ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: reflective learning, assessment, self-reflection, self-regulation, physics education
Online: 7 August 2018 (23:43:05 CEST)
This paper addresses the development of knowledge and assessment-centered learning approaches within a reflective learning framework in a first year physics class in a university faculty. The quality of students’ reflections was scored using a Self-reporting Reflective Learning Appraisal Questionnaire at the end of each learning approach. The results showed the differences between the approaches based on reflections on the learning control through self-knowledge, by connecting experience and knowledge, as well as through self-reflection and self-regulation. Assessment-centered activities fundamentally help students identify aspects of their attitudes towards, as well as regulate, their sustainability learning education.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0113.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Self-regulation; Peer collaboration; online learning; communication
Online: 6 March 2023 (16:08:35 CET)
In this unprecedented era of computer-supported and distance learning, it is critical to rethink the way students are supported through vital skills like self-regulation and peer collaboration. A variety of digital media has emerged, allowing learners autonomy while requiring the ability to effectively regulate different components of the educational process for long-term academic success. We reviewed collaboration, communication, and self-regulation in digital learning environments as part of online learning. We discussed how these abilities are reflected in highly cited content. High-impact factor studies were identified using advanced software Herzing Publish or Perish to retrieve highly cited research publications metrics. The search resulted in 272 records from 2010 to 2022, 192 duplicates were identified to remove and 48 JCR articles were shortlisted for review. We examined and reflected on sufficient connections to make firm judgments about correlations of concepts. The review identified prominent themes surfaced in the high impact factor academic publication e.g., digital learning environment, interaction, engagement, feedback, self-efﬁcacy, motivation, meta-cognition, achievement, technology, blended learning, and orientation of ICT. Many studies support different features of SRL & PCL through different tools, access to educators or feedback, encouragement, and through peers. However, all of them discuss the processes that students use to self-regulate learning in these situations. It is suggested to examine whether the effectiveness of certain SRL processes varies by online learning mode.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Self-Regulation Therapy; coping strategies; emotionality; drugs
Online: 7 September 2021 (17:01:06 CEST)
Background: This study consists of a brief psychological intervention, which uses the Self-Regulation Therapy (SRT, procedure based on suggestion and classical conditioning), to improve coping with stress and emotionality by reproducing the positive effects of illegal drugs: cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy. Method: 15 volunteers (8 males, 7 females), with a mean age of 24.67 (SD = 4.43), underwent intervention to improve their coping with stress and emotionality using SRT. They carried out pre- and post-intervention scores for 10 days and during a 4-week fol-low-up. The employed instruments were: COPE (Coping Skills Inventory) and PNAS (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule). Results: SRT was superior to non-intervention for the 4 coping strategies (2= .829, .453, .411 and .606) and for positive (2= .371) and negative emotionality (2= .419). An improvement in scores was evidenced in the follow-up scores compared to the pre-intervention measures. Conclusions: This study shows for the first time that it is possible to use illegal drugs, considered harmful to public health, to improve young people’s coping capacity and emotionality by reproducing their positive effects with SRT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0104.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Philosophy; Social media; Psychological well-being; Self-regulation
Online: 7 September 2022 (07:03:56 CEST)
Introduction: The application of the concept of self-regulation that has an impact on the psychological well-being of adolescent social media users as self-regulation in a core aspect of human functioning that helps facilitate the successful pursuit of personal goals and adaptability to changes in the environment. This literature aims to determine the study of the psychological well-being philosophy of adolescent social media users based on self-regulation.Methods: This literature study was conducted through a search for scientific publications ranging from 2018-2022. The databases used are PubMed, Science Direct, and ProQuest. The literature search was carried out according to topics with four groups of keywords based on Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) and combined with Boolean operators AND, OR and NOT, keywords Self-regulation AND mental wellbeing AND social media AND adolescence.Results: A study of the psychological well-being of adolescent social media users based on self-regulation based on ontology, epistemology, and axiology studies. Self-regulation is a philosophy that emphasizes the dynamic process that directs the behavior of a teenager towards the desired final state and adapts to changes that occur in the surrounding environment. The adaptation process is carried out as a form of self-regulation of the positive and negative impacts of using social media on adolescents with a motivational approach and avoidance system. The approach motivation system is carried out if it provides positive aspects in social media. While avoidance motivation is carried out if it has a negative impact in the form of low self-esteem, depression, and body image disturbances as a result of social comparisons made by teenagers when they see other people's posts.Conclusion: The concept of psychological well-being of adolescent social media users based on self-regulation is beneficial for parents to improve the parenting pattern of adolescent children. Good parenting is needed in understanding the positive and negative impacts of using social media and reducing externalization problems in adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0402.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: self; course; self-reflection; self-rumination; self-knowledge; mindfulness; prospection; autobiography; self-regulation; self-recognition; self-esteem; culture; inner speech; traumatic brain injury; Theory-of-Mind
Online: 6 May 2023 (09:32:55 CEST)
In this paper I tentatively answer 50 questions sampled from a pool of over 10,000 weekly questions formulated by students in a course entitled “The Self”. The questions pertain to various key topics about self-processes, such as self-awareness, self-knowledge, self-regulation, self-talk, self-esteem, and self-regulation. The students’ weekly questions and their answers highlight what is currently know about the self. Answers to the student questions also allow for the identification of some recurrent lessons about the self. Some of these lessons include: all self-processes are interconnected (e.g., prospection depends on autobiography), self-terms must be properly defined (e.g., self-rumination and worry are not the same), inner speech plays an important role in self-processes, controversies are numerous (are animals self-aware?), measurement issues abound (e.g., self-reflection as an operationalization of self-awareness), deficits in some self-processes can have devastating effects (e.g., self-regulatory deficits may lead to financial problems), and there are lots of unknowns about the self (e.g., gender differences in Theory-of-Mind).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1104.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Self-Regulation; Event-Driven Architecture; Digital Genome; Autopoiesis; Cognition.
Online: 30 November 2023 (14:17:03 CET)
The benefits of event-driven architecture (EDA) derive from how systems and components are loosely coupled, which can facilitate independent development and deployment of systems, improved scaling and fault tolerance, and integration with external systems, especially in comparison to monolithic architectures. With the advent of new technologies such as containers, and microservices, a new generation of distributed event streaming platforms are commonly used in event-driven architecture for efficient event-driven communication. However, the asynchronous and distributed nature of EDA poses several problems that include handling failures, the dependence of an end-to-end transaction on individual component stability, etc. In this paper, we describe a new approach to designing self-regulating distributed applications with autopoietic and cognitive workflow management. This approach is based on the new science of information processing structures derived from the General Theory of Information. Just as a genome enables self-organizing and self-regulating biological structures, a digital genome enables a specific software application with several components, the ability to use distributed resources and self-regulate the evolution of the system based on functional and non-functional requirements, and best-practice policies that maintain the stability, safety, and survival under non-deterministic fluctuations in the demand for resources. In addition, cognitive workflow management assures end-to-end transaction delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0175.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: translation; project-based learning; self-regulation; teaching and learning
Online: 10 February 2023 (02:39:10 CET)
The Pandemic in 2019 forced a digital adaptation with direct consequences on all educational stakeholders. On behalf of teachers and trainers, while many regarded these changes with some scepticism, others embraced the opportunity to integrate technology into their teaching methods and as learning resources. As translation trainers, it is essential to follow and understand the translation market. Thus, the exponential changes that digital technology has brought to this sector over the years impose constant shifts in teaching and learning methods and resources. In fact, translators require vast competencies, amongst which is the flexibility to adapt. In translation training Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been established as an essential teaching and learning method, as it has proven to foster the development of competencies as it simulates the translator's work environment. Thus, the need to adapt new strategies reinforced PBL and its benefits. PBL, however, similar to a freelance translator, places the student in the centre of the learning process, where self-regulation becomes essential, as it is necessary to analyse the market/situation and be flexible enough to adapt to the context accordingly. As of 2018-2019, technical translation courses at ISCAP have implemented PBL as their main teaching and learning method. At the same time, a study on student self-regulation began. The purpose was to understand student perception on their own self-regulation competence and its development or lack thereof after one year of PBL. Results indicate that PBL is seen as a useful simulation of the translation labour market and that it does enhance many essential competences, amongst which is student self-regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0021.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: perceived well-being in friendship relationships; basic psychological needs; self-regulation; self-determination theory (SDT)
Online: 1 October 2023 (09:50:25 CEST)
Background and Objective: Intimate relationships hold significant importance during emerging adulthood. This study aimed to investigate the critical determinants of perceived well-being in friendship relationships during emerging adulthood.Method: Using a quantitative approach, a sample of 726 undergraduate students from the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad were selected through convenience sampling. They completed the Interpersonal Behaviors Questionnaire (IBQ), the Compassionate and self-image goals scale (CSIGS), the Basic Need Satisfaction in Relationships Scale (BNS-RS), the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ-10), Friendship Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-F), Interpersonal Behaviors Questionnaire-Self (IBQ-self), State Level Subjective Vitality Scale (SVS-SL), the Perceived Relationship Quality Component (PRQC), and the Basic Empathy Scale (BES). Data analysis was conducted using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM).Results: The results indicated that the critical determinants in predicting perceived well-being in friendship relationships were, in order, goals in friendship relationships, friendship self-regulation, perceived support of basic psychological needs by friends, satisfied basic psychological needs, frustrated psychological needs, and supporting the basic psychological needs of friends.Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that self-determination theory (SDT) provides a coherent framework for explaining perceived well-being in friendships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0536.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Effortful control; self-regulation; attention; artificial neural networks; prediction; machine learn-ing
Online: 19 April 2023 (04:03:12 CEST)
Effortful control (EC) describes individual differences in self-regulation, with a strong attentional basis. Moreover, during early childhood EC has a central role on children’s socio-emotional adjustment and academic achievement. The aim of the current study was to predict the development of EC at 36 months of age from early attentional and environmental measures taken in infancy using a machine learning approach. A sample of 75 infants participated in a longitudinal study running different waves of data collection at 6, 9 and 36 months of age. Attentional tasks were administered at 6 months of age and two additional measures were collected at 9 months of age. Parents reported household environment variables during wave 1, and their child’s EC at 36 months. A machine -learning algorithm was implemented to identify children with low EC scores at 36 months of age. An “attention only” model showed greater predictive sensitivity than the “environmental only” model. However, a model including both attentional and environmental variables was able to classify the groups (Low-EC vs Average-to-High EC) with 100% accuracy. Sensitivity analyses indicate that socio-economic variables together with attention control processes at 6-months, and self-restraint capacity at 9-months, are the most important predictors of EC. Results suggest a foundational role of executive attention processes in the development of EC in complex interaction with household environment and provide a new tool to identify early markers of socio-emotional regulation development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0429.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: oxidation; transition metal compounds; density functional theory; charge self-regulation; oxygen redox.
