. The World Health Organization standardized definition of neonatal mortality was employed, and two pediatricians independently reviewed data collected from each event to assign a cause of death. Results: Thirteen newborn deaths of infants born in health facilities participating in a community based, behavioral intervention were reported during February 2015–November 2016. Ten deaths (76.92%) were early neonatal deaths, two (15.38%) were late neonatal deaths, and one was a stillbirth. Five out of 13 deaths (38.46%) occurred within the first day of life. The largest single contributor to mortality was neonatal sepsis; six of 13 deaths (46.15%) were attributed to some form of sepsis. Twenty-three percent of deaths were attributed to asphyxia. The study highlights the continuing need to improve quality of care and infection prevention and control, and to fully address causes of sepsis, in order to effectively reduce mortality in the newborn period.: The study highlights the continuing need to improve both intrapartum and postnatal quality of care and infection prevention and control, and to fully address causes of sepsis, in order to effectively reduce mortality in the newborn period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Asian Americans; child; diet; eating; feeding behavior; sodium, dietary
Online: 3 August 2018 (05:05:05 CEST)
Obesity has been identified as an emerging health concern for Chinese American children; however, very little is known about diets in Asian American children. The objective of our paper was to describe the dietary intakes of urban Chinese American schoolchildren using a state-of-the-art approach for dietary assessment. Data for this analysis come from the Food Journal Project 2017, a pilot and feasibility study conducted by a multi-sector collaboration. Children aged 8-12 (n=83) completed two dietary assessments using a food diary from January-June 2017. Children were then interviewed using the food diary as a guide and dietary data were entered into the online ASA24 system by study staff. Chinese American children were identified using surname, and were compared to non-Chinese peers with respect to nutrient intake and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Chinese American children consumed more sodium dense diets, more protein, and less sugar compared to non-Chinese children. With regards to the HEI-2010, Chinese American children had less favorable whole grains and sodium scores; and more favorable seafood protein and empty calories scores compared to non-Chinese children. Sodium reduction and increasing whole grain intakes may be warranted in this group, but should be verified with additional studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0349.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: bacterial infections; sensitivity; specificity; immature granulocytes; Latvia; child; sepsis
Online: 27 April 2018 (06:09:47 CEST)
Background: Detection of small proportion of serious bacterial infections (SBI) with potentially life threating course in a large group of children with fever admitted to emergency department (ED) is still complicated. Measurement of immature granulocytes (IG) percentage may be used as a marker of bacterial infections. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the IG percentage is a useful additional predictive marker of SBI. Methods: This study included 258 children with febrile infections admitted to the ED. Clinical follow-up, microbiological and radiological tests were used as reference standards for the definition of SBI. Study population was categorized into two groups: (i) infected patients with no suspicion of SBI (n = 75); (ii) patients with suspicion of SBI (n = 183). IG percentage, white blood cell count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were analyzed from the first routine blood samples at hospital admission. Results: A statistically significant difference in IG percentage levels was observed in children with SBI and those without - the mean IG percentage was 1.2% for the SBI group, 0.3% for those without SBI. The cutoff level of IG percentage to predict SBI was 0.45 (84% specificity, 66% sensitivity, 90% positive predictive value). We combine variables and evaluate their additive values. The sensitivity of WBC to detected SBI improved from 74% to 85% when IG percentage was added to the prediction models. When CRP, WBC and IG percentage were combined, the sensitivity to predict SBI increased to 93%, the specificity to 86%. (95% CI 77–93%). Receiver operator characteristic analysis to predict SBI showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.80 for IG percentage. Conclusion: Addition of IG percentage to traditionally used markers of SBI as WBC and CRP may help to identify children with serious bacterial infections. Furthermore IG percentage can be rapidly obtained from the traditional full blood count without any extra sampling and costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0426.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Speech Recognition; Keyword Spotting; Child abuse; Federated Learning; Whisper; Wav2vec2.0
Online: 22 December 2022 (09:27:37 CET)
The growth in online child exploitation material is a significant challenge for European Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs). One of the most important sources of such online information corresponds to audio material that needs to be analyzed to find evidence in a timely and practical manner. That is why LEAs require a next-generation AI-powered platform to process audio data from online sources. We propose the use of speech recognition and keyword spotting to transcribe audiovisual data and to detect the presence of keywords related to child abuse. The considered models are based on two of the most accurate neural-based architectures to date: Wav2vec2.0 and Whisper. The systems are tested under an extensive set of scenarios in different languages. Additionally, keeping in mind that obtaining data from LEAs is very sensitive, we explore the use of federated learning to have more robust systems for the addressed application, while maintaining the privacy of the data to LEAs. The considered models achieved a word error rate between 11% and 25%, depending on the language. In addition, the systems are able to recognize a set of spotted words with true positives rates between 82% and 98%, depending on the language. Finally, federated learning strategies show that they can maintain and even improve the performance of the systems when compared to centralized trained models. The proposed systems sit the basis for an AI-powered platform for automatic analysis of audio in the context of forensic applications within child abuse. The use of federated learning is also promising for the addressed scenario, where data privacy is an important issue to be managed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0100.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: burnout phenomenon; child and adolescent athletes; psychological intervention; online intervention
Online: 4 August 2022 (04:36:42 CEST)
(1) Background: The subject of athlete burnout is often discussed among sports psychologists. Interventions to reduce this phenomenon are still under investigation with follow-up. Thus, the purpose of the current meta-analysis was to examine psychological interventions that have already been carried out to decrease or eliminate burnout syndrome in young athletes. (2) Methods: Scientific electronic databases were searched and five published studies published between January 2002 and June 2022, which met the criteria, were selected. This systematic review and meta-analyses followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias was used to assess the studies' quality. The metafor a package of the R statistical program was used to perform the analysis. (3) Results: Cognitive-behavioral therapy as well as mindfulness-based interventions effectively reduced most dimensions of burnout. Moreover, online interventions were significantly more beneficial in this reduction (4) Conclusions: There should be more high-quality studies on the effectiveness of psychological interventions in reducing burnout. Mainly because it leads to tremendous physical and psychological problems for athletes and their coaches and therefore requires particular interventions and prevention strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0228.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; SARS-CoV2; lactation; mother-child dyads; reactogenicity
Online: 17 May 2022 (10:31:51 CEST)
The aims of the study are: a) Describe the reactogenicity of WHO-approved two mRNA (Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna) and two non-RNA vaccines (Oxford-AstraZeneca, Sinovac) among lactating mother and baby pairs; and b) compare and contrast the reactogenicity between mRNA and non-mRNA vaccines. A cross-sectional, self-reported survey was conducted amongst 1784 lactating women who received COVID-19 vaccinations. The most common maternal adverse reaction was a local reaction at the injection site; the largest minority of respondents, 43.7% (780/1784), reported experiencing worse symptoms when receiving the second dose compared to the first dose. There were no major reported adverse effects or behavioural changes in the breastfed infants. Among the respondents who received non-mRNA COVID-19 vaccinations, a majority reported no change in lactation but those who did more commonly reported an increase in milk supply, decrease in milk supply and pain in the breast. The more commonly reported lactation changes (fluctuations in breastmilk supply and pain in the breast) for the non-mRNA vaccines were similar to that of respondents who received mRNA vaccines. Our study, with a large cohort and wide geographical and racial mix, further augments earlier reported findings that COVID-19 vaccines are safe for breastfeeding mothers and her children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0338.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: cumulative family risk; child maltreatment; early adversity; DNA methylation; SLC6A4
