REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0384.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Alcohol abuse; cell signaling; FDA-approved drugs; oxidative stress; therapy
Online: 22 November 2021 (11:41:50 CET)
Pancreatitis and alcoholic pancreatitis are serious health concerns, and there is an urgent need for effective treatment strategies. Alcohol is a known etiological factor for pancreatitis, including acute pancreatitis (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP). Excessive alcohol consumption induces many pathological stress responses; of particular note is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress results from the accumulation of unfolded/misfolded protein in the ER and is implicated in the pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis. Here we summarize the possible mechanisms by which ER stress contributes to alcoholic pancreatitis. We also discuss potential approaches targeting ER stress and UPR for developing novel therapeutic strategies for the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0359.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Visual Signal; Auditory Signal; Interaction Effect; Purchase Behavior; AISAS Model
Online: 5 May 2023 (10:59:16 CEST)
This study, based on the AISAS model, explores the impact of the interaction effect between visual and auditory signals on consumer purchase behavior. Using experimental methods, 120 participants were randomly assigned to four different visual and auditory signal combinations, and their purchase intentions and actual purchase behavior were measured. The results show that the interaction effect between visual and auditory signals has a significant impact on both purchase intentions and actual purchase behavior, and there is a significant positive relationship. Specifically, when visual and auditory signals are mutually consistent, consumers have the highest purchase intentions and actual purchase behavior; when both visual and auditory signals are absent, consumers have the lowest purchase intentions and actual purchase behavior; when either the visual or auditory signal is missing, consumers' purchase intentions and actual purchase behavior are in between the two extremes. This study provides a new perspective for understanding consumers' decision-making processes in multi-sensory environments and offers valuable insights for the development of marketing strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0569.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: young children; early childhood; digital; wellbeing; review; definition; measurement; contributor; intervention.
Online: 30 December 2022 (04:29:30 CET)
Digital wellbeing concerns the balance and health we may experience in digital use, and the existing studies have focused on adolescents and adults. However, young children are more vulnerable to digital overuse and addiction than adults; thus, their digital wellbeing deserves empirical exploration. This scoping review synthesized and evaluated 35 collected studies on young children’s digital use and their wellbeing that were published until October of 2022 to understand the definitions, measurements, contributors, and interventions. The synthesis of evidence revealed that: (1) there was no consensus about its definition; (2) there were no effective measurements of young children’s digital wellbeing; (3) both child factors (duration and place of digital use, child demographic characteristics) and parent factors (digital use, parental perception, and mediation) contribute to young children’s wellbeing; and (4) there were some effective applications and interventions. This review contributes to the theoretical development by mapping the existing work on young children's digital wellbeing, proposing a model, and identifying the research gaps for future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0169.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: sex differences; syntactic development; Mandarin-speaking children
Online: 14 February 2022 (09:19:51 CET)
This study aimed to verify the sex differences in early syntactic development among Cantonese-speaking children by Tse et al. (2002), with the same corpus design but a different Chinese language: Mandarin. The utterances produced during half-hour play activities by 192 Beijing children, ranging from 3 to 6 years, were collected in the Early Child Mandarin Corpus (Li & Tse, 2011) and analyzed for this study. Their syntactic development was measured in terms of mean length of utterance (MLU), sentence type and structure, syntactic complexity, and verb pattern. The statistical analyses indicated significant age differences in MLU, sentence types and structures, and syntactic complexity. However, no sex or age-by-sex differences were found. This negative evidence indicates that sex difference is neither universal nor cross-language. The implications for early childhood education and future studies are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0141.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: micro language planning; educator agency; Chinese kindergarten; sustainable language policy and planning
Online: 12 September 2022 (09:48:41 CEST)
Micro-level language policy and planning (LPP) primarily concerns local actors' decision-making on matters in relation to language(s) and its users. Despite a growing body of literature focusing on micro language planning in educational settings, there is a scarcity of research examining early childhood education settings such as micro-level LPP context for young English language learners. By adopting a case study approach, the present study examined the educators' enactment of agency in micro-planning the English language education policy (LEP) in one Chinese kindergarten and the associated factors shaping their agency. Our study revealed that the sustainable implementation of the kindergarten English LEP depended on the principal, native English-speaking teachers, and the Chinese assistant teachers' different degrees of agency. Also, the research findings indicated an array of contextual and individual factors nested in a hierarchical structure that facilitated, guided, and constrained the educators' agency in a role-and circumstance-dependent manner. This study contributes to the pertinent literature by casting nuanced light on the different educators' contributions to the micro-level LPP against a national policy that does not endorse early-year English language education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0267.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: early childhood education (ECE); free early childhood education; policy cycle; sustainability
