ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0129.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Pineapples; Ripening; Proximate composition; Sensory evaluation
Online: 10 January 2022 (16:15:22 CET)
The number of artificially ripened pineapples is outnumbered than the naturally ripened pineapples. However, there is a lack of understanding between artificially ripened and naturally ripened pineapples. Thus the inquiry was anticipated to explore the physicochemical changes and organoleptic acceptability of the naturally ripened and artificially ripened pineapples. Farmers used different chemicals such as calcium carbide, ethylene, besides growth hormones to reduce production loss. Here we evaluated the content of moisture, ash, protein, fat, crude fiber, reducing sugar, total sugar, titratable acidity, sucrose, and vitamin C in both naturally ripened and artificially ripened pineapples. Artificially ripened pineapples showed a significantly lower vitamin C than naturally ripened ones, but arsenic content was nil in both samples. In the case of color and appearance, there was no significant difference between the two samples, but in case of the other organoleptic properties, such as flavor, sweetness, sourness, the natural one was more acceptable. Thus naturally ripened pineapples are more beneficial to consumers than artificially ripened ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0213.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Food Analysis; Texture Profile Analysis; FTIR, Sensory Evaluation
Online: 12 October 2020 (07:57:48 CEST)
The popularity of functional gummies has increased, which is evident from the growing line of functional gummies from almost every nutraceutical companies. Sensory evaluation serves the purpose of determining which brand of functional gummy would capture the largest market share. Texture profile analysis was used to determine the mechanical properties of functional gummies. The brands of functional gummies that came under the scope of this study were denoted as Brand A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was utilised to detect organic material and functional groups in the functional gummies. Texture profile analysis gave valuable insights into the gummies’ mechanical properties which are cohesiveness, springiness, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. Amongst the gummies that were studied, Brand F gummy has the highest value of cohesiveness of 0.92. Brand A gummy has a high springiness value of 1.0. Brand B gummy possesses the highest value of hardness, gumminess and chewiness of 12 532.2 g, 7617.6 N, and 6256.8 J, respectively. Qualitative sensory evaluation reveals that Brand G gummy has the best aesthetic qualities in terms of colour and appearance. Brand B gummy tastes the best while brand A gummy claims the top spot for gumminess and chewiness. Overall, the respondents in this study preferred brand A gummy over other brands.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0126.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: hot foods; temperature; esophageal cancer; thermosensing; sensory thresholds; methodological study
Online: 9 August 2018 (12:50:40 CEST)
Epidemiological studies indicate an increased risk of cancer from the consumption of very hot foods and beverages. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has already recommended threshold values for the maximum drinking temperature of very hot beverages. The contact time and the contact temperature are decisive for the risk of injury when hot media come into contact with human skin. However, measuring the contact temperature is not easily possible in practice. In the present study, a numerical simulation based on the solution of the heat conduction equation was initially used to investigate whether and for what period of time a constant contact temperature is to be expected under oral conditions. For small circular 3-cm food samples (e.g., cooked potatoes) with 2.5 mm thickness in contact with the tongue, the simulation results in a constant contact temperature of 10 s before cooling. With a thickness of 0.5 mm, the contact temperature is only maintained 1 s. Hot beverages, which spread as a thin film and thereby increase their surface area, can therefore be consumed at higher temperatures than solid foods. Furthermore, a simple test technique with a "measuring spoon" was developed. A hot sample is placed on the tongue. Orientating measurements were used to determine which contact temperature was considered to be just comfortable for any period > 10 s and for which period of less than 10 s it was still just bearable. The contact temperature, which was still perceived as tolerable for periods > 10 s, was 46.5 °C. The time spans for the higher contact temperature 48 °C were between 2 and 4 s and for 49 °C between 1 and 2 s. The course of the contact temperatures determined in the experiment over time allows to calculate the corresponding threshold values of consumption temperatures for various foods. Consumption temperatures of about 56 °C for potatoes and 60 °C for cheese are still perceived as tolerable. In view of the fact that the contact temperature is obviously the determining factor for the risk of injury from burns in the oral cavity in addition to the contact time, it makes sense to reference threshold values to the contact temperature rather than to the surface or consumption temperature of a food product, which is current customary practice. If this contact temperature is defined as a threshold value, the surface or consumption temperature for any other food can be calculated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0168.v1
Subject: Keywords: neuromodulation, noninvasive, sensory networks
Online: 7 November 2018 (14:40:46 CET)
We describe a model of neurological disease based on dysfunctional brain oscillators. This is not a new model, but it is not one that is generally appreciated by clinicians. The value of this model lies in the predictions it makes and the utility it provides in translational applications, in particular for neuromodulation devices. We provide a perspective on the difference between neuromodulation devices that enforce an externally administered stimulus with devices that provide input to sensory receptors and thus stimulate endogenous sensory networks. Current forms of clinically applied neuromodulation are of the former type, including devices such as (implanted) deep brain stimulators (DBS) and various, noninvasive methods such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current methods (tACS, tDCS). The challenge with these methods is that they are not sensitive to underlying neuronal dynamics and work by applying an empirically derived electrical current waveform to affect dynamical patterns. Neuromodulation of a sensory organ accesses the same pathways that natural environmental stimuli do and, importantly, the modulatory signal will be transformed as it travels through the brain, allowing the modulation input to be consistent with regional dynamics. We present specific examples of devices that rely on sensory neuromodulation and evaluate the translational potential of these approaches. We argue that sensory neuromodulation is well suited to probe and, ideally, repair dysfunctional brain oscillators, thus providing a novel therapeutic approach for neurological diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0115.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Motion; Inert; Mechanical stimulation; Sensory proteins
Online: 11 January 2019 (15:51:51 CET)