Online: 23 August 2021 (11:00:48 CEST)
Description of redox reactions is critically important for understanding and rational design of materials for electrochemical technologies including metal-ion batteries, catalytic surfaces, or redox-flow cells. Most of these technologies utilize redox-active transition metal compounds due to their rich chemistry and their beneficial physical and chemical properties for these types of applications. A century since its introduction, the concept of formal oxidation states (FOS) is still widely used for rationalization of the mechanisms of redox reactions, but there exists a well-documented discrepancy between FOS and the electron density-derived charge states of transition metal ions in their bulk and molecular compounds. We summarize our findings and those of others which suggest that density-driven descriptors are in certain cases better suited to characterize the mechanism of redox reactions, especially when anion redox is involved, which is the blind spot of the FOS ansatz.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0218.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: eco-innovation; anticipated regulation; self-regulation; industry-specific characteristics; information sourcing openness; multivariate probit model; zero inflated negative binomial model
Online: 19 April 2019 (11:25:06 CEST)
The move to a low carbon economy is very important for enhancing international competitiveness. The eco-innovation is the critical factor of the green paradigm. This study is designed to investigate deeply the determinants of eco-innovation of manufacturing firms in Korea by suggesting anticipated regulations, self-regulations, and industry-specific characteristics as external factors and open information sources as internal factors. The data used in the analysis is 1946 sample firms from Korean Innovation Survey 2010 based on the Oslo Manual. Using the multi-variate probit analysis and the zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression analysis, we have found out that the anticipated regulations and self-regulations have significant influences both on eco-process innovation and eco-product innovation, while industrial characteristics have no effects. The empirical results also show that the breadth of information sources has a positive effect on businesses in implementing eco-innovations. Our findings show that the Korean government should provide a good platform where firms can better understand the future trends of environmental policies, particularly policies on anticipated and self-regulations. At the same time, Korean firms should establish a voluntary system to control environmental activities so that they can improve eco-innovations through integrating external information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0193.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: binge eating; body image; cognitive control; compulsive behavior; eating disorders; emotional regulation; impulsive behavior; non-suicidal self-injury; self-injurious behavior; urgency
Online: 15 December 2019 (14:26:45 CET)
Eating disorder (ED) symptoms often co-occur with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). This comorbidity is consistent with evidence that trait negative urgency increases risk for both of these phenomena. We previously found that impaired late-stage negative emotional response inhibition (i.e., negative emotional action termination or NEAT) might represent a neurocognitive mechanism for heightened negative urgency among people with NSSI history. The current study evaluated whether relations between negative urgency and ED symptoms similarly reflect deficits in this neurocognitive process. One hundred and five community adults completed an assessment of ED symptoms, negative urgency, and an emotional response inhibition task. Results indicated that, contrary to predictions, negative urgency and NEAT contributed independent variance to the prediction of ED symptoms, while controlling for demographic covariates and NSSI history. Worse NEAT was also uniquely associated with restrictive eating, after accounting for negative urgency. Our findings suggest that difficulty inhibiting ongoing motor responses triggered by negative emotional reactions (i.e., NEAT) may be a shared neurocognitive characteristic of ED symptoms and NSSI. However, negative urgency and NEAT dysfunction capture separate variance in the prediction of ED-related cognitions and behaviors, distinct from the pattern of results we previously observed in NSSI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0817.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: spontaneous self-affirmation; student stress; habitual positive self-thought; self-esteem; self-integrity; self-affirmation
Online: 12 July 2023 (12:05:30 CEST)
Background: Student-specific stress is pervasive and impairs health and attainment. Experimentally induced self-affirmation can reduce stress, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this effect, and the role of individual differences. The present study explores the relationship between spontaneous self-affirmation, student-specific stress, and overlapping constructs of positive self-regard during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The study investigated inter-relationships between spontaneous self-affirmation, student-specific perceived stress and potential covariates including self-esteem, self-integrity and habitual positive self-thought. University students (N = 151) aged 18 to 50 responded to an online questionnaire including the Spontaneous Self-Affirmation Measure, College Student Stress Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Habitual Index of Positive Thinking and Self-Integrity Scale. Results: Unexpectedly, regression analysis revealed that spontaneous self-affirmation was a positive predictor of student-specific stress, seemingly driven by relational affirmations. Self-esteem and habitual self-thought were negative predictors of student-specific stress, whilst self-integrity was not a predictor. Conclusions: Habitual positive self-thought may offer a sustainable solution to student-specific stress, but spontaneous self-affirmation does not. A reduction in defensive responses, elicitation of negative emotions, or use of conditional relationships in relational affirmation
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0396.v1
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:29:16 CEST)
In the present paper some questions related with energy global governance are dis-cussed. These questions are viewed as a part of the broader problematics of globalization. Due to the very complex nature of this problematics the role of philosophy – in particular analytical and science-based philosophy – is emphasized. We underscore the importance of philosophy for the developing global consciousness and – indirectly – for the development of global society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0343.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Evolutionary Games; Cooperation; Consensus; Dynamics on Networks; Stag-Hunt Game; Chicken Game; Mixed Nash Equilibrium; Self-regulation; Stable Equilibrium; Complex Systems
Online: 15 July 2021 (09:26:30 CEST)
Cooperation is widely recognized to be challenging for the well-balanced development of human societies. The emergence of cooperation in populations has been largely studied in the context of the Prisoner's Dilemma game, where temptation to defect and fear to be betrayed by others often activate defective strategies. In this paper we analyze the decision making mechanisms fostering cooperation in the two-strategy Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, which include the mixed strategy Nash equilibrium, describing partially cooperative behavior. We find the conditions for which cooperation is asymptotically stable in both full and partial cases, and we show that the partially cooperative steady state is also globally stable in the simplex. Furthermore, we show that the last can be more rewarding than the first, thus making the mixed strategy effective, although people cooperate at a lower level with respect to the maximum allowed, as it is reasonably expected in real situations. Our findings highlight the importance of Stag-Hunt and Chicken games in understanding the emergence of cooperation in social networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0201.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: Finland; Nordic; cultural objects; manuscripts; research ethics; import regulation; export regulation; cultural heritage
Online: 23 March 2018 (15:32:08 CET)
In this article we shed light on the position of Finland in conversations on the movement of unprovenanced cultural objects, within the national, the Nordic and the global contexts. Finland’s geopolitical position, as a ‘hard border’ of the European Union neighbouring the Russian Federation, and its current legislative provisions which do not include import regulation, mean that nonetheless has the potential to be significant in understanding the movement of cultural property at transnational levels. In particular, we outline a recent initiative started at the University of Helsinki to kick-start a national debate on ethical working with cultural object and manuscripts. We analyse exploratory research on current awareness and opinion within Finland, and summarize our current work to produce robust research ethics to guide scholars working in Finland. Although Finland has a small population and is usually absent from international discussions on the illicit movement of cultural property (save a few exceptions), we argue that it is still possible — and important — to affect policy and attitudes concerning art crime, provenance, and the role of stakeholders such as decision-makers, traders and the academy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0065.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: self-adhesion; self-healing; polymers; vitrimers
Online: 7 February 2019 (09:16:44 CET)
Vitrimers are covalent network materials, comparable in structure to classical thermosets. Unlike normal thermosets, they possess a chemical bond swap mechanism that makes their structure dynamic and suitable for activated welding and even autonomous self-healing. The central question in designing such materials is the trade-off between autonomy and material stability: The swap mechanism facilitates the healing but it also facilitates creep, which makes the perfectly stable self-healing solid a hard goal to reach. Here, we address this question for the case of self-healing vitrimers made from star polymers. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we study the adhesion of two vitrimer samples and find that they bond together on timescales that are much shorter than the stress relaxation time. We show that the swap mechanism allows the star polymers to diffuse through the material through coordinated swap events, but the healing process is much faster and does not depend on this mobility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0765.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: ferroptosis; regulation; lung adenocarcinoma; therapy
Online: 12 September 2023 (10:36:16 CEST)
Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common lung cancers, which accounts for about 35%-40% of all lung cancer patients. Despite therapeutic advancements in recent years, the overall survival time of the LUAD patients still remain poor, especially KRAS mutant LUAD. Therefore, it is necessary to further explore novel targets and drugs to improve the prognosis of LUAD. Ferroptosis, an iron-dependent regulated cell death (RCD）caused by lipid peroxidation, has attracted much attention recently as an alternative target for apoptosis in LUAD therapy. Ferroptosis has been found closely related with LUAD, at its every stage, including initiation, proliferation and progression. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive overview on ferroptosis mechanisms, it’s regulation in LUAD, and application of targeting ferroptosis for LUAD therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0268.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: franchise market; market saturation; regulation
Online: 15 November 2022 (03:15:09 CET)
The new regulation was introduced to the franchise market of South Korea in that an applicant who wants to be a franchiser must set up direct retail stores and run them for at least one year before recruiting franchisees. Considering the purpose of the regulation, it is inferred that once franchisers run their own stores, their franchisees would be better off than otherwise. Thus, this paper investigates whether franchisees would have the more likelihood to make profit in the case of that franchisers operate their own stores. The result demonstrates that this case could be true. Furthermore, the result also shows that one plausible reason is that the operation of franchiser owned stores could be helpful in reducing cost of franchisees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: lipids; regulation; microalgae; transcription factors
Online: 1 June 2022 (11:09:11 CEST)
Microalgae biomass is considered a promising alternative feedstock for biodiesel production due to its high productivity of neutral lipids, specially under abiotic stress conditions. Among the unicellular microalgae that show this characteristic, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii appears as one of the most important model species that have increased lipids production under abiotic stress conditions. In this study, we show that cells cultivated under mixotrophic condition supplemented with 0.1 M of NaCl rapidly raises their amount of neutral lipids in C. reinhardtii without reduction of their cellular growth rate, being therefore a promising condition for biomass towards bioenergy production. The nuclear proteome of these cells was investigated where we identified 323 proteins with an enrichment of almost 60% of nuclear proteins in the total dataset. We found 61 proteins differentially regulated upon salt treatment, including proteins annotated in functional categories related to translation and nucleosome assembly functions, among others. Additionally, we identified Transcription factor proteins (TFs) and analyzed their likely Transcription factors-binding regulatory elements identifying target genes related to lipids metabolism and kinase functions, indicating possible regulatory pathways of lipids biosynthesis. Together these data can help understand regulatory nuclear mechanisms leading to an increase of lipids in the first 24h of salt stress 0.1M NaCl.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cyanobacteria; heterocyst; regulation of differentiation
Online: 2 November 2020 (15:32:02 CET)
The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 expresses during the differentiation of heterocysts a short peptide PatS and a protein HetN, both containing an RGSGR pentapeptide essential for activity. Both act on the master regulator HetR to guide heterocyst pattern formation by controlling the binding of HetR to DNA and its turnover. A third small protein, PatX, with an RG(S/T)GR motif is present in all HetR-containing cyanobacteria. In nitrogen-depleted medium, inactivation of patX does not produce a discernible change in phenotype, but its overexpression blocks heterocyst formation. Mutational analysis revealed that PatX is not required for normal intercellular signaling, but it nonetheless is required when PatS is absent to prevent rapid ectopic differentiation. Deprivation of all three negative regulators – PatS, PatX, and HetN – resulted in synchronous differentiation. However, in nitrogen-containing medium, such deprivation leads to extensive fragmentation, cell lysis, and aberrant differentiation, while either PatX or PatS as the sole HetR regulator can establish and maintain a semiregular heterocyst pattern. These results suggest that tight control over HetR by PatS and PatX is needed to sustain vegetative growth and regulated development. The mutational analysis has been interpreted in light of the opposing roles of negative regulators of HetR and the positive regulator HetL. Keywords: cyanobacteria; heterocyst, regulation of differentiation
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0181.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: p53, JMY, regulation, apoptosis, motility
Online: 18 April 2018 (13:46:19 CEST)
Following an event damaging the DNA, p53 levels increases inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. JMY protein is a transcription co-factor involved in p53 regulation. After a DNA damage, also JMY levels increase and, as this protein accumulates in the nucleus, it forms a complex with P300 and Strap1 which increases the ability of p53 to induce transcription of proteins triggering apoptosis but not cell cycle. Therefore, Increase levels of JMY “direct” p53 activity toward triggering apoptosis. JMY expression is also linked to increased motility as it downregulates the expression of adhesion molecules of the Cadherin family and induces actin nucleation, making the cell less adhesive and more mobile. According to the scenario this gene can therefore have both a suppressive or a tumour promoting activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0035.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: self-propulsion; self-organization; polymerization; prebiotic molecules
Online: 5 January 2020 (14:39:19 CET)
Self-assembly is a spontaneous process through which macroscopic structures are formed from basic microscopic constituents (e.g. molecules or colloids). By contrast, the formation of large biological molecules inside the cell (such as proteins or nucleic acids) is a process more akin to self-organization than to self-assembly, as it requires a constant supply of external energy. Recent studies have tried to merge self-assembly with self-organization by analyzing the assembly of self-propelled (or active) colloid-like particles whose motion is driven by a permanent source of energy. Here we present evidence that points to the fact that self-propulsion considerably enhances the assembly of polymers: self-propelled molecules are found to assemble into polymer-like structures, the average length of which increases towards a maximum as the self-propulsion force increases. Beyond this maximum, the average polymer length decreases due to the competition between bonding energy and disruptive forces that result from collisions. The assembly of active molecules might have promoted the formation of large pre-biotic polymers that could be the precursors of the informational polymers we observe nowadays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0275.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Voltage Regulation (VR); Distributed Generation (DG); Renewable Energy Sources (RES); Voltage Regulation (VR); Ancillary Service
Online: 28 April 2022 (08:36:36 CEST)
Voltage Stability & Control, is very crucial compared to other Power System (PS) Quality and Stability issues. Long-Vertical-Power-Flows in Conventional Grids, causes voltage drops which in turn causes huge power losses, especially in the Medium Voltage (MV) and Low Voltage (LV) Distribution Networks. Such technical losses in abysmally-planned weak distribution networks, lead to substantial loss of revenues to the utility grid. Apart from classic Voltage Regulation (VR) techniques, with the rise of Distributed Generation (DG) based on Renewable Energy Sources (RES), Horizontal-Power-Flows can be introduced in the network, through various Smart Grid techniques. Coupling such sources, near load centers shall mitigate long flows from expensive conventional sources at times of huge demands, improving feeders’ Voltage Profile. This Ancillary Service of Voltage Support from DG RESs shall thereby alleviate revenue losses caused by long-power-flows in weak distribution grids. For a developing country like Pakistan, loss of revenue from an already expensive utility gives huge blow to the economy. So, a similar technique for voltage support is proposed for an 11-kV feeder, which faces similar problem, and the results are remarkable. The technique is implemented using OpenDSS Tool by modelling 3MWp PV Penetration along with some future storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1724.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: claudin 6; gastric cancer; transcriptional regulation
