ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1066.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: MoS2; Lithium base grease; addition method; Friction; corro
Online: 16 November 2023 (10:29:15 CET)
MoS2 lithium-based grease is suitable for lubrication protection between bearings at high temperatures and loads due to its excellent tribological properties. However, there is little research on the influence of different addition methods of MoS2 additive on the tribology and corrosion properties of lithium grease. In this work, vegetable oil with low toxicity, high biodegradation rate, and low cost was selected as the base oil, lithium 12-hydroxystearate as the thickener, and MoS2 as the additive. The effects of different adding modes of MoS2 on the tribology and corrosion properties of lithium grease were studied. The experimental results showed that adding 0.01wt% MoS2 before thickening was more conducive to improving the tribological properties of lithium grease. The average friction coefficient was 0.034, and the average spot diameter was reduced by 0.16mm. After grinding and adding 0.01wt% MoS2, the corrosion inhibition efficiency of the steel sheet was as high as 96.97%. The main reason was that the longer stirring and grinding were conducive to the uniform distribution of MoS2 in the grease, and the protective film formed by MoS2 and GCr15-bearing steel improved the lubrication performance and corrosion inhibition performance of the friction system.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0282.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: fly ash, process mineralogy, minerals, rare and precious metals, separation and enrichment
Online: 25 April 2019 (11:24:23 CEST)
The separation and enrichment can be targeted to enrich the rare and precious metals in fly ash and reduce the cost of leaching and recovering of fly ash. Regarding their different properties, the single-component separation was used to obtain uncompleted burned carbon, glass microbeads, minerals, and other characteristic components from the ash. Also, the mineral composition of each component was analyzed by electron microscopy. The metal minerals were mainly concentrated in the mineral components. Besides, the electron probe micro-analysis shows that the Pt content in the minerals of fly ash was significantly correlated with the metal contents of Ni and Cu. After the obtainment of the characteristics of fly ash metal enrichment, the heavy minerals with Cu, Ni, Pt, Pd, and other target metal elements were enriched by gravity separation and flotation. The enrichment coefficients of Cu, Ni, Pt, and Pd were 1.45, 1.33, 1.90 and 1.60, respectively, and the recovery rates were 77%, 81%, 97% and 88% respectively. Since the yield of heavy minerals obtained by separation was 62.24%, it indicated the physical separation method could significantly reduce the cost of leaching and recovering of fly ash metal resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0347.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Monascus ruber; mrpigH; Monascus pigments; citrinin
Online: 19 November 2021 (11:29:21 CET)
Monascus pigments (MPs) have been used as food colorants for several centuries in Asian countries and nowadays in the whole world via Asian catering. The MPs biosynthetic pathway has been well-illustrated, however, the functions of a few genes including mrpigH in the MPs gene cluster of M. ruber M7 are still unclear. In current study, mrpigH was disrupted in Δmrlig4ΔmrpyrG, a highly efficient gene modification system, using mrpyrG as a selection marker, and ΔmrpigHΔmrlig4ΔmrpyrG::mrpyrG and ΔmrpigHΔmrlig4ΔmrpyrG have been obtained. Subsequently, their morphologies, biomasses, MPs and citrinin (CIT) production were analyzed, respectively. These results have revealed that the deletion of mrpigH has significant effects on the morphology and growth of M. ruber M7. Moreover, compared with M. ruber M7, the yields of MPs and CIT were drastically increased and decreased in mrpigH mutants, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1575.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: premature infants; umbilical cord shedding time; influencing factors
Online: 24 July 2023 (10:45:07 CEST)
Objective: To study the factors affecting the time of umbilical cord shedding in premature infants.Methods: A total of 151 premature infants who were born in the obstetrics department of a Class III hospital in Hefei from November 2020 to June 2021 were selected as subjects. All premature infants and their families met the complete inclusion criteria. A total of 33 related factors from 3 aspects, including the birth situation of premature infants, the condition of premature infants in hospital and the condition of pregnant mothers, were collected for univariate analysis and multiple Logistic regression analysis. The relevant factors affecting the umbilical cord shedding time of premature infants were screened through the univariate analysis results, and the main factors affecting the umbilical cord shedding time of premature infants were screened through the multiple Logistic regression analysis results.it was found that the weight, gestural age, admission age, whether the premature infants were combined with NRDS, the use of antibiotics, the duration in the warm box, the initial temperature in the warm box, the duration of light therapy, the degree of Apgar for 1 minute, the maternal education level had an effect on the time of umbilical cord shedding of premature infants (P < 0.05). Through Logistic multiple regression analysis, it was screened that the duration of premature infants in the incubator was the main factor affecting the umbilical cord shedding time of premature infants (P < 0.05).Conclusion: Factors such as premature infants' weight, gestural age, admission age, whether they are combined with NRDS, antibiotic use, duration in the incubator, initial temperature in the incubator, duration of phototherapy, Apgar level of 1 minute, and maternal education level will affect the umbilical cord shedding time of premature infants. Among them, duration in the incubator is the main factor affecting the umbilical cord shedding time of premature infants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1451.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: autonomous driving in round intersection; Partially Observable Markov Decision Process; Object Oriented Partially Observable Markov Decision Process; Partially Observable Monte-Carlo Planning