Thought runs through the mind like blood runs through our body to keep us alive. Like the mind, the body does not stay inert and is in constant motion. Not a single cell in our body is left inert unless cell is under stress or dying. These scenarios are reflected upon when a person is sick, the person lies in bed with less movement; however, is active when the person is healthy. The topic of mechanical stimulation has emerged due to the increasing understanding of the physical stimulations we face each day. Further understanding of the mechanically-regulated mechanism can help us explore the pathological events in a disease. Here, we reviewed the role of sensory proteins in pathological events that are observed in cardiomyopathy, cancer, respiratory, renal, obesity, genetics, physical injury and bacterial infection. Taken together, sensory proteins are mechanically-activated which assist reception of external physical stimulation and convert into biochemical to trigger intracellular signaling cascade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0398.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: craft beer; polyphenols; bitterness; preference; sensory attributes
Online: 18 October 2018 (05:09:01 CEST)
The craft beers are outlined as a distinctively flavored, brewed and distributed regionally, using top-fermenting (ale) yeast, bottom-fermenting (lager) yeast or spontaneously fermentation. Craft beers are largely consumed and produced in Brazil and presents great level of polyphenols, which would affect the consumer’s preference. In this way, we analyzed the relation between polyphenols, bitterness and composition of main different styles of craft beers and the consumer´s preference. Six different styles were analyzed according its polyphenol content, bitterness, chemical composition, sensory profile and preference. For preference, a panel with 62 non-trained assessors was used. For sensory profile, the quantitative descriptive analysis was performed, using expert assessors (n = 8). The preferred style was Classic American Pilsner and the style less preferred was Standard American Lager. The craft beer more preferred showed a decreased bitterness (9.52), polyphenol content (0.61 mg EAG/mL), total solids (6.75 ºBrix) and turbidity (7.27 NTU). This beer exhibited reduced sensory notes of malty, fruity, smoked, hoppy and phenolic, but a higher perception of floral, sweet and yeast notes. The bitter attribute has a reduced perception. This study advances understanding the sensory profile and complexity of craft beers styles from Southern Brazilian.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0084.v3
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: brainstem sensory nuclei; somatosensation; secondary afferents; posterior column
Online: 8 March 2020 (17:17:31 CET)
The dorsal column nuclei complex (DCN-complex) includes the dorsal column nuclei (DCN, referring to the gracile and cuneate nuclei collectively), external cuneate, X, and Z nuclei, and the median accessory nucleus. The DCN are organised by both somatotopy and modality, and have a diverse range of afferent inputs and projection targets. The functional organisation and connectivity of the DCN implicate them in a variety of sensorimotor functions, beyond their commonly accepted role in processing and transmitting somatosensory information to the thalamus, yet this is largely underappreciated in the literature. To consolidate insights into their sensorimotor functions, this review examines the morphology, organisation, and connectivity of the DCN and their associated nuclei. First, we briefly discuss the receptors, afferent fibres, and pathways involved in conveying tactile and proprioceptive information to the DCN. Next, we review the modality and somatotopic arrangements of the remaining constituents of the DCN-complex. Finally, we examine and discuss the functional implications of the myriad of DCN-complex projection targets throughout the diencephalon, midbrain, and hindbrain, in addition to their modulatory inputs from the cortex. The organisation and connectivity of the DCN-complex suggest that these nuclei should be considered a complex integration and distribution hub for sensorimotor information.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0152.v1
Online: 11 February 2020 (15:18:56 CET)
We discuss some of the fundamental practical limitations of the Fluctuation-Enhanced Sensing of odors and gases. We address resolution, measurement speed, reproducibility, memory and other problems such as humidity. Various techniques and ideas are presented to overcome these problems. Circuit solutions are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0065.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: low fat; salt reduction; meat product; sensory; beef
Online: 3 May 2018 (09:46:55 CEST)
The consumer’s acceptability of hamburgers elaborated with the flank of culling cows in which the content of salt or fat had been partially replaced was studied. A mixture of potassium chloride, potassium ferrocyanide and sodium ferrocyanide was used as substitutes for the salt. Oat flakes or a mixture of chia and flax seeds were used as substitutes for the fat. The hamburgers were tasted by 34 consumers. Consumers did not detect significant differences between the control and the rest of the formulations. Neither the gender nor the age of the consumers influenced the sensory appraisal. However, many comments regarding texture failures were recorded. Therefore, the substitution of salt and / or fat in the composition of hamburgers made with the flank of cows is a viable alternative for the commercialization of these pieces of low commercial value as long as the texture of the same is adjusted to resemble it to the control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0086.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: sensory preconditioning; source memory; spatial learning; episodic memory
Online: 16 December 2016 (08:28:24 CET)
Loss of function of the hippocampus or frontal cortex is associated with reduced performance on memory tasks in which subjects are incidentally exposed to cues at specific places in the environment and are subsequently asked to recollect the location at which the cue was experienced. Here, we examined the roles of the rodent hippocampus and frontal cortex in cue-directed attention during encoding of memory for the location of a single incidentally experienced cue. During a spatial sensory preconditioning task, rats explored an elevated platform while an auditory cue was incidentally presented at one corner. The opposite corner acted as an unpaired control location. The rats demonstrated recollection of location by avoiding the paired corner after the auditory cue was in turn paired with shock. Damage to either the dorsal hippocampus or the frontal cortex impaired this memory ability. However, we also found that hippocampal lesions enhanced attention directed towards the cue during the encoding phase while frontal cortical lesions reduced cue-directed attention. These results suggest that the deficit in spatial sensory preconditioning caused by frontal cortical damage may be mediated by inattention to the location of cues during the latent encoding phase, while deficits following hippocampal damage must be related to other mechanisms such as generation of neural plasticity.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0435.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: balance; sensory substitution; neuroprosthesis; peripheral neuropathy; fall risk; diabetes
Online: 20 August 2020 (06:06:06 CEST)