Online: 24 August 2023 (07:14:00 CEST)
Aberrant expression of the tight junction protein claudin 6 (CLDN6) is a hallmark of gastric can-cer progression. Its expression is regulated by the transcription factor CREB. But in H. pylo-ri-induced gastric cancer there is no information regarding what transcription factors in-duce/upregulate the expression of CLDN6. We aimed to identify if CREB and YY1 regulate the expression of CLDN6 and the site where they bind to the promoter sequence. Bioinformatics analysis, H. pylori LPS, YY1 and CREB silencing, western blot, luciferase assays, and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments were performed using the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line AGS. A gen reporter assay suggested that the initial 2000 bp contains the regulatory sequence as-sociated with CLDN6 transcription; the luciferase assay demonstrated three different regions with transcriptional activity, but the -901 to -1421 bp region displayed the maximal transcrip-tional activity in response to LPS. Fragment 1279-1421 showed CREB and surprisingly YY1 oc-cupancy. Sequential ChIP experiments confirmed that YY1 and CREB interact in the 1279-1421 region. Our results suggest that CLDN6 expression is regulated by the binding of YY1 and CREB in the 901-1421 enhancer in which a non-described interaction of YY1 with CREB was established in the 1279-1421 region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0045.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: bacteriophage; alternative sigma factor; transcription regulation
Online: 5 January 2022 (15:43:22 CET)
Salmonella enterica serovar Newport bacteriophage 7-11 shares 41 homologous ORFs with Escherichia coli phage phiEco32 and both phages encode a protein similar to bacterial RNA polymerase promoter specificity subunit. Here, we investigated the temporal pattern of 7-11 gene expression during the infection and compared it to the previously determined transcription strategy of phiEco32. Using primer extension and in vitro transcription assays we identified eight promoters recognized by host RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing 7-11 subunit SaPh711_gp47. These promoters are characterized by a bipartite consensus GTAAtg-(16)-aCTA and are located upstream of late phage genes. While dissimilar from single-element middle and late promoters of phiEco32 recognized by holoenzyme formed by the phi32_gp36 factor, the 7-11 late promoters are located at genome positions similar to those of phiEco32 middle and late promoters. Two early 7-11 promoters are recognized by RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing host primary σ70 factor. Unlike the case of phiEco32, no shut off of σ70-dependent transcription is observed during 7-11 infection and there are no middle promoters. These differences can be explained by the fact that phage 7-11 does not encode a homologue of phi32_gp79, an inhibitor of host and early phage transcription and an activator of transcription by the phi32_gp36-holoenzyme.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Gene expression; Regulation; Signalling; Stress
Online: 23 October 2020 (12:26:14 CEST)
Cyanobacteria are highly diverse, widely distributed photosynthetic bacteria inhabiting various environments ranging from deserts to the cryosphere. Throughout this range of niches, they have to cope with various stresses and kinds of deprivation which threaten their growth and viability. In order to adapt to these stresses and survive, they have developed several global adaptive responses which modulate the patterns of gene expression and the cellular functions at work. Sigma factors, two-component systems, transcriptional regulators and small regulatory RNAs acting either separately or collectively, for example, induce appropriate cyanobacterial stress responses. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge about the diversity of the sensors and regulators involved in the perception and transduction of light, oxidative and thermal stresses and nutrient starvation responses. The studies discussed here point to the fact that various stresses affecting the photosynthetic capacity are transduced by common mechanisms.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Epigenetic; Methylation; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Pathogenesis; Regulation
Online: 18 August 2020 (16:16:27 CEST)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex disease triggered by the interaction between genetics and environment, especially through the shared epitope (SE) and cell surface calreticulin (CSC) theory. However, the available evidence shows that genetic diversity and environmental exposure cannot explain all the clinical characteristics and heterogeneity of RA. In contrast, recent studies demonstrate that epigenetics play important roles in the pathogenesis of RA, especially DNA methylation and histone modification. DNA methylation and histone methylation are involved in innate and adaptive immune cell differentiation, and migration, proliferation, apoptosis, and mesenchymal characteristics of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Epigenetic-mediated regulation of immune-related genes and inflammation pathways explains the dynamic expression network of RA. In this review, we summarized the comprehensive evidence to show that methylation of DNA and histones is significantly involved in the pathogenesis of RA and could be applied as a promising biomarker in the disease progression and drug response prediction. We also explained the advantages and challenges of the current epigenetics research in RA. In summary, epigenetic modules provide a possible interface, through which genetic and environmental risk factors connect to contribute to the susceptibility and pathogenesis of RA. Additionally, epigenetic regulators provide promising drug targets to develop novel therapeutic drugs for RA. Finally, DNA methylation and histone modifications could be important features for providing a better RA subtype identification, to accelerate personalized treatment and precision medicine.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0210.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: regulation; membrane; glycerophospholipid; composition; chemical activity
Online: 31 October 2019 (04:39:47 CET)
Mammalian cells maintain the complex glycerophospholipid (GPL) class compositions of their various membranes within close limits because this is essential to their well-being or viability. Surprisingly, however it is still not understood how those compositions are maintained except that GPL synthesis and degradation closely coordinated. Here, we hypothesize that abrupt changes in the chemical activity of the individual GPL classes coordinate the synthesis and degradation, as well other homeostatic processes. A previously proposed model proposed that in cellular membranes only a limited number of “allowed” or optimal GPL glass compositions exist because they are energetically more favorable than the other compositions, i.e. they represent local free energy minima (Somerharju et al. 2009). This model, however, could not satisfactorily explain how the optimal compositions are sensed by the key homeostatic enzymes i.e., the rate-limiting synthetizing enzymes and the degrading enzymes (i.e., homeostatic phospholipases). We now propose that when the mole fraction of a GPL class exceeds an optimal one, its chemical activity abruptly increases, which (i) increases its propensity to efflux from the membrane thus making it susceptible for hydrolysis by homeostatic phospholipases, (ii) increases its potency to inhibit its own biosynthesis via a feedback mechanism, (iii) enhances its conversion to another GPL class via a novel process termed “head group remodeling” or (iv) enhances its translocation to other subcellular membranes. Accordingly, abrupt changes in the chemical activity of the individual GPL classes is proposed to regulate and coordinate those four processes maintaining GPL class homeostasis in mammalian cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0215.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: addiction; triathletes; bogy image; behavior regulation
Online: 21 June 2019 (11:36:23 CEST)
The aim of the research was getting to know the risk of dependency on physical exercising in individual sportspeople and the relationship with body dissatisfaction and motivation. 225 triathletes, swimmers, cyclists and athletes- with ages going from 18 to 63 years old took part in the research, of which 145 were men (M = 35.57 ±10.46 years) and 80 women (M = 32.83 ±10.31 years). The EDS-R was used to study the dependency on exercising, BSQ to study body dissatisfaction, BREQ-3 to know the motivation of participants and BIAQ to analyse conducts of avoidance to body image. The obtained results show that 8.5% of the subjects had risk of dependency on exercising and that 18.2% tend to have corporal dissatisfaction, without meaningful differences in the kind of sport they practiced. However, there were important differences concerning the dependency on physical exercise (15% vs 4.8%) and body dissatisfaction (31.1% vs 11%) in relation to sex, being the higher percentage referring to women. The introjected regulation and the conduct of food restriction were the predictor variables of the dependency on exercising and corporal dissatisfaction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0346.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Exosomes, extracellular vesicles, immune regulation, autoimmunity
Online: 28 December 2018 (12:28:28 CET)
T-cell mediated immune responses should be regulated to avoid the development of autoimmune or chronic inflammation diseases. Several mechanisms have been described to regulate this process, namely death of overactivated T cells by cytokine deprivation, suppression by T regulatory cells (Treg), induction of expression of immune checkpoint molecules such as CTLA-4 and PD-1, or activation-induced cell death (AICD). In addition, activated T cells release membrane microvesicles called exosomes during these regulatory processes. In this review, we revise the role of exosome secretion in the different pathways of immune regulation described to date and its importance in the prevention of autoinmune disease. Expression of membrane-bound death ligands on the surface of exosomes during AICD, or the more recently described transfer of miRNA or even DNA inside T-cell exosomes are molecular mechanisms that will be analyzed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0319.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: aflatoxins; Mozambique; impact; health; economy; regulation
Online: 20 June 2018 (09:50:00 CEST)
Aflatoxins are a known cause of primary liver cancer in Mozambique since pre-independence epidemiological studies. However, their impact goes beyond the public health, affecting the country’s economy and raising legal concerns. As a developing country endemic for Aspergillus, the nation has been struggling to keep pace with external trade quality demands, delicate policy making, still dealing with the farmers’ limitations to control the contamination. The contamination shows variations over time, space and the different commodities. Considering the recommendations of the Codex Alimentarius, the major crops will be highly implicated unless there is major intervention from the authorities to control the toxins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0042.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: pH regulation; biohydrogen; suspended; immobilized; productivity
Online: 7 November 2016 (07:54:10 CET)
The effect of pH regulation on biohydrogen production was studied using suspended and immobilized mixed cultures. Four sets of experiments were conducted using suspended cells under regulated pH (Sus_R) and non-regulated pH conditions (Sus_N) as well as alginate-immobilized cells under pH regulated (Imm_R) and non-pH regulated conditions (Imm_N). Sus_R showed a peak hydrogen fraction of 44% and complete glucose degradation, compared to Sus_N with a peak hydrogen fraction of 36% and a glucose degradation of 37%. Imm_R experiments showed a peak biohydrogen fraction of 35%, while the peak hydrogen fraction observed with Imm_N was 22%. The highest hydrogen fraction was observed using suspended cells under regulated pH conditions. A 100% glucose degradation was observed in both pH regulated and non-regulated processes using immobilized cells. The rate of pH change was slower for immobilized cells compared to suspended cells suggesting a better buffering capacity under non pH regulated conditions. The study showed that biohydrogen production with suspended cells in a non-regulated pH environment resulted in early termination of the process and lower productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1444.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: regional power grid; optimal dispatching; peak regulation resources mutual assistance; peak regulation capability; two-layer optimization
Online: 24 October 2023 (03:15:56 CEST)
The power generation structure and load characteristics in different provinces are quite different in China, and the distribution of peak regulating resources and demands is extremely unbalanced. Due to many factors such as low power marketization degree, shortage of peak regulating resources and block of transmission channels, the consumption of new energy is facing greater pressure. In order to improve the mutual aids in regional power grid, this paper proposes a two-layer optimization dispatching model considering the mutual aids of peak regulation resources between each province, and determines the optimal units startup mode and power output in each provinces, thus obtaining all the power supply output arrangements and the technical and economic indicators. Finally, take the actual regional power grid in China as an example, the simulation results show that the proposed model can significantly improve the new energy utilization rate, which verified the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed model and methods in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1136.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: Self-interaction; Self-energy; Anomalous magnetic moment; Electrodynamics
Online: 25 October 2023 (11:37:25 CEST)
The present paper reports an exact approach quantifying the electromagnetic contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment occurring in isolated system comprised of non-composite particle carrying elementary electric charge. Essential averaging procedure and regularization of the electromagnetic field potentials necessary when quantifying the electromagnetic self-interactions and when deriving equations of motion without singularities and obeying the conservation laws are thoroughly discussed. The study shows that the dynamics of the considered system is associated to unique classical transcendental equations of motion satisfied by the particle's velocity and the electromagnetic contribution to the anomalous $g$-factor known from the quantum electrodynamics. The equations of motion lead to an exact analytical expression for the anomalous $g$-factor that provides more accurate result than that calculated with the aid of quantum electrodynamics. It matches the experimentally measured value reported in the literature to a one part per trillion. We obtain a_e=0.00115965218000(65) thus reveling the potential of non-perturbative, non-probability methods in predicting the electron's anomalous g-factor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1029.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: self-care; self-management; hypertension; validation; scale development
Online: 17 July 2023 (12:11:43 CEST)
Background: The adoption of self-care behaviors among patients with arterial hypertension (AH) plays an important role in the management of their health condition. However, a lack of scales assessing self-care is observed. We aimed to develop and validate the Hippocratic hypertension self-care scale. Methods: From a pool of questions derived from a literature review, 18 items were included in the scale and reviewed by a committee of experts. Participants indicate the frequency at which they follow the self-behavior prescribed in each statement on a five-point Likert scale. Data were collected between April 2019 and December 2019. Re-sults: 202 consecutive adult patients with AH were enrolled in the study. The internal consistency of the scale was found to be 0.807, using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. An exploratory factor analysis identified two do-mains that accounted for 92.94% of the variance of the scale items; however, each sub-scale could not be used as an independent scale. Finally, the test- retest of the scale showed a significant strong correlation (r=0.0095, p<0.001). Conclusion: Our data indicate that the scale is a reliable and valid tool for assessing self-behaviors in patients with AH. Health professionals can use it in their clinical practice to improve the management of patients’ health condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1964.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: prevalence; smoking; medical students; self-esteem; self-efficacy
Online: 28 June 2023 (08:31:33 CEST)
: BACKGROUND: The prevalence of smoking among students is a growing concern, particular-ly among medical students. Being associated with stress, competitiveness, and various social in-fluences, smoking can have detrimental effects on self-esteem and self-efficacy and may create a vicious cycle that may contribute to students’ well-being and academic performance out-comes.METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 456 medical students was conducted via an online survey using structured questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, smoking habits, nicotine dependence, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking was 31.1% The scores of self-esteem and self-efficacy were positively correlated with smoking habits (W1=0.957, W2=0.975, P<0.05). Students presented rather low smoking addiction with male stu-dents having slightly higher scores than female students on self-esteem and self-efficacy, mili-tary students had higher self-esteem scores than civilians with physical activity having a posi-tive correlation with non-smoking behavior. CONCLUSION: According to our results, self-esteem and self-efficacy were slightly positively correlated with smoking habits. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant association between other social factors and smoking. Our results may develop a theoretical basis for medical students’ psychological variables studying for further implementation of university educational programs and preventive interventions em-powering students towards an overall better quality of life, addressing, among others, smoking behaviors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0326.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Frontal Cortex; PFC; Self-enhancement; Self-deception; SE
Online: 21 July 2022 (10:55:56 CEST)
Self-enhancement (SE) is often overlooked as a fundamental cognitive ability mediated via the Pre-Frontal Cortex (PFC). Here we present research that establishes the relationship between the PFC, SE, and the potential evolved beneficial mechanisms. Specifically, we believe there is now enough evidence to speculate that SE exists to provide significant benefits and should be considered a normal aspect of the self. Whatever the metabolic or social cost, the upside of SE is great enough that it is a core and fundamental psychological construct. Furthermore, though entirely theoretical, we suggest that a critical reason the PFC has evolved so significantly in Homo sapien is to, in part, sustain SE. We therefore elaborate as to its proximate and ultimate mechanisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0080.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Symmetry; Self-Face Recognition; Right Hemisphere; Self-Awareness