Online: 25 October 2021 (10:26:29 CEST)
Exploring the contribution of proximal family risk factors on SLC6A4 DNA methylation in children with a history of maltreatment
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0062.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: MMR; vaccine hesitancy; critical review; Wakefield; child immunisation; United Kingdom
Online: 2 April 2021 (12:19:07 CEST)
This review critically assesses the body of research about Measles-Mumps-and-Rubella (MMR) vaccine attitudes and uptake in the United Kingdom (UK) over the past 10 years. We searched PubMed and Scopus, with terms aimed at capturing relevant literature on attitudes, uptake, decision-making, and beliefs about the MMR vaccine. Two researchers screened for abstract eligibility and after de-duplication 934 studies were selected. After screening, 40 references were included for full-text review and thematic synthesis by three researchers. We were interested in the methodologies employed, and grouped findings by whether studies concerned: (1) Uptake and Demographics; (2) Beliefs and Attitudes; (3) Healthcare Worker Focus; (4) Experimental and Psychometric Intervention; (5) Mixed Methods. We identified group and individual level determinants for attitudes, operating directly and indirectly, that influence vaccine uptake. We found that access issues, often ignored within the public “anti-vax” debate, remain highly pertinent. Finally, a consistent theme was the effect of misinformation and lack of knowledge or trust in healthcare, often stemming from the Wakefield controversy. Future COVID-19 immunisation campaigns for children should consider both access and attitudinal aspects of vaccination, and incorporate a range of methodologies to assess progress, taking into account socio-economic variables and the needs of disadvantaged groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0327.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Social information processing; preschool; learning difficulties; parent-child relationships; fathers
Online: 18 January 2021 (12:04:12 CET)
Background: This study aims to explore children’s social information processing (SIP) as an ex-planatory mechanism in the link between parent-child relationship and children’s learning diffi-culties; (2) Methods: The sample included 115 kindergarteners (62 girls; 53 boys; Mage = 68.5 months, SD = 6.04), their parents and the school teacher. Parents reported on relationship quality with the child and teachers reported on children’s learning difficulties and school achievements. Children’s SIP was assessed with the social information processing interview – preschool version (3) Results: Mother and father relationship quality with the child associated with children’s SIP, however, only the father's but not the mother's quality of relationship with the child was associ-ated with children’s learning difficulties and school achievements. Children’s SIP mediated this latter link; (4) Conclusions: Parents’ relationship quality with the child and children’s SIP are pertinent factors in children’s learning in the early years. The father-child relationship seem to be a strong determinant of children approach to learning and achievement and may have long last-ing effect on children's mental health
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0780.v1
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:25:54 CET)
With the arrival of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, a new stage of the pandemic commenced, with new challenges ahead. During the coming months, countries will be implementing their COVID-19 vaccination programs depending on their implementation of vaccine availability and its prescription on risk stratification. Although children will not benefit from active immunization programs, now, with the beginning of the era of the anti-COVID19 vaccines, the suffering of children can no longer be ethically tolerated or neglected. The time has come to provide specific lasting strategies for children living in the COVID-19 era. Here we propose a child-focused indirect COVID-19 vaccination strategy.For better or worse, children depend on their natural caregivers (adults) and the rest of society for their well-being and achieving their full potential. We believe that including in the priority categories also those adults in close contact with children could ensure a safety net of child protection.A child-focused vaccination strategy would allow the faster return to "normality" for children and their families. Such an approach would not only enable the reopening and continuity of essential services for children but also would allow adults to return to their routine economic/productive activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0645.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID; Corona; Incidents; Complaints; Obstetrics; Gynaecology; Paediatrics; Child; Quality; Safety.
Online: 25 November 2020 (14:09:26 CET)
Background: To investigate any associations between new clinical policies implemented because of the COVID-19 pandemic and harm to patients. Methods: Retrospective data collection of incidents and complaints reported through Datix®, and the Patient Liaison Service respectively. The setting was the Family Health division in a University teaching hospital in the UK. Primary and secondary outcome measures included; Proportion of incidents reported on Datix from 23/3/20 to 25/5/20, compared to the period from 23/3/19 to 29/5/19. COVID-19 related incidents and complaints and association with newly published guidelines or pathways from 23/3/20 to 29/5/20. Results: There was no significant difference in the proportion of overall patient activity resulting in incidents reported on Datix in 2020 (2.08%) compared to 2019 (2.09%), with 98% resulting in no/low harm in 2020. Three incident categories had increases in relative proportions of incidents including terms “COVID” or “Corona” compared to incidents that did not; “Child death”, “delay/failure to treatment and procedure” and “information governance”. One of the child deaths was a miscarriage and we were unable to link the second child death to a change in clinical policy at this stage. We were only able to link 2 COVID-19 associated incidents with a pathway or procedural change (one to the Children's Emergency Department admission pathway and the second to the introduction of virtual antenatal clinics). Eighteen complaints related to COVID-19 were logged. However, at this stage, we are unable to link any of these to a published change in clinical policy. Conclusions: Practice in the division was overall deemed to be safe in the designated period, with only 2 COVID-19 related incidents clearly related to a change in pathways and procedures. Continued surveillance and improved metrics for monitoring the impact of changes to pathways and procedures should be sought with the sustained presence of COVID-19 in clinical areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0593.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: social work; families with children; child welfare services; social mobility
Online: 27 August 2020 (06:05:09 CEST)
Abstract The aim of our study is to analyse the perception of the families and concerned social workers. The research was conducted in an underprivileged and disadvantaged microregion in North Hungary. The main focus was the perception on the available health, educational, child welfare and social services and supports. The starting point was to enquire the target group’s knowledge of these services. The study examines the extent to which social work is able to provide support to disadvantaged, marginalized families with children, and the way how the dysfunctional operation of the system contributes to the perpetuation of the clients’ life conditions. Analysing the quality of these services and supports is crucial to understand the social mobility chance of the children living in this microregion. The results show that without capability and talent development for the children and given the lack of welfare services, the mobility chance and opportunities of these families are extremely low in Hungary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0262.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: adolescent; grit; non-cognitive skills; parent–child relationship; self-control
Online: 19 December 2019 (13:21:42 CET)