Background:Peripheral neuropathy (PN) can result in either partial or complete loss of distal sensation resulting in an increased fall risk. Walkasins® uses a shoe insert to detect the magnitude and direction of sway and sends signals to a leg unit that provides sensory balance cues. The objective of this case report is to describe the long-term influence of the Walkasins® lower limb sensory neuroprosthesis on balance and gait for an individual with diabetic PN.Case Description:A fifty-one-year-old male with a 3-year history of PN and a 10-year history of type II diabetes mellitus was fitted with Walkasins® and utilized the shoe inserts 8-10 hours/day for more than 1 year. Although, vibration and tactile thresholds were severely impaired at his 1st metatarsophalangeal joint and the lateral malleolus bilaterally he could perceive tactile stimuli from the Walkasins® above the ankles.Outcomes:Following Walkasins® use, his Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) scores improved from 33% to 80%. His mean Vestibular Activities of Daily Living (VADL) scores decreased from 3.54 to 1. His Functional Gait Assessment (FGA) scores increased from 13/30 to 28/30 and his miniBESTest scores improved from 15/28 to 26/28. Gait speed increased from 0.23 m/sec to 1.5 m/sec. The patient described a decrease in pain and cramping throughout his lower extremities and an increase in function.Discussion:Gait and balance improved with the use of the Walkasins® and participation in the Neuro Wellness Program. This improvement suggests that the use of sensory substitution devices, such as the Walkasins®, may replace sensory deficits related to gait and balance dysfunction experienced by patients with PN. Further research is needed to determine if other patients will have a similar response and what the necessary threshold of sensory function is to benefit from use of the Walkasins®.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0264.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae; biosorption; milk; ICP-MS; isotherm; sensory evaluation
Online: 12 July 2020 (15:29:26 CEST)
This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Cadmium absorption in Milk. Nowadays one of the most serious problems is heavy metals pollution. Applying microorgaisms as a novel biotechnology is so useful especially in foodstuffs. Among the biosorbents for heavy metals’ removal, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has got an increasing attention due to its popularity in food industry. In this regard, the effects of some important factors such as the initial metal concentration, biomass concentration and contact time on the biosorption capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. The biosorption was analyzed by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The maximum Cd bioremoval (70%) was at 80 μg/L of this metal concentration in milk samples containing 30×108 CFU Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the end of storage time (the 4th day). There were no significant differences in sensory and physicochemical properties of milk samples during storage (p < 0.05). The isotherm studies followed by two popular models; Langmuir and Freundlich and the results showed a better fit to the Langmuir isotherm. All together, the results of this project demonstrated that the approach of using this valuable yeast, could be applied for food and drinks’ detoxification and producing healthier foods.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0352.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: coffee; espresso; hot beverages; temperature; esophageal cancer; sensory trial
Online: 30 October 2019 (09:12:32 CET)
Very hot (> 65 °C) beverages such as espresso were evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as probably carcinogenic to humans. For this reason, research into lowering beverage temperature without compromising its quality or taste is important. For espresso, one obvious possibility consists in lowering the brewing temperature. In two sensory trials using ISO 4120:2004 triangle test methodology, brewing temperatures of 80°C vs. 128°C and 80° vs. 93°C were compared. From the tested levels, espresso brewed at the lowest temperature had the highest acceptance. However, most tasters were unable to distinguish between 80°C and 93°C. The results of these pilot experiments proof the possibility to decrease the health hazard of very hot beverages by lower brewing temperatures.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: coffee; temperature; esophageal cancer; thermosensing; sensory thresholds; methodological study
Online: 26 April 2018 (08:05:50 CEST)
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluates “very hot (>65 °C) beverages” as probably carcinogenic to humans. However, there is a lack of research regarding what temperatures consumers actually perceive as “very hot” or as “too hot”. A methodology for organoleptical assessment of such threshold temperatures was developed. The participants were asked to mix a very hot coffee step by step into a cooler coffee. Because of that, the coffee to be tasted was incrementally getting hotter during the test. The participants took a sip at every addition, until they perceive the beverage as too hot for consumption. The protocol was evaluated using 87 participants. Interestingly, the average pain threshold of the test group (67 °C) and the preferred drinking temperature (63 °C) iterated around the IARC threshold for carcinogenicity. The developed methodology was found as fit for the purpose and may be applied in larger studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0532.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Acutherapy; geriatric therapy; Alzheimer's disease; sensory stimulation; evidence-based practice.
Online: 30 August 2021 (08:14:23 CEST)
Introduction: Dementia is a cognitive decline with patients often exhibit behavioural and psychological symptoms, severely affecting the quality of life and placing a heavy burden on caregivers. Acupressure has reported benefits for dementia. This study aims to critically review the available evidence for its use as a non-pharmacological therapy. Methods: Systematic search of major research databases for human clinical trials using acupressure as an intervention for dementia patients was conducted. Results were synthesised for the effects of acupressure on various outcome measures of interest for dementia.Results: Twelve clinical trials (N=973), including eight randomised control studies, were included in this review. The study sample was predominantly institutionalised residents with moderate to severe dementia. Baihui (GV20), Shenmen (HT7), Fengchi (GB20), Neiguan (PC6), Sanyinjiao (SP6), and Yingtang (EX-HN3) were the most used acupoints for intervention. Acupressure techniques employed in these clinical trials vary greatly with no standardised approach. This review finds inconsistent evidence in the effectiveness of acupressure in reducing agitation and behavioural disturbances. However, the treatment appears to improve their ease of care and reduce physical stress. Affixing acupressure devices on selected acupoints can also potentially improve psychiatric pain, anxiety, and depression. Long-term (6 months) treatment can potentially improve the cognitive function, activities of daily living, and quality of life of patients with mild to moderate dementia. The effect of acupressure on sleep disturbances remains unclear. Conclusion: More high-quality research on acupressure is needed to fill the gaps in knowledge and inform better care for dementia patients in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0283.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Moringa; pods; instant soup mixes; proximate; sensory and storage study
Online: 10 June 2021 (09:08:44 CEST)
Traditionally Moringa is known as mystical miracle tree or the tree of life. Soup can be classified as an appetizer, warm food during cold and sick. Moringa oleifera pods have been procured from College of Agriculture, JNKVV, Jabalpur. The present investigation is planned with objectives to standardize best combination of for the development of instant soup mix, to evaluate various quality parameters, to evaluate the storage stability and cost estimation of product. Protein in instant soup is ranged from 9.76 to 11.89 percent in different formulations of instant soup mix. Formulation MPP4 (11.89) had significantly maximum protein content followed by MPP3, MPP2, MPP1 and Control with the minimum protein content. The original instant soup mix (control) exhibited highest carbohydrate content (61.52%) followed by MPP1, MPP3, MPP4, and MPP2 with lowest content. The evaluated scores of control for colour and appearance, taste, flavour, consistency, after taste and overall acceptability are 8.36, 8.50, 8.60, 8.90, 8.76 and 8.63 respectively
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0116.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: coffee pulp; coffee by-products; sensory evaluation; fruit spirit; methanol; distillation