Online: 2 April 2021 (18:19:34 CEST)
While the desire to uncover the neural correlates of consciousness has taken numerous directions, self-face recognition has been a constant in attempts to isolate aspects of self-awareness. The neuroimaging revolution of the 1990’s bought about systematic attempts to isolate the underlying neural basis self-face recognition. These studies, including some of the first fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) studies, revealed a right hemisphere bias for self-face recognition in a diverse set of regions including the insula, the Dorsal Frontal Lobe, the Temporal Parietal Junction and Medial Temporal Cortex. Confirmation of these data (which are correlational) was provided by TMS (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation) and patients in which direct inhibition or ablation of right hemisphere regions leads to a disruption or absence of self-face recognition. These data are consistent with a number of theories including a right hemisphere dominance for self-awareness and/or a right hemisphere specialization for identifying significant social relationships including to oneself.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0035.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Extrinsic self-healing; Self-healing detection; Aggregation-induced emission; Dye-Loaded microcapsule; Self-healing monitoring
Online: 2 April 2019 (15:32:34 CEST)
We report the development of an extrinsic self-healing coating system that shows no fluorescence from the intact coating, yellowish fluorescence in cracked regions, and greenish fluorescence in healed regions, thus allowing the separate monitoring of cracking and healing of coatings. This fluorescence monitoring self-healing system consisted of a top coating, an epoxy matrix resin containing mixed dye-loaded in single microcapsule. The dye-loaded microcapsules consisted of a poly(urea-formaldehyde) shell encapsulating a healing agent containing MAT-PDMS and styrene, a photo-initiator and a mixture of two dyes, one that fluoresces only in the solid state (DCM) and a second that fluoresces dramatically increased in the solid than solution state (4-TPAE). A mixture of the healing agent, photo-initiator and the two dyes was yellow due to fluorescence from DCM. On UV curing of this mixture, however, the color changed from yellow to green and the fluorescence intensity increased due to fluorescence from 4-TPAE in the solid state. When a self-healing coating embedded with microcapsules containing the DCM/4-TPAE dye mixture was scratched, the damaged region exhibited a yellowish color that changed to green after healing. Thus, the self-healing system reported here allows the separate monitoring of cracking and healing based on changes in fluorescence color.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1953.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online learning; student engagement; self-regulated learning; self-efficacy
Online: 29 August 2023 (11:15:22 CEST)
Online education allows learners to develop knowledge and skills flexibly and conveniently—such observation among students whose characteristics involve student engagement, self-regulation, and self-efficacy. However, studies to characterize Filipino online learners seem lacking. Thus, this study aimed to characterize science education tertiary students in the Philippines concerning their online student engagement (OSE), self-regulated learning (SRL), and online learning self-efficacy (OLSE). The unprecedented events brought by COVID-19 pandemic also urged the implementation of online modalities while there is no available information on students’ online learning profiles. Hence, researchers used a survey research employed through ex post facto approach to determine the effects of the demographic profile on OSE, SRL, and OLSE. The survey was participated by N=373 respondents who answered the questionnaire with informed consent administered via Google Forms. Results revealed that OSE indicators moderately characterized students, while SRL and OLSE indicators are true of them, substantiated by the overall mean M=3.85(SD=0.90), M=3.86(SD=0.92), and M=3.14(SD=0.73), respectively. Also, multivariate tests showed no significant effect among the independent groups (p>0.05), except for gender and OLSE interaction (p<0.05) so, only in OLSE was a significant difference found in gender. In conclusion, Filipino online learners are moderate across aspects of student engagement, self-regulation, and self-efficacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0116.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Security; Attachment; Positive parenting; Resilience; Self-esteem; Self-concept
Online: 2 August 2023 (08:04:23 CEST)
Secure attachment, developed through consistent relationships with attachment figures in childhood, is a crucial factor in fostering healthy interpersonal relationships and a positive self-perception. This research aimed to assess how perceived security, as an indicator of secure attachment, predicts adult self-concept through the mediating effects of resilience and positive self-esteem. A quantitative, cross-sectional, and non-probabilistic study was conducted with 383 participants, of whom 76.2% were females, aged between 17 and 86 years (M = 28.52, SD = 12.23). Correlational analyses revealed significant positive associations between perceived security, self-concept, resilience, and positive self-esteem. Path analysis demonstrated that resilience and positive self-esteem sequentially mediate the relationship between perceived security during childhood and adult self-concept (Total Effect R2 = .34, F(1,381) = 193, p < .001; Indirect effect of sequential mediation b = .02, CI 95% [.01, .04]). Findings suggest that the ability to cope with ad-versity and personal acceptance underlie the impact of perceived security on self-concept. It is recommended to promote not only secure attachment in family interventions but also resilience and self-esteem in programs targeting adolescents, youth, and adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0123.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: COVID-19; nurses; self-concept; self-confidence; professional practice
Online: 5 November 2021 (14:12:02 CET)
Purpose: To identify the impact of dealing with COVID-19 patients in clinical areas on nurses' professional self-concept and self-confidence. Background: Professional self-concept is considered a critical factor in the recruitment/retention process in nursing, nursing shortage, career satisfaction, and academic achievements. Professional self-confidence is also a crucial determinant in staff satisfaction, reducing turnover, and increasing work engagement. Design: Descriptive, comparative study. Methods: The study was conducted between February to May 2021 by utilizing a convenience sampling technique. A total of 170 nurses from two facilities were recruited from two COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 designated facilities. The level of professional self-concept and self-confidence was assessed by utilizing the Nurses' Self-Concept Instrument and Self-Confidence Scale. Results: The professional self-concept level among the exposed group to COVID-19 patients was lower than the comparison group, while the professional self-confidence level among the exposed group to COVID-19 patients was similar to the comparison group. On the other hand, the satisfied staff and those who received professional training in dealing with COVID-19 patients reported a higher level of professional self-concept. Conclusions: Dealing with COVID-19 patients has an impact on professional self-concept; the exposure group was lower than those who did not deal with COVID-19 patients, while the professional self-confidence level among the exposed group was similar to the comparison group. Getting professional training in dealing with COVID-19 patients and being satisfied at work were significant factors in improving the professional self-concept. Policymakers should create strategies that target the improvement of professional training in dealing with COVID-19 patients.
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Validation; Questionnaire Design; Self-Perception; Diabetes Mellitus; Self Care.
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:00:07 CET)
Background: Level of perceived competence as a basic psychological need could trigger achievement of diabetes self-management goals. Due to lack of a specific data collection tool to measure level of self-competence among Persian speaking patients with diabetes this study was conducted for cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric assessment of the Persian version of Perceived Competence Scale for Diabetes (PCSD-P). Methods: Standard translation/back-translation procedure was carried out to prepare a preliminary draft of the PCSD-P. Content and face validity of the early draft were checked by an expert panel including 15 scholars in the field of health education and promotion as well as nursing education with experience of working and research on diabetes. The final drafted questionnaire was completed by 177 randomly selected patients with type 2 diabetes. Based on the collected data structural validity of the contrived version was appraised using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA, CFA). Cronbach's alpha and Intraclass Correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to check the scale’s reliability and internal consistency. ; (3) Results: The estimated measures of Content Validity Index (CVI= 0.95) and Content Validity Ratio (CVR= 0.8) were in the range of acceptable recommended limits. The EFA analysis results demonstrated a single factor solution according to the items’ loadings for the component. The model fit indices i.e. RMSEA= 0.000, CFI=1, TLI=1, GFI= 0.998, NFI= 0.999 RFI= 0.995 confirmed consistency of the hypothesized one-factor solution. Values of the internal consistency and reliability coefficients were also in the vicinity of acceptable range (α= 0.892, ICC=0. 886, P= 0.001). Conclusions: The study findings revealed good internal validity and applicability of the PCSD-P to measure degree of self-competence among Persian speaking type 2 diabetes patients to manage the chronic disease. Due to unrepresentativeness of the study sample future cross-cultural test of PCSD-P on diverse and broader Persian speaking populations is recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1926.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Emotion Regulation; Attention; Behavioral Science; Clinical implementation
Online: 30 October 2023 (11:23:28 CET)
This review explores the complex interrelationships between emotion, attention, and behavior, drawing upon empirical evidence from psychological, neuroscientific, and clinical studies. It delves into the neural mechanisms that underlie these interactions, with a focus on key brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Clinical cases involving stroke and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are examined to illustrate the real-world implications of these cognitive interactions. The review also discusses the impact of effective emotion regulation strategies and the role of attention as a cognitive mechanism that influences both emotion and behavior. Neuroimaging studies, particularly functional MRI, are highlighted for their role in providing a deeper understanding of these intricate relationships. The review concludes by emphasizing the importance of this triadic relationship in adaptive functioning and its broader implications for mental health, interpersonal relationships, and quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1891.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: thermography; tendons; quadriceps muscle; body temperature regulation
Online: 28 September 2023 (03:09:33 CEST)
In the last decade there has been a growing interest in infrared thermography in the field of sports medicine in order to elucidate the mechanisms of thermoregulation. The aim of this study was to describe bilateral variations in skin temperature of the anterior thigh and patellar tendon in healthy athletes, to provide a model of baseline tendon and muscle thermoregulation in healthy sprinters following a unilateral isokinetic fatigue protocol. Fifteen healthy national-level sprinters underwent unilateral isokinetic force testing and electrostimulation in which body temperature was measured before, during, and after the protocol using an infrared thermographic camera. ANOVA detected a significant difference in the time x side interaction for patellar temperature changes (p≤0.001) and a significant difference in the time x side interaction for quadriceps temperature changes (p≤0.001). The thermal challenge produces homogeneous changes evident in quadriceps areas, but not homogeneous in tendon areas. these data show that metabolic and blood flow changes may depend on the physical and mechanical properties of each tissue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1510.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Environmental regulation; Green technology innovation; Spatial spillovers
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:14:32 CEST)
This study empirically examines the spatial spillover effect of various environmental regulations on green technology innovation using panel data from 284 county-level cities in China between 2007 and 2019. A geographical-economic spatial weight matrix is constructed, and the spatial Durbin model is employed to identify the specific characteristics of this spillover effect. The findings indicate that the spatial spillover effect of green technology innovation primarily occurs through geographical transmission. However, there is no significant spatial autocorrelation when using the economic distance weight matrix. Various types of environmental regulations influence the spatial spillover effect of green technology innovation in distinct ways. Specifically, Market-motivated environmental regulation exhibits a U-shaped relationship with the spatial spillover effect, while Command-controlled environmental regulation demonstrates an inverted U-shaped relationship, suggesting a complementary effect. Additional research shows that the upgrading of industrial structure acts as a mediator between command environmental regulation and the spatial spillover effect of green technology innovation. Government departments should comprehensively coordinate Market-motivated environmental regulation and Command-controlled environmental regulation, accurately assess the intensity of Command-controlled measures, and prevent the migration of green technology innovation elements caused by excessive regulatory measures within enterprises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0415.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: emotional regulation; sleep habits; anxiety; children; adolescents
Online: 6 July 2023 (10:56:27 CEST)
Background: Previous research studies have suggested the importance of studying the relationship between emotional regulation and sleep habits. Some investigations have especially focused on how emotional regulation could impact sleep habits in children and adolescents. Therefore, these researchers have stated there exists a two-way direction in this relationship. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the influence of emotional regulation on sleep habits in Spanish children and adolescents, and the mediating role of anxiety in this relationship. Method: Participants were 953 Spanish parents who completed the assessment protocol according to their children and adolescents’ information. Results: The results revealed moderate-strong correlations between emotional regulation problems and sleep habits disturbances (r=0.375, p<0.001), trait (r=0.488, p<0.001) and state (r=0.589, p<0.001) anxiety. Also, emotional regulation showed a direct impact on sleep habits (β=0.011, p=0.005). Trait and state anxiety demonstrated a significant mediating role in the relationship between emotional regulation and sleep habits. Conclusions: Emotional regulation may have an impact on sleep habits during childhood and adolescence, suggesting the importance of early intervention focused on the emotions management and the prevention of sleep habits disturbances.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0639.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: Vaping; e-cigarettes; tobacco flavors; toxicity; regulation
Online: 8 June 2023 (10:59:40 CEST)
On Feb. 6th, 2020, FDA implemented the enforcement priorities against all flavored, cartridge-based e-cigarettes other than menthol and tobacco flavors. This ban undermined the products’ attraction to vapers, so e-cigarette manufacturers added flavorants of other attractive flavors into tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes and re-established attractions. Both the sales of e-cigarettes and posts on social media suggested that the manufacturers’ strategies are likely “successful”. The re-established attraction causes not only a public health issue, but also threats to the health of individual vapers. Research has shown an increase in toxicity associated with the flavorants commonly used in flavored e-cigarettes that are likely added in tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes based on tobacco-derived and synthetic tobacco free nicotine, and these other flavors are associated with higher clinical symptoms not often induced by only natural traditional tobacco flavors. The additional health risks posed by the flavorants are pronounced even without considering the interactions of toxicology of the different tobacco flavorants, and more research should be done to understand the health risks thoroughly and to take proper actions accordingly for regulation of these emerging products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0026.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Fibromyalgia (FM); miRNA; pleiotropy; gene regulation; epigenetics
Online: 1 June 2023 (04:50:50 CEST)
MicroRNAs are tissue-specifically expressed short RNAs that serve post-transcriptional gene reg-ulation. A specific microRNA can bind to mRNAs of different genes and thereby suppress their protein production. In the context of the complex phenotype of fibromyalgia, we used the Axiom miRNA Target Site Genotyping Array to search genome-wide for DNA variations in microRNA genes, their regulatory regions and in the 3'UTR of protein-coding genes. To identify dis-ease-relevant DNA polymorphisms, a cohort of 176 female fibromyalgia patients was studied in comparison to a cohort of 162 healthy women. The association between 48.329 markers and fibromyalgia was investigated using logistic regression adjusted for population stratification. 29 markers had p-values < 1 × 10-3 and the strongest asso-ciation was observed for rs758459 (p-value of 0.0001), located in the Neurogenin 1 gene, targeted by hsa-miR-130a-3p. Furthermore, we identified a gene locus (rs2295963) predicted to disrupt binding of hsa-miR-1-3p. Both microRNAs were previously reported to be differentially expressed in fi-bromyalgia patients. Despite its limited statistical power, this study reports two microRNA-related polymorphisms which may play a functional role in the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia. For a better understanding of the disease pattern, further functional analyses on the biological significance of microRNAs and microRNA-related polymorphisms are required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0182.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Sugars; metabolism; yam; tuber; genotypes; dormancy; regulation
