ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0065.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Corruption; Economic growth; Panel Data
Online: 26 February 2018 (15:38:23 CET)
This study attempts to assess the impact of corruption on economic growth in the Mediterranean countries, during the period from 1998 to 2007. Econometric analysis using panel regression has been adopted to test this effect. Individual effects models such as random effects model and fixed effects model were applied to the study sample of 160 observations, and to choose the suitable model, we implemented several tests. For our analysis, we used a basic model that includes the dependent variable GDP per capita as a factor of economic growth and the corruption perception index as the independent variable concerned. Then we completed the model with several standardized macroeconomic control variables mentioned above and applied the individual effects models. The outcomes illustrate that corruption has a negative impact on the selected Mediterranean countries’ economic growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0474.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Vaccine; COVID-19; Preventive behaviors; Norm; Japan; Panel data
Online: 27 February 2023 (10:28:45 CET)
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine is key to reducing the probability of contracting COVID-19. The vaccine is generally known to prevent severe illness, death, and hospitalization as a result of the disease and for considerably reducing COVID-19 infection risk. Accordingly, this might significantly change an individual’s perceived risk of altering everyday behaviors. For instance, the proliferation of vaccination is anticipated to reduce preventive behaviors such as staying at home, handwashing, and wearing a mask. We corresponded with the same individuals monthly for 18 months from March 2020 (early stage of COVID-19) to September 2021 in Japan to independently construct large sample panel data (N=54,007), with a participation rate of 54.7 %. We used a fixed effects model, controlling for key confounders, to determine whether vaccination was associated with a change in preventive behaviors. The major findings are as follows. Contrary to the prediction, (1) based on the whole sample, being vaccinated against COVID-19 led people to stay at home; however, it did not change the habit of handwashing and wearing a mask. Especially after the second shot, respondents were likelier to stay at home by 0.107 (95% CIs: 0.059–0.154) points on a 5-point scale compared to before the vaccination. Dividing the entire sample into young and old, (2) those aged ≤ 40 years were more likely to go out after being vaccinated, and (3) people over 40 years of age were more likely to stay at home (similar to the first result). Preventive behaviors impact all individuals during the current pandemic. Informal social norms motivate people to increase or maintain preventive behaviors even after being vaccinated in societies where these behaviors are not enforced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0452.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: transportation; carbon emission; carbon intensity; panel data analysis; China
Online: 30 May 2018 (16:16:35 CEST)
China’s transportation industry has made rapid progress, which has led to a mass of carbon emissions. However, it is still unclear how the carbon emission from transport sector is punctuated by shifts in underlying drivers. This paper aims to examine the process of China’s carbon emissions from transport sector as well as its major driving forces during the period of 2000 to 2015 at the provincial level. We firstly estimate the carbon emissions from transport sector at the provincial level based on the fuel and electricity consumption using a top-down method. We find that the carbon emission per capita is steadily increasing across the nation, especially in the provinces of Chongqing and Inner Mongolia. However, the carbon emission intensity is decreasing in most provinces of China, except in Yunnan, Qinghai, Chongqing, Zhejiang, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Henan and Anhui. We then quantify the effect of socio-economic factors and their regional variations on the carbon emissions using panel data model. The results show that the development of secondary industry is the most significant variable in both the entire nation level and the regional level, while the effects of the other variables vary across regions. Among these factors, population density is the main motivator of the increasing carbon emissions per capita from transport sector for both the whole nation and the western region, whereas the consumption level per capita of residents and the development of tertiary industry are the primary drivers of per capita carbon emissions for the eastern and central region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0002.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: change point; estimation; consistency; panel data; short panels; boundary issue; structural change; bootstrap; non-life insurance; change in claim amounts
Online: 1 December 2016 (10:02:03 CET)
Panel data of our interest consist of a moderate number of panels, while the panels contain a small number of observations. An estimator of common breaks in panel means without a boundary issue for this kind of scenario is proposed. In particular, the novel estimator is able to detect a common break point even when the change happens immediately after the first time point or just before the last observation period. Another advantage of the elaborated change point estimator is that it results in the last observation in situations with no structural breaks. The consistency of the change point estimator in panel data is established. The results are illustrated through a simulation study. As a by-product of the developed estimation technique, a theoretical utilization for correlation structure estimation, hypothesis testing, and bootstrapping in panel data is demonstrated. A practical application to non-life insurance is presented as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0240.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: metal vacuum panel; vacuum Insulation Panel; energy; gas emission; foam concrete; honeycomb materials
Online: 23 January 2019 (10:27:49 CET)
This study examines whether gas is emitted from the materials used in the fabrication of metal vacuum panels or not and if emitted, their degree as time goes by. As experimental materials, metal sheets, foamed concrete as a core material, and polymer materials as a sealing material between metal sheets were selected. Experiments on the type and the degree of bending of metal materials showed that aluminum’s vacuum reaching time of 0.001 torr was at least 40 sec to 90 sec in its flat plate, but its vacuum reaching time increased from 3 times to 4.5 times in case of 90 ° and 135 ° bending state. For this reason, it is judged that stainless steel or steel material is suitable because aluminum is inadequate in terms of processability at the time of fabricating the metal vacuum panel. Also, vacuum arrival times and weight changes with increasing foam content of inorganic foamed concrete increased from 22,000 sec to 42,000 sec with increasing foaming rate and also, the weight change increased from 1.7% to 8%. Also, the experimental results on the type of honeycomb materials, the PE (polyethylene) with a vacuum reaching time of 30,000 sec and with a weight change of 0.5% and the PTFE (Poly-tetrafluoro ethylene) with a vacuum reaching time of 29,000 sec and with a weight change of 2.2% showed the optimum value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0127.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Descriptive analysis; principal components analysis; k-means clustering; data panel regression method; machine learning; XGBoost algorithms; random forest algorithms
Online: 8 October 2021 (08:30:13 CEST)
The aim of this work is to explain the behaviour of the multiresistance percentage of Pseudomona aeruginosa in some countries of Europe through a multivariate statistical analysis and machine learning validation, using data from the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System, the World Health Organization and the World Bank. First, we will use a descriptive analysis and a principal components analysis. Then, we use a k-means clustering to determine the countries and regions that are most affected by the antibiotic resistance. Second, we expand the database by adding some socioeconomic, governance and antibiotic-consumption variables. We then run a data panel regression analysis to determine some functions that relates the multiresistance percentage with those new variables. Finally, we use machine learning techniques to validate a pooling panel data case, using XGBoost and random forest algorithms. The results of the data panel analysis indicate that the most important variables for the multiresistance percentage are corruption control and the rule of law. Similar results are found with the machine learning validation analysis, where the human development index is an additional important variable for the multiresistance percentage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0020.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Risk shifting, broiler contract, panel data
Online: 1 October 2018 (17:07:21 CEST)
Contract between grower and integrator has been used extensively in broiler industry all over the world. One important advantages of contract is risk management, in which contract shifts a portion of grower risk to integrator. Thus, this paper attempted to measure the amount of risk shifted from grower to integrator and the consequences of this benefit to grower. Using a panel data of actual production records of 46 Indonesian broiler growers for the period of January 2014 through December 2017, we systematically measure the amount of risk shifted to integrator and its consequences to grower. The results showed that 78.43% grower risk is shifted to integrator. However, to acquire this benefit grower receive 15% less income. Furthermore, grower face the possibility of losing their asset and stopping their production as the consequences of entering contract.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0085.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Selective Solar Absorber; Solar Absorptance; Thermal Emittance; Evacuated Flat Panel; Calorimeter; High Vacuum Flat Panel; Solar Simulator