Online: 24 October 2023 (02:19:50 CEST)
Autonomous shuttles have been used as end mile solutions for smart mobility in smart cities. The urban driving conditions of smart cities with many other actors sharing the road and the presence of intersections have posed challenges to the use of autonomous shuttles. Round intersections are more challenging as it is more difficult to perceive the other vehicles in and near the intersection. Thus, this paper focuses on decision making of autonomous vehicles for handling round intersections. The round intersection is introduced first, followed by introductions of the Markov Decision Process (MDP), the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) and the Object Oriented Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (OOPOMDP) which are used for decision making with uncertain knowledge of the motion of the other vehicles. The Partially Observable Monte-Carlo Planning (POMCP) algorithm is used as the solution method and OOPOMDP is applied to decision making for autonomous vehicles in round intersections. Decision making is formulated first as a POMDP problem, and the penalty function is formulated and set accordingly. This is followed by improvement of decision making with policy prediction. Augmented objective state and policy-based state transition are introduced and simulations are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for collision free handling of round intersections by the ego vehicle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0297.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: light alloys; magnesium; corrosion; vanadate; phosphate; fluoride; inhibition; conversion coating
Online: 21 February 2020 (02:21:19 CET)
The anodic polarization response of magnesium alloy AZ31 was characterized during exposure to aerated 0.1M NaCl solutions with millimolar additions of NaVO3, Na3PO4, Na2HPO4, NaF and various pairings to assess their ability to inhibit corrosion kinetics and retard localized corrosion. Each of the candidate inhibitors reduced the corrosion rate of the alloy to some degree. A Na3PO4 - NaVO3 pair produced a powerful inhibiting response decreasing the corrosion rate to about 10-7 A/cm2, which was two orders of magnitude lower than the uninhibited control case. A Bliss Independence assessment indicated that this inhibitor pair acted synergistically. A Na2HPO4 - NaVO3 pair reduced the corrosion rate to 10-6 A/cm2 but was not assessed to be acting synergistically. The NaVO3 - NaF pair did not reduce the corrosion rate significantly compared to the control case and was an antagonistic pairing. SEM imaging showed film formation due to exposure, which appears to be the origins of the observed inhibition. The resistance to localized corrosion was assessed as the difference in the breakdown potential and the corrosion potential with larger values indicating a lower probability of localized corrosion during free corrosion exposures. Effects of the inhibitors on this characteristic were mixed, but each of the inhibitor pairs yielded potential differences in excess of 100mV. A conceptual conversion coating process based on a mixture of vanadate and phosphate compounds were demonstrated. A fluoride-bearing formulation produced coatings whose total impedance was increased by a factor or 2 compared to an uncoated control. A fluoride-free formulation produced coatings whose corrosion resistance was increased by more than a factor of 3.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1259.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Laportea bulbifera (Sieb. et Zucc.) Wedd.; chemical composition; geographical distribution; geographical distribution; morphological description; quality control; pharmacological effects
Online: 20 November 2023 (17:05:04 CET)
Laportea bulbifera (Sieb. et Zucc.) Wedd. (L. bulbifera) is a significant plant belonging to the Laportea genus. It has been traditionally used in ethnomedicine to treat various conditions such as rheumatic arthralgia, fractures, falling injuries, nephritis dropsy, limb numbness, pruritus, fatigue-induced internal imbalances, and irregular menstruation. Modern pharmacological studies have confirmed its therapeutic potential, as it exhibits anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, analgesic, and anti-rheumatoid arthritis properties. In order to gather in-depth information on L. bulbifera, a comprehensive literature search was conducted using databases such as Web of Science, PubMed, ProQuest, and CNKI. This review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of L. bulbifera by covering various aspects, including ethnomedicinal uses, geographical distribution, botanical description, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and quality control. By doing so, this review intends to lay a strong foundation and propose new research avenues for the exploration and development of potential applications of L. bulbifera. Thus far, a total of 189 compounds have been isolated and identified from L. bulbifera. These compounds include flavonoids, phenolics, nitrogen compounds, steroids, terpenoids, coumarins, phenylpropanoids, fatty acids and their derivatives, and other compounds. Notably, flavonoids and fatty acids in L. bulbifera have demonstrated remarkable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Furthermore, these compounds show promising potential in activities such as analgesia, hypoglycemia, and hypolipidemia, as well as toxicity. Despite the extensive fundamental studies conducted on L. bulbifera, further research is still needed to enhance our understanding of its credible mechanism of action and improve its quality control. This necessitates more comprehensive investigations to explore the specific material basis, uncover new mechanisms of action, and refine the quality control methods related to L. bulbifera. By doing so, we could contribute to the further development and utilization of this plant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0309.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: in vitro diagnostics; microfluidics; full integration; lab-on-a-chip; pathogen detection