Online: 10 January 2023 (10:24:48 CET)
Abstract: Changes in sugar composition occur continuously in plants tissues, at different develop-mental stages. Tuber dormancy induction, stability, and breaking are very critical developmental transitions in yam crop production. Prolonged tuber dormancy after physiological maturity has constituted a great challenge in yam genetic improvement and productivity. In the present study, biochemical profiling of non-structural sugar in yam tuber during dormancy was performed to determine the role of non-structural sugar in yam tuber dormancy regulation. Two genotypes of white yam specie; one local genotype (Obiaoturugo) and (TDr1100873) were used for this study. Tubers were sampled at (42, 56, 87, 101, 115, and 143) days after physiological maturity (DAPM). Obiaoturugo exhibited a short dormant phenotype and sprouted at 101DAPM, whereas TDr1100873 exhibited a long-dormant phenotype, and sprouted at 143DAPM. Significant metabolic changes were observed in non-structural sugar parameters, dry matter, and moisture content in Obiaoturugo from 56DAPM, whereas, in TDr1100873 significant metabolic changes were observed from 101DAPM. It was observed that the onset of these metabolic changes occurred at a point when the tubers of both genotypes exhibited dry matter content of 60%, indicating that dry matter content of 60% might be a critical threshold for white yam tuber sprouting. Nonreducing sugars increased by 9-10-fold during sprouting in both genotypes which indicates its key role in tuber dormancy regulation in white yam. This result implies that some key sugar metabolites can be targeted for dormancy manipulation of yam crop.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0093.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: wheat; TaCOPT3D; Cd uptake; TaWRKY22; transcriptional regulation
Online: 4 August 2022 (03:21:28 CEST)
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic non–essential element to plants, and its accumulation in crops has significant adverse effects on human health. The cross–talk between copper (Cu) and Cd has been reported, but the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, the function of wheat Cu transporter 3D (TaCOPT3D) in Cd tolerance was investigated. The TaCOPT3D transcripts significantly accumulated in wheat roots under Cd exposure. To test whether TaCOPT3D was involved in response to Cd stress, overexpressing lines with altered expression of TaCOPT3D transporters were compared to wild–type (WT) plants. The results showed that, under 20 μM Cd treatment, TaCOPT3D–overexpression lines exhibited more biomass and lower Cd accumulation in roots, shoots, and grains compared to WT plants. In addition, the TaCOPT3D–overexpression lines demonstrated less reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a greater amount of active antioxidant enzymes under Cd conditions than WT plants. Moreover, TaCOPT3D–overexpression lines highly reduced Cd accumulation under exposure to 20 μM Cu. The regulation pathway of TaCOPT3D in response to Cd stress was investigated, and transcription factor (TF) TaWRKY22, which targeted the TaCOPT3D promoter, was identified. Therefore, TaCOPT3D can serve as a candidate gene for decreasing Cd accumulation in wheat through genetic engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0109.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Electricity Markets; Integration; Demand Response; Innovation; Regulation
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:25:51 CEST)
We select four important waves of new entrants that knocked on the door of European electricity markets to illustrate how market rules need to be continuously adapted to allow new entrants to come in and push innovation forward. The new entrants that we selected are utilities venturing into neighbouring markets after establishing a strong position in their home market, utility-scale renewables project developers, asset-light software companies aggregating the assets of smaller consumers and producers, and different types of communities. We show that well-intentioned rules designed for certain types of market participants can (unintentionally) become obstacles for new entrants. We conclude that the evolution of market rules illustrates the importance of dynamic regulation. At the start of the liberalisation process the view was that we would deregulate or re-regulate the sector after which the role of regulators could be reduced. But their role has only increased. New players might also present new risks that require intervention by regulators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0562.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: mutations; exon; p53; regulation; DNA; tumour suppressor
Online: 26 August 2020 (09:10:14 CEST)
Introduction: The tumour suppressor protein p53 commonly referred to as guardian of the genome plays important role in preserving the genome through the regulation of programmed cell death, DNA repair, energy metabolism, cell cycle entry or exit and senescence. Mutations in p53 can either result to a loss of tumour suppressor function or gain of oncogenic properties. Hence, mutations in p53 are the most frequent genetic mutational alteration in human cancers, associated with worse prognosis and more aggressive disease outcome. Methods: To assess the mutational hotspots and conserved regions of p53, I analyzed 76 complete p53 protein sequences covering whole exons from the NCBI GenBank database. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) was done using ClustalX version 2.1. Results: Thirty-five (19) mutations were identified with more frequent mutations in amino acid (aa) position 72 and 79 (Exon 4), amino acid deletion in codon 112-122 (Exon 4), codon 213 (Exon 6), codon 248 (Exon 7), codon 273 (Exon 8) and codon 278 (Exon 8). Mutations at amino acid position 79, 248, 278 located in the DNA-binding domain exhibited more than one alteration in same position. Conclusions: Findings from this study revealed the prevalence of mutations in the DNA binding domain of p53 and the structure-function effect of the mutations. Assessing the pattern and frequency of p53 alterations, and analyzing it thoroughly for each carrier, could help in identifying correlations between p53 status and outcome and possible candidate for gene therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0017.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: synthetic biology; food security; biosafety; regulation; GMO
Online: 3 February 2020 (05:37:23 CET)
Synthetic biology (SynBio) is an interdisciplinary field that has developed rapidly in the last two decades. It involves the design and construction of new biological systems and processes from standardized biological components, networks and synthetic pathways. The goal of Synbio is to create logical forms of cellular control. Biological systems and their parts can be re-designed to carry out completely new functions. SynBio is poised to greatly impact human health, environment, biofuels and chemical production with huge economic benefits. SynBio presents opportunities for the highly agro-based African economies to overcome setbacks that threaten food security: The setbacks are brought about by climate change, land degradation, over-reliance on food imports, global competition, and water and energy security issues among others. With appropriate regulatory frameworks and systems in place, the benefits of harnessing SynBio to boost development in African economies by far potentially outweigh the risks. Countries that are already using GMOs such as South Africa and Kenya should find the application of SynBio seamless, as it would be a matter of expanding the already existing regulations and policies for GMO use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0021.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SET; I2PP2A; ZFX; transcriptional regulation; gynecologic cancers
Online: 8 October 2016 (10:52:00 CEST)
SET protein carries out multiple functions including those for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibition, histone modification, DNA repair and gene regulation. SET overexpression has been detected in brain neurons of Alzheimer's disease patients, follicle theca cells of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients, and ovarian cancer cells, indicating that SET may play a pathological role for these disorders. SET transcript 2, produced by a specific promoter, represents a major transcript variant in different cell types. In this study, we characterized the transcriptional activation of human SET transcript 2 promoter in HeLa cells. Promoter deletion experiments and co-transfection assays indicated that ZFX, the Zinc finger and X-linked transcription factor, was able to transactivate the SET promoter. A proximal promoter region containing four ZFX-binding sites was found to be critical for the ZFX-mediated transactivation. Mutagenesis study indicated that the site located closest to the transcription start site accounted for most of the ZFX-mediated transactivity. Manipulation of ZFX levels by overexpression or siRNA knockdown confirmed the significance and specificity of the ZFX-mediated SET promoter activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation results verified the binding of ZFX to its cognate site in the SET promoter. These findings have led to identification of ZFX as an upstream factor regulating SET gene expression. More studies are required to define the in vivo significance of this mechanism, and specifically, its implication for several benign and malignant diseases related to SET dysregulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1131.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Metakaolin; self-compacting concrete; self-compacting mortar; flowability; viscosity; Mortar
Online: 18 July 2023 (07:23:38 CEST)
Self-compacting concrete (SCC) production is a complex operation that requires finding a good combination and a suitable dosage of each of its constituents. Several formulation methods have been developed to meet the workability requirements of SCC. In this paper, the relationships between the fresh properties of SCC based on local metakaolin (MK) and the spreading of its mortar was investigated. The results showed the existence of good correlations between the spreading of the mortar and the fresh state properties of the related SCC and that the MK substitution rate did not affect these correlations. The choice of the mortar flow rate should target appropriate fresh properties of the SCC and a viscosity enhancing agent (VEA) could be used if the mix is too fluid and present an instability.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Photonic crystal waveguide; Pulse acceleration; Self-steepening; Self-phase modulation
Online: 28 June 2021 (11:44:55 CEST)
Based on the sensitive sum frequency generation cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating (SFG-XFROG) measurement setup, besides the pulse broadening, blue shift, red shift and obvious pulse acceleration, we observed the soliton evolution when the low energy soliton pulse with wavelength of 1555nm transmit through the Si photonic crystal waveguide. The measurements were nicely matched with the simulation results, which are achieved with an optimized nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) modeling. The effects of various parameters of the silicon photonic crystal waveguides and the incident pulses on the pulse transmission were also analyzed, including the nonlinear effects and dispersion such as the self-phase modulation (SPM), self-steepening (SS) and intra-pulse Raman scattering(IRS). The results help us understand further the ultra-fast nonlinear dynamics of soliton in silicon-based waveguides, and even open a novel way for soliton-based functional elements in CMOS-compatible platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0305.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: sustainable happiness; ideal self; ideal social self; brand identification; positive
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:39:58 CEST)
Building on the Sustainable Happiness Model, this study examined how congruency between ideal self-image and brand image influence a sense of happiness. The findings show that when ideal self-image and ideal social self-image are congruent with brand image a sense of happiness can be enhanced through brand identification and positive emotions. This study contributes to literature as it reveals the mechanism of how congruency between ideal self-image and brand image positively affect happiness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1220.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Virtual environment; Avatar customization; Avatar self-similarity; Avatar identification; Public self-consciousness; Online self-expression; Emotional expression
Online: 29 April 2023 (07:25:32 CEST)
Purpose: This study aims to analyze the factors that affect the behavior of user-defined avatars in different virtual environments, and compare the differences in public self-awareness, self-expression, and emotional expression among customized avatars in multiple virtual contexts. Methods: Using a between-subjects experimental design, two random groups of participants were asked to customize avatars for themselves in two contexts, a multiplayer online social game (MOSG) and a virtual meeting (VM). i.e. a relaxed and a serious social environment. Results: When subjects perceived a more relaxed environment, the customized avatars had less self-similarity, and the subjects exhibited a stronger self-disclosure willingness and enhanced avatar wishful identification; nevertheless, public self-consciousness was not increased. When subjects perceived a more serious environment, the customized avatars exhibited a higher degree of self-similarity, and the subjects exhibited a greater self-presentation willingness, along with enhanced identification of avatar similarity, and increased public self-consciousness. Conclusions: Participants expressed positive emotions, suggesting that avatars play a positive role in various virtual contexts. The virtual context affects the self-similarity of user-customized avatars, and avatar self-similarity affects self-presentation and self-disclosure willingness, and these factors will affect the behavior of the user-customized avatar. This study contributes suggestions to the Metaverse avatar customization platform design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0354.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: health self-tracking; data donation; data sharing; quantified self; mobile tracking
Online: 27 June 2022 (08:46:26 CEST)
Health self-tracking is an ongoing trend as software and hardware evolve, making the collection of personal data not only fun for users but also increasingly interesting for public health research. In a quantitative approach we studied German health self-trackers (N=919) for differences in their data disclosure behavior by comparing data showing and sharing behavior among peers and their willingness to donate data to research. In addition, we examined user characteristics that may positively influence willingness to make the self-tracked data available to research and propose a framework for structuring research related to self-measurement. Results show that users' willingness to disclose data as a "donation" more than doubled compared to their "sharing" behavior (willingness to donate= 4.5/10; sharing frequency= 2.09/10). Younger men (up to 34 years), who record their vital signs daily, are less concerned about privacy, regularly donate money, and share their data with third parties because they want to receive feedback, are most likely to donate data to research and are thus a promising target audience for health data donation appeals. The paper adds to qualitative accounts of self-tracking but also engages with discussions around data sharing and privacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0329.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biomaterials; biofabrication; compartmentalization; materials research; microsystems; nanotechnology; self-assembly; self-organization
Online: 28 December 2018 (04:46:37 CET)
The recommendations of the panel of experts on the further development of the ‘High-Tech Strategy’ of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany designate the biologization of economic processes along with digitization as the central driver of societal change. Various fields such as the 'biologization of materials research' were then defined in the 'Bio-Agenda' in order to walk the path from biology to innovation. In view of this perspective, we describe how the use of biological materials and mechanisms can lead to resource conservation, the production of intelligent materials and new technological and medical applications. Our strategy, based on research on ‘Biointerfaces in Technology and Medicine’, aims at the development of modular biohybrid systems that could be used as 'biofactories of the future' for sustainable production processes. To achieve this goal, in a first phase already known technologies have to be further refined and integrated in order to obtain and apply compartmentalized reaction systems on different length and time scales. In a second phase, the resulting functional units will be employed to develop dissipative systems useful for biomedical applications and advanced production processes. From a technical point of view, future success in creating 'something entirely new' will depend crucially on robust and complementary research capabilities. Since the close connection of engineering and life sciences at KIT provides an excellent basis for this endeavor, we consider the above perspectives to be feasible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0226.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: autogenous intelligence; bootstrap fallacy; recursive self-improvement; self-modifying software; singularity
Online: 14 June 2018 (08:53:23 CEST)
Toby Walsh in “The Singularity May Never Be Near” gives six arguments to support his point of view that technological singularity may happen but that it is unlikely. In this paper, we provide analysis of each one of his arguments and arrive at similar conclusions, but with more weight given to the “likely to happen” probability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0591.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: differentiation; promoter; regulation; sigma factor; Streptomyces; stress response
Online: 11 September 2023 (04:12:22 CEST)
In their natural environment, bacteria are exposed to various stresses. The stress-response sigma factor SigB of gram-positive Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized example. Unlike Bacillus subtilis, the gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) contains nine SigB homologues (SigBFGHIKLMN) with a major role in differentiation and response to osmotic stress. We previously constructed a two-plasmid system to identify promoters recognized by these sigma factors. Interestingly, almost all identified promoters were recognized by two or more SigB homologues. However, no specific sequences characteristic for these recognition groups were found. To examine this cross-recognition in vivo in S. coelicolor A3 (2), one of these promoters was cho-sen, which drives the expression of the sporulation-specific gene ssgB. The ssgBp promoter was inserted into a luciferase reporter plasmid and conjugated to S. coelicolor M145 and nine mutant strains containing deleted individual sigB homologous genes. Luciferase reporter activity indi-cated differential activity of this promoter in these mutant strains, suggesting overlapping pro-moter recognition by these SigB homologues. To determine which nucleotides in the ̶ 10 re-gion are responsible for the selection of a specific SigB homologue, several mutant promoters with altered last three nucleotides in this region were prepared and tested in the two-plasmid system. Some mutant promoters were specifically recognized by some SigB homologues. Mutant promoters were inserted into a luciferase reporter plasmid and conjugated to S. coelicolor A3(2) and these nine mutant strains. Luciferase reporter activity indicated differential activity of these ssgBp mutant promoters, indicating overlapping promoter recognition by these SigB homologues in S. coelicolor A3(2).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0466.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: metaverse; corporate digital responsibility; CDR; regulation; digital technologies