Online: 7 May 2022 (02:52:12 CEST)
Among solar thermal collectors, the evacuated flat panel is emerging as a reference technology for operation at higher temperatures of up to 200 °C with an increased annual energy production owing to both direct and diffuse light capture. Accurate measurements of the optical properties of the selective absorbers used in such devices are key for a reliable estimation of the overall performance. These optical properties must be measured under high vacuum at high temperatures, conditions under which the panels are meant to operate. In this study, we accurately measured these properties using a calorimetric technique. The measurement procedure is based on a power balance equation for a flat sample suspended in a high-vacuum chamber with minimal thermal losses and is well adapted for this class of devices. Calorimetric measurements obtained under Sun and LED light revealed excellent reproducibility and good agreement with those obtained using traditional optical analysis at low temperatures in air. When extended up to the absorber stagnation temperature, which often exceeds 300 °C, the calorimetric measurements started to deviate from the optical measurements, indicating the importance of measuring under the operating conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0350.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: solar panel; laminatel vibrations; self-cleaning; cymatics
Online: 19 April 2020 (13:51:32 CEST)
The Photovoltaic modules are usually installed on the ground which exposes it to surface deposition of foreign particles. In the Middle East and North Africa region, the primary culprit is dust and sand. They form an insulating and opaque layer on the surface of the glass, which obstructs its heat transfer and optical properties, thereby reducing the overall yield efficiency of the solar panel. Cleaning of this layer is critical to the operation of the solar panel and often requires great effort and energy on a large-scale solar array. In this paper, we propose a novel self-cleaning mechanism for solar panels, with an understanding of the structural integrity of the Photovoltaic laminate and application of external mechanical vibration. By applying an external source of vibration, the solar panels vibrate, excites its fundamental frequencies and cleans by its own. The method is analyzed using finite element analysis method and tested using experiments. Our simulation results based on IEC 61215 show that the maximum principal stress and deformation in the critical layers is within limits. Our experimental results prove the proposed theory is feasible and can be extended to large scale solar arrays. Our proposed method is retrofittable and could save money, energy and effort in cleaning the solar arrays, which can replace current techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0138.v1
Subject: Keywords: ICTs; Freight transport; CO2 emissions; Environment; Panel data
Online: 4 June 2021 (11:23:18 CEST)
The link between ICTs, freight transport, and CO2 emissions has not received much explicit examination by researchers, despite freight transportation being an egregious contributor to environmental degradation. This paper investigates how ICTs can affect environmental quality when interacting with freight transport activities in 43 countries over the period 2002-2014, using carbon emissions as a proxy for environmental damages. ICTs are measured in terms of internet, telephone, and mobile phone technologies. Using GMM methodology, the results show that ICTs contribute to dampening environmental degradation when interacting with freight transport activities. Specifically, a 10% increase in the interaction between ICTs and freight transportation will decrease carbon emissions by between 1.27% and 3.02%. The results further suggest that fixed and smartphone technologies are the main contributors to reducing emissions when adopted in some specific transport sectors (i.e. road, rail, and inland), while the internet is the most efficient technology when interacting with air transport activity. In addition, the interaction between ICTs and multimodality accelerates environmental quality. The policy implications of these findings are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0373.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: jet fuel efficiency; environment; idle capacity; panel data
Online: 29 November 2019 (09:41:35 CET)
Since World War I, the commercial aviation industry has seen many improvements that now allow people and goods to reach the other side of the world in few hours, consuming much less fuel than in recent decades. Improvements in cargo capacity and energy efficiency were significant and, in this scenario, commercial airlines were able to thrive and bring great benefits to world economy. However, this sector is facing environmental challenges due to the intensive use of aviation fuel. Brazil is one of the largest domestic air passenger markets in the world and still has great growth potential, considering its economic potential and territorial dimensions: roughly the same size as the US and twice the size of the European Union. This paper discusses partial productivity of jet fuel in Brazilian domestic aviation and proposes an econometric method to support public regulators and airlines decisions. The proposed model uses variables such as aircraft size, route characteristics and idle flight capacity in a panel data analysis. The results show that reducing idle capacity is one of the best ways to achieve better short-term fuel efficiency and therefore will reduce environmental impacts and have positive economic effects on commercial air transport activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0034.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Rebound Effect; Intervention; monetary policy rate; panel data
Online: 10 February 2017 (17:39:25 CET)
This study examines the exchange rate rebound effects of the Central Bank intervention in the selected ECOWAS economies. An empirical understanding of these effects is very important to trade adjustment as well as the macroeconomic stability in these countries. Using the panel data modelling framework, the study finds that the impact of the Central Bank intervention on exchange rate is insignificant and it does not lead to the exchange rate rebound. In addition, money supply as well as monetary policy rate implemented by the monetary authorities significantly influences the level of exchange rate in a positive direction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0483.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: genotype imputation; population genetics; rare-variants; reference panel; admixture
Online: 26 December 2022 (09:52:08 CET)
Genotype imputation is widely used to enrich genetic datasets. The operation relies of panels of known reference haplotypes with typically whole-genome sequencing data. How to choose a reference panel has been widely studied and it is essential to have a panel that is well matched to the individuals who require imputation of missing genotypes. However, it is broadly accepted that such an imputation panel will have an enhanced performance with the inclusion of diversity; haplotypes from many different populations. We investigate this observation in this work by examining in fine detail exactly which reference haplotypes are contributing at different regions of the genome. This is achieved using a novel method of inserting synthetic genetic variation into the reference panel in order to track the performance of leading imputation algorithms. We show that while diversity may globally improve imputation accuracy, there can be occasions where incorrect genotypes are imputed following the inclusion of more diverse haplotypes in the reference panel. We however demonstrate a technique for retaining and benefitting from the diversity in the reference panel whilst avoiding the occasional adverse effects on imputation accuracy. What is more, our results elucidate more clearly the role of the diversity in a reference panel than has been shown in previous studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0193.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Environmental regulation; green total factor productivity; Dynamic panel model; Environmental decentralization
Online: 25 November 2020 (11:08:10 CET)
Environmental decentralization (ED), or the allocation of environmental protection affairs and responsibilities among various administrative authorities, affects the effectiveness of environmental regulation in promoting green total factor productivity (GTFP). Based on panel data of 30 Chinese provinces from 2001 to 2015, this paper employs dynamic panel models to test the effects of environmental regulations (environmental protection investment, ENV; pollutant discharge fees, PDF) on GTFP, with or without being influenced by ED. Without the impact of ED, GTFP is significantly inhibited by ENV while significantly promoted by PDF. Considering the impact of ED, with the strengthening of ED, the negative effects of ENV on GTFP is significant; contrarily, the positive effects of PDF on GTFP is significant; improving provincial ED adds negative effects of ENV, while reduces the positive effects of PDF; increasing prefectural ED reduces negative effects of ENV; expanding county-level ED adds the positive effects of PDF. Therefore, to boost GTFP growth, prefectural environmental protection authorities should have more autonomy in ENV, while the county-level should have more autonomy in PDF.