Online: 26 November 2019 (09:56:47 CET)
Microfluidics is facing critical challenges in the quest of miniaturizing, integrating, and automating in vitro diagnostics, including the increasing complexity of assays, the gap between the macroscale world and the microscale devices, and the diverse throughput demands in various clinical settings. Here a “3D extensible” microfluidic design paradigm that consists of a set of basic structures and unit operations was developed for constructing any application-specific assay. Four basic structures- check valve (in), check valve (out), double-check valve (in and out), and on-off valve, were designed to mimic basic acts in biochemical assays. By combining these structures linearly, a series of unit operations can be readily formed. We then proposed a “3D extensible” architecture to fulfill the needs of the function integration, the adaptive “world-to-chip” interface, and the adjustable throughput in the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively. To verify this design paradigm, we developed a fully integrated loop-mediated isothermal amplification microsystem that can directly accept swab samples and detect Chlamydia trachomatis automatically with a sensitivity one order higher than that of the conventional kit. This demonstration validated the feasibility of using this paradigm to develop integrated and automated microsystems in a less risky and more consistent manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1523.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: image inpainting; tensor decomposition; rearrangement scheme; unfolding matrix; alternating direction multiplier method
Online: 24 October 2023 (11:23:06 CEST)
Employing low tensor rank decompositions in image inpainting has attracted increasing attention. This paper exploits a novel tensor-augmentation schemes to transform an image (a low-order tensor) to a higher-order tensor without changing the total number of pixels. The developed augmentation schemes enhance the low-rankness of an image under three tensor decompositions: matrix SVD, tensor train (TT) decomposition, and tensor singular value decomposition (t-SVD). By exploiting the schemes, we solve the image inpainting problem with three low-rank con-strained models which use the matrix rank, TT rank, and tubal rank as constrained priors re-spectively. The tensor tubal rank and tensor train multi-rank are developed from t-SVD and TT decomposition respectively. We exploit efficient ADMM algorithms for solving the three models. Experimental results demonstrate that our methods are effective for image inpainting and supe-rior to numerous close methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1793.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: B-factor; CSLE; google earth engine; soil erosion; data patching
Online: 28 November 2023 (10:11:26 CET)
The biological conservation measures factor (B) in the Chinese Soil loss Equation (CSLE) model is one of the main components in evaluating soil erosion, and the accurate calculation of B factor at the regional scale is fundamental in predicting regional soil erosion and the dynamic changes. In this study, we developed an optimal computational procedure for estimating and mapping the B factor in the Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud computing environment using multiple data sources through data suitability assessment and image fusion. Taking the Yanhe River Basin in the Loess Plateau of China as an example, we evaluated the availability of daily precipitation data (CHIRPS, ERA5, and PERSIANN-CDR data) against the data at national meteorological stations. We estimated the B factor from Sentinel-2 data and proposed a new method, namely trend migration method, to patch the missing values in Sentinel-2 data using three other remote sensing data (MOD09GA, Landsat-7, Landsat-8). We then calculated and mapped the B-factor in Yanhe River Basin based on rainfall erosivity, vegetation coverage, and land use types. The results show that the ERA5 precipitation dataset outperforms the CHIRPS and PERSIANN-CDR data in estimating rainfall erosivity and rainfall, and it can be utilized as an alternative data source for meteorological stations in soil erosion modeling. Compared to the harmonic analysis of time series (HANTS), the trend migration method proposed in this study is more suitable for patching the missing parts of Sentinel-2 data. The restored high-resolution Sentinel-2 data fit nicely with the 10-m resolution land use data, enhancing the B factor calculation accuracy from the region to the spot level. The B factor computation procedure developed in this study is applicable to various river basin and regional scales for regional soil erosion monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0364.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Rab 7; hypoxic; HMEC-1; MMP-2 activity; RECK
Online: 15 March 2021 (10:33:05 CET)
The purpose of our study was to discuss Rab 7 effects in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: Using WT and Rab 7-/- mice as target animal, and HK-2 and HMEC-1 cell co-cultured to make cell model. Measuring kidney tissues were evaluated by Sirius red staining, immunohistochemistry staining to CD 34 protein, Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and gelatin zymography to MMP-2 activities. The cell proliferation were measured by CCK-8 and Ki67 protein expression. Measuring cell invasion and total length were evaluated by transwell and in vitro angiogenesis assay. MMP-2 activities were evaluated by gelatin zymography in cell groups. The relative proteins expression were evaluated by Western blot in kidney tissues and cell groups. Results: Hypoxia promoted the expression of Rab7 in HMEC-1, and the activity of MMP-2 related with regulatory molecules such as reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK), negative correlation with membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP or MMP-14) on the membrane of TECs. In addition, the up-regulation of the expression of Rab7 inhibited the activity of MMP-2 and proliferation and cyclization of endothelial cells, and the inhibitor of MMP-2 partially blocked the effects of Rab7 on angiogenesis. Furthermore, the similar data were also obtained in the fibrosis kidney tissues of mice. Conclusion: Rab 7 might be an important role in hypoxic TECs regulated angiogenesis, Rab 7 knockdown could improve hypoxic TECs regulated angiogenesis, the relative mechanisms might be correlation with RECK pathway and MMP-2 activities in vivo and vitro study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0336.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Manihot esculenta Crantz; potexvirus; Cassava common mosaic virus; genomics