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:16:55 CEST)
"Metaverse" as a term came to the fore in 2021 when Facebook rebranded its corporate identity to Meta, and signaled its intention to invest at least $10 billion in developing the concepts and related products that year. However, there is still little consensus in defining what constitutes the metaverse, although there is a widespread, though not universal, agreement that it will bring a wide range of benefits across society. More specifically, the advent, and continuing evolution, of the metaverse has strategic and operational implications for, and impacts on, industry and business at large. Adopting an inductive, interpretivist approach, this exploratory research article presents case examples of the guidance on the responsible development of the metaverse provided by two IT business services companies. The article identifies the major risks and responsibilities associated with the metaverse and assesses how companies might address these responsibilities. Very little research has been published in this area and this article attempts to make a small contribution to filling this gap in the literature. The article finds that responsibilities are largely in line with those currently associated with corporate digital responsibility, and concludes that the strategic impact and extent of regulatory change will depend on the nature of the metaverse that materialises in the forthcoming decade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2028.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: assistance dogs; aged care; older adults; regulation; support
Online: 28 June 2023 (12:29:06 CEST)
Assistance dogs provide significant benefits to older adult owners. However, despite protective legislation, aged care facilities continue to not allow owners to retain their dog on relocation. The purpose of the current study was to explore whether older adults should be allowed to retain their dog on relocation to an aged care facility, and what factors should impact this decision. Further, if allowed to retain their dog, what would be the best practice to allow for this. A deliberative democracy methodology was used, with a range of key stakeholders recruited. Focus groups were held, with follow up questionnaire to establish deliberation for all questions. Results indicated that with sufficient objective measurement, fair decisions can be made to ensure the welfare and wellbeing for owner and dog. Key policy and procedure changes would also be necessary to ensure ongoing support, such as training, care plans, and emergency directives. By ensuring sufficient policies and procedures are in place, training and support could lead to an ideal outcome where facilities could be at the forefront of a better future for aged care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2122.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Histone modifications; p53; cancer; gene regulation; chromatin structure
Online: 30 May 2023 (11:14:08 CEST)
Chromatin structure plays a fundamental role in regulating gene expression, with histone modifiers shaping the structure of chromatin by adding or removing chemical changes to his-tone proteins. The p53 transcription factor controls gene expression, binds target genes, and regulates their activity. While p53 has been extensively investigated in the context of cancer research, its association with histone modifiers has received limited attention. This review ex-plores the interplay between histone modifiers and p53 in regulating gene expression. We discussed how histone modifications can influence how p53 binds to target genes and how this interplay can be disrupted in cancer cells. This study provides insights into the complex mechanisms underlying gene regulation and their implications for potential cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0822.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: pesticides; regulation; pollution; intoxication; qualitative and quantitative analysis
Online: 24 April 2023 (04:44:34 CEST)
The inappropriate use of pesticides in the world and particularly in Africa, explains their presence in various environmental compartments. This presence in the environment has harmful consequences on living beings, especially humans. This review, based on scientific publications, aims to analyze the problem of pesticides in Africa. From a corpus of 81 articles published in Africa on this topic between 1996 and 2019, we have outlined the issues relating to phytosanitary practices, environmental pollution, food contamination, intoxication of farmers and consumers, qualitative and quantitative analysis methods used, as well as the regulations on the subject and their application in Africa. Based on an analysis of the factors that are at the root of the problems of environmental pollution, contamination and health that they cause in Africa, possible solutions were proposed to produce healthy products and preserve our common environmental heritage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0378.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Yam tuber; metabolomics; pathways; molecular-mechanism; dormancy; regulation
Online: 21 March 2023 (13:55:59 CET)
;Yams are economic and medicinal crops with a long growth cycle, spanning between 9-11 months due to the prolonged tuber dormancy. Tuber dormancy has constituted a major constraint in yam production and genetic improvement. In this study, we performed non-targeted comparative metabolomic profiling of tubers of two white yam genotypes, (Obiaoturugo and TDr1100873), to identify metabolites and associated pathways that regulate yam tuber dormancy using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Yam tubers were sampled between 42 days after physiological maturity (DAPM) till tuber sprouting. The sampling points include 42-DAPM, 56-DAPM, 87DAPM, 101-DAPM, 115-DAPM, and 143-DAPM. A total of 949 metabolites were annotated, 559 in TDr1100873 and 390 in Obiaoturugo. 39 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) were identified across the studied tuber dormancy stages in the two genotypes. 27 DAMs were conserved between the two genotypes, whereas, 5 DAMs were unique in the tubers of TDr1100873 and 7 DAMs were in the tubers of Obiaoturugo. The differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) spread across 14 major functional chemical groups. Amines and biogenic polyamines, amino acids and derivatives, Alcohols, flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, esters, coumarins and phytohormone positively regulated yam tuber dormancy induction and maintenance, whereas, fatty acids, lipids, nucleotides, carboxylic acids, sugars, terpenoids, benzoquinones, and benzene derivatives positively regulated dormancy breaking and sprouting in tubers of both yam genotypes. Metabolite set enrichment analysis (MSEA) revealed that 12 metabolisms were significantly enriched during yam tuber dormancy stages. Metabolic pathway topology analysis further revealed that six metabolic pathways (linoleic acid metabolic pathway, phenylalanine metabolic pathway, galactose metabolic pathway, starch and sucrose metabolic pathway, alanine-aspartate-glutamine metabolic pathways and purine metabolic pathway) exerted significant impact on yam tuber dormancy regulation. This result provides vital insights into molecular mechanisms regulating yam tuber dormancy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0212.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases; Krüppel -like factors; Transcription factor regulation
Online: 13 December 2022 (01:13:14 CET)
KLFs seem to associate with congenital heart disease-linked syndromes, malformations because of autosomal diseases, mutations that relate to protein instability, and/or loss functions such as atheroprotective activities. Ischemic damage also relates to KLF dysregulation because of differentiation of cardiac myofibroblasts or a modified fatty acid oxidation, related to the formation of a dilated cardiomyopathy; myocardial infarctions, left ventricular hypertrophy and diabetic cardiomyopathies. MicroRNA have been involved in certain regulatory loops of KLFs as they may function as critical modulators of vascular smooth muscle cells in atherosclerosis, in heart failure and as markers of endothelial damage in acute myocardial infarction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0391.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Genetically modified organism (GMO); corn; asynchronous regulation; trade
Online: 21 November 2022 (11:55:07 CET)
The stringency of GMO regulation affects trade of agricultural products among countries. On that account, our investigation attempts to shed the light on the complexity of the impact of genetically modified organisms (GMO) regulations among countries on bilateral trade with a focus on GMO approvals. We develop a framework extending Xiong and Beghin (2014) and their decomposition of export supply and imports demand effects. Our approach encompasses the supplemental effect of GMO regulation laxity in production on the exporter’s productivity. It decomposes three effects that impact bilateral trade flows between trade partners: productivity in the source country, sorting cost from bilateral dissimilarity in regulations, and stringency impact on import demand. We estimate the model using a panel dataset of corn trade and two econometric approaches (PPML, Heckman sample-selection). We find that GMO laxity in production of exporters has the most prominent and robust effect of enhancing bilateral trade of corn. The effect of GMO laxity in demand appears to be smaller than the export booster effect of GMO adoption. Finally, bilateral dissimilarity in regulations does not appear to matter, once we account for the impact of GMO in production of the exporters and laxity in demand differentiated for importer and exporters. Hence, GMO approval regulations have dominating multilateral effects rather than bilateral ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0127.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Epigenetic regulation; Histone demthylases; JMJC; IDR; biomolecular condensates
Online: 7 July 2022 (12:59:29 CEST)
JmjC-family of lysine demethylases (JMJC-KDMs) plays an essential role controlling gene expression and chromatin structure. In most cases, their function has been attributed to the demethylase activity. However, accumulating evidence demonstrates that these proteins play roles distinct from histone demethylation. This raises the possibility that they might share domains that contribute to their functional outcome. Here, we show that the JMJC-KDMs contain low complexity domains as well as intrinsically disordered regions, which in some cases reached 70% of the protein. Our data revealed that PHF2, KDM2A and KDM4B cluster by phase-separation in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, our molecular analysis demonstrated that these domains are important to regulate transcription, suggesting that clustering via phase -separation is a common feature that JMJC-KDMs utilize, in addition to their catalytic activity, to facilitate their functional responses. Our study uncovers a novel potential function for the JMJC-KDM family that sheds light on the mechanisms to achieve the competent concentration of molecules in time and space within the cell nucleus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0393.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: poxviruses; protein kinase R; evolution; translational regulation; eIF2
Online: 30 May 2022 (10:42:41 CEST)
Crocodilepox virus (CRV) belongs to the Poxviridae family and mainly infects hatchling and juvenile Nile crocodiles. Most poxviruses encode inhibitors of the host antiviral protein kinase R (PKR), which is activated by viral double-stranded (ds) RNA formed during virus replication, resulting in the phosphorylation of eIF2 and subsequent shutdown of general mRNA translation. Because CRV lacks orthologs of known poxviral PKR inhibitors, we experimentally characterized one candidate (CRV157), which contains a predicted dsRNA-binding domain. Bioinformatic analyses indicated that CRV157 evolved independently from other poxvirus PKR inhibitors. CRV157 bound to dsRNA, co-localized with PKR in the cytosol, and inhibited PKR from various species. To analyze whether CRV157 could inhibit PKR in the context of a poxvirus infection, we constructed recombinant vaccinia virus strains that contain either CRV157 or a mutant CRV157 deficient in dsRNA binding in a strain that lacks PKR inhibitors. The presence of wild type CRV157 rescued vaccinia virus replication, while the CRV157 mutant did not. The ability of CRV157 to inhibit PKR correlated with virus replication and eIF2alpha phosphorylation. The independent evolution of CRV157 demonstrates that poxvirus PKR inhibitors evolved from a diverse set of ancestral genes in an example of convergent evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0269.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Utility; Reforms; Governance; Regulation; Incentives; Agency; Liberalization; Performance
Online: 22 February 2022 (11:02:29 CET)
The power sectors in most African countries face an enduring problem of utility performance – electricity utilities have failed to deliver adequate, reliable and competitively priced electricity to support economic growth and improve the welfare of their populations. Despite more than two decades of power sector re-forms, outcomes have been varied and often disappointing. Using a case study de-sign, we explore the five key enduring power challenges. The research utilizes a more powerful analytical framework that combines power sector reform theory and principal-agent theoretical lens to explore the experience of power sector reforms in Kenya and provides a deeper understanding of drivers of utility performance and reform impacts. Empirical findings show that the structural, governance and regulatory reforms that previously created incentives for improved utility performance are increasingly threatened by political influence. Kenya Power’s financial viability has deteriorated in recent years and the regulator has been undermined. One of our major conclusions is that when the relationship between the principal (government) and agent (utility) is well understood and the agent is properly incentivized, performance improvements are possible. However, when the government undermines or muddies those incentives through conflicting political interventions, performance improvements can be reversed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0465.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Optimal control; frequency regulation; battery energy storage system
Online: 20 July 2021 (16:28:04 CEST)
The increasing penetration of renewable energy sources in power grids highlights the role of battery energy stor- age systems (BESSs) in enhancing the stability and reliability of electricity. A key challenge with the renewables’, specially the BESSs, integration into the power system is the lack of proper dynamic model for stability analysis. Moreover, a proper control design for the power system is a complicated issue due to its complexity and inter-connectivity. Thus, the application of decentralized control to improve the stability of a large- scale power system is inevitable, especially in distributed energy sources (DERs). This paper presents an optimal distributed hybrid control design for the interconnected systems to suppress the effects of small disturbances in the power system employing utility-scale batteries based on existing battery models. The results show that i) the smart scheduling of the batteries’ output reduces the inter-area oscillations and improves the stability of the power systems; ii) the hybrid model of the battery is more user-friendly compared to the Western electricity coordinating council (WECC) model in power system analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0711.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Quality of economic growth; environmental regulation; technological innovation
Online: 29 June 2021 (14:14:33 CEST)
Abstract：This paper uses the balanced panel data from 29 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) in China for a total of 17 years from 2000 to 2016 as a research sample, and establishes an empirical model to examine the impact of environmental regulations and technological innovation on the quality of economic growth. Then this paper test technological innovation as a threshold variable, in which play a regulatory role. Taking the provincial balanced panel data as a research sample, a fixed effect model, a system GMM model, and a panel threshold model were established for empirical testing and the robustness test. Based on the empirical results, this article draws the following conclusions: from a national perspective, environmental regulations and technological innovation can significantly promote the quality of economic growth; from a regional perspective, there are regional differences in impact effects. Under the constraints of environmental regulations, the promotion effect of technological innovation on the quality of economic growth will be reduced; the impact of environmental regulation on the quality of economic growth will have a "threshold effect", and environmental regulation can significantly promote the quality of economic growth only after crossing the threshold and the threshold of technological innovation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0680.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: P. falciparum; T. gondii; upstream ORFs; translational regulation
Online: 26 April 2021 (15:11:40 CEST)
During their complex life cycles, the Apicomplexan parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii employ several genetic switches to regulate their gene expression. One such switch is mediated at the level of translation through upstream Open Reading Frames (uORFs). As uORFs are found in the upstream regions of a majority of genes in both the parasites, it is essential that their roles in translational regulation be appreciated to a greater extent. This review provides a comprehensive summary of studies that show uORF-mediated gene regulation in these parasites and highlights examples of clinically and physiologically relevant proteins that exhibit uORF-mediated regulation. In addition to these examples, several studies that use bioinformatics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and ribosome profiling also indicate the possibility of widespread translational regulation by uORFs. Further analysis of genome-wide datasets will reveal novel genes involved in key biological pathways such as cell-cycle progression, stress-response, and pathogenicity. The cumulative evidence from studies presented in this review suggests that uORFs will play crucial roles in regulating gene expression during clinical disease caused by these important human pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0356.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: lncRNA; obesity; fatness, pig; gene expression regulation; miRNA
Online: 12 March 2021 (21:25:35 CET)