Background and Objectives: Non-cognitive skills (NCS) are vital components of a socially and financially successful life. They are developed through childhood education, family and school environments, and social settings. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between NCS and the parent–child relationship, mental health, and lifestyle at school and at home for adolescents. Materials and Methods: An internet-based survey was conducted with 1,566 mothers and their children (aged 14) in Japan. Survey items for the children included background (i.e., sociodemographic items, school achievements, and lifestyle), NCS (i.e., grit and self-control scales), and mental health, while their mothers provided social, financial, and educational information, and information on parent–child relationships, including descriptions of the fathers and the father–child relationship. Results: Parent–child relationships were mostly good (i.e., 90.9% for mothers and 75.6% for fathers), with bad relationships being less common (1.6% for mothers and 6.7% for fathers). Adolescent lifestyle parameters and mental health were significantly associated with grit and self-control. Adolescents with good parent–child relationships had significantly higher NCS scores regardless of the gender of the parent. Higher NCS scores were significantly associated with better parent–child relationships, more favorable lifestyles, and better mental health among adolescents. Conclusions: These findings imply that good parent–child relationships may aid in the development of adolescents’ NCS, thereby facilitating positive lifestyles at school and home.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0169.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: bird fancier’s lung (BFL); hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP); child; pulse steroid
Online: 11 October 2018 (05:08:41 CEST)
Bird Fancier’s Syndrome is a rare, non-atopic immunologic response to repeated or intense inhalation of avian (bird) proteins/antigens found in the feathers or droppings of many species of birds, which leads to an immune mediated inflammatory reaction in the respiratory system. Although this is the most common type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis reported in adults, it is one of the classification of a rare subtype of interstitial lung disease that occurs in the pediatric age group of which few case reports are available in the literature. The pathophysiology of hypersensitivity pneumonitis is complex; numerous organic and inorganic antigens can cause immune dysregulation, leading to an immune related antigen-antibody response (immunoglobulin G–IgG- against the offending antigen). Diagnosing Bird Fancier’s disease in the pediatric age group is challenging, history of exposure is usually missed by health care providers, symptoms and clinical findings in such cases are nonspecific and often misdiagnosed during the acute illness with other common diseases such asthma, or acute viral lower respiratory tract infection, and the lack of standardization of criteria for diagnosing such condition, or sensitive radiological or laboratory test. Treatment, on the other hand, is also controversial. Avoidance of the offending antigen could be the sole or most important part of treatment, particularly in acute mild and moderate cases. Untreated cases can result in irreversible lung fibrosis. In this case report, we highlight how children presenting with an acute viral lower respiratory tract infection can overlap with hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Early intervention with pulse steroids markedly improves the patient’s clinical course.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0485.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: child prostitution, global inequality, gender inequality, participatory research, capability approach.
Online: 25 July 2018 (13:08:18 CEST)
This article draws on empirical research seeking to develop more nuanced understandings of child prostitution, previously theorised on the basis of children’s rights, feminist, and structure/agency debates, largely ignoring children’s own understandings of their involvement in prostitution. Conducted in Malawi, one of the economically poorest countries in the world, the study goes to the heart of questions of inequality and child protection. With careful attention to ethical considerations, a participatory approach was used to enable 19 girls and young women, whose involvement in prostitution began in childhood, to convey their own experiences and understandings of involvement. Data were collected using a range of methods, chosen by participants to match their abilities and interests. Data analysis and interpretation were aided by reference to the capability approach focussing on questions of human rights and social justice for women and girls. Generating rare insights into participants’ worlds, the research demonstrates how the persistence of deeply embedded cultural values in contexts of extreme poverty serves to sustain gender inequalities, constraining choices for girls and denying them opportunities to lead valued lives. The article ends by considering the theoretical and methodological implications of the study, policy and practice recommendations and opportunities for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0383.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: child speech; speech production; speech perception; learning; consonant age of acquisition
Online: 24 May 2020 (16:07:44 CEST)
Purpose: Perceptual learning and production practice are basic mechanisms that children depend on to acquire adult levels of speech accuracy. In this study, we examined perceptual learning and production practice as they contributed to changes in speech accuracy in three- and four-year-old children. Our primary focus was manipulating the order of perceptual learning and baseline production practice to better understand when and how these learning mechanisms interact. Method: Sixty-five typically-developing children between the ages of three and four were included in the study. Children were asked to produce CVCCVC nonwords like /bozjəm/ and /tʌvtʃəp/ that were described as the names of make-believe animals. All children completed two separate experimental blocks: a baseline block in which participants heard each nonword once and repeated it, and a test block in which the perceptual input frequency of each nonword varied between 1 and 10. Half of the participants completed a baseline-test order; half completed a test-baseline order. Results: Greater accuracy was observed for nonwords produced in the second experimental block, reflecting a production practice effect. Perceptual learning resulted in greater accuracy during the test for nonwords that participants heard 3 or more times. However, perceptual learning did not carry over to baseline productions in the test-baseline design, suggesting that it reflects a kind of temporary priming. Finally, a post hoc analysis suggested that the size of the production practice effect depended on the age of acquisition of the consonants that comprised the nonwords. Conclusions: The study provides new details about how perceptual learning and production practice interact with each other and with phonological aspects of the nonwords, resulting in complex effects on speech accuracy and learning of form-referent pairs. These findings may ultimately help speech-language pathologists maximize their clients’ improvement in therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0293.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Keywords: palliative care, child, brain, neoplasm, neuropathic pain, pain, symptoms, hospice
Online: 16 August 2018 (15:14:46 CEST)
Children with central nervous system (CNS) malignancies often suffer from high symptom burden and risk of death. Pediatric palliative care is a medical specialty, provided by an interdisciplinary team, which focuses on enhancing quality of life and minimizing suffering for children with life-threatening or life-limiting disease, and their families. Primary palliative care skills which include basic symptom management, facilitation of goals-of-care discussions, and transition to hospice can and should be developed by all providers of neuro-oncology care. This chapter will review the fundamentals of providing primary palliative care
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0454.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: supportive supervision; health systems strengthening; document analysis; LMIC; maternal and child health
Online: 24 November 2021 (12:45:25 CET)
Background: Supportive supervision has lately been gaining traction in various national health systems as an effective way of boosting the performance of community health workers in a constructive and sustainable way. However, not much is known about the basis/mandate of supportive supervision and its approach in maternal and child health programs in India. The current analysis contributes to a clearer understanding of the paradigms within which supportive supervision is envisioned to operate within India and identifies potential strengths and areas requiring attention. Method: Document analysis of implementation documents such as guidelines/ operational manuals/operationalization modules/ training modules of nationally implemented maternal and child health programs, with data extraction according to a pre-determined domain-based template. Results: Many of the documents reviewed do not mention supportive supervision at all. In the few documents where supportive supervision is mentioned, the paradigms within which it is supposed to operate (who will do it, when will it be done, how to do it, training and logistic support, reporting formats, etc.) have not been clearly identified in most programs. Conclusion: Even though supportive supervision is being increasingly identified as an effective way of performative improvement in national health programs in India, more effort needs to be put into identifying and enforcing the tenets of supportive supervision in practice, in order to bring about the desired change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0312.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: child; fruit; vegetables; school health services; public policy; environment and public health