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: emissions; energy; environmental Kuznet's curve; panel data; subsector analysis
Online: 21 November 2019 (03:52:45 CET)
Analyses of the Environmental Kuznet's Curve (EKC) hypothesis have largely focused on economy level data with occasional analyses exploring sector level data. This paper exploits a new data set which contains sector level data on greenhouse gas emissions from the US energy sector as well as subsector data from six disjoint subsectors which together comprise the entire energy sector. The data contained in this data set is annual data at the state level from 1990 through 2011. By using differenced data we specify an econometrically sound EKC model and compare it against a model containing only a linear GDP per capita term. We find that by using a subsector level modelling approach, evidence for the EKC hypothesis is virtually nonexistent. Moreover, we find that aggregated subsector level estimates outperform sector level estimate on in-sample accuracy. These estimated models are then used to forecast emissions for the energy sector. We find evidence that US greenhouse gas emissions from energy production are at or near a peak.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0248.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: capital structure; corporate finance; leverage model; fixed effect panel
Online: 14 September 2018 (03:30:16 CEST)
The paper aims to investigate on the determinants of the capital structure of the Italian SMEs and it is based on a large panel of Italian manufacturing SMEs observed in the years 2001-2013. The analysis achieves a comparative investigation between the capital structure of the firms belonging in the Southern region, the so-called Italian Mezzogiorno that is the slow growing area of the country, and the firms of the Center-northern region of Italy, that is the more developed area of the country. Fixed effect panel techniques applied to the several standard leverage models allows to reaffirm some distinctive features showing differences of the financial behavior of regional firms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0121.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: economic growth; public expenditure; panel cointegration; sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 8 May 2018 (05:20:33 CEST)
In this paper, the validity of the Wagner’s law is investigated in tenth selected Sub- Saharan African countries, namely Botswana, Equatorial Guinea, Mauritania, Nigeria, South Africa, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Madagascar, and DR Congo. Five variants of the Wagner’s law were tested for the period 2005-2014, using panel econometric approaches encompassing cointegration and causality. The study found a long run relationship between the public expenditure and the various explanatory variables used as proxies of income. The long-run causality tests indicate that there is bidirectional causality between expenditure and income in all models with the exemption of the Gupta model. It is concluded that for Sub-Saharan Africa, both the Wagner’s law the Keynesian hypothesis tend to be valid under the period of investigation. The explanation is that there has been the tendency for public expenditure to grow relative to national income (Wagner’s law) and that public expenditure is a policy instrument (an exogenous factor) for improving national income (Keynesian hypothesis) during the 10-year period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0113.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: bank reporting; country risk; financial stability; panel data modeling
Online: 15 March 2018 (04:46:05 CET)
This paper relies on accounting-based measures of country risk to investigate U.S. global banks' exposure to foreign country risk over the 2017 fiscal year as measured by the sum of cross-border risk, foreign office risk, and derivative risk claims. We achieve this using panel linear modeling methods with country level heterogeneity and time fixed effects, along with a constructed panel data of 284 observations on 71 countries distributed across 6 world regional blocks, and observed over 4 consecutive quarters starting from 4th quarter 2016 and ending with 3rd quarter 2017. The results show that on average, over the four quarters, a 1% increase in foreign banking sector's claims significantly increases U.S. global banks cross border risk exposure by 0.34%, while reducing derivative risk exposure by 0.22%, but have no significant impact on foreign office risk exposure. Similar results are observed with public sector claims which significantly increase banks' exposure to cross border risk by 0.21%, while reducing derivative risk exposure by 0.19%. Conversely however, non-bank financial sector claims are found to have no significant affect on cross-border risk exposure, but significantly reduce foreign office risk exposure by 0.09%, while increasing derivative risk exposure by 0.06%. These results indicate the presence of sectoral heterogeneities in U.S. banks' exposure to foreign counterparties' risk, and also that overall, over the course of 2017 the level of U.S. global banks' cross-border risk exposure increased, while their level of derivative risk exposure decreased, and the level of foreign office risk exposure remained relatively unchanged.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: pharmacotherapy, pharmacogenetics, genetic panel tests, clinical relevance, CYP450, SONOGEN XP
Online: 19 April 2021 (16:44:43 CEST)
There is a growing number of evidence-based indications for pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing. We aimed to evaluate clinical relevance of a 16-gene panel test for PGx-guided pharmacotherapy. In an observational cohort study we included subjects tested with a PGx panel for variants of ABCB1, COMT, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP4F2, DPYD, OPRM1, POR, SLCO1B1, TPMT and VKORC1. PGx-guided pharmacotherapy management was supported by the PGx expert system SONOGEN XP. The primary study outcome was PGx-based changes and recommendations regarding current and potential future medication. PGx-testing was triggered by specific drug-gene pairs in 102 subjects, and by screening in 33. Based on PharmGKB expert guidelines we identified at least one “actionable” variant in all 135 (100%) tested patients. Drugs that triggered PGx-testing were clopidogrel in 60, tamoxifen in 15, polypsychopharmacotherapy in 9, opioids in 7, and other in 11 patients. Among those, PGx variants resulted in clinical recommendations to change PGx-triggering drugs in 33 (32.4 %), and other current pharmacotherapy in 23 (22.5%). Additional costs of panel vs. single gene tests are moderate, and the efficiency of PGx panel testing challenges traditional cost-benefit calculations for single drug-gene pairs. However, PGx-guided pharmacotherapy requires specialized expert consultations with interdisciplinary collaborations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0319.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Environmental regulation, Industrial structure upgrade, Economic fluctuation, Dynamic panel threshold
Online: 13 November 2018 (15:11:13 CET)
This paper utilizes dynamic panel threshold technology to conduct a nonlinear test on the direct effect between environmental regulation and economic fluctuations and the effect of industrial structure upgrading by taking 35 industrial sectors in China from 2003 to 2016 . The research has found that there is an inverted "U" relationship between environmental regulation and economic fluctuations, with the enhancement of environmental regulations, the economic fluctuation increases first and then decreases. The cross-terms of environmental regulation and industrial structure rationalization or industrial structure upgrading are significantly negative, which indicates that the enhancement of environmental regulation is conducive to promoting industrial structure upgrading and reducing the economic fluctuations. While the rationalization factors of industrial structure and advanced industrial structure are significantly negative, indicating that both forms of industrial structure upgrading are conducive to reducing the economic fluctuations. Environmental regulation has technical innovation thresholds for industrial structure upgrading and economic fluctuations, but there are no human capital or FDI thresholds. In the rationalization model of industrial structure, there is a nonlinear "U" relationship between environmental regulation and economic fluctuations when the proportion of scientific research expenditure is more than 1.35%. With the enhancement of environmental regulation, the economic fluctuation reduces first and then increases, and the corresponding inflection point value is 2.398% of the environmental regulation level. At the same time, the environmental regulation can indirectly reduce economic fluctuations by pushing down the industrial structure upgrades. In the advanced model of industrial structure, there is a “U” relationship between environmental regulation and economic fluctuation when the proportion of scientific research expenditure is greater than 1.26%. With continuous enhancement of environmental regulation, the economic fluctuation reduces first and then increases. The corresponding inflection point value is 1.78% of the environmental regulation level, and environmental regulation can indirectly reduce economic fluctuations by promoting the industrial structure at the same time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0198.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Air Quality; Fixed Effects; Instrumental Variables; Panel Data; Teleworking; Traffic
