Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Efficacy of Direct Current Stimulation on Experimental Sensory Modalities and Pain Outcome Measures in Healthy Participants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Version 1 : Received: 27 November 2020 / Approved: 30 November 2020 / Online: 30 November 2020 (11:44:44 CET)

How to cite: García-Barajas, G.; Taylor, J.; Romero Muñoz, J.P.; Lerma Lara, S.; Gil-Martínez, A.; Fernandez Carnero, J. Efficacy of Direct Current Stimulation on Experimental Sensory Modalities and Pain Outcome Measures in Healthy Participants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.. Preprints 2020, 2020110721 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202011.0721.v1). García-Barajas, G.; Taylor, J.; Romero Muñoz, J.P.; Lerma Lara, S.; Gil-Martínez, A.; Fernandez Carnero, J. Efficacy of Direct Current Stimulation on Experimental Sensory Modalities and Pain Outcome Measures in Healthy Participants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.. Preprints 2020, 2020110721 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202011.0721.v1).

Abstract

Background: Objectives. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of direct current stimulation (DCS) applied at the transcranial, suboccipital and spinal level on experimental sensory modalities and pain outcome measures in healthy subjects. The hypothesis of this study was that systematic analysis of the efficacy of DCS on modulating evoked thermal and mechanical pain modalities and mechanisms such as endogenous pain modulation in healthy individuals would reveal sensitive outcome measures help develop this technique for the control of chronic pain. Materials and Methods. Database searches were conducted up to December 2019 for randomized controlled trials that performed sham-controlled DCS of experimental sensory modalities and pain outcomes following transcranial, suboccipital and spinal locations in healthy participants. Standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for sensory modalities, including random-effect metanalysis. Results: Thirty-one studies were included for analysis (647 participants). A significant decrease in pain intensity for active vs sham transcranial stimulation was identified for pain intensity (n=158; SMD=0.79; 95% CI=0.56 to 1.02), a significant increase in heat pain threshold (n=222; SMD=1.16; 95% CI=0.95 to 1.37), and a significant increase in cold pain threshold (n = 155; SMD = 0.77, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.01). No significant modulation of pressure pain threshold was identified with DCS and only a limited number of studies focused on experimental pain modulation following neuromodulation at the suboccipital or spinal level. Conclusions: These results show significant transcranial DCS neuromodulation of pain intensity and on thermal pain modalities. Future studies should focus on endogenous pain and sensory modality modulation with sham-controlled DCS applied at transcranial, suboccipital and spinal locations.

Keywords

Non-invasive direct current stimulation; Cortical, Suboccipital and Spinal stimulation; Quantitative sensory testing, Pain outcome measures, Endogenous pain modulation.

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