Online: 23 May 2022 (03:42:52 CEST)
Many countries have implemented free early childhood education to solve the affordability and accessibility problems without considering the sustainability of policy; thus, they have to discontinue the policy. The city of Nanjing, China, is no exception. This case study adopted a mixed-methods approach to understanding how and why the policy was formulated, implemented, and failed in the city, using the “policy cycle” framework. Altogether 232 kindergarten principals and teaching/research staff were randomly sampled and surveyed, and 5 kindergarten principals and 5 teaching/researcher staff were interviewed. The results indicated that there were many obstacles to the policy’s sustainability, including the conflict of interest, the inefficient policy implementation, the insufficient funding, and more social inequality issues. And the policymakers made mistakes in the five domains of the policy cycle: the context of influence, the context of policy text production, the context of practice, the context of outcomes, and the context of political strategy. Finally, the lessons for a more sustainable policy decision process are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1965.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: elderly medication reminder application; Kano model; AHP; QFD; PUGH decision matrix
Online: 29 May 2023 (04:42:27 CEST)
Poor medication adherence among older adults is a widespread problem worldwide. As the population ages, the design of smartphone medication management apps is critical to improving medication adherence among older adults. Taking the design of an elderly medication reminder APP as an example, this study proposes a sustainable design research method that integrates the KANO model, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Quality Function Deployment (QFD), and PUGH decision matrix. The method collects user demands through in-depth interviews, and applies the KANO model to classify these demands. The hierarchical structure of user needs is established by using AHP, and the priority is sorted according to the weight and importance determined by the judgment matrix. QFD is used to translate user needs into design requirements, and the house of quality matrix identifies key design requirements. Finally, design alternatives are evaluated using Pugh's concept selection method. The results of this study demonstrate that the integration of KANO-AHP-QFD-PUGH can be effective as a sustainable optimal design approach for the user experience of a medication reminder application for the elderly. This integrated method not only facilitates innovative optimization and sustainability of application design methods but also provides valuable theoretical and practical insights for future drug-assisted design for elderly users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1843.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: single crystal; perovskite; synchrotron; MAPbBr3; optical property
Online: 28 August 2023 (09:52:48 CEST)
We fabricated high-quality MAPbBr3 single crystals (SC) by introducing moderate amount electron-rich poly(propylene glycol bis(2-aminopropyl ether) (PEA) additives with an inverse temperature crystallization (ITC) method. The intramolecular vibrations and defective states of prepared MAPbBr3 single crystals were systemically studied by the in situ variable-temperature Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), et al. We infer that the proper amount of PEA additives would prevent the formation of intermediate states and crystal boundaries, passivating the density of defective states. The X-ray detection properties of single-crystal MAPbBr3 crystals were investigated, using both high dose and low dose X-ray photons at 40keV in synchrotron beamlines. The photocurrent of optimized PEA-treated MAPbBr3 single crystals demonstrate better performance compared with the as-prepared single crystals. Meanwhile, the decay time of MAPbBr3 single crystal is decreased from 460 ns to 210 ns by Time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) decay measurement, owing to the defect passivation by 0.5wt% PEA additives. The PEA-treated single crystals possess much faster decay time than the commercialized Ce:YAG scintillator (>500ns). These results help elucidate the passivation of defective states and contribute paths to manufacture high-quality single crystal perovskites for next-generation optoelectronic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0593.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: AI-based painting systems(AIBPS); Technology Acceptance Model (TAM); Behavioral intentions; User experience; Structural Equation Modelling (SEM
Online: 19 April 2023 (13:27:16 CEST)