Online: 29 August 2019 (17:03:20 CEST)
The School Fruit and Vegetables Scheme (SFVS) implemented by the European Union during 2009/10 aims to improve the diet of school children and to support agricultural markets and environmental sustainability. The objective of this study was to characterize the SFVS implementation in Spain (2009-2017). A descriptive, longitudinal, observational and retrospective study was carried out based on document analysis of annual strategies of the SFVS. We studied the average budget for the EU, the number of students enrolled, the cost of the SFVS by student and by day, the duration of the SFVS, the quantity of fruits and vegetables (FV) per student, the variety of FV, the inclusion of local, seasonal and organic foods, and the education activities (EA). The results were studied by autonomous community (AC). The budget increased from 7.4 million euros in 2009/10 to 14.4 in 2016/17. Since 2014/15, the increase came from EU funds, the number of students increased from 18% in 2009 to 20% in 2016. The quantity of FV went from 2,579 to 4,000 tons, duration increased from 9.8 to 19.6 days and the variety of fruits and vegetables increased from 20 to 21 and from 5 to 6 respectively. In AC there were important variations in EA, in the number of enrolled students (7.4% to 45.6%), in the cost per student (2.3€ to 28€) and in the duration in days (5.6 to 70 days). The inclusion of local, seasonal and organic foods was identified in 5 of the 8 years studied. The development and reach of the SFVS in Spain is still insufficient to influence dietary patterns and health in the school population. However, the SFVS has generated an economic market for agricultural production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0228.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: attachment; parent-child relationship; parenting; contextual (context-specific); sport; academic; hierarchical model
Online: 9 November 2018 (03:19:06 CET)
Bowlby’s (1969/1982) attachment theory has been employed as a broad and integrative framework to explore human wellness across a range of disciplines. Attachment theory has even been labelled one of the last surviving “grand theories” not to have been completely dismissed, replaced, or extensively reworked (e.g., Carr, 2012; Mercer, 2011). However, despite the ubiquitous nature of some of the theory’s fundamental tenets, there are always possibilities for new conceptual development, extension, and revision. In this paper, we critically explore the idea of “context-specific” attachment within parent-child relationships. We briefly outline critical assumptions and key areas of attachment and articulate potential rationale, conceptualisation, and relevance of contextual attachment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0307.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: social cognition; social information processing; mother-child relationships; parenting style; kindergarten; social functioning
Online: 26 November 2019 (04:11:54 CET)
Children's ability to adjust to the social rules and expectations in the educational environment is of major concern to researchers and practitioners alike. Accordingly, the main purpose of the present study was to examine predictors of children's social functioning in kindergarten with a specific focus on (a) maternal factors; and, (b) children's social cognition. Using a multi-method (self-reports and direct assessments), multi-informant (child, mother, teacher) design, we collected data from 306 kindergarten children and their mothers tapping the mother's social cognitions (general and child-related) and parenting style, and children's social cognition (social information processing) and functioning in kindergarten. We found direct associations between the mother and child's social cognitions, between the mother's authoritarian parenting style and her child's less competent social cognition and behavior, and between the child's social cognition and social functioning. Finally, as hypothesized, we found a number of interesting mediated effects. Most notably, we found that the association between the mother's social cognition (her tendency to attribute hostile intent to unknown others) and the child's social cognition (his/her tendency to generate less competent responses) is fully mediated by the mother's higher levels of authoritarian parenting style. The important theoretical and clinical implications of our findings are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0044.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: child maltreatment; administrative data; domestic violence/abuse; physical abuse; burns; neglect; emotional abuse; poverty
Online: 5 May 2022 (15:47:14 CEST)
Good child protection systems and processes require reliable and accurate data. A retrospective study of the case records of 452 children referred to a major UK children’s tertiary centre for suspected child maltreatment was undertaken to determine whether routinely collected data on a child’s journey through the child protection system, together with a study of related multidimensional factors, can be used to develop an enhanced dataset to protect children in the UK and in other countries. Child maltreatment was substantiated in 65% of referred cases, with the vast majority of referrals coming from children living in the most deprived neighbourhoods in the country. Domestic violence and abuse, and the child’s previous involvement with statutory bodies was associated with case substantiation. Physical abuse predominated, with soft tissue injuries, including dog bites, and burns. Burns were related almost exclusively to supervisory neglect. There were also cases of medical neglect. Emotional abuse was associated with exposure to domestic violence and abuse, and to self-harm. The strengths and weaknesses for single centre data systems were explored, concluding with a recommendation to establish an agreed national and international minimum data set to protect children from maltreatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity; child; adolescent; mental health; chronic disease; register; clinical protocol
Online: 4 June 2021 (09:04:18 CEST)
Background: The purpose of this article is to update the diagnostic assessment, therapeutic approach, and 12-18 month follow up of patients added in the Italian Lombardy ADHD Register. Methods: Data on patients evaluated by the 18 Regional ADHD Reference Centres in the ten year period from 2011 to April 2021 were analysed. Results: 4091 of 5934 added patients received a diagnosis of ADHD. In 20.3% of cases, there was a family history of ADHD. 2879 children (70.4%) had at least one comorbidity disorder, the most common of which was learning disorder (39%). Nearly all (95.9%) received at least one psychological prescription, 17.9% of them almost one pharmacological treatment, and 15.6% a combination of both. Values of ≥5 of the Clinical Global Impressions- Severity (CGI-S) are more commonly presented by patients with a pharmacological prescription than with a psychological treatment (p < .0001). A significant improvement was reported in half of the patients followed after 1 year, with Clinical Global Impressions- Improvement (CGI-I ≤ 3). In all, 233 of 4091 are 18 year old patients. Conclusion: A ten year systematic monitoring of models of care was a fruitful shared and collaborative initiative in order to promote significant improvement in clinical practice, providing effective and continuous quality of care. The unique experience here reported should spread.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0760.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Dizziness; Vertigo; Migraine Disorders; Interdisciplinary Communication; Headache; Medulloblastoma; Lyme Neuroborreliosis; Somatoform Disorders; Child; Adolescent
Online: 31 March 2021 (11:35:13 CEST)
Objective: The causes of vertigo and dizziness in children are diverse and require attention from various specialists. Numerous authors have reported that the commonest type of vertigo in children is migraine-associated vertigo (vestibular migraine and benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood - BPV). We aimed to check whether this could be applied to our group of patients. Materials and methods: A retrospective case series of 257 consecutive pediatric vertigo and diz-ziness patients referred to the tertiary pediatric ENT clinic from 2015 to 2020. Patients received a complete audiovestibular workup and were referred to pediatric neurologists and other special-ists depending on the signs and symptoms. Results: Of 257 children aged 1-17 years, almost one fifth of them, 49/257 (19.1 %) had a central type of vertigo, 20/257 of them (7.8%) had benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood and 4/257 (1.6%) had a migrainous type of vertigo. Most of the children, 112/257 (43.6%), remained unclas-sified, without a final diagnosis. Conclusion: Due to the numerous possible causes, a child presenting with dizziness and vertigo requires a multidisciplinary approach. In the majority of cases, vertigo spells are self-limiting. They stop spontaneously and sometimes remain clinically undiagnosed. The most prevalent reasons for pediatric vertigo may be temporary hemodynamic (vaso-vagal) and psychological imbalance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0188.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Zika virus; Zika virus infection; perinatal transmission; mother-to-child transmission; breast milk; breastfeeding