Online: 23 March 2020 (05:46:35 CET)
The complete genomic sequence of a Cassava common mosaic virus Linggao isolate (CsCMV-LG) was determined from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with mild leafy mosaic symptom to no symptom in China. Excluding the poly(A) tail, the CsCMV-LG genome (GenBank accession No. MT038420) is 6374 nucleotides (nts) in length, with five major open reading frames encoding a 1450-amino acids (aa) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), three triple gene block (TGB) proteins (231-aa, 110-aa and 95-aa), and a 229-aa coat protein (CP). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the complete genome of the CsCMV-LG is closely related to that of CsCMV-Brazilian which has been assigned to the genus Potexvirus, but the sequence identity shared only 88.0%. Notable, the mild CsCMV-LG isolate can also infect Nicotiana benthamiana in laboratory through rub inoculation causing mild vein yellowing at 15-day post inoculation. This is the first full-length genome sequence of a distinct isolate of Cassava common mosaic virus (CsCMV) infecting cassava in Hainan, China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0136.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: sterol biosynthesis; 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/C4-decarboxylase, C4-demethylation; pollen development; embryogenesis
Online: 3 October 2023 (09:28:16 CEST)
The biosynthesis of C27-29 sterols from their C30 precursor squalene involves C24-alkylation and removal of three methyl groups, including two at the C4 position. The two C4 demethylation reactions require a bifunctional enzyme known as 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/C4-decarboxylase (3βHSD/D) that removes an oxidized methyl (carboxylic) group at C4 while simultaneously catalyzing the 3β-hydroxyl3-keto oxidation. Its loss-of-function mutations cause ergosterol-dependent growth in yeast and congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform erythroderma and limb defect (CHILD) syndrome in humans. Although plant 3βHSD/D enzymes were well studied enzymatically, their developmental functions remain unknown. Here we employed a CRISPR/Cas9-based genome-editing approach to generate knockout mutants for two Arabidopsis 3βHSD/D genes, HSD1 and HSD2, and discovered the male gametophytic lethality for the hsd1 hsd2 double mutation. Pollen-specific expression of HSD2 in the heterozygous hsd1 hsd2/+ mutant not only rescued the pollen lethality but also revealed critical roles of the two HSD genes in embryogenesis. Our study thus demonstrated essential functions of the two Arabidopsis 3βHSD/D genes in male gametogenesis and embryogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1764.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: finger vein living detection; MSTmap; light-ViT
Online: 27 October 2023 (09:31:25 CEST)
Prosthetic attack is a problem that must be prevented in the current finger vein recognition application. To solve this problem, a finger vein living detection system was established in this article. The system first captures short-term static finger vein video by uniform near-infrared lighting, segments the veins by Gabor filters with current removing, calculates the multi-Scale spatial-Temporal maps(MSTmap) from the selected vein blocks, and trains the MSTmaps in the proposed Light-ViT network for the liveness detection. The MS maps are used to extract the coarse feature and Light-ViT is used to refine the liveness feature and predict the liveness result. Light-ViT, featuring an enhanced L-ViT backbone as its core, is constructed by interleaving multiple MN blocks and L-ViT blocks. This architecture effectively balances the learning of local image features, controls network parameter complexity, and substantially improves the accuracy of liveness detection. The accuracy of the Light-ViT network is verified to be 99.63% on the self-made living / prosthetic finger vein video dataset. This proposed system can also be directly applied to the finger vein recognition terminal after the model lightweighting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0873.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: waste concrete; recycled aggregate; enhance; review
Online: 13 October 2023 (09:49:35 CEST)
The performance of recycled aggregate concrete deteriorates due to the defects of adhesive mortar, pores and cracks on the surface of recycled aggregate. It is of great engineering significance to modify the reclaimed aggregate to improve its performance and adaptability. In this paper, the physical and chemical properties of waste concrete recycled aggregate are reviewed. Then, the existing modification methods and technologies of recycled aggregate, including physical, chemical and biological methods, are reviewed. Finally, the existing problems of the current modification technology are summarized, and the future research direction is proposed. It is expected to provide a new idea and method for the modification of waste concrete recycled aggregate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1892.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Low rank; Optimization model; Optimization algorithm; Image inpainting
Online: 30 October 2023 (09:28:05 CET)