Online: 13 April 2022 (05:09:35 CEST)
Coffee pulp, obtained from wet coffee processing, is the major by-product accumulating in the coffee producing countries. One of the many approaches valorising this underestimated agricultural residue is the production of distillates. This research project deals with the production of spirits from coffee pulp using three different Coffea arabica varieties as a substrate. Coffee pulp was fermented for 72 hours with a selected yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae L.), acid, pectin lyase, and water. Several parameters, such as temperature, pH, sugar concentration and alcoholic strength were measured to monitor the fermentation process. Subsequently, the alcoholic mashes were double distilled with stainless steel pot stills and a sensory evaluation of the products was conducted. Furthermore, the chemical composition of fermented mashes and produced distillates were evaluated. It showed that elevated methanol concentrations were present in mashes and products of all three varieties. The sensory evaluation found the major aroma descriptor for the coffee pulp spirits as being stone fruit. The fermentation and distillation experiments revealed that coffee pulp can be successfully used as a raw material for the production of fruit spirits. However, the spirit quality and its flavour characteristics can be improved with optimised process parameters and distillation equipment.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: spatial information; localization of conspecifics; neural mechanisms; sensory processing; sensing behavior
Online: 20 March 2019 (15:40:55 CET)
Localizing the source of a signal is often as important as deciphering the signal’s message. Localization mechanisms must cope with the challenges of representing the spatial information of weak, noisy signals. Comparing these strategies across modalities and model systems allows a broader understanding of the general principles shaping spatial processing. In this review we focus on the electrosensory system of knifefish and provide an overview of our current understanding of spatial processing in this system, in particular, localization of conspecific signals. We argue that many mechanisms observed in other sensory systems, such as the visual or auditory systems, have comparable implementations in the electrosensory system. Our review therefore describes a field of research with unique opportunities to provide new insights into the principles underlying spatial processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0083.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: olive oil; sunflower oil; spicy olive oil; canned eel; colour; sensory analysis
Online: 9 April 2022 (01:36:15 CEST)
The different vegetable oils used in canned fish as filling medium have a preserving effect and contribute to the palatability of the product. In this study, the colour of European eels and the filling medium (sunflower oil, olive oil or spicy olive oil) was measured at different steps of the canning process. The sensorial characteristics of canned eels packed in the different oils were also evaluated. Colour scores (CieLab values) were higher in canned eels packed in sunflower and spicy olive oil than in canned eels packed in olive oil. The changes in colour parameters depended on the type of oil, the stage of the process and the storage time. Colour changes in canned eels packed in olive oil were highest during the sterilization process. Spicy olive oil was the filling medium in which the colour change was greatest, probably due to the migration of some of the spice components into the oil. Organoleptic properties were directly related to the type of oil used as the filling medium. The canned eels packed in sunflower oil were those awarded the highest scores in consumer tests, although the preferences varied depending on the age and gender of the consumers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0222.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Tics; Emotions; Basal ganglia; Tourette's syndrome; dopamine; HPA-axis; Premontory sensory phenomena
Online: 17 January 2022 (12:28:48 CET)
Tics can be associated with neurological disorders and are thought to be the result of dysfunctional basal ganglia pathways. In Tourette Syndrome (TS), excess dopamine in the striatum is thought to excite the thalamo-cortical circuits, producing tics. When external stressors activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, more dopamine is produced, furthering the excitation of tic-producing pathways. Emotional processing structures in the limbic are also activated during tics, providing further evidence of a possible emotional component in motor ticking behaviors. The purpose of the review is to better understand the relationship between emotional states and ticking behavior. We found support for the notion that premonitory-sensory phenomena (PSP), sensory stimulation, and other environmental stressors that impact the HPA-axis can influence tics through dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopamine plays a vital role in cognition and motor control, and is an important neurotransmitter in the pathophysiology of other disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which tend to be comorbid with ticking disorders and are thought to use similar pathways. It is concluded that there is an emotional component to ticking behaviors. Emotions primarily involving anxiety, tension, stress, and frustration have been associated with exacerbated tics, with PSP contributing to these feelings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0423.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: sensory-processing sensitivity; depression; agression; emotional intelligence; decision-making style; gender differences
Online: 23 November 2021 (14:07:37 CET)
While the link between Sensory-processing sensitivity (SPS) and internalizing symptoms has been well-established, a link to externalizing problems is still to be explored. This study aimed to further examine the relation between SPS and behavioral problems by testing the potential mediating roles of trait emotional intelligence (TEI) and decision-making styles. Pathway analyses were conducted on data from 268 community sample participants (Mage= 25.81, SD=2.41, 61.2% females). Results indicated gender differences in the pathway level outcomes of SPS, as well as potential partial mediators in men and women. SPS both directly and via the mediating effects of well-being factor (TEI) and avoidant decision-making influenced depression, regardless of gender. Direct effects on aggression were, however, obtained only in the male sample. Indirect effects of SPS on aggression were found in spontaneous decision-making for men, and in self-control and sociability factors of TEI for women. Directions for future research were discussed. sensory-processing sensitivity, depression, aggression, emotional intelligence, decision-making style, gender differences
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0317.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Dense urban area; Park green space; Perceived sensory dimension; Attention restoration; moderator
Online: 14 December 2020 (09:46:24 CET)