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:44:05 CET)
To gain new insights into the potential of mother-to-child transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) through breast milk or breastfeeding practices, we systematically searched regional and international databases and screened 1,658 non-duplicate records describing women with suspected or confirmed ZIKV infection, intending to breastfeed or give breast milk to an infant. Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria and inform this analysis. These studies reported on 97 mother-children pairs who provided breast milk for ZIKV assessment. Seventeen breast milk samples from different women were found positive for ZIKV via RT-PCR, and ZIKV replication was found in cell cultures from five out of seven breast milk samples from different women. Only three out of six infants who had ZIKV infection were breastfed, no evidence of clinical complications were found to be associated with ZIKV RNA in breast milk. This review updates our previous report by synthesizing the evidence from 12 new articles and we find no evidence of mother-to-child transmission through breast milk intake or breastfeeding. As the certainty of the present evidence is low, additional studies are still warranted to completely understand any potential of transmission of ZIKV through breastfeeding.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: school health; child/adolescent health; health education; health promotion; school nutrition; school health; policy
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:57:43 CEST)
Supporting the implementation of school food and nutrition policies (SFNPs) is an international priority to encourage healthier eating among children and youth. Schools are an important intervention setting to promote childhood nutrition, and many jurisdictions have adopted policies, guidelines, and programs to modify the school nutrition environment and promote healthier eating. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between perceived adequacy and capacity for SFNP implementation on food availability and policy adherence in the province of Nova Scotia (NS), Canada, one of the first regions in Canada to launch a comprehensive SFNP. A cross sectional online survey was conducted in 2014-15 to provide a current-state of policy implementation and adherence. Adequacy and capacity for food policy implementation was used to assess policy adherence through the availability of prohibited ‘minimum’ nutrition foods. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a selected of available foods and ‘slow’ and ‘quick’ service food composition measures were dichotomized for food availability. Schools with above perceived average adequacy and capacity for policy implementation had more than three times (3.62) greater odds of adhering to a lunch policy, while schools that adhered to a snack and lunch policy had 52% and 82% lower odds of serving quick service foods, respectively. This study identified the need for appropriate adequacy and capacity for policy implementation to ensure policy adherence and improve the school food environment. These findings highlight the potential of SFNPs to have a positive impact on childhood nutrition, but adequately supporting their implementation is critical to ensure their impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: child nutrition disorders; animal source foods; diet; food and nutrition; dietary diversity; food assistance
Online: 9 January 2019 (07:49:09 CET)
Introduction: Child undernutrition remains a challenge globally and in the geographically diverse country of Ethiopia. Improving dietary diversity and consumption of animal source foods are important for improving child nutrition and corresponding health outcomes. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify household and community factors associated with consumption of animal source foods among 6 to 36-month-old children from four regions of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using multistage probability sampling in eight geographic zones and four regions of Ethiopia took place in 2015 with parents/caretakers of 6 to 36-month-old children. Data was collected on demographic information, proxy indicators of socioeconomic status, and food consumed by the child the day before the survey. Results: Increased child age, pastoral livelihood, Muslim religion, and participation in the Productive Safety Net Program were associated with increased consumption of animal source foods. Odds of animal source foods consumption increased 8% with each 3-month age increase. Children from pastoralist households were the most likely to have consumed animal source foods in the preceding 24 hours as compared with those in agro-pastoralist households (0.21 times as likely) or those in agriculturalist/farming households (0.15 times as likely). The odds of consumption of animal source foods for families with food aid or safety net support was 1.7 times greater among those receiving traditional support from the Productive Safety Net Program and 4.5 times greater for those in the direct support arm of the program. Conclusions: The findings illustrate the importance of accounting for local context and community characteristics, such as livelihood and religion, when undertaking programming designed to improve diversity of children’s diets through increasing animal source foods. In addition, the Productive Safety Net program may be a critical determinant of dietary diversity for young children in these regions.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: development; milestones; screening; poverty; stunting; lead exposure; developmental risk; child health; global health; pediatrics
Online: 1 June 2018 (11:11:19 CEST)
There is a need for developmental screening that is easily administered in resource-poor settings. 1) We hypothesized that known risk factors would predict failed developmental screening on an adapted screening tool in East African children living in poverty. 2) The sample included 100 healthy Ugandan children aged 6-59 months. We adapted a parent-reported developmental screener based on the Child Development Review chart. The primary outcome was failure to meet age-appropriate milestones for any developmental domain. Venous blood was analyzed for lead, and caregivers completed a demographics questionnaire. We used multivariate logistic regression models to determine if elevated blood lead and stunting predicted failure on the screener, controlling for maternal education level, age in months past the lower bound of the child’s developmental age group, and absence of home electricity. 3) In the sample, 14% (n=14) of children failed one or more milestones on the screener. Lead levels or stunting did not predict failing the screener after controlling for covariates. 4) Though this tool was feasibly administered, it did not demonstrate preliminary construct validity and is not yet recommended for screening in high-risk populations. Future research should include a larger sample size and cognitive interviews to ensure it is contextually relevant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0154.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder; Low and Middle-Income Countries; Cross-Cultural; healthcare utilization; treatment barriers; child
Online: 13 September 2022 (03:18:00 CEST)
Delayed diagnosis and a lack of adequate care for people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are related to worse outcomes and quality of life. This study aimed to identify the profile of service use, barriers to access care, and factors related to those barriers in Brazilian families with children with ASD. A total of 927 families with ASD children (3-17 years) from five Brazilian regions completed an online version of the Caregivers Needs Survey. Results showed that the most used services were behavioral interventions and pharmacotherapy, while the most used professionals were neurologists, nutritionists, speech therapists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and pediatricians. The main barriers included waiting lists, costs, and the absence of services or treatment. Service use varied according to age, the region of residence, the type of health care system used, and the parents/caregivers' education. Access to behavioral interventions was more frequent among users of the private system/health insurance and families whose caregivers had higher education. The absence of specialized services/treatments was less frequent among residents of state capitals and families whose caregivers had higher levels of education. This study highlights how families with children/adolescents with ASD in Brazil face significant barriers to access care related to sociodemographic factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0109.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: freedom of religion; children and religion; church and state; law and religion; right of the child
Online: 7 November 2022 (06:33:40 CET)