Camera malfunctions or loss of storage elements in imaging devices may lead to loss of important image information or random impulse noise interference. Low rank is one of the important prior information in image optimization processing. This paper uses different low-rank constraint models of the image matrices to recover the impulse interference satellite images. Firstly, an overview of image inpainting models based on nuclear norm, truncated nuclear norm, weighted nuclear norm, and matrix-factorization-based F-norm is presented, and corresponding optimiza-tion iterative algorithms are provided. Then, we conducted experiments under three types of pulse interference and provided visual and numerical results. Finally, it is concluded that the WSVT_ADMM method based on the weighted nuclear norm can obtain the best image inpainting results; The UV_ADMM method based on F norm of matrix factorization has the least computa-tion time and can be used for large-scale low-rank matrix computation; The WSVT_ADMM method based on weighted nuclear norm and the TSVT_ ADMM method based on truncated nuclear norms can significantly improve the repair effect compared to the nuclear norm-based methods such as SVT, SVP, and n_ADMM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0471.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: chromatin; nucleosome positioning; nucleosome distribution; heterochromatin; euchromatin; structure classification
Online: 31 January 2022 (17:06:39 CET)
Nucleosome positioning plays an important role in crucial biological processes like replication, transcription, and gene regulation. It has been widely used to predict the genome’s function and chromatin organisation. So far, the studies of patterns in nucleosome positioning have been limited to transcription start sites, CTCFs binding sites, and some promoter and loci regions. The genome-wide organisational pattern remains unknown. We have developed a theoretical model to coarse-grain nucleosome positioning data in order to obtain patterns in their distribution. Using hierarchical clustering on the auto-correlation function of this coarse-grained nucleosome positioning data, a genome-wide clustering is obtained for Candida albicans. The clustering shows the existence beyond hetero- and eu-chromatin inside the chromosomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0178.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydrogel dressing; full-thickness skin regeneration; 3D cell culture; VE-cadherin; FGF
Online: 10 December 2021 (13:10:47 CET)
The process of full-thickness skin regeneration is complex and has many parameters involved, which makes it difficult to use a single dressing to meet the various requirements of the complete regeneration at the same time. Therefore, developing hydrogel dressings with multifunction, including tunable rheological properties and aperture, hemostatic, antibacterial and super cytocompatibility, is a desirable candidate in wound healing. In this study, a series of complex hydrogels were developed via the hydrogen bond and covalent bond between chitosan (CS) and alginate (SA). These hydrogels exhibited suitable pore size and tunable rheological properties for cell adhesion. Chitosan endowed hemostatic, antibacterial properties and great cytocompatibility and thus solved two primary problems in the early stage of the wound healing process. Moreover, the sustained cytocompatibility of the hydrogels was further investigated after adding FGF and VE-cadherin via the co-culture of L929 and EC for 12 days. The confocal 3D fluorescent images showed that the cells were spherical and tended to form multicellular spheroids, which distributed in about 40-60μm thick hydrogels. Furthermore, the hydrogel dressings significantly accelerate defected skin turn to normal skin with proper epithelial thickness and new blood vessels and hair follicles through the histological analysis of in vivo wound healing. The findings mentioned above demonstrated that the CS/SA hydrogels with growth factors have tremendous potential as multifunctional hydrogel dressings for full-thickness skin regeneration incorporated with hemostatic, antibacterial, sustained cytocompatibility for 3D cell culture and normal skin repairing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1900.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: sitting position during the second stage of labour; maternal and neonatal outcomes; childbirth experience
Online: 28 September 2023 (05:16:37 CEST)
Existing research concerning the effects of the sitting birth position during the second stage of labour on maternal and neonatal outcomes remains controversial, and there is a lack of studies to explore its effect on the childbirth experience. The objective of this study is to explore whether the sitting birth position would influence maternal and neonatal outcomes, as well as the childbirth experience reported by Chinese women using the Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ). A total of 296 women (including primiparous women and multiparous women) were enrolled in our study, and they were divided into the sitting position cohort (n=106) or the lithotomy position cohort(n=116). The study found that primiparous women in the sitting position cohort had a shorter duration of the second stage of labour, higher spontaneous vaginal birth rates, lower episiotomy rates and better childbirth experience (p<0.01). There was no significant difference for perineal lacerations, 2h-postpartum haemorrhage (P>0.05) between the two cohorts of primiparous women. After adjusting for confounding factors through multiple linear and logistic regression analyses, the results remained consistent with those reported above. No neonate in each cohort had Apgar scores at 1min and 5 min postpartum less than 7 or the Cord artery pH less than 7.00, regardless of parity. In addition, among multiparous women, there was no significant difference in any maternal and neonatal outcomes and women’s CEQ scores (p>0.05) between two cohorts. Based on the findings, we recommend that women could take the sitting birth position into account when giving birth for a positive childbirth experience, especially for primiparous women. The study could also serve as a reference for healthcare providers in the management of childbirth positions and the development of high-quality maternal care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1194.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: TLC-SERS; quinolones; residues; aquatic products; animal foods