Research shows that stress, a common problem in dense cities, can be relieved in the natural environment. As great significance has been attached to the urban environment and public health in the society, this paper aims to study the relation and interaction between the perceived sensory dimension of urban park green space, attention restoration and state empathy. Therefore, we conducted an on-site questionnaire survey in four typical parks in Chengdu in terms of age, sex, daily stress, frequency of access in parks and other basic information of the respondents. The main part consists of perceived dimension, state empathy and attention restoration. The software SPSS24.0 is applied to the test of the validity and reliability of the PSD Scale, and then the important correlation between the perceived sensory dimensions in the parks and visitors' attention restoration is analyzed through multiple linear regression. Finally, the moderation effect of state empathy is tested by PROCESS. The findings show that (1) only seven dimensions in the PSD Scale are effective; (2) Serene and Refuge in the perceived sensory dimensions have significant effect on the restorative components of attention. (3) Except the dimensions of Rich in Species and Refuge, empathy enhanced the moderation effect in the interaction between the other five dimensions the Perceived Restorative Scale(PRS), especially in the interaction between the dimension Social and PRS. However, this study needs to be further explored to provide scientific basis and design strategy guidance for the research on the restoration potential of urban park green space in high-density urban areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0246.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: white- and biofortified cassava flour; bread; nutritional composition; physical properties; sensory properties
Online: 25 June 2019 (08:33:46 CEST)
With proper processing and utilization, biofortified cassava may contribute to the nutritional status of the consumers, thus, the need for this study. High-quality cassava flour from white- (TME 419) and biofortified (TMS 01/1368) cassava varieties were produced at a commercial processing factory, after which the flour is composite with wheat flour to produce bread. The nutritional composition, physical properties and sensory quality of the composite bread were analyzed using standard methods. Results showed that composite bread from 20% biofortified cassava flour (20-YCF) had a higher value of total β-carotene (0.74 μg/g), moisture (37.83%) and ash (2.29%) contents. The fat (3.72%) and protein (12.83%) contents were higher in 20% white cassava flour (20-WCF) composite bread. The 20-YCF composite bread had the highest loaf volume (3286.2 cm3), elasticity (6.32), chewiness (40.51 N) and gumminess (6.41), 20-WCF composite bread had higher specific volume (3.59 cm3/g) and hardness (176.50 N). The 100% wheat bread had higher cohesiveness (0.10) and loaf weight (932.35 g). A significant negative correlation (r = - 0.98, p≤0.05) exist between bread hardness and protein content. The composite bread compared favourably with the 100% wheat bread in terms of weight and aroma, but, the 100% wheat bread was more acceptable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0164.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Fabric sensory attributes; Fabric mechanical properties; scheme of measurement; KES vs. PhabrOmeter
Online: 18 February 2019 (16:51:30 CET)
Two major sample configurations are adopted in all the instruments for fabric hand measurement, flat sample as in KES and FAST types machines, and wrinkled sample as in PhabrOmeter. This paper compares the two sample types to examine which one if any offers a better coverage and reflection of the fabric sensory attributes. Fabrics have unique behaviors of drape, wrinkle and tactile sense which are entirely due to the simultaneous occurrence of both in-plane membrane deformation and out-of-plane bending deformation in multiple curvature. Such singular deformation mode cannot be detected by any machines using flat sample, whereas during a PhabrOmeter test, the fabric sample genuinely produces drape, wrinkle in addition to other related deformations. This paper then introduced the theoretical research pertaining to the measurement. Then a split sample experiment is conducted to demonstrate the importance of the internal connections in fabric during drape and wrinkle processes. As such fabric interconnection will be barely disclosed during tests using flat samples, another important advantage of PhabrOmeter is hence clearly shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0516.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: imperceptible; stimulation; vibrotactile; Gaussian noise; stochastic resonance; somatosensory system; sub-sensory threshold
Online: 21 November 2018 (06:39:21 CET)
Imperceptible vibratory noise stimulation has shown to be an effective means of improving stability for both whole body postural control and simple motor control tasks. While the physiological mechanism affording this improvement is uncertain, it is suspected that sensory noise stimulation may elicit a stochastic resonance-like effect within the somatosensory system. A stochastic resonance effect describes the phenomenon in which noise added to a non-linear system improves signal detection rather than degrading it. One hallmark of stochastic resonance is the existence of an optimal noise level which elicits the best system performance. There is disagreement in the literature regarding the presence of an optimal stimulation level for motor stability in humans. The goals of this study were to: 1) determine optimal stimulation level as a function of an individual’s sub-sensory threshold level, and 2) to determine whether performance of a force stability task was significantly better when subjects received stimulation at this identified optimal level compared to other sub-sensory threshold stimulation levels. Eighteen (18) participants completed an isometric finger flexion task with visual feedback while receiving noise stimulation scaled to varying percentages of their individual sub-sensory threshold level. Performance for this force stabilization task was quantified as the root-mean-square (RMS) error between the target force and the actual generated force values. Despite controlling all other signal properties and varying only amplitude, optimal noise stimulation values still varied widely across participants (10-100% sub-sensory threshold level). Statistical modeling revealed a significant improvement in task performance with optimal noise stimulation compared to other sub-sensory stimulation levels (p ≤ 0.019) with estimated marginal mean differences in force errors ranging from 0.13 to 0.23 N. Moderate significant Spearman correlations (rs = 0.49 and rs = 0.56, respectively) were found between finger flexion maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and sub-sensory threshold level and MVC and optimal stimulation level. A strong, significant Spearman correlation (rs = 0.65) was observed between sub-sensory threshold level and optimal stimulation level. Although these correlations do not provide a means to predict optimal stimulation level as a function of these other measures, optimal stimulation level appears to increase with sub-sensory threshold and MVC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0402.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: chemical composition; smoothies; fruit blends; antioxidant properties; Moringa oleifera leaf; sensory evaluation
Online: 16 November 2018 (10:56:56 CET)
This study evaluated the impact of the level of supplementation of Moringa oleifera leaves on the nutritional (proximate, mineral and vitamin content) as well as on the antioxidant capacities of smoothies made from a blend of pineapple, banana and apple. The beverage (smoothies) were supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves at 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% levels and evaluated for proximate, antioxidant (ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazy, DPPH), mineral, vitamin, physicochemical and quality acceptability. The results showed that the moisture content of the beverage ranged between 49.24 – 78.62%, total ash: 1.01 – 9.71, crude fiber: 5.14 – 9.39%, crude fat: 0.72 – 1.86%, crude protein: 5.47 – 19.37% and carbohydrate: 3.65 – 16.99%. Calcium (12.03 -15.53) and potassium (17.22 -25.38) were the predominant mineral elements when compared to magnesium (1.51 – 3.05) mg/L. The vitamin contents ranged between 2.5 – 10.8 and 0.15 – 0.93 mg/L for vitamin C and E, respectively. Total phenolic contents ranged between 4.68 – 6.18 mg/ml while the total flavonoid contents ranged between 0.01 – 0.14 mg/ml. The radical scavenging abilities (DPPH) of the samples ranged between 16.05 – 88.77% while the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) ranged between 0.38 – 7.36 mg/ml. The brix values showed high sugar contents (15 – 18%) while the pH results showed that the sample was almost neutral at a range between 6.3 and 6.5. The overall quality (sensory) acceptability of the different quality parameters evaluated indicated that the control sample was more preferred. While supplementation with Moringa oleifera leaves significantly affected the sensory parameters, its addition nevertheless offers a potential avenue to obtain additional nutrients besides its improved antioxidative properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0333.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Quality assessment; sensory attributes; human perception and bias; perception-to-objectivity transformation (POT)