Political and legal debate about freedom of religion and belief (FoRB) in Australia has intensified since the Same-sex marriage postal survey in 2017. Central to this debate has been children, their parents and institutions (Schools). This paper outlines the place of children in the Australian FoRB since 2017, focusing on the Same-sex marriage postal survey debate and subsequent reviews into freedom of religion. In particular it highlights the links drawn between same-sex marriage or marriage equality and the Safe School Coalition Australia campaign, the emphasis on parental rights in relation to education about marriage in schools and the ongoing debate about potential reform to Australia’s suit of anti-discrimination laws
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0304.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Child nutrition disorders; Vitamin D deficiency rickets; Metabolic bone diseases; Genu valgum; Genu varum; Bone remodelling.
Online: 13 August 2021 (22:44:42 CEST)
Background: Nutritional rickets is still considered as a global health problem especially in low-resource countries and immigrant societies of developed countries. Generalized skeletal deformities including angular knee deformities as genu varum and genu valgum are prominent features of nutritional rickets. Angular knee deformities can cause gait difficulties. However, the true remodelling potential of the healed knee deformities is largely unknown to the pediatric and orthopedic community. Aims: The primary objective of this study protocol is to investigate the natural history of disease in regard to the remodelling potential of angular knee deformities in children and adolescents with healed nutritional rickets. And determine the potential patient- and deformity-related factors that are associated with a favorable deformity remodelling as age and sex of patients and type, severity, laterality of deformities etc. Methods: This will be a prospective observational analytical cohort natural history of disease study. A minimum of at least 140 knees with healed nutritional rickets and angular knee deformities will be observed at regular three-monthly intervals over a period of at least one year. We will report two outcome variables namely; clinical and radiological tibio-femoral angle. And independent patient and deformity-related variables as age, sex, deformity type, severity and laterality. Inferential statistics namely bivariate and multivariate analysis will be employed accordingly to identify the relation between outcome variables and the different independent variables. Ethics and dissemination: This protocol study has been approved by the institutional research ethics committee. Results will be presented at conferences and submitted to relevant international and society publications. Authors will also communicate the results to their scholarly networks and post them on scholarly networking sites. Conclusions: This study has the potential for improving the decision-making process as to which patients deserve conservative treatment and which deserve surgical deformity correction. Results are expected to have an impact on the clinical practice of pediatricians, orthopedic surgeons and family physicians alike.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0351.v1
Subject: Keywords: lecture based instruction; actual community-based instruction; maternal and child care; social competency skills; community awareness
Online: 13 April 2021 (12:47:52 CEST)
Maternal-child care is one of the foundations of primary health care. Nurses’ competency skills they have been taught. Community awareness is an important part of preventive healthcare, and nurses must be aware of the factors that impact the health of the community. This study examines the effectiveness of lecture-based instructions in maternal and child care and its implications to students' social competency skills and community awareness in Nursing Colleges in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. The researcher uses survey questionnaire and employed the descriptive design where fifteen (15) nursing students and five (5) teachers were purposively selected. The findings revealed that the weighted mean for the effectiveness of lecture based instruction in maternal and child care is 3.91 with verbal description of “Effective”, the effects of lecture based instruction in maternal and childcare to students’ social competency skills and community awareness got the weighted mean of 3.87 and interpreted as “very satisfactory” and the effectiveness of actual community-based instruction is very effective with weighted mean of 4.25 and is higher compare to lecture based instruction. The results also revealed that students and teachers were challenged in lecture-based instruction in maternal and chi8ldcare during distance learning. Recommendations for the enhancement of lecture-based instruction in maternal and childcare in social competency skills and community awareness were also made.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0553.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Nutrition; family day care; intervention; implementation science; ECEC; child day care centres; RE-AIM; Public Health
Online: 27 January 2021 (10:49:48 CET)
Objective: To highlight opportunities for future nutrition intervention research within early childhood and education care (ECEC) settings, with a focus on generating evidence that has applicability to real-world policy and practice. Methods: An overview of opportunities to progress the field was developed by authors using a collaborative writing approach and informed by recent research in the field. The group developed a list of recommendations aligned with the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Pairs of authors drafted individual sections of the manuscript, which was then reviewed by a separate pair. The first and senior author consolidated all sections of the manuscript and sought critical input on draft iterations of the manuscript. Results: Interventions that employ digital platforms (Reach) in ECEC settings, as well as research in the family day care setting (Effectiveness) were identified as areas of opportunities. Research understanding the determinants of and effective strategies for dissemination (Adoption), implementation of nutrition programs, in addition to de-implementation (Implementation) of inappropriate nutrition practices, is warranted. For maintenance, there is a need to better understand sustainability and sustainment of interventions, in addition to undertaking policy-relevant research. Conclusions: The ECEC setting is prime for innovative and practical nutrition intervention research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0052.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: animal-assisted interventions; child development; dog bites; dog-borne zoonoses; dog ownership; dog welfare; human-animal interactions
Online: 6 October 2022 (08:13:49 CEST)
Our wellbeing is greatly influenced by our childhood and adolescence, and the relationships that we form during those phases of our development. The human-dog bond started thousands of years ago. The higher prevalence of dog ownership around the world, especially in households including children along with the growing number of people studying dogs most likely explain the growing literature focusing on child-dog interactions. We review the potential effects of child-dog interactions on the physical, mental, and social wellbeing of both species. A scoping search of the SCOPUS database found several hundred documents meeting selection criteria. It allowed us to define the numerous ways in which children and dogs can interact, be it neutral (e.g., sharing a common area), positive (e.g., petting), or negative (e.g., biting). Then, we found evidence for an association between interacting with dogs during childhood and an array of health and mental benefits like stress relief and the development of empathy. Walking a dog and playing with one are perfect physical activity opportunities. Additionally, interacting with a dog can help lower stress and may have a role in the development of empathy. Nonetheless, a number of detrimental outcomes have also been identified in both humans and dogs. Children are the most at-risk population regarding dog bites and dog-borne zoonoses, which may lead to a subsequent fear of dogs or even death. Moreover, pet bereavement is generally inevitable when living with a canine companion and should not be trivialized. In terms of dogs, children sometimes take part in caretaking behaviors toward them which include going on walks. They are opportunities for dogs to relieve themselves outside, but also to exercise and socialize. In contrast, a lack of physical activity can lead to the onset of obesity. Dogs may present greater levels of stress when in the presence of children. Finally, the welfare of assistance, therapy, and free-roaming dogs remains underexplored. Overall, the study of the effects, positive as well as negative, on both species still requires further development. We call for more longitudinal studies and hope for cross-cultural research in the future in order to better understand the impact child-dog interactions might have.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0245.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: child sexual abuse; age of sexual consent; Romeo and Juliet clause; sexual freedom; sexual indemnity; comparative law.