Obesity is a problem in the last decades since the development of different technologies forced the submission of a faster pace of life, resulting in nutrition style changes. In turn, domestic pigs are an excellent animal model in recognition of adiposity-related processes, corresponding to the size of individual organs, the distribution of body fat in the organism, and similar metabolism. The present study applied the next-generation sequencing method to identify adipose tissue (AT) transcriptomic signals related to increased fat content by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs), included long-non coding RNA molecules. The Freiburg RNA tool was applied to recognise predicting hybridisation energy of RNA-RNA interactions. The results indicated several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) whose expression was significantly positively or negatively associated with fat deposition. lncRNAs play an essential role in regulating gene expression by sponging miRNA, binding transcripts, facilitating translation, or coding other smaller RNA regulatory elements. In the pig fat tissue of obese group, increased expression of lncRNAs corresponding to human MALAT1 was observed that previously recognised in the obesity-related context. Moreover, hybridisation energy analyses pinpointed numerous potential interactions between identified differentially expressed lncRNAs, and obesity-related genes and miRNAs expressed in AT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0548.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: transposable elements; mobile elements; gene regulation; evolution; human
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:10:23 CET)
Transposable elements (TEs), also known as mobile elements (MEs), are interspersed repeats that constitute a major fraction of the genomes of higher organisms. As one of their important functional impacts on gene function and genome evolution, TEs participate in regulating the expression of genes nearby and even far away at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. There are two known principal ways by which TEs regulate expression of genes. First, TEs provide cis-regulatory sequences in the genome with their intrinsic regulatory properties for their own expression making them potential factors for regulating the expression of the host genes. TE-derived cis-regulatory sites are found in promoter and enhancer elements, providing binding sites for a wide range of trans-acting factors. Second, TEs encode for regulatory RNAs with their sequences showed to be present in a substantial fraction of miRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), indicating the TE origin of these RNAs. Furthermore, TEs sequences were found to be critical for regulatory functions of these RNAs including binding to the target mRNA. TEs thus provide crucial regulatory roles by being part of cis-regulatory and regulatory RNA sequences. Moreover, both TE-derived cis-regulatory sequences and TE-derived regulatory RNAs, have been implicated to provide evolutionary novelty to gene regulation. These TE-derived regulatory mechanisms also tend to function in tissue-specific fashion. In this review, we aim to comprehensively cover the studies regarding these two aspects of TE-mediated gene regulation, mainly focusing on the mechanisms, contribution of different types of TEs, differential roles among tissue types, and lineage specificity, based on data mostly in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2020022
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: privacy; general data protection regulation; security; cloud security
Online: 2 April 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
On 25 May 2018, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)Article 17, the Right to Erasure (‘Right to be Forgotten’) came into force making it vital for organisations to identify, locate and delete all Personally Identifiable Information (PII) where a valid request is received from a data subject to erase their PII and the contractual period has expired. This must be done without undue delay and the organisation must be able to demonstrate reasonable measures were taken. Failure to comply may incur significant fines, not to mention impact to reputation. Many organisations do not understand their data, and the complexity of a hybrid cloud infrastructure means they do not have the resources to undertake this task. The variety of available tools are quite often unsuitable as they involve restructuring so there is one centralised data repository. This research aims to demonstrate compliance with GDPR’s Article 17 Right to Erasure (‘Right to be Forgotten’) is achievable in a Hybrid cloud environment by following a list of recommendations. However, 100% retrieval, 100% of time will not be possible, but we show that small organisations running an ad-hoc Hybrid cloud environment can demonstrate that reasonable measures were taken to be Right to Erasure (‘Right to be Forgotten’) compliant.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: horses; spermatozoa; ROS; oxidative stress; redox regulation; equine
Online: 30 September 2019 (08:06:46 CEST)
Redox regulation and oxidative stress have become areas of major interest in spermatology. Alteration of redox homeostasis is recognized as a significant cause of male factor infertility and is behind the damage that spermatozoa experience after freezing and thawing or conservation in a liquid state. While for a long time, oxidative stress was just considered an overproduction of ROS, nowadays it is considered as a consequence of redox deregulation. Many essential aspects of spermatozoa functionality are redox regulated, with reversible oxidation of thiols in cysteine residues of key proteins acting as an “on-off” switch controlling spermatic function. However, if deregulation occurs, these residues may experience irreversible oxidation and oxidative stress leading to spermatic malfunction and ultimately death. Stallion spermatozoa are “professional producers” of ROS due to their intense mitochondrial activity, and thus sophisticated systems to control redox homeostasis are also characteristic of this species. As a result, combined with the fact that embryos can easily be collected in this species, horses are a good model for the study of redox biology in the spermatozoa and its impact on the embryo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Regulation Effectiveness; Land Use Plan; Construction Land; China
Online: 20 March 2017 (18:42:46 CET)
Nowadays the relationship between planning land use and actual land use is not so clear in general. A lot of efforts have been put in the failures of regulation for the expansion of construction land. However, it still lacks an integrated approach to study the effectiveness of land use regulation in terms of different land use types. Furthermore, the existing evaluation of land use plan mainly focuses on a general level, a detailed research on the regulation effectiveness of each construction land use type is absent. Therefore, this research tries to evaluate regulation effectiveness of land use plan, which takes Cangwu country, Guangxi Province as an example. The finding by analysis is that the total area of construction land expansion was about 3494.73 ha, nearly 1.1 times of the plan quota. Moreover, the effectiveness differs greatly in various construction land use types. Town, industrial/mining sites can be well regulated through the quota of land use plan. While, the quota regulation system is not as effective for other type of construction land. Thus, we suggest to improve the regulation effectiveness of construction land through different plan instruments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0403.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: RKIP expression regulation; Stochastic binary regulation of gene expression; Treatment targeting RKIP levels increase; Reduction of heterogeneity of treatment response
Online: 23 September 2021 (11:43:54 CEST)
In this manuscript we use an exactly solvable stochastic binary model for regulation of gene expression to analyse the dynamics of response to a treatment aiming to modulate the number of transcripts of RKIP gene. We demonstrate the usefulness of our method simulating three treatment scenarios aiming to reestablish RKIP gene expression dynamics towards pre-cancerous state: i. to increase the promoter’s ON state duration; ii. to increase the mRNAs’ synthesis rate; iii. to increase both rates. We show that the pre-treatment kinetic rates of ON and OFF promoter switching speeds and mRNA synthesis and degradation will affect the heterogeneity and time for treatment response. Hence, we present a strategy for reducing drug dosage by simultaneously targeting multiple kinetic rates. That enables a reduction of treatment response time and heterogeneity which in principle diminishes the chances of emergence of resistance to treatment. This approach may be useful for inferring kinetic constants related to expression of antimetastatic genes or oncogenes and on the design of multi-drug therapeutic strategies targeting master regulatory genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1991.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Dementia; Memory; Cognition; Self
Online: 29 August 2023 (14:19:15 CEST)
Dementia is a public health priority, in which memory impairments are prevalent and affects an individual’s daily activities. Research has tried to find ways to support memory problems of individuals with dementia. Self reference effect (SRE) has been shown to benefit memory in healthy, non-dementia group. The study aimed to investigate if SRE will improve memory performance of individuals with dementia. We used ecologically valid Ownership Procedure and the Remember/Know Paradigm to examine the Self-Reference Effect (SRE) on memory. It was hypothesised that participants living with dementia will perform differently in the recall of items that were self-referentially encoded compared to items other-referentially encoded and that the memory will be different in control participants than in those that live with dementia. The research found that self-referential processes did not have effect on memory in individuals with dementia. We suggest that impaired self-awareness may have contributed to the lack of this effect. However, we had a small sample size and these findings should be treated with caution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0221.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: laser-induced plasma; atomic spectroscopy; self-reversal; self-absorption; nanoparticles; silver; hydrogen
Online: 22 June 2019 (11:43:23 CEST)
Q-switched laser radiation at wavelengths of 355 nm, 532 nm, and 1064 nm from a Nd: YAG laser was used to generate plasma in laboratory air at the target surface made of compressed nano-silver particles of size 95 ± 10 nm. The emitted resonance spectra from the neutral silver at wavelengths of 327.9 nm and 338.2 nm indicate existence of self-reversal in addition to plasma self-absorption. Both lines were identified in emission spectra at different laser irradiation wavelengths with characteristic dips at the un-shifted central wavelengths. These dips are usually associated with self-reversal. Under similar conditions, plasmas at the corresponding bulk silver target were generated. The recorded emission spectra were compared to those obtained from the nano-material target. The comparisons confirm existence of self-reversal of resonance lines that emerge from plasmas produced at nano-material targets. This work suggests a method for recovery of the spectral line shapes and discusses practical examples. In addition, subsidiary calibration efforts that utilize the Balmer series Hα-line reveal that other Ag I lines at 827.35 nm and 768.7 nm are optically thin under variety of experimental conditions and are well-suited as reference lines for measurement of the laser plasma electron density.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0742.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: inner speech; spontaneous self-talk; goal-directed self-talk; big five personality traits; self-determination theory; autonomy; competence; relatedness; sport
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:31:01 CEST)
Good health and the promotion of well-being for all is the third of the 17 Global Goals included in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Contributing to this goal, the current study aimed to examine the relationships between one kind of athletes’ well-being, namely state organic self-talk, with personality traits, and basic psychological need satisfaction and frustration within their sport. Athletes (N = 691; mean age 21.65) from a variety of individual (n = 270) and team sports (n = 421) completed a multisection questionnaire capturing the targeted variables. Three-step hierarchical regression analyses revealed that: In step 1, all personality traits were to some extent a significant predictor of athletes’ organic, spontaneous self-talk dimensions and goal-directed self-talk functions. In step 2, need satisfaction significantly contributed to all spontaneous self-talk dimensions and goal-directed self-talk functions (except for creating functional deactivated states) over and above personality. Finally, in step 3, need frustration significantly contributed to negative spontaneous self-talk dimensions, and to all goal-directed self-talk functions (except for instruction) over and above personality and need satisfaction. Overall, our results indicate the importance of personality traits as personal antecedents, and perceptions of basic psychological need satisfaction and frustration as social-environmental antecedents, in shaping athletes’ state organic self-talk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0285.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: cyber physical systems; industry 4.0; MDE; lifetime verification & validation; dependability; correctness; flexibility; real-time self-adaptation, self-management; self-healing
Online: 29 January 2019 (04:45:47 CET)
Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) has been a popular research area in the last decade. The dependability of CPS is still a critical issue, and rare survey has been published in this domain. CPS is a dynamic complex system, which involves various multidisciplinary technologies. To avoid human error and to simplify management, self-management CPS (SCPS) is a wise choice. And to achieve dependable self-management, systematic solution is necessary to verify the design and to guarantee the safety of self-adaptation decision, as well as to maintain the health of SCPS. This survey first recalls the concepts of dependability, and proposes a generic environment-in-loop processing flow of self-management CPS, and then analyzes the error sources and challenges of self-management through the formal feedback flow. Focus on reducing the complexity, we first survey the self-adaptive architecture approaches and applied dependability means; then we introduce a hybrid multi-role self-adaptive architecture, and discuss the supporting technologies for dependable self-management at the architecture level. Focus on dependable environment-centered adaption, we investigate the verification and validation (V&V) methods for making safe self-adaptation decision and the solutions for processing decision dependably. For system-centered adaption, the comprehensive self-healing methods are summarized. Finally, we analyze the missing pieces of the technology puzzle and the future directions. In this survey, the technical trends for dependable CPS design and maintenance are discussed, an all-in-one solution is proposed to integrate these technologies and build a dependable organic SCPS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive survey on dependable SCPS building and evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1817.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Pregnancy; Prediabetic State; Abnormal Glucose Regulation; Postpartum; Glucose Intolerance
Online: 27 October 2023 (14:28:30 CEST)
Objective: To identify risk factors(RF) related to abnormal glucose regulation(AGR) 3 years postpartum according to 3-month-postpartum glucose status. Research design: Normoglycemic pregnant women of the St. Carlos Gestational Study included before gestational week 12, during 2015-2017. Of 3,036 eligible women, 2529 were followed-up until delivery: 1400 participated in postpartum follow-up. AGR defined as fasting serum glucose (FSG)>5.6 mmol/L and/or HbA1c >5.7% (39 mmol/mol) and/or 2h-SG ≥140/mg/dL after 75-g OGTT. 12-modifiable and 3-unmodifiable RF were analyzed for associations with glycemic changes. Reinforcement of Mediterranean Diet adherence was provided to all women at the postpartum visit by a dietitian Results: 137/1400(9.8%) women presented AGR 3 years postpartum, 27/137(19.7%) also had at 3 months, whereas 110/137(80.2%) had not. The remaining 1,263(90.2%) women were normoglycemic 3 years postpartum, 1180/1263(84.3%) were at 3 months, while 83/1263(6.08%) had AGR and became normoglycemic. Women with GDM were more likely to progress to AGR 3 years postpartum (OR:1.60[1.33-1.92]) and less likely to remain normoglycemic (OR:0.22[0.15-0.33]) versus non-GDM women. Having >2/3 unmodifiable RF was associated with a reduced rate of maintained normoglycemia (OR:0.56[0.39-0.80]) and an increased risk of progression to AGR (OR:1.90[1.28-2.83]). Having >5/12 modifiable RF was associated with a reduced rate of maintained normoglycemic (OR:0.74[0.51-0.99]) and reversion of AGR (OR:0.49[0.25-0.97]), an increased progression to AGR (OR:1.40[1.00-2.09]), and persistence of AGR (OR:2.57[1.05-6.31]). Pre-gestational BMI≥25kg/m2 (OR:1.80[1.19-2.71]), post-delivery weight gain (OR:2.22[1.10-4.48]), and waist circumference >89.5cm (OR:0.54[0.36-0.79]), (all p<0.05) were the main modifiable RF. Conclusions: RF related to an increased probability for 3-year-postpartum AGR despite 3-month normoglycemia were identified, potentially useful when designing personalized strategies for pregnant women, directed towards minimizing unfavorable outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0218.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: pesticide packaging waste; social norms; environmental regulation; moderating effects
Online: 4 October 2023 (09:49:44 CEST)
The agricultural ecological environment provides an important resource guarantee for social development. The extensive management mode of agriculture in China has not fundamentally changed; the contradiction between production and governance is still prominent, and the management of agricultural surface pollution has a long way to go. Based on the data of 547 rural households in Jiangxi province, this paper uses the Ordered Logit, 2SLS, and moderation effect model to analyze the mechanism between social norms (SNs) and rural households’ (RHs) disposal of pesticide packaging waste (PPW) and to test the moderation effect of environmental regulation (ER) in the influence path of SN to RHs’ disposal of PPW. The results show that (1) descriptive and directive norms can promote RHs not to litter PPW. However, the role of surrounding crowd supervision (directive norms) is more obvious than the behavior of the surrounding crowd (descriptive norms). The consistent conclusion was still obtained after the robustness test and endogeneity treatment. (2) The results of the moderation effect test showed that reputational incentives strengthened the promotional effect of directive norms on RHs' behavior of not littering PPW; punitive regulation hindered the promotional effect of descriptive norms on RHs' behavior of not littering PPW. Based on the findings of the study, the following policy recommendations are put forward: continue to strengthen the guidance and soft binding force of informal institutions such as SNs; accurately locate the target groups and formulate differentiated measures; pay attention to the complementary nature of formal and informal institutions, and reasonably formulate environmental regulations to fit in with SNs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1438.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Brazilian labelling regulation; energy efficiency; thermal comfort; university buildings.