Online: 18 September 2018 (08:53:57 CEST)
Sensory evaluation has been widely applied in assessing the quality of many consumer products that directly serve human needs such as food, beverages, clothing, etc. This paper first examined the inherent deficiencies in this approach, due mainly to the essentially subjective nature of human sensory preference. It then argued that instinctively designating certain materials attributes as sensory perceptions is unnecessary; considering every scientific concept is in essence the processed results of our sensory organs/brains, i.e., all quantities were initially human perceptions. Scientific advances have inevitably generated gradual transformation of such human perceptions as warmth and heaviness into objective parameters measurable in physical quantities like temperature and kilograms. Then using existing successful examples, it demonstrated firmly how the sensory attributes can be assessed by more reliable instrumental methods, and envisioned the key steps to turning a perception into scientifically measurable parameter(s).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0094.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: odor; volatile organic compounds; environmental analysis; air sampling; simultaneous chemical and sensory analysis; prairie verbena; prehensile-tailed porcupine; Virginia pepperweed
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:28:11 CEST)
Solving environmental odor issues can be confounded by many analytical, technological, and socioeconomic factors. Considerable know-how and technologies can fail to properly identify odorants responsible for the downwind nuisance odor and mitigate it for the affected citizenry. We propose enabling solutions to environmental odor issues by utilizing troubleshooting techniques developed for the food, beverage, and consumer products industries. We showed that the downwind odorant impact-priority ranking process can be definable and relatively simple. The initial challenge is the prioritization of environmental odor character from the perspective of the impacted citizenry downwind. In this research, we aim at summarizing three natural models of the rolling unmasking effect (RUE) and discuss them more systematically in the context of the proposed downwind environmental odor prioritization approach. Regardless of the size and reach of an odor source, a simplification of odor character and composition typically develops with downwind dilution. The extreme odor simplification-upon-dilution was demonstrated for two plant varieties, prairie verbena and Virginia pepperweed. Their downwind odor frontal boundaries were dominated by single, character-defining odorants; p-cresol-dominated ‘barnyard’ odor, and benzyl mercaptan-dominated ‘burnt match’ odor, respectively. The P.T. porcupine downwind odor frontal boundary was dominated by two potent, character-defining odorants: (1) ‘onion’/‘body odor’ odorant #1 and (2) ‘onion’/‘grilled’ odorant #2. In contrast with their downwind boundary simplicities, each odor source presented considerable compositional complexity and composite character difference near the source. The proposed RUE approach’s ultimate significance is the illustration of naturally occurring phenomena that explain why some environmental odors and their sources can be challenging to identify and mitigate using the analytical only approach (focused on compound identities and concentrations). These approaches rarely move beyond comprehensive lists of compounds being emitted by the source.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0085.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: perceived sensory dimension (PSD); restoration experience; perceived restorativeness; structural equation modeling; mediation effect
Online: 29 August 2017 (07:26:56 CEST)
Restoration experience is a positive response against the ever-increasing problem of stress. It is recovery of attentional capacity, clearing random thoughts and feelings of relaxation and calmness. Although there is a body of research on investigating the impact of open green space characteristics on psycho- logical restoration through attention restoration theory and supportive environment theory, there is little knowledge on how the interaction among these characteristics could promote restorative outcomes. To address this problem, using Perceived Sensory Dimension (PSD) for open green space qualities and Perceived Restorativeness (PR) as the property of restorative environment, this study assessed the extent to which the PSD and PR impact on restoration experience. Using 444 screened surveys, a Partial Least Square Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) was developed and the validity and reliability of it, was demonstrated. Extensive analysis of the results showed how environmental qualities can promote restoration experience using a sample of university students. These results provide information for landscape architecture and planning researchers to promote the development of open spaces as a resource of psychological restoration and stress relief.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0158.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: coffee; cold brew; nitro cold brew; roasting; extraction; hygiene; risk assessment; NMR; sensory analysis
Online: 4 March 2021 (12:29:53 CET)
Cold brew coffee is a new trend in coffee industry. This paper presents pilot studies into several aspect of this beverage. Using an online survey, the current practices of cold brew coffee preparation were investigated identifying a rather large variability with a preference for extraction of medium roasted Arabica coffee using 50-100 g/l at 8°C for about 1 day. Sensory testing using ranking and triangle tests showed that cold brew may be preferred over iced coffee (cooled down hot extracted coffee). Extraction experiments at different conditions combined with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis showed that the usual extraction time may be longer than necessary as most compounds are extracted within only a few hours, while increasing turbulence (e.g. using ultrasonication) and temperature may additional increase the speed of extraction. NMR analysis also revealed a possible chemical differentiation between cold brew and hot brew using multivariate data analysis. Decreased extraction time and reduced storage times could be beneficial for cold brew product quality as microbiological analysis of commercial samples detected samples with spoilage organisms and contamination with Bacillus cereus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0036.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: parboiled rice; medium-grain white rice; medium-grain brown rice; sensory evaluation; consumer acceptability
Online: 6 November 2017 (07:07:41 CET)