Online: 11 August 2021 (10:29:19 CEST)
Child and adolescent sexual abuse (CSA) is an international public health problem. Despite the importance of the CSA, there is no consensus definition, and the lack of consensus is related to difficulties in conducting prevalence studies, as well as research in other areas. To establish a consensual definition, legal aspects such as the age of sexual consent and the difference in age or power between victim and aggressor, aspects related to sexual freedom and sexual indemnity must be considered. Therefore, the main goal of this research was to analyze the age of sexual consent in the legal systems of Spanish-speaking countries and to examine whether the Romeo and Juliet clause is established. To achieve the proposed aims, we employed the legal interpretation method, and we analyzed the current Criminal Codes of the 21 Spanish-speaking countries. From the results, it is found that the age of sexual consent varies between countries, establishing valid sexual consent between 13 and 18 years. In addition, only six countries have the Romeo and Juliet clause that protects sexual freedom in adolescents. Finally, we discussed the lack of consensus on the age of sexual consent and the limitations presented by the Romeo and Juliet clause.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0013.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: attachment; parent-child relationship; contextual; context-specific; hierarchical model; psychological need satisfaction and frustration; well/ill-being
Online: 1 March 2019 (12:51:56 CET)
No research to date has explored the possibility of context-specific, within-relationship fluctuation in attachment security. In this present article, two cross-sectional studies were designed (1) to develop and validate context-specific attachment scales in Traditional-Chinese, and (2) to explore fluctuations in within-parent attachment security between the contexts of sport and academics, in relation to global attachment patterns and indicators of psychological wellbeing. Results indicated that youth can and do perceive within-parent attachment patterns differently depending upon context but that the relationship of such differences to context-specific outcomes is complex. Of particular interest was that the degree of within-parent attachment variability between contexts was clearly and negatively related to indices of psychological wellbeing. This suggests that contextual variation may be a meaningful and useful way to explore within-parent attachment fluctuation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0109.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: child; diarrhea; water sanitation and hygiene; rehydration solution; zinc; case management; antibacterial agents; drug utilization; community participation; India
Online: 14 May 2019 (11:46:53 CEST)
Childhood diarrhea continues to be a major cause of under-five (U-5) mortality globally and in India. In this study, 1571 U-5 children residing in nine rural villages and four urban slums in Ujjain, India were included with the objective to use community participation and drug utilization research to improve diarrheal case management. The mean age was 2.08 years, with 297 (19%), children living in high diarrheal index households. Most mothers (70%) considered stale food, teething (62%), and hot weather (55%) as causes of diarrhea. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related characteristics revealed that most (93%) households had toilets, but only 23% of the children used them. The study identified ineffective household water treatment by filtration through cloth by most (93%) households and dumping of household waste on the streets (89%). The results revealed low community awareness of correct causes of diarrhea (poor hand hygiene, 21%; littering around the household, 15%) and of correct diarrhea treatment (oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc use, 29% and 11%, respectively) and a high antibiotic prescription rate by healthcare providers (83%). Based on the results of the present study, context-specific house-to-house interventions will be designed and implemented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0052.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Dialectical Critical Realism; Education; Islam; Childhood Studies; Child Abuse; Work-Life-Balance; Roy Bhaskar; Priscilla Alderson; Margaret Archer
Online: 18 September 2016 (06:04:09 CEST)
Critical realism emerged from the philosophical writings of Roy Bhaskar, and has evolved into a philosophy of social science research using the model of “dialectical critical realism” (DCR) which begins with the researcher’s assumptions that the structures being researched have a real, ontological grounding which is independent of the researcher. This approach has proved fruitful in British and European social science research, but has had less influence in North America. We outline DCR’s four level model for understanding society and its changing social structures through “the pulse of freedom”. DCR has been used by Marxists, Muslims, Catholics and secular scholars who engage fruitfully in morphogenic dialogues leading to a critical realist understanding of society and social research, which transcends positivist and social constructionist models. Examples of DCR’s application in the fields of childhood research, child abuse, education, and research on organisations are outlined to illustrate the working of this new research paradigm. We are enthusiastic in our advocacy of DCR as a model of qualitative research, and for constructing models of positive social change, and are particularly impressed by the substantive and theoretical expositions of DCR by Priscilla Anderson, Matthew Wilkinson and Margaret Archer, whose work we document and review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: respirable agglomerates; inhaled corticosteroids; ciclesonide; particle engineering; dry powder inhaler; extrafine; total lung dose; Alberta Idealized Throat; Idealized Child Throat
Online: 13 October 2021 (10:52:57 CEST)
Current dry powder formulations for inhalation deposit a large fraction of their emitted dose in the upper respiratory tract where they contribute to off-target adverse effects and variability in lung delivery. The purpose of current study is to design a new formulation concept that more effectively targets inhaled dry powders to the large and small airways. The formulations are based on adhesive mixtures of drug nanoparticles and nanoleucine carrier particles prepared by spray drying of a co-suspension of leucine and drug particles from a nonsolvent. The physicochemical and aerosol properties of the resulting formulations are presented. The formulations achieve 93% lung delivery in the Alberta Idealized Throat model that is independent of inspiratory flow rate and relative humidity. Largely eliminating URT deposition with a particle size larger than solution pMDIs is expected to improve delivery to the large and small airways, while minimizing alveolar deposition and particle exhalation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0346.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Prevention of Mother-to-Child transmission (PMTCT); Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV); Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDs); Poisson; negative binomial; logistic; regression
Online: 30 October 2019 (04:06:36 CET)