Online: 29 May 2017 (11:11:54 CEST)
Traffic congestion is one of the foremost problems confronted by the urban and suburban tenants of today. Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades air quality. Urban planners and policy makers have consequently been always investigating choices to alleviate traffic congestion and to enhance air quality. Teleworking is one option that has received significant consideration and has been studied in the recent past. The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between teleworking, air quality and traffic in Switzerland. The analysis relies on panel individual and household level data over the period 2002-2013. We examine five main air pollutants; the sulphur dioxide (SO2), the ground-level ozone (O3) the nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the carbon monoxide (CO) and the particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10). Based on the fixed effects estimates, teleworking reduces traffic volume by 1.9 per cent. Furthermore, the reduction observed on air pollution is higher for NO2, CO and PM10 ranging between 3.3-3.7 per cent, followed by O3 at 2.3 per cent and SO2 at 2.1 per cent. According to instrumental variable (IV) approach and the two stage least squares (2SLS) method, the effect is higher ranging between 2.6-4.1 per cent. The respective reduction on traffic becomes 2.7 per cent. Overall, the main concluding remark of the study is that teleworking can be a promising tool for urban planning and development, focusing at the traffic volume reduction, and the air quality improvement. Additional policy implications of teleworking and its beneficial effects for the society are further discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0110.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: capital structure; firm’s performance; panel data; unit root analysis; Bangladesh
Online: 22 November 2016 (09:36:36 CET)
Capital structure decision plays an imperative role in firm’s performance. Recognizing the importance, there has been many studies inspected the rapport of capital structure with performance of firms and findings of those studies are inconclusive. In addition, there is relative deficiency of empirical studies examining the link of capital structure with performance of banks in Bangladesh. This paper attempted to fill this gap. Using panel data of 22 banks for the period of 2005-2014, this study empirically examined the impacts of capital structure on the performance of Bangladeshi banks assessed by return on equity, return on assets and earnings per share. Results from pooled ordinary least square analysis show that there are inverse impacts of capital structure on bank’s performance. Empirical findings of this study is of greater significance for the developing countries like Bangladesh because it will call upon concentration of the bank management and policy makers to pursue such policies to reduce reliance on debt and to accomplish optimal level capital structure. This research also contributes to empirical literatures by reconfirming (or otherwise) findings of previous studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0033.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: industrial pollutant emissions; urbanization; the spatial panel model; Chinese case
Online: 14 July 2016 (12:12:25 CEST)
Urbanization is considered as a main indicator of regional economic development due to its positive effect on promoting industrial development; however, many regions, especially developing countries, are troubled by its negative effect — the aggravating environmental pollution. Many researchers have indicated that rapid urbanization stimulated the expansion of industrial production scale and increased industrial pollutant emissions. However, this judgement contains a grave deficiency in that urbanization not only expands industrial production scales but can also increase industrial labour productivity and change the industrial structure. To modify this deficiency, we first decompose the influence which urbanization impacts on industrial pollutant emissions into the scale effect, the intensive effect and the structure effect by using the Kaya Identity and the LMDI Method; second, we perform an empirical study of the three effects’ impacts by applying the spatial panel model with data from 282 Chinese cities between 2003 and 2013. Our results indicate that (1) there are significant reverse U-shapes between Chinese urbanization rate and its industrial pollutant emissions; (2) the scale effect and the structure effect have aggravated Chinese industrial waste water discharge, sulphur dioxide emissions and soot (dust) emissions, while the intensive effect has generated a decreasing and ameliorative impact on that aggravated trend. The definite relationship between urbanization and industrial pollutant emissions depends on the combined influence of the scale effect, the intensive effect and the structure effect; (3) there are significant spatial autocorrelations of industrial pollutant emissions between Chinese cities, but the spatial spillover effect from other cities does not aggravate local urban industrial pollutant emissions, we offer an explanation to this contradiction that the vast rural areas surrounding Chinese cities have served as sponge belts and have absorbed the spatial spillover of cities’ industrial pollutant emissions. According to the results, we argue that this type of decomposition of the influence into three effects is necessary and meaningful, it establishes a solid foundation for understanding the relationship between urbanization and industrial pollutant emissions, and effectively helps to meet relative policy making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0551.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: steroids; steroid panel; clinical mass spectrometry; plasma; sample automation; endocrine; Synacthen
Online: 21 November 2020 (08:36:10 CET)
Steroid analysis is important in the clinical assessment of endocrine function in health and disease. Although tandem mass spectrometry methods coupled with chromatographic separation are considered the gold standard analytical technique in this setting, enabling profiling of multiple steroids in a single sample, sample processing can be labour-intensive. Here we present a simple, efficient automated 96-well Supported Liquid Extraction method with dichloromethane/isopropanol as organic solvent, carried out on a Extrahera automated sample handler (Biotage), which completes sample preparation of 80 plasma samples (200µL) in 90 minutes. Compounds were separated on a Kinetex C18 column (150x3mm;2.6um) using a mobile phase of methanol and water (0.1% formic acid). The run time was 16 minutes on a Nexera uHPLC system (Shimadzu) with a QTrap 6500+ linear ion trap mass spectrometer (AB Sciex). Precisions ranged 8.1 to 18.1% RSD, bias -10.1-5.8%, and extraction recoveries 73.5-111.9%. LOQs ranged between 0.025–0.500 ng/mL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0302.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Development economics; China’s fishery industry; development quality; spatio-temporal differentiation; panel data
Online: 20 January 2022 (11:14:26 CET)