Online: 16 August 2023 (09:06:08 CEST)
Numerous studies have shown that quinolones residues in the foods exceeding the MRL is harmful to the human health. There are some limitations in the existing methods for the residues, so we developed a new limit test method (TLC-SERS) to rapidly determine following residues: enrofloxacin(A), ciprofloxacin (B), ofloxacin(C), fleroxacin(D), sparfloxacin(E), enoxacin(F), gatifloxacin(G) and nadifloxacin(H). The residues can be preliminarily separated by TLC. Labeling the tested compounds’ position on the thin layer plate by their relative Rf under 254nm ultraviolet, and an appropriate amount of nanometer silver solution should be added to the position. The silver on the plate should be irradiated with 532nm laser to obtain SERS of the compounds. The results showed a significant differences of the 8 quinolones’ SERS; the LOD of the H, A, D, E, C, G, F and B were orderly 9.0, 12.6, 8.0, 19.0, 8.0, 8.4, 9.0 and 12.6 ng/mL, and the RSD≤4.9% for SERS of each quinolones.The limit test results of the 20 samples was consistent with that determined by the UPLC–MS/MS. The above results indicate that the TLC-SERS is specific, sensitive, stable, and accurate, providing a new reference for the rapid limit test of harmful residues in foods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0794.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: low-sodium salt substitutes (LSSS); 24-h urinary sodium excretion; 24-h urinary potassium excretion; sodium-to-potassium ratio
Online: 12 June 2023 (07:51:47 CEST)
Low-sodium salt substitute (LSSS) has the potential in regulating sodium and potassium intake and has been available in China market for years. However, its real-world use and impact to sodium\potassium intake is unclear. Baseline data of 4000 adult participants who participated in three similar-designed randomized controlled trails were pooled together for this study. Self-reported awareness and use of LSSS were collected using the uniform questionnaire, and the 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion was used to estimate their dietary intake. Mixed-effects models were developed to assess the relationship between LSSS and 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion. 32.0% of the participants reported awareness of LSSS and 11.7% reported its current use. After adjusting location, sex, age, and education, compared with the group of participants unaware of LSSS, participants who were aware but not using LSSS and those who were using LSSS had a lower 24-h urinary sodium excretion by –356.1(95% CI: –503.9, –205.9) mg/d and –490.6(95% CI: –679.2, –293.7), respectively (p<0.001). No significant difference was found for 24-h urinary potassium excretion and sodium-to-potassium ratio among the three groups (p>0.05). In conclusion, although associated with lower sodium intake, the awareness and real-world use of LSSS are still very low in China.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0186.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: pH sensing; pH in cancers; pH & nanotechnology; wearable sensor; pH sensing fluorophore; pH sensing microelectrode; pH – future trends
Online: 3 August 2023 (02:30:29 CEST)
pH is considered one of the paramount factors in bodily functions, because most of the cellular tasks exclusively rely on precise pH values. The regulation of pH is a necessary feature of the intracellular atmosphere and can be established as a strong indicator to judge a physiological abnormality in most of the cases. In this context, the current techniques for pH sensing provide us with the futuristic insight to further design therapeutic and diagnostic tools. Thus, pH-sensing (electrochemically and optically) is rapidly evolving toward exciting new applications and expanding researchers’ interests in many chemical contexts, especially in biomedical applications. The adaptation of cutting-edge technology is subsequently producing the modest form of these biosensors as wearable devices, which are providing us the opportunity to target the real-time collection of vital parameters, including pH for improved healthcare systems. The motif of this review is to provide an insight of trending tech-based systems employed in real time or in-vivo pH responsive monitoring. Herein, we briefly go through the pH regulation in the human body to help the beginners and scientific community with quick background knowledge, recent advances in the field, and pH detection in cancerous environments. In the end, we summarize our review by providing an outlook; challenges that need to be addressed and prospective integration of various pH in vivo platforms with modern electronics that can open new avenues of cutting-edge techniques for disease diagnostics and prevention.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate; biomarker; immunotherapy; cancer vaccine; T-cell engaging antibody
Online: 29 July 2022 (14:02:03 CEST)
Six-Transmembrane Epithelial Antigen of the Prostate 1-4 (STEAP1-4) compose a family of metalloproteinases involved in iron and copper homeostasis and other cellular processes. Thus far, five homologs are known: STEAP1, STEAP1B, STEAP2, STEAP3, and STEAP4. In prostate cancer, STEAP1, STEAP2, and STEAP4 are overexpressed while STEAP3 expression is downregulated. Although the metalloreductase activities of STEAP1-4 are well-documented, their other biological functions are not. Furthermore, the properties and expression levels of STEAP heterotrimers, homotrimers, heterodimers, and homodimers are not well-understood. Nevertheless, studies over the last few decades have provided sufficient impetus to investigate STEAP1-4 as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for prostate cancer. In particular, STEAP1 is the target of many emerging immunotherapies. Herein, we give an overview of the structure, physiology, and pathophysiology of STEAP1-4 to provide context for past and current efforts to translate STEAP1-4 into the clinic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0527.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Cancer Stem Cell; Hypoxia; EGFR; Cisplatin; PDX