Online: 21 August 2023 (08:58:00 CEST)
Thermal comfort is extremely important in architecture, especially in environments with more people spending longer on studies or intellectual activities. This research describes a case study to investigate university buildings' energy and thermal performance as a part of the ANEEL program. Due to this importance, and the need to save energy in Brazilian public buildings, the ANEEL-the Brazilian Energy Electricity Regulatory Agency, launched 2016 a national program focusing on energy efficiency in public universities around the country. University offices and classrooms require high intellectual effort; thus, environmental comfort is critical for maintaining its users' physical and mental health. This study included a pre-diagnosis of the performance of the envelope, lighting, and air conditioning systems and a survey about the quality of the environments from the users' point of view. The Prescriptive Method of the Brazilian Labeling Program (PBE) for Commercial, Service, and Public Buildings (RTQ-C) assessed the building performance. Statistical analysis was applied to correlate the quality and thermal preference of the users from the PMV/PPD. The results showed a high rate of thermal discomfort in both environments of the studies, even when using air conditioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0158.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: crystal structure; glycolysis; hexokinase; malaria; posttranslational modification; redox regulation
Online: 2 August 2023 (07:17:43 CEST)
The protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum is the causative pathogen of the most severe form of malaria, for which novel strategies for treatment are urgently required. The primary energy supply for intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium is the production of ATP via glycolysis. Due to the parasite’s strong dependence on this pathway and significant structural differences of its glycolytic enzymes compared to their human counterpart, glycolysis is considered as a potential drug target. In this study, we provide the first three-dimensional protein structure of P. falciparum hexokinase (PfHK), containing novel information about the mechanisms of PfHK. We identified for the first time a Plasmodium-specific insertion which lines the active site. Moreover, we propose that this insertion plays a role upon ATP binding. Residues of the insertion further seem to affect the tetrameric interface and therefore suggest a special way of communication among the different monomers. In addition, we confirmed that PfHK is targeted and affected by oxidative posttranslational modifications (oxPTMs). Both Sglutathionylation and Snitrosation revealed an inhibitory effect on the enzymatic activity of PfHK.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1869.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: RNA; obesity; chronic kidney disease; cardiovascular disorder; gene regulation
Online: 27 June 2023 (10:45:54 CEST)
Obesity has become a global epidemic, contributing to the development of numerous chronic diseases, including diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disorders. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators in various biological processes, including metabolism, inflammation, and tissue remodeling, making them pivotal players in obesity-related pathologies. This review aims to provide comprehensive insights into the roles of miRNAs in obesity, with a particular emphasis on their involvement in the pathogenesis of CKD and cardiovascular disorders. We highlight the involvement of specific miRNAs in adipose tissue development, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and insulin resistance, contributing to the pathogenesis of obesity. Moreover, we explore the impact of miRNAs on renal fibrosis, and inflammation, giving clues on their roles in the development and progression of CKD. Additionally, we discuss the influence of miRNAs on endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and cardiac remodeling, emphasizing their contribution to obesity-related cardiovascular disorders. Understanding the regulatory functions of miRNAs in these interconnected conditions holds promise for improved diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic interventions. Indeed, miRNAs are potential diagnostic biomarkers for obesity-related diseases although challenges remain to be elucidated before their clinical translation. Furthermore, we highlight the emerging strategies that target miRNAs as therapeutic interventions to mitigate the detrimental effects of obesity on kidney and cardiovascular health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1626.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: FAFT; AML/CFT; Money laundering; FinTech; RegTech; Banking Regulation
Online: 23 May 2023 (08:35:49 CEST)
Money launderers prefer to use financial services as the ideal medium to launder. The study aimed to provide an overview of the global AML/CFT regulations, application and how they should evolve in this dynamic environment. To gather more insight, a qualitative study was undertaken with relevant documents analysed. The main findings were: country implementation of the global AML/CFT regulations differed due to political and economic factors amongst others. While the various AML/CFT enforcements done by sampled countries were mainly cease and desist orders and monetary penalties which were publicized; and drawbacks of global AML/CFT regulations centered on application of these regulations and emerging trends. These include among other definitions of money laundering, reference to the three stage of money laundering, link between penalty and violations, technological innovations and regulations paradigm shift, cyber-attacks and data privacy. The study contributes to application and growing body of knowledge in that the advent of technology has resulted in better consumer experiences, new payment platforms, products, and services. However, these innovations have broadened emerging money laundering risks and risks in general to the financial system. Hence the need to conduct research based FATF Recommendations as risk is dynamic and not static.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1427.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: chemical enterprises; safety regulation; evolutionary game; evolutionary stable strategy
Online: 19 May 2023 (10:16:29 CEST)
Chemical safety is related to public health, safety and environmental concerns, and the dangerous chemicals safety problem is becoming the one that people commonly pay attention to. Strengthening chemical safety supervision not only involves safe production, but also is an important link to maintain social safety. Most related studies focus on chemical safety under normal regulation, this paper addresses the perspective of ‘special rectification’ and ‘normal regulation’, and establishes an evolutionary game model between chemical enterprises and government supervision departments under different supervision modes. Based on the evolutionary game theory, this paper studies the evolution process of the two game players' strategy choices, and compares and analyzes the evolution, stability and equilibrium between the chemical safety and the behavior strategies of government regulatory departments. The model is effectively analyzed based on numerical simulation, and the results show that: Under the ‘special rectification’ mode, the strategic choice of chemical enterprises engaging in safety without investment depends on the difference between the benefits and costs of safety without investment; In the ‘normal regulation’ mode, the choice of its safety non-investment strategy depends on the difference between the cost of engaging in safety investment and the cost of safety non-investment; Increasing the government's punishment will encourage chemical enterprises to take safety investment behavior under the two supervision modes. Increasing the punishment has a significant impact on the safety investment behavior of chemical enterprises under the ‘normal regulation’ mode, but it has no significant impact on the behavior of chemical enterprises under the ‘special rectification’ mode. At the same time, increasing the punishment will inhibit the strict supervision behavior of the government. The research conclusion provides important decision support for government departments to effectively supervise the safety production of chemical enterprises.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0309.v9
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: obesity; body weight regulation; macronutrients; energy balance theory; mass balance model; paradigm shift; living review
Online: 16 September 2022 (03:18:08 CEST)
According to known laws of physics, chronic positive mass balance is the actual etiology of obesity, not positive energy balance. The relevant physical law in terms of body mass regulation is the Law of Conservation of Mass, not the Law of Conservation of Energy. A recently proposed mass balance model (MBM) describes the temporal evolution of body weight and body composition under a wide variety of feeding experiments, and it seems to provide a highly accurate description of the very best experimental human feeding data. By shifting to a mass balance paradigm of obesity, a deeper understanding of this disease may follow in the near future. The purpose of this living review is to present the core issues of the upcoming paradigm shift as well as some practical applications related to the topic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0117.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cold stress; wheat; hormonal; reactive oxygen species; epigenetic regulation
Online: 13 April 2022 (07:35:35 CEST)
Cold stress is a major environmental factor affecting the growth, development, and productivity of various crop species. With the current trajectory of global climate change, low temperatures are becoming more frequent and can significantly decrease crop yield. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the first crop to be domesticated and is the most popular cereal crop in the world. Due to a lack of systematic research on cold response pathways and gene regulatory networks, the underlying molecular mechanisms of cold signal transduction in wheat are poorly understood. This study reviews recent progress in wheat, including the ICE-CBF-COR signaling pathway in cold stress and the effects of cold stress on hormonal pathways, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and epigenetic regulation. This review also highlights outstanding issues that are crucial for understanding the interactions between wheat and low-temperature conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0494.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: fruit quality; pruning; growth regulation; fruit set; crop value
Online: 30 December 2021 (19:54:48 CET)
In perennial fruit crops, bearing can be influenced by various factors, including environmental conditions, germplasm, rootstocks, and cultivation methods. Cherries, one of the most important and popular fruit species from the temperate climate zone, achieve high prices on the market. New agricultural technologies and environmental factors force a change in the approach to cherry cultivation. Old-type cherry orchards with their high demand for water, nutrients and manual work are replaced by orchards of self-pollinating cherry cultivars grown on dwarf rootstocks. These changes make it necessary to search for ways to regulate fruiting, in particular to thin buds, flower and fruit. In view of environmental regulations and consumer pressure, thinning methods are being sought that either do not involve the use of chemicals or that use eco-friendly chemical agents. This review examines recent progress in understanding the effect of thinning methods on the physiology, tree growth and fruit quality of cherries, discusses horticultural practices aimed to ensure regular cropping and their influence on fruit quality, and provides suggestions for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0649.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: wheat; micronutrient; macronutrient; source-sink regulation; biofortification; phytate; bioavailability
Online: 25 March 2021 (17:17:10 CET)
In order to better understand the source-sink flow and relationships of Zinc (Zn) and other nutrients in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants for biofortification and improving grain nutritional quality, effects of reducing photoassimilate source (through the flag leaf removal and spike shading) or sink (through 50% spikelets removal) in the field on accumulation of Zn and other nutrients in wheat grains of two cultivars (Jimai 22 and Jimai 44) were investigated under two soil Zn application levels. The single panicle weight (SPW), kernel number per spike (KNPS), thousand kernel weight (TKW), total grain weight (TGW), concentrations and yields of various nutrient elements (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, N, P, K, Ca and Mg), phytate phosphorus (phytate-P), phytic acid (PA) and phytohormones (ABA: abscisic acid, and the ethylene precursor ACC: 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid), and C/N ratios were determined. Soil Zn application significantly increased concentrations of grain Zn, N and K. Cultivars showing higher grain yields had lower grain protein and micronutrient nutritional quality. SPW, KNPS, TKW (with an exception of TKW in half spikelets removal), TGW, and nutrient yields in wheat grains were most severely reduced by half spiklets removal, secondly by spike shading, and slightly by flag leaf removal. Grain concentrations of Zn, N and Mg consistently showed negative correlations with SPW, KNPS and TGW, but positively with TKW. There were general positive correlations among grain concentrations of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, N and Mg, and bioavailability of Zn and Fe (estimated by molar ratios of PA/Zn, PA × Ca/Zn, PA/Fe, or PA × Ca/Fe). Although concentrations of Zn and Fe were increased and Ca was decreased in treatments of half spikelets removal and spike shading, the simultaneously increased PA limited the increase in bioavailability of Zn and Fe. In general, different nutrient elements interact with each other and are affected to different degrees by source-sink manipulations. Elevated endogenous ABA levels and ABA/ACC ratios were associated with increased TKW and grain-filling of Zn, Mn, Ca and Mg, and inhibited K in wheat grains. However, effects of ACC were diametrically opposite. These results provide basis for wheat grain biofortification to alleviate human malnutrition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0193.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Environmental regulation; green total factor productivity; Dynamic panel model; Environmental decentralization
Online: 25 November 2020 (11:08:10 CET)
Environmental decentralization (ED), or the allocation of environmental protection affairs and responsibilities among various administrative authorities, affects the effectiveness of environmental regulation in promoting green total factor productivity (GTFP). Based on panel data of 30 Chinese provinces from 2001 to 2015, this paper employs dynamic panel models to test the effects of environmental regulations (environmental protection investment, ENV; pollutant discharge fees, PDF) on GTFP, with or without being influenced by ED. Without the impact of ED, GTFP is significantly inhibited by ENV while significantly promoted by PDF. Considering the impact of ED, with the strengthening of ED, the negative effects of ENV on GTFP is significant; contrarily, the positive effects of PDF on GTFP is significant; improving provincial ED adds negative effects of ENV, while reduces the positive effects of PDF; increasing prefectural ED reduces negative effects of ENV; expanding county-level ED adds the positive effects of PDF. Therefore, to boost GTFP growth, prefectural environmental protection authorities should have more autonomy in ENV, while the county-level should have more autonomy in PDF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0223.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: logic semantics; statistical terms; regulation; model; nil information gain
Online: 10 September 2020 (05:56:54 CEST)
Occasionally, officials of the world’s regulatory agencies embark upon attempts at bringing previously unregulated physical systems under regulation by them. Each such attempt raises an epistemological issue. At issue is whether enough information about the outcomes of the events of the future, given the outcomes of the events of the present, will be in the hands of a would-be regulator for this regulator to regulate effectually. If present, this information is provided by runs of a model of the physical system that is slated for regulation. Ideally, this model makes an argument that draws its conclusion from the evidence presented to it. If so, this argument is of the form of a predictive inference. However, the process by which an argument draws its conclusion from the evidence may go awry. This happens, for example, when the axiom of probability theory called unit measure is falsified by a conclusion that is drawn from the evidence by this argument.A method is derived from first principles for determination of whether unit measure is satisfied or falsified by an argument made by a model, given that this argument may attach unusual meanings to statistical terms. This method is used in a study of whether unit measure is satisfied or falsified by the arguments that are made by a pair of models. Both models are in active use by regulatory agencies around the world. Under neither argument do runs of the model provide an official of a regulatory agency with the information gain aka mutual information that he or she would need to regulate effectually. Under both arguments, attachment of unusual meanings to statistical terms creates the illusion that such an official can and does regulate effectually.