By reviewing the research of development economics in recent years, five key terms of ‘innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing’ are extracted, corresponding to the five dimensions of the New Development Concept advocated by China. Based on this, an evaluation index system of the development quality of China's fishery industry is constructed. The spatio-temporal characteristics of China's fishery industry development quality were analyzed by using the provincial panel data from 2007 to 2017. The results show that: i) China's fishery industry overall development quality continues to grow, while the variation of provincial quality is also increasing, and the contribution of innovation quality and sharing quality is increasing, becoming an important sub-dimension leading the overall development quality.ii) there is a significant spatial dependence among provincial quality, and the significance is further strengthening. The Hangzhou Bay area and Bohai Bay area have gradually become a dual-core area where the high-quality development of China's fishery industry agglomeration, and the radiation from the dual-core area to the peripheral areas may still be in the process of enhancement. The spatial and temporal distribution of China’s fishery industry development quality keeps the trend of ‘from northeast to southwest’, which is almost parallel to Hu Huanyong line. The gravity center of its distribution is close to the gravity center of Chinese population and economy, and the development quality experienced a process from relatively concentrated to dispersed and then returned to concentrated, and the development speed in the later period was higher than that in the earlier period. iii) Capital accumulation level is the dominant positive influencing factors, while government support level is the dominant negative influencing factors respectively, and both have significant spatial differentiation among provinces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0432.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Consumption; Health care expenditure; Luxury good hypothesis; Permanent income hypothesis; Panel cointegration
Online: 27 December 2021 (14:09:29 CET)
A wide range of research has been developed in the empirical literature regarding income and price elasticities of health care expenditure (HCE). The results are mixed, as researchers employ different methodologies and data sources. The benefits of the panel data method, such as greater data variation, less collinearity, and more degrees of freedom, made it attractive among economists. However, the pooled mean group (PMG) method provides robust estimates compared to conventional methods, such as the mean group estimator and dynamic fixed-effects estimator. As such, this paper applies the PMG method to scrutinize the effect of income and price on U.S. health care consumption using a panel of 46 states. The income and price elasticities were found to be 0.85 and -0.48, respectively, which partially describes the recessionary decline in health care consumption following the Great Recession. In addition, the model reveals that the short-run income elasticity is smaller than the long-run. This confirms that U.S. health care consumption follows the permanent income hypothesis. Consequently, the short-run efficacy of public policies targeting HCE remains limited. The results of this paper suggest reconsidering and adjusting health care policies during a recession so as to avoid probable long-run adverse effects on HCE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0219.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: solar energy; micro-cogeneration; exergy; multi-objective optimization; PVT collector; PV panel
Online: 10 September 2020 (04:42:24 CEST)
A photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) collector is a solar-based micro-cogeneration system which generates simultaneously heat and power for buildings. The novelty of this paper is to conduct energy and exergy analysis on PVT collector performance under two different European climate conditions. The performance of the PVT collector is compared to a PV panel. Finally, the PVT design is optimized in terms of thermal and electrical exergy efficiencies. The optimized PVT designs are compared to the PV panel performance as well. The main focus is to find out if the PVT is still competitive with the PV panel electrical output, after maximizing its thermal exergy efficiency. The PVT collector is modelled into Matlab/Simulink to evaluate its performance under varying weather conditions. The PV panel is modelled with the CARNOT toolbox library. The optimization is conducted using Matlab gamultiobj-function based on Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II). The results indicated 7.7% higher annual energy production in Strasbourg. However, the exergy analysis revealed a better quality of thermal energy in Tampere with 72.9% higher thermal exergy production. The electrical output of the PVT is higher than from the PV during the summer months. The thermal exergy- driven PVT design is still competitive compared to the PV panel electrical output.
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: economic growth; CO2 emissions; cancer incidence; the CIS region; panel data estimation
Online: 12 January 2020 (16:33:48 CET)
It is widely discussed that growth of GDP has a vague impact on environmental pollution due to the emissions of carbon dioxide from consumed fossil fuels in production, transportation and power generation, and creation of required instruments to control environmental pollution as well. Due to the fact that environmental pollution can be a reason of mortality increase in a society, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between economic growth, fossil fuel consumption, mortality (from cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory disease) and environmental pollution using Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimation technique in the case of CIS member states over the period of 1993-2018. The major results revealed CO2 emissions in in the region of CIS have a positive effect on increase of mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory disease. In regards to fossil fuel consumption, the estimation proved that this variable affects mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory disease positively. In addition, we found effect of economic growth, population growth and inflation rate positively, while any improvement in human development index (HDI) has a negative effect on increase of mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory disease in the CIS region. It is recommended that the CIS member states carry out different policies to improve energy transition indicating movement from fossil fuel energy sources to renewable ones. Moreover, we recommend the CIS member states to enhance various policies for easy access to the electricity from green sources and increase of renewable supply through improved technologies, sustainable economic growth, and increase of using green source in daily social life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0248.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: photovoltaic panel; explicit model; spectrum splitting; I-V characteristic prediction; shape parameter
Online: 23 August 2018 (11:03:53 CEST)
Looking at different operating climatic conditions, the electrical behavior predicting photovoltaic modules gets very important. For the estimation of output power from photovoltaic (PV) plants this is a very essential and basic aspect. In this paper, the relationship between the I-V curve and the irradiation spectrum is discussed by combining the single diode model. An explicit elementary analytical model with two defined shape parameters is discussed and improved with three approximations and second order Taylor expansion. Then, the explicit elementary analytical model is investigated under varying conditions leveraging the four parameters Iph, I0, Rs and Rsh from the single diode model. The relationship between the physical parameters and the condition parameters are discussed and applied to extract the shape parameters at different scenarios. Considering the aging effect, the process of calculation to predict the I-V curve under different splitting spectra is simplified as follow: (1) two shape parameters are gotten from the I-V data at measurement reference conditions (MRC); (2) the short circuit current, open circuit voltage and shape parameters under any splitting spectrum can be calculated based on the relationship provided in article; (3) the performance of PV panel can be predicted with parameters. The validation of this model was experimentally proven leveraging monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic module with different splitting films. Results showed that the model accurately predicts the I-V characteristics for the examined PV modules at different irradiance spectra and cell temperatures. Moreover, the presented model performs superior compared to other investigated models when looking at accuracy and simplicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0094.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Exchange traded funds, ETFs, tracking error, panel regression model, fixed effects estimation