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:32:30 CEST)
Development of targeted therapies for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an unmet medical need. Cisplatin has demonstrated its promising potential for the treatment of TNBC in clinical trials; however, cisplatin treatment is associated with hypoxia that in turn promotes cancer stem cell (CSC) enrichment and drug resistance. Therapeutic approaches to attenuate this may lead to increased cisplatin efficacy in the clinic for the treatment of TNBC. In this report, we analyzed clinical dataset of TNBC and found that TNBC patients possessed higher levels of EGFR and hypoxia gene expression. A similar expression pattern was also observed in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. We thus developed a new therapeutic approach to inhibit EGFR and hypoxia by combination of metformin and gefitinib that sensitized TNBC cells to cisplatin and led to the inhibition of both CD44+/CD24- and ALDH+ CSCs. We demonstrated a similar inhibition efficacy on organotypic cultures of TNBC patient samples ex vivo. Since these drugs have already been used frequently in the clinic, this study illustrates a novel, clinically translatable therapeutic approach to treat patients with TNBC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0418.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: circRNA; skeletal muscle satellite cells; proliferation; differentiation
Online: 27 September 2022 (09:57:42 CEST)
The proliferation and differentiation of mammalian skeletal muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) are highly complicated. Apart from the regulatory signaling cascade driven by the protein-coding genes, non-coding RNAs like microRNAs (miRNA) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) play essential roles in this biological process. However, circRNA functions in MuSCs proliferation and differentiation remain largely to be elucidated. Here, we screened for an exonic circTCF4 based on our previous RNA-Seq data, specifically expressed during the development of the longest dorsal muscle in goats. Subsequently, the circular structure and whole sequence of circTCF4 were verified using Sanger sequencing. Besides, circTCF4 was spatiotemporally expressed in multiple tissues from goats but strikingly enriched in muscles. Furthermore, circTCF4 suppressed MuSCs proliferation and differentiation, independent of AGO2 binding. Finally, we conducted Poly(A) RNA-Seq using cells treated with small interfering RNA targeting circTCF4 and found that circTCF4 would affect multiple signaling pathways, including insulin signaling pathway and AMPK signaling pathway related to muscle differentiation. Our results provide additional solid evidence for circRNA regulating skeletal muscle formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0165.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: infectious bronchitis virus; protection; co-expressing; subunit vaccine; challenge
Online: 10 May 2018 (12:02:08 CEST)
Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the causative agent of infectious bronchitis, which causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. It is imperative to develop safe and efficient candidate vaccines to control IBV infection. In the current study, recombinant baculoviruses co-expressing S1 and N proteins, mono-expressing S1 or N proteins alone of IBV were constructed and prepared into subunit vaccines rHBM-S1-N, rHBM-S1 and rHBM-N. The levels of immune protection of these subunit vaccines were evaluated by inoculating specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens at 14 days of age, boosting with the same dose 14 days later, and following challenge with a virulent GX-YL5 strain of IBV 14 days post-booster (dpb). The commercial vaccine strain H120 was used as a control. The IBV-specific antibody levels as well as the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were detected within 28 days post-vaccination (dpv). The morbidity, mortality, and re-isolation of virus from the tracheas and kidneys of challenged birds were evaluated at 5 days post-challenge (dpc). The results showed that the IBV-specific antibody levels and the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte in rHBM-S1-N group were higher than those of rHBM-S1 and rHBM-N groups, especially the cellular immunity response. At 5 dpc, the mortality, morbidity and virus re-isolation rate of rHBM-S1-N were slightly higher than those of H120 group, but were lower than those of rHBM-S1 group and rHBM-N group. The present study demonstrated that the protection of recombinant baculovirus co-expressing S1 and N proteins was better than that of recombinant baculoviruses mono-expressing S1 or N protein alone. Thus, the recombinant baculovirus co-expressing S1 and N proteins could serve as a potential IBV vaccine and this demonstrates that the bivalent subunit vaccine including the S1 and N proteins might be a strategy for the development of an IBV subunit vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1893.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: myogenesis; skeletal muscle; myostatin; Glycyrrhiza uralensis; feed additive
Online: 29 August 2023 (04:43:12 CEST)
Skeletal muscle is a specialized tissue consisting of nondividing and multinucleated muscle fibers. Skeletal muscle-specific myostatin (MSTN) is a secreted protein that acts as a negative regulator of muscle mass by inhibiting proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. In this study, we established a screening platform to monitor myostatin promoter activity in rat L8 myoblasts. Extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis (GUE), an oriental herbal medicine, was identified through this screening platform and, the active fractions of GUE were identified by process-scale liquid column chromatography system. For in vivo study, the GUE as a feed additive was investigated in growth-finishing pigs. The results showed that GUE significantly increased body weight, carcass weight and lean content in pigs. Microbiota analysis indicated that GUE did not affect the composition of gut microbiota in pigs. In summary, this established rodent myoblast screening platform was used to identify a myogenesis-related phytogenic, GUE, and further demonstrated that the active fractions inhibited MSTN expression. These finding suggest a novel application for GUE in growth performance enhancement through modulation of MSTN expression. Furthermore, this established screening platform has great potential for identification and evaluation of a wide variety of phytogenics involving in myogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0482.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cardiac arrhythmia; atrial fibrillation; medical genetics; molecular biology; linkage analysis; transcriptional regulation; TBX20; biological assay