Background: Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that storage of cooked rice at 4 °C for 24 h and reheating to 65 °C significantly reduced starch digestibility and postprandial glycaemic responses. Moreover, the effect was greater for parboiled rice compared to other rice varieties commonly consumed in New Zealand. This study aimed to evaluate consumer preferences of related sensory attributes and consumer acceptability of several rice varieties freshly cooked or reheated. Method: Sixty-four consumers volunteered and recorded on Visual Analoge Scales their preference and acceptability of freshly prepared or cold-stored and reheated medium grain white, medium grain brown and parboiled rice. Results: All six rice samples were accepted by participants (average 54%). Reheated parboiled rice and reheated medium grain brown rice were both accepted by participants as a preferred staple meal compared to other rice samples. Among all rice samples, the sweetness and the flavour of freshly cooked warm medium-grain white rice were less preferred (scored 42.1% and 45.0% respectively) compared with other samples (P = 0.05). Participants who prepared and consumed brown rice at home regularly (more than 10 times per month), preferred the reheated brown rice (73.8% (67.4, 80.2)) and reheated parboiled rice (74.3% (67.9, 80.7)) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: It is suggested that reheated parboiled rice, with the lowest starch digestibility and glycaemic impact (both in vitro glucose release and in vivo glucose response) could be accepted as a healthier alternative for the daily staple meal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: EEG; pain biometrics; stochastic analyses; micro-movements spikes; sensory over responsivity; standardized scale; personalized pain
Online: 16 December 2020 (13:19:42 CET)
The study of pain requires a balance between subjective methods that rely on self-reports and complementary objective biometrics that ascertain physical signals associated with subjective accounts. There are at present no objective scales that enable the personalized assessment of pain, as most work involving electrophysiology rely on summary statistics from a priori theoretical population assumptions. Along these lines, recent work has provided evidence of differences in pain sensations between participants with Sensory Over Responsivity (SOR) and controls. While these analyses are useful to understand pain across groups, there remains a need to quantify individual differences more precisely in a personalized manner. Here we offer new methods to characterize pain using the moment-by-moment standardized fluctuations in EEG brain activity centrally reflecting the person’s experiencing temperature-based stimulation at the periphery. This type of gross data is often disregarded as noise, yet here we show its utility to characterize the lingering sensation of discomfort raising to the level of pain, individually, for each participant. We show fundamental differences between the SOR group in relation to controls and provide an objective account of pain congruent with the subjective self-reported data. This offers the potential to build a standardized scale useful to profile pain levels in a personalized manner across the general population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0347.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Nodules detection, neuromorphic touch, polymeric phantom, sensory augmentation, tactile telepresence, teleoperation, tele-palpation, vibro-tactile stimulation
Online: 28 December 2018 (12:31:26 CET)
The advancements in the study of the human sense of touch are fueling the field of haptics. This is paving the way for augmenting the sensory perception during objects palpation in tele-surgery, and reproducing the information through tactile feedback. Here, we present a novel tele-palpation apparatus that enables the user to detect nodules with various distinct stiffness buried in an ad-hoc polymeric phantom. The contact force measured by the platform was encoded using a neuromorphic model and reproduced on the index fingertip of a remote user through a haptic glove embedding a piezoelectric disk. We assessed the effectiveness of this feedback in allowing nodule identification under two experimental conditions of real-time telepresence: In Line of Sight (ILS), where the platform was placed in the visible range of a user; and the more demanding Not In Line of Sight (NILS), with the platform being 50 km apart. We found that the entailed percentage of identification was higher for stiffer inclusions with respect to the softer ones (average of 74% within the duration of the task), in both telepresence conditions evaluated. These promising results call for further exploration of tactile augmentation technology for telepresence in medical interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0050.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Emotions Mining; Context Mining; Sensory Mining; Artificial Intelligence; Information extraction; Text classification; Fairy tales; Olfactory Cultural Heritage
Online: 2 August 2022 (07:57:35 CEST)
This paper presents an Artificial Intelligence approach to mining context and emotions related to olfactory cultural heritage narratives, in particular to fairy tales. We provide an overview of the role of smell and emotions in literature, as well as highlight the importance of olfactory experience and emotions from psychology and linguistic perspectives. We introduce a methodology for extracting smells and emotions from text, as well as demonstrate the context-based visualizations related to smells and emotions implemented in a novel Smell Tracker tool. The evaluation is performed using a collection of fairy tales from Grimm and Andersen. We find out that fairy tales often connect smell with emotional charge of situations. The experimental results show that we can detect smells and emotions with F1 score of 92.7 and 79.2, respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: microbiome; public health; chronic diseases; microimmunosome; eating disorders; subtance use disorder; commensals; pathobionts; sensory receptors; developmental programming
Online: 15 October 2021 (16:57:40 CEST)
The is a sequential article to an initial review suggesting that Microbiome First medical approaches to human health and wellness could both aid the fight against noncommunicable diseases and conditions (NCDs) and help to usher in sustainable healthcare. This current review article specifically focuses on public health programs and initiatives and what has been termed by medical journals as a catastrophic record of recent failures. Included in the review is a discussion of the four priority behavioral modifications (food choices, cessation of two drugs of abuse, and exercise) advocated by the World Health Organization as the way to stop the ongoing NCD epidemic. The lack of public health focus on the majority of cells and genes in the human superorganism, the microbiome, is highlighted as is the “regulatory gap” failure to protect humans, particularly the young, from a series of mass population toxic exposures (e.g., asbestos, trichloroethylene, dioxin, polychlorinated biphenyls, triclosan, bisphenol A and other plasticizers, polyfluorinated compounds, herbicides, food emulsifiers, high fructose corn syrup, certain nanoparticles, endocrine disruptors, obesogens). The combination of early life toxicity for the microbiome and connected human physiological systems (e.g., immune, neurological), plus a lack of attention to the importance of microbial rebiosis has facilitated rather than suppressed, the NCD epidemic. This review article concludes with a call to place the microbiome first and foremost in public health initiatives as a way to both rescue public health effectiveness and reduce the human suffering connected to co-morbid NCDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0010.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: affect; embodied ways of knowing; inter-corporality; interspecies intimacy; sensory ethnography; movement; rhythm; canine and equine interactions
Online: 2 October 2019 (03:22:40 CEST)