Online: 29 July 2016 (12:39:32 CEST)
This paper uses panel data to find the determinants of tracking errors in exchange traded funds (ETFs) in the Hong Kong stock market. A comparison of tracking errors between physical and synthetic ETFs also indicates that the synthetic ETFs have higher tracking errors. The magnitude of tracking errors is found to be negatively related to size but positively related to dividend yield, trading volumes of funds, and market risk. However, this study also finds that expense ratio has a negative impact on tracking error, which is not consistent with previous studies, and which this paper addresses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0074.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: tomatoes; drip irrigation; mulching; solar pump; photovoltaic panel; economic indices; irrigation water indices
Online: 4 March 2022 (08:39:44 CET)
Tomatoes, one of the most appreciated vegetables consumed, are crops well adapted for cultivation in arid and semi-arid conditions, the success of large yields is guaranteed by covering water consumption through irrigation. Solar Pumps - SP are driven by Photovoltaic Panels - PV (SPAPV), eliminating the dependence on electricity or diesel; they are environmentally friendly because they generate carbon-free electricity and the cost of operation and maintenance is lower. In order to preserve the water administered by drip to the tomato crop grown in solariums, mulching is used. In Husasău de Tinca, in the Crișurilor Plain, cultivation of tomato varieties without mulching (WM) and with mulching with black foil (MBF) were studied. To answer the question "How effective are water conservation measures in terms of energy independence?", two variants of SPAPVs, direct pumping (ADP) and storage tank (AST) were simulated. Considering the conditions in the solariums, tomato crops do not benefit from the contribution of precipitation, therefore it is proposed to determine the water consumption of tomatoes (ETRo), using the temperatures inside the solarium. In 2016, the average temperatures during the vegetation period were observed with an insurance of over 20 %, the irrigation norms were 6945.7 m3 ha-1, for the WM variant and 6594.0 m3 ha-1 for the MBF variant, respectively. Specific Investment (SI) is 214,795 Euro ha-1 in case of ADP and respectively 202,990 Euro ha-1 in case of ATS. The payback period (IPT) is between 2.68 years and 2.53 years for the ADP variant and between 1.63 years and 1.54 years for the ATS variant, respectively. The indications for water use and irrigation water use show that in the MBF variant the water administered by localized irrigation is better utilized than in the WM variant. In the conditions of Crișurilor Plain, the best solution for the distribution of water in solariums, with the help of SPAPVs is the mulching system of tomatoes grown in solariums (MBF) and the arrangement of the drip irrigation system with a water storage tank (ATS).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Air Handling Unit; Battery Room; HVACS; Network Control Panel; and Intrinsic Safe Barrier Module
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:11:23 CEST)
Lead-acid batteries utilised in electrical substations release hydrogen and oxygen when these are charged. These gases could be dangerous and cause a risk of fire if they are not properly ventilated. Therefore, this research seeks to design and implement a network control panel for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems (HVACS). This is done using a specific range of controllers, which have more than thirty loops of proportional, integral and derivative (PID) control to achieve a cost-effective design. It performs the required function of extracting hydrogen, oxygen, and maintaining the desired temperature of the battery storage room within the recommended limits (i.e. 25°C ±1°C tolerance) without compromising quality as set out in the user requirement specification in Appendix-A. The system control panel allows the user to access control parameters such as changing temperature set-points, fan-speed, sensor database amongst others. The hardware is configured to detect extreme hydrogen and oxygen gas content in the battery room and ensure that the HVACS extract the gas content to the outside environment. The results of the system show that the network control panel effectively operates as per the recommended system requirements. Therefore, the effective operation of the HVACS ensures sufficient gas ventilation, thus mitigating the risk of fire in a typical battery storage room. Furthermore, the effective operation of HVACS enhances battery lifespan because of regulated operating temperature, which is conducive to minimise the effect of sulfation in lead acid Batteries (LABs).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0162.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal emittance; conversion efficiency; selective solar absorber; thermal energy; evacuated flat panel; solar energy
Online: 20 October 2020 (12:18:01 CEST)
This study refers to the optimization of a Selective Solar Absorber to improve the Sun-to-thermal conversion efficiency at mid temperatures in high vacuum flat thermal collectors. Efficiency has been evaluated by using analytical formula and a numerical thermal model. Both results have been experimentally validated using a commercial absorber in a custom experimental set-up. The optimization procedure aimed at obtaining Selective Solar Absorber is presented and discussed in the case of a metal dielectric multilayer based on Cr2O3 and Ti. The importance of adopting a real spectral emissivity curve to estimate high thermal efficiency at high temperatures in selective solar absorber is outlined. Optimized absorber multilayers can be 8% more efficient than the commercial alternative at 250 °C operating temperatures and up to 27% more efficient at 300 °C. Once the multilayer has been optimized the choice of a very low emissivity substrate such as copper allows to further improve efficiency and to reach stagnation temperature higher than 400 °C without Sun concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0337.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Information and Communication Technology; Digital Economy; Electronic Tourism; Principle Factors Analysis; Dynamic Panel Data
Online: 28 June 2020 (10:12:42 CEST)
As we know, the economy of science is to achieve optimal gains using scarce resources. Similarly, a problem where economies of the world are trying to resolve it is the issue of how to achieve an optimal economic contribution from limited tourism resources. According to the fact that global studies and statistics indicate that good governance is considered as the most important factor in developing countries and is considered as a strong governance of the development and as Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is effective in the interactions and economic and social exchanges of any society, it is the link between the tourism industry and the technology under the form of a robust tool and utilitarian in the tourism process called E-tourism can play a significant role. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of network Readiness Index and good governance on income from tourism industry. In this study, data and information about 14 selected countries were collected from Southwest Asia in the annual period of 2016-2011 in the form of panel data and the proposed model was used and estimated by the generalized torques system method. The estimated results of the model indicate that both hypotheses have a positive and significant impact on the amount of Network Readiness Index in the income of tourism industry, as well as the positive and significant effect of the index the amount of income from the tourism industry is confirmed, and their impact has been positive and significant, as well as exchange rate variables, revenue and commercial openness, also have a positive and significant effect on revenues of the tourism industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: GeneXpert; TB Expert Panel; Smear Negatives; Clinically Diagnosed TB; TB DOTS; Chest X-ray