Online: 7 July 2023 (10:53:05 CEST)
Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most prevalent type of sustained cardiac dysrhythmia globally, confers strikingly enhanced risks for cognitive dysfunction, stroke, chronic cardiac failure, and sudden cardiovascular demise. Aggregating studies underscore the crucial roles of inherited determinants in the occurrence and perpetuation of AF. However, due to conspicuous genetic heterogeneity, the inherited defects accounting for AF remain largely indefinite. Here, via the whole-genome genotyping with genetic markers and linkage assay in a family suffering AF, a new AF-causative locus was located at human chromosome 7p14.2-p14.3, a ~4.89-cM (~4.43-Mb) interval between the markers D7S526 and D7S2250. Exome-wide sequencing assay unveiled that at the defined locus, solely the mutation in the TBX20 gene, NM_001077653.2: c.695A>G; p.(His232Arg), co-segregated with AF in the family. Additionally, Sanger sequencing assay of TBX20 in another family suffering AF uncovered a novel mutation, NM_001077653.2: c.862G>C; p.(Asp288His). Neither of the two mutations was observed in 600 unrelated control individuals. Functional investigations demonstrated that the two mutations both significantly reduced the transactivation of the target gene KCNH2 (a well-established AF-causing gene) and the ability to bind the promoter of KCNH2, while without effect on the nuclear distribution of TBX20. Conclusively, these findings reveal a new AF-causative locus at human chromosome 7p14.2-p14.3 and strongly indicate TBX20 as a novel AF-causative gene, shedding light on the mechanism underlying AF and suggesting clinical significance for allele-specific treatment of AF patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0572.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: muscle; circRNA; RNA binding protein; molecular interactions; function
Online: 25 February 2021 (10:09:04 CET)
Muscle is one of the most critical organs for mammals, which governs multiple movement and physiological functions. Circular RNA (circRNA) is a kind of novel endogenous RNA without 5'-Caps and 3'-poly(A) structures formed by pre-mRNA's back-splicing. RNA binding proteins (RBPs) control the production and degradation of circRNA, help nucleus-cytoplasm transport and locate circRNA, and regulate circRNA translation. Therefore, circRNAs and the chaperoned RBPs play critical roles in muscle growth, development, and disease progression. In this review, we systematically characterize the possible molecular mechanism of circRNA-protein interactions. Also, we summarize the latest researches on circRNA-protein interactions in muscle development and diseases. Besides, we provide several valid prediction methods and experimental verification approaches. Our review reveals the importance of circRNAs and their protein chaperones and provides a reference for further study in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0161.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: carbon nanotubes; polymer-matrix nanocomposites; mechanical properties; flame retardancy
Online: 17 January 2018 (13:04:58 CET)
High-performance poly(1,4-butylene terephthalate (PBT) nanocomposites have been developed via the consideration of phosphorus-containing agents and amino-carbon nanotube (A-CNT). One-pot functionalization method has been adopted to prepare functionalized CNTs via the reaction between A-CNT and different oxidation state phosphorus-containing agents, including chlorodiphenylphosphine (DPP-Cl), diphenylphosphinic chloride (DPP(O)-Cl), and diphenyl phosphoryl chloride (DPP(O3)-Cl). These functionalized CNTs, DPP(Ox)-A-CNTs (x = 0, 1, 3), were respectively mixed with PBT to obtain the CNTs-based polymer nanocomposites through a melt blending method. SEM observations demonstrated that DPP(Ox)-A-CNT nano-additives were homogeneously distributed within PBT matrix compared to A-CNT. The incorporation of DPP(Ox)-A-CNT improved the thermal stability of PBT. Moreover, PBT/DPP(O3)-A-CNT showed the highest crystallization temperature and tensile strength, due to the superior dispersion and interfacial interactions between DPP(O3)-A-CNT and PBT. PBT/DPP(O)-A-CNT exhibited the best flame retardancy resulting from the excellent carbonization effect. The radicals generated from decomposed polymer were effectively trapped by DPP(O)-A-CNT, leading to the reduction of heat release rate, smoke production rate, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide release during cone calorimeter tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1256.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: supernovae; general; supernovae; individual: SN 2017fzw; transitional supernovae
Online: 17 May 2023 (14:21:28 CEST)
In this study, we analyzed the optical observations of a subluminous Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2017fzw, which exhibited high photospheric velocity (HV) at B-band maximum light. The absolute B-band peak magnitude was determined to be MBmax = -17.77 0.10 mag, similar to 91bg-like SNe Ia. The decline rate of the B-band light curve was estimated to be Dm15(B) = 1.60 0.06 mag. The spectra of SN 2017fzw were similar to those of 91bg-like SNe Ia, with prominent Ti II and Si II l5972 features at early phases, gradually transitioning to spectra resembling normal (mainly HV subclass) SNe Ia at later phases, with a stronger Ca II NIR feature. Notably, SN 2017fzw exhibited spectral evolution features similar to those of HV SNe Ia at all phases, with a maximum-light Si II l6355 velocity of 13, 786 414 km s