Children’s beneficial relationships with animals are well known. Companion animals, particularly dogs have become an integral part of family life and children’s material culture. Aside the proven physiological benefits there is little research about what children say about their relationships with animals and how they describe them. In this paper we bring together both horse-human and dog-human interactions, finding common ground for understanding the complexity of human development, well-being and flourishing. Dogs in schools are fast becoming a trend in helping support and enhance children’s learning as well as their social and emotional well-being. Studies have shown that the very presence of a dog can increase children’s concentration, executive function and behavior. Also, equine therapy is gaining momentum and empirical studies are showing noteworthy benefits to children and young people. However, the lack of children’s voices means that the mechanisms for these benefits are somewhat unknown and unclear. In seeking to explore this, the authors utilize a visual, sensory and diffractive ethnographic approach to illuminate and illustrate, experiment and re-enact, how the children relate, share spaces and multiple subjectivities with their classroom canine, “Ted” and companion horse “Henry”. ”Henry” is part of a programme in which youngsters care for and engage in activities with horses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0138.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; additive manufacturing; assistive devices; blind; obstacle avoidance; sensors; sensory substitution; ultrasonic sensing; ultrasound sensing; visually impaired
Online: 10 July 2019 (06:24:05 CEST)
Nineteen million Americans have significant vision loss. Over 70% of these are not employed full-time, and more than a quarter live below the poverty line. Globally, there are 36 million blind people, but less than half use white canes or more costly commercial sensory substitutions. The quality of life for visually impaired people is hampered by the resultant lack of independence. To help alleviate these challenges this study reports on the development of a low-cost (<$24), open-source navigational support system to allow people with the lost vision to navigate, orient themselves in their surroundings and avoid obstacles when moving. The system can be largely made with digitally distributed manufacturing using low-cost 3-D printing/milling. It conveys point-distance information by utilizing the natural active sensing approach and modulates measurements into haptic feedback with various vibration patterns within the distance range of 3 m. The developed system allows people with lost vision to solve the primary tasks of navigation, orientation, and obstacle detection (>20 cm stationary, moving up to 0.5 m/s) to ensure their safety and mobility. Sighted blindfolded participants successfully demonstrated the device for eight primary everyday navigation and guidance tasks including indoor and outdoor navigation and avoiding collisions with other pedestrians.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0721.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Non-invasive direct current stimulation; Cortical, Suboccipital and Spinal stimulation; Quantitative sensory testing, Pain outcome measures, Endogenous pain modulation.
Online: 30 November 2020 (11:44:44 CET)
Background: Objectives. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of direct current stimulation (DCS) applied at the transcranial, suboccipital and spinal level on experimental sensory modalities and pain outcome measures in healthy subjects. The hypothesis of this study was that systematic analysis of the efficacy of DCS on modulating evoked thermal and mechanical pain modalities and mechanisms such as endogenous pain modulation in healthy individuals would reveal sensitive outcome measures help develop this technique for the control of chronic pain. Materials and Methods. Database searches were conducted up to December 2019 for randomized controlled trials that performed sham-controlled DCS of experimental sensory modalities and pain outcomes following transcranial, suboccipital and spinal locations in healthy participants. Standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for sensory modalities, including random-effect metanalysis. Results: Thirty-one studies were included for analysis (647 participants). A significant decrease in pain intensity for active vs sham transcranial stimulation was identified for pain intensity (n=158; SMD=0.79; 95% CI=0.56 to 1.02), a significant increase in heat pain threshold (n=222; SMD=1.16; 95% CI=0.95 to 1.37), and a significant increase in cold pain threshold (n = 155; SMD = 0.77, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.01). No significant modulation of pressure pain threshold was identified with DCS and only a limited number of studies focused on experimental pain modulation following neuromodulation at the suboccipital or spinal level. Conclusions: These results show significant transcranial DCS neuromodulation of pain intensity and on thermal pain modalities. Future studies should focus on endogenous pain and sensory modality modulation with sham-controlled DCS applied at transcranial, suboccipital and spinal locations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0036.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: varicella-zoster virus; latency; reactivation; sensory ganglia; VZV latency-associated transcript; open reading frame 63; RNA-sequencing; epigenetics; immunity
Online: 4 June 2018 (11:49:09 CEST)
Primary varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection causes varicella (chickenpox) and the establishment of a lifelong latent infection in ganglionic neurons. VZV reactivates in about one-third of infected individuals to cause herpes zoster, often accompanied by neurological complications. The restricted host range of VZV and, until recently, the lack of suitable in vitro models to study VZV latency have seriously hampered molecular studies of viral latency. Nevertheless, recent technological advances facilitated a series of exciting studies that resulted in the discovery of a VZV latency-associated transcript (VLT) and have redefined our understanding of VZV latency and factors that initiate reactivation. Together, these findings pave the way for a new era of research that may finally unravel the precise molecular mechanisms that govern latency. In this review, we will summarize the implications of recent discoveries in the VZV latency field from both a virus and host perspective and provide a roadmap for future studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0149.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: sensory processing sensitivity; highly sensitive person; highly sensitive child; differential susceptibility; environmental sensitivity; temperament; personality; aetiology; animal model; neuroscience; cognition; mental health
Online: 10 September 2018 (04:58:01 CEST)
Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS) is a trait describing inter-individual differences in sensitivity to environments, both positive and negative ones. SPS has attracted growing societal interest. However, (neuro)scientific evidence is lagging behind. We critically discuss how to measure SPS, how it relates to other theories of Environmental Sensitivity and other temperament and personality traits, how SPS interacts with environments to influence (a)typical development, what the underlying aetiologies and mechanisms are, and its relation to mental disorders involving sensory sensitivities. Drawing on the diverse expertise of the authors, we set an agenda for future research to stimulate the field. We conclude that SPS is a heritable, evolutionarily conserved trait, linked to increased risk for psychopathology and stress-related problems in response to negative environments, as well as to greater benefits (e.g., intervention responsivity, positive mood) in positive environments. We need advances in objective assessment of SPS, understanding mechanisms, differentiating it from (seemingly) related mental disorders, to exploit the potential of SPS to improve mental health, preserve human capital, and prevent adverse effects.