Online: 17 May 2019 (11:18:34 CEST)
Setting A high proportion of notified tuberculosis cases in the Philippines are clinically diagnosed (63%) as opposed to bacteriologically confirmed. Better understanding of this phenomenon is required to improve tuberculosis control. Objectives To determine the percentage of Smear Negative Presumptive Tuberculosis patients that would be diagnosed by GeneXpert; compare clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed as tuberculosis cases; and review the impact that the current single government physician and a reconstituted Tuberculosis Diagnostic committee (Expert Panel) may have on tuberculosis over-diagnosis. Design This is a cross-sectional study of 152 patients 15-85 years old with two negative Direct Sputum Smear Microscopy results, with abnormal chest X-ray who underwent GeneXpert testing and review by an Expert Panel. Results 31% (48/152) of the sample were Xpert positive. 93% (97/104) of GeneXpert negatives were clinically diagnosed by a Single Physician. Typical symptoms and X-ray findings were higher in bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis. When compared to GeneXpert results, the Expert panel’s sensitivity for active tuberculosis was high (97.5%, 39/40) but specificity was low (40.2%, 35/87). Conclusion Using the GeneXpert would increase the level of bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis substantially among presumptive Tuberculosis. An Expert panel will greatly reduce over-diagnosis usually seen when a decision is made by a Single Physician.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0147.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: alternative materials, fibre reinforced polymer, insulation, precast concrete sandwich panel, shear connection, thermal efficiency
Online: 8 October 2018 (12:50:05 CEST)
Precast concrete sandwich panels (PCSP) are energy efficient building system that is achieved through an insulation layer created between the concrete wythes. The insulation layer is usually of low bearing strength material making it more applicable for non-structural building systems. Hence, shear connectors are introduced to improve its structural capacity, which subsequently degrades it thermal performance by serving as thermal bridges across the panel. This article review researches of alternative materials and methods used to improve the thermal efficiency as well as reduced the strength loss due to insulation in PCSP. The alternative materials are basalt fibre reinforced polymer (BFRP), carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP), glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP), and foam concrete which are selected due to their low thermal conductivity for use in shear connection. While thermal path method has been used to prevent the effect of thermal bridges. Although, some of these materials have successfully achieved the desirable behaviours, however, several undesirable properties such as brittleness, bond slip, the sudden crushing of the panel system, and FRP failure below its ultimate strength were observed. Hence, the practicality of the alternative materials is still questionable despite its higher cost compared to the conventional steel and concrete used in the PCSP system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: stroke; CNS; ischaemic; haemorrhagic; biomarker; panel; young adults; children; triage; specifici-ty; sensitivity; prediction values
Online: 29 April 2022 (07:44:11 CEST)
Early stroke diagnosis remains a big challenge in healthcare partly due to the lack of reliable diagnostic blood biomarkers, which in turn leads to increased rates of mortality and disability. Current screening methods are optimised to identify patients with a high risk of cardio-vascular disease, especially among the elderly. However, in young adults and children, these methods suffer low sensitivity and specificity and contribute to further delays in their triage and diagnosis. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to develop reliable blood biomarkers for triaging patients suspected of stroke in all age groups, especially children and young adults. This review explores some of the existing blood biomarkers, as single biomarkers, or biomarker panels, and examine their sensitivity and specificity for predicting stroke. A review was performed on PubMed and Web of Science for journal articles published in English during the period 2001 to 2021 which contained information regarding biomarkers of stroke. In this review article, we provide comparative information on the availability, clinical usefulness, and time-window periods of eight single blood biomarkers and six biomarker panels that have been used for predicting stroke in emergency situations. The outcomes of this review can be used in future research for developing more effective stroke biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: tabletop system, user position identification, infrared image recognition, multi-touch gesture, FTIR panel, system usability
Online: 8 March 2018 (16:15:54 CET)
A tabletop system can facilitate multi-user collaboration in a variety of settings including small meetings, group work, and education and training exercises. The ability of identifying the users touching the table and their positions can promote collaborative work among participants, so methods have been studied that involve the attaching of sensors to the table or chairs or to the users themselves. An effective method of recognizing user actions without placing a burden on the user would be some type of visual process, so the development of a method that processes multi-touch gestures by visual means is desired. This paper describes the development of a multi-touch tabletop system using infrared image recognition for user position identification and presents the results of touch-gesture recognition experiments and a system usability evaluation. Using an FTIR touch panel and infrared light, this system picks up the shadow area of the user’s hand by infrared camera in relation to user touch operations and estimates user position by image recognition. The multi-touch gestures prepared for this system include an operation to change the direction of an object to face the user and a copy operation in which two users generate duplicates of an object. The average recognition rate of the change-direction gesture and copy gesture were found to be 96% and 85%, respectively. In addition, the system usability evaluation revealed that prior learning was easy and that system operations could be easily performed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: corrugated cardboard; edge crush test; orthotropic elasticity; digital image correlation, tensile stiffness, compressive stiffness, sandwich panel
Online: 1 September 2021 (14:20:05 CEST)
The standard edge crush test (ECT) allows to determine the crushing strength of the corrugated cardboard. Unfortunately, this test cannot be used to estimate the compressive stiffness, which is an equally important parameter. It is because, any attempt to determine this parameter using current lab equipment quickly ends in a fiasco. The biggest obstacle is obtaining a reliable measurement of displacements and strains in the corrugated cardboard sample. In this paper, we present a method that not only allows to reliably identify the stiffness in the loaded direction of orthotropy in the corrugated board sample, but also the full orthotropic material stiffness matrix. The proposed method uses two samples: (a) traditional, cut crosswise to the wave direction of the corrugated core, and (b) cut at an angle of 45 degrees. Additionally, in both cases, an optical system with digital image correlation (DIC) is used to measure the displacements and strains on the outer surface of samples. The use of a non-contact measuring system allows to avoid using the measurement of displacements from the crosshead, which is burdened with a large error. Apart from the new experimental configuration, the article also proposes a simple algorithm to quickly characterize all sought stiffness parameters. The obtained results are finally compared with the results obtained in the homogenization procedure of the cross-section of the corrugated board. The results were consistent in both cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0014.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: neonatal sepsis; blood culture; early-onset sepsis; late-onset sepsis; FilmArray® blood culture identification panel; neonates.