In Sub-Saharan African Countries such as Nigeria with high prevalence rate, Child HIV/AIDs acquired through Mother-to-Child transmission (MTCT) can be largely prevented by using a well-established prevention programme and scheme. This study examined factors that can enhanced Prevention of Mother-to-Child transmission (PMTCT) in Nasarawa State. To achieve this, structured questionnaire were used to collect data from one hundred and sixteen (116) women attending two (2) primary facilities and two (2) secondary facilities in the State. This study utilized methods of Poisson Regression, Negative Binomial Regression and Logistic Regression Analyses. Results revealed that women with at least a secondary school education, women with husband in military and women with perceived confidentiality of their HIV status significantly enhanced PMTCT of HIV in Nasarawa State while significant proportion of the women attest to the fact that drugs are available in the facilities (p-value=0.0000<0.05) . Other factors include mother income level, willingness to continue with PMTCT programme and women in support group can also enhanced PMTCT though they are not significant. This study recommends that the factors identified should be explored by NGOs, Ministry of Health and, Support groups and other relevant agencies since they have the capacity to enhanced PMTCT of HIV in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: family planning service and COVID-19; maternal; Neonatal and child health service and COVID-19; sexual behaviour and COVID-19; SARSCOVID-2 and family planning
Online: 6 June 2022 (03:39:05 CEST)
Introduction: Since its discovery in late 2019, the novel coronavirus (SARSCOVID-2) that causes COVID-19 has spread fast, prompting the World Health Organization (WHO) to designate the disease a worldwide pandemic on March 11, 2020.The epidemic has profoundly altered the preexisting global sexual and reproductive health landscape .The virus’s load has put ordinary services in jeopardy and harmed other health priorities. This encompasses both the provision and the supply of contraceptives, sexual health, new born and maternal health services. This Scoping review therefore mapped the availability evidence on the impact and effects of the COVID-19 disease outbreak on sexual and reproductive health. Methods: The methodological framework by Arksey and O’Malley guided this scoping review. A literature search was conducted from the following databases: Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, WOS, and AJOL. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) flow diagram and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist were used to document the review process. The Strobe critical review checklist was used to determine the quality of the included studies. Results:19 studies were reviewed, out of which 4 were cross sectional studies, 1 was an observational study, 1 was a descriptive analytical study and the rest were qualitative studies .Majority of the studies showed evidence on the impact of COVID-19 and family planning service, maternal and child services, and three studies reported on COVID-19 and sexual behaviour. Five of the nineteen included studies reported on the impact of COVID-19 and family planning service. Conclusion: This scoping review has granted the assessment of the impact of novel SARS-CoV-2 on Sexual and reproductive health services with regards to sexual behaviour, family planning and maternal, neonatal and child health. From the 18 articles identified and reviewed, the overall responses stipulated a significant reduction in client’s utilization of services due to challenges experiences in service implementation such as stock outs. In addition, low demand for reproductive health services by clients due to restrictions imposed on the movements of people to curb the spread of the virus. It is therefore important that Governments and relevant stakeholders in Maternal and Sexual Reproductive Health prioritize development of policies and practices that protect women from the impacts of the pandemic. Furthermore, regular audits to detect trends in MSRH are necessary to inform on going mitigation efforts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Food; feeding style; eating trends; food interactions, food intake; food preparation; food management; food insecurity; meal planning; parent; child; family food environment; COVID-19; systematic review
Online: 4 August 2022 (05:26:38 CEST)
Home confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic has been accompanied by dramatic changes in household food dynamics that can significantly influence health. This systematic literature review presents parental perspectives of the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on food preparation and meal routines, as well as other food-related behaviors, capturing both favorable and unfavorable changes in the family food environment (FFE). Themes and trends are identified and associations with other lifestyle factors are assessed. In overall, families enjoyed more time together around food, including planning meals, cooking, and eating together. Eating more diverse foods and balanced meals was combined with overeating and increased snacking, as parents became more permissive towards food; however, food insecurity increased among families with the lowest income. Adoption of meal planning skills and online shopping behavior emerged alongside behaviors aimed at self-sufficiency, such as bulk purchasing and stockpiling. These results are an important first step in recognizing how this pandemic may be affecting the FFE, including low-income families. Future obesity prevention and treatment initiatives, but also ongoing efforts to address food management, parental feeding practices, and food insecurity, can account for these changes moving forward.
REVIEW | doi:10.3390/sci2030068
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; pooling clinical trials; hyperinfection; steroids; treatment; targeted healthcare; population health management; cancer treatment; clinical research; clinical trials; developing vaccines; ranking and rating hospital quality; school closures; interventions for delirium; assessments of COVID-19 death inequities; regulatory safeguards; preventing child abuse and maltreatment; prevalence of health care worker burnout; nursing home ratings; challenging oncology practice; addressing racial; ethnic; social and economic divides; violence against sexual minority adolescents; primary tumors; metastasis; stages of cancer; reforming cancer clinical trials; supporting carers; protection and prevention; benign and malignant tumors; reforming cancer clinical trials; protection of healthcare personnel; comparing excess deaths in NYC; 1918 influenza pandemic; the possibility of full recovery from COVID-19; mental health impact of COVID-19 on young adults; ranking and rating nursing home quali
Online: 21 August 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the COVID-19 disease has wreaked havoc on the world community in terms of every imaginable parameter. The research output on COVID-19 has been nothing short of phenomenal, especially in the medical and biomedical sciences, where the search for a potential vaccine is being conducted in earnest. Much of the advanced research has been distributed in the leading medical journals, including the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), where the latest research is distributed on a daily basis. The purpose of this paper is to provide some perspectives on 44 interesting and highly topical research papers that have been published in JAMA, at the time of writing, within the past two weeks. The diverse topics include public health, general medicine, internal medicine, oncology, paediatrics, geriatrics, and biostatistics.