Online: 1 February 2023 (11:50:19 CET)
This prospective single-center study was designed to assess the clinical utility of the FilmArray® blood culture identification (BCID) panel for improving the diagnostic accuracy in neonatal sepsis. Results obtained using the FilmArray® BCID panel were correlated with results of blood culture in all consecutive neonates with suspicion of early-onset (EOS) and late-onset sepsis (LOS) attended in our service over a 2-year period. A total of 102 blood cultures from 92 neonates were included, 69 (67.5%) in cases of EOS and 33 (32.3%) in LOS. The FilmArray® BCID panel was performed in negative culture bottles at a median of 10 hours of blood culture incubation (range 7.5-20 hours), without differences by the type of sepsis. The FilmArray® BCID panel showed a 66.7% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 95.7% negative predictive value. There were four false-negative cases, three of which of Streptococcus epidermidis in neonates with LOS and one case of Granulicatella adiacens in one neonate with EOS. We conclude that the use of the FilmArray® BCID panel in negative blood cultures from neonates with clinical suspicion of sepsis is useful in decision-making of starting or early withdrawal of empirical antimicrobials because of the high specificity and negative predictive values of this assay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0060.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: multi-layer core corrugated sandwich panel; three-point bending; 3D printing; core shape; number of core layers
Online: 2 August 2022 (10:00:47 CEST)
Single-layer core corrugated sandwich panels generally consist of a corrugated core and two layers of panels, while multi-layer core corrugated sandwich panels are formed by stacking multiple layers of panels with multiple layers of core layers. In this study, integrated multilayer core corrugated sandwich panels with different shapes of corrugated cores (triangular, trapezoidal, and rectangular) and the different number of core layers were fabricated using 3D printing technology, and the mechanical behavior of such multilayer core corrugated sandwich panels under quasi-static three-point bending was investigated using experiments and numerical simulations. The effects of core shape and number of core layers on the bending deformation process, damage mode, load carrying capacity, and bending energy dissipation capacity of multilayer core sandwich panels are discussed. Parametric design of multilayer triangular core corrugated sandwich panels was also carried out by finite element software ABAQUS. It was found that a new multilayer corrugated sandwich panel with a multi-layer core is better than the single core shape multilayer corrugated sandwich panel in terms of bending load capacity, energy dissipation capacity and deformation capacity can be obtained through the combination design of different core shapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0304.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: photovoltaic cell; photovoltaic module; photovoltaic panel; photovoltaic array; current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve; power-voltage (P-V) characteristic curve
Online: 20 September 2022 (10:25:43 CEST)
In this paper, a study of modeling PV cell (solar cell), PV module (solar modules) and PV array solar array) using Matlab/Simulink software is presented. This study is focused on the study to design photovoltaic cell, photovoltaic modules, photovoltaic panels and PV array (solar array) and to analyze the change in PV performance according to changes in different parameters such temperature, solar irradiation, reverse saturation current, series resistance and shunt resistance. This study shows the PV and IV characteristics curve for each model from which MPP (maximum power point) is determined. In this study, different PV and IV characteristic curves are gained for varying temperatures with specified solar irradiation conditions,s and then the MPP is tracked. The highest power output is also compared between the designed PV module and the selected PV module (MX Solar USA MX60-245)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0123.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Sentinel-2; Land cover; Vegetation; Mapping; Plant communities; Machine learning; Genus-Physiognomy-Ecosystem; Gradient Boosting Decision Trees; Solar panel; Vegetation disturbance
Online: 4 April 2022 (10:40:26 CEST)
This research introduces Genus-Physiognomy-Ecosystem (GPE) mapping at a prefecture level through machine learning of multi-spectral and multi-temporal satellite images at 10m spatial resolution, and later integration of prefecture wise maps into country scale for dealing with 88 GPE types to be classified from a large size of training data involved in the research effectively. This research was made possible by harnessing entire archives of Level-2A product, Bottom of Atmosphere reflectance images collected by MultiSpectral Instruments onboard a constellation of two polar-orbiting Sentinel-2 mission satellites. The satellite images were pre-processed for cloud masking and monthly median composite images consisting of 10 multi-spectral bands and 7 spectral indexes were generated. The ground truth labels were extracted from extant vegetation survey maps by implementing systematic stratified sampling approach and noisy labels were dropped out for preparing a reliable ground truth database. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) implementation of Gradient Boosting Decision Trees (GBDT) classifier was employed for classification of 88 GPE types from 204 satellite features. The classification accuracy computed with 25% test data varied from 65-81% in terms of F1-score across 48 prefectural regions. This research produced seamless maps of 88 GPE types first time at a country scale with an average 72% F1-score. In addition, mapping of solar panels and vegetation disturbance are added.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0362.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: tuberculosis (TB); human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS); World Health Organization (WHO); panel data; poisson; negative binomial; regression
Online: 31 October 2019 (04:33:45 CET)
Tuberculosis cause of death worldwide and the leading cause from a single infectious agent, ranking above Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The aim of this study is to ascertain the trend of tuberculosis prevalence and the effect of HIV prevalence onl Tuberculosis case in some West African countries from 2000 to 2016 using count panel data regression models. The data used annual HIV and Tuberculosis cases spanning from 2000 to 2016 extracted from online publication of World health Organization (WHO). Panel Poisson regression model and Negative binomial regression model for fixed and random effects were used to analyzed the count data, the result revealed a positive trend in TB cases while increased in HIV cases leads to increase in TB cases in West African countries. Among the competing models used in this study, Panel Negative Binomial Regression Model with fixed effect emerged the best model with log likelihood value of -1336.554. This study recommended that Government and NGOs need more strategies to fight against HIV menace in West Africa as this will in turn reduced TB cases in West Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0280.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Fanconi anemia; oral cancer; oral potentially malignant lesion; liquid biopsy; saliva; oral rinse; plasma; next generation sequencing; cancer gene panel; early diagnosis; diagnostic test; deep sequencing
Online: 16 January 2023 (09:10:06 CET)
Fanconi anemia (FA) patients display an exacerbated risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and precursor lesions at young ages, mainly at the oral cavity. As patients have defects in DNA repair mechanisms, standard-of-care treatments to OSCC such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy give rise to severe toxicities. New methods for early diagnosis are urgently necessary to allow treatments in early disease stages and achieve better clinical outcomes. We have conducted a prospective, longitudinal study whereby liquid biopsies from sixteen lesion/tumor-free patients were analyzed for the presence of mutations in cancer genes. DNA from saliva and plasma were sequentially collected and deep-sequenced, and the clinical evolution followed during a median time of around 2 years. In 9/16 FA patients we detected mutations in cancer genes (mainly TP53) with molecular allele frequencies (MAF) down to 0.07 %. Importantly, all patients having mutations and clinical follow-up data after mutation detection (n=6) developed oral precursor lesions or OSCC. Lead-time between mutation detection and tumor diagnosis ranged from 23 to 630 days. Strikingly, FA patients without mutations display significantly lower risk of developing precursor lesions or OSCC. Therefore, our diagnostic approach could help to stratify FA patients into risk groups, which would allow closer surveillance for OSCC or precursor lesions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0325.v1
Subject: Keywords: agriculture; grain and products of its processing; competitiveness; prices; production volumes; export; import; price competitiveness factor; integral indicator of competitiveness; Eurasian Economic Union (EAE); factor analysis; panel data models
Online: 31 January 2019 (09:23:42 CET)
This article discusses the outcomes of a quantitative analysis of the competitiveness of grain and its recycling in the countries-members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) through econometric panel data models. The analysis is based on the data of public authorities’ statistics of the countries-members of the EEU, as well as the United Nations Comtrade Database which is a repository of official international trade statistics. The results of the analysis allow to assess the level of competitiveness of produced agro-food products in the countries-members of the EEU and determine the extent to which various factors affect it. The research conclusions can be used to develop and adjust the agreed with the agro-food policy in the EEU.