Artificial intelligence (AI) applications in different fields are developing rapidly, among which AI painting technology, as an emerging technology, has received wide attention from users for its creativity and efficiency. This study aimed to investigate the factors that influence user acceptance of the use of AIBPS by proposing an extended model that combines the Extended Technology Acceptance Model (ETAM) with the AI-based Painting System (AIBPS).A questionnaire was administered to 528 Chinese participants, using validated factor analysis data and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to test the hypotheses. The findings showed that hedonic motivation (HM) and perceived trust (PE) had a positive effect (+) on users' perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of use (PEOU), while previous experience (PE) and technical features (TF) had no effect (-) on users' perceived usefulness (PU). This study provides an important contribution to the literature on AIBPS and the evaluation of systems of the same type, which helps to promote the sustainable development of AI in different domains and provides a possible space for further extension of TAM, thus helping to improve the user experience of AIBPS. The results of the study provide insights for system developers and enterprises to better motivate users to use AIBPS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0021.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ncRNAs; ovarian cancer; chemoresistance
Online: 4 October 2017 (11:59:09 CEST)
With the advancement of next generation sequencing in past several years, a rising number of non-coding RNAs have been found as new actors to regulate gene expression. Non-coding RNAs not only play important roles in carcinogenesis, but also affect the clinical treatment strategies. They have been proved to be deeply correlated with chemoresistance in several cancers. Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death in gynecological malignancy, with low 5-year survival rate. Most patients are identified when they have late-stage disease. This review mainly makes a compilation of the most relevant research literature in this field with the purpose of shedding light on the relation between ncRNAs and chemoresistance in ovarian cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0298.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine; Salicylidene Schiff bases; Fluorescence sensor; Al3+
Online: 26 April 2019 (10:55:10 CEST)
Two 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-based Schiff bases (TPySSB and TPySB) have been synthesized. The TPySSB shows remarkable selective ‘off-on’ fluorescence for Al3+ by photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism of sensing. Chemosensor TPySSB binds Al3+ in a 1:2 ratio with an association constant 6.8×105 (R2=0.98) and this 1:2 stoichiometric model is established on Job’s plot and 1H NMR. Compared TPySSB and TPySB, it is of great importance of the existence of salicylidene unit due to its strong binding abilities of both phenol and C=N structure to the Al3+.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0417.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Pad use; Executive Function; fNIRS Evidence; Dimensional Change Card Sort Task (DCCS) task; Preschoolers
Online: 19 July 2021 (15:05:38 CEST)
General Linear Modelling (GLM) has been widely employed to estimate the hemodynamic changes evoked by cognitive processing, which are more likely to be nonlinear than linear. First, this study re-analyzed the fNIRS data (N = 38, Mage = 5.0 years, SD = 0.69 years, 17 girls) collected in the Mixed-Order Design Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) task. The results indicated that the quadratic equation was better than GLM to model HbO changes in this task. Second, analysis of a new set of data indicated that the Habit-DisHabit design of DCCS was more effective in identifying the neural correlates of cognitive shifting than the Mixed-Order Design. Third, this study found that the Non-users were more attentive and engaged than the Heavy-users, with a slower but more steady increase of brain activation in BA8 and BA9.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0188.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Pad use; Executive Function; fNIRS Evidence; Dimensional Change Card Sort Task (DCCS) task; Preschoolers
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:08:12 CEST)
This study aims to examine the impact of tablet use on preschoolers’ executive function during the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task (DCCS) task using the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Altogether 38 Chinese preschoolers (Mage = 5.0 years, SD = 0.69 years, 17 girls) completed the tasks before the COVID-19 lockdown. Eight children never used tablets, while 16 children were diagnosed as the ‘heavy-user'. The results indicated that: (1) the 'Non-user' outperformed the 'Heavy-user' with a significantly higher correct rate in the DCCS task; (2) the two groups differed significantly in the activation of the prefrontal cortex (BA 9): the 'Non-user' pattern is normal and healthy, whereas the 'Heavy-user' pattern is not normal and needs further exploration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: genetic polymorphism; ACE1 rs4646994; lung cancer; pulmonary nodules
Online: 27 April 2023 (07:47:55 CEST)
Background: Currently, many detection methods have high sensitivity to the diagnosis of lung cancer. However, some postoperative patients with pulmonary nodule were eventually diagnosed as benign nodules. The ideal evaluation of an individual with a pulmonary nodule would expedite therapy for a malignant nodule and minimize testing for those with a benign nodule.Methods: This case-control study is designed to explore the relationship between ACE1 rs4646994 polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer in patients with pulmonary nodules, 400 individuals with lung cancer and benign pulmonary nodules were included. A DNA extraction kit was used to extract plasm DNA from peripheral blood. The relationship between ACE1 rs4646994 and the risk of lung cancer in patients with pulmonary nodules was determined by chi-square test, logistic regression analysis and cross analysis. Results: The results showed that the DD genotype of ACE1 rs4646994 may increase the risk of lung cancer in patients with pulmonary nodules, and this correlation was more significant in the female subgroup. In the age stratification analysis, it was found that the risk of lung cancer was significantly increased in the DD genotype of ACE1 rs4646994 in the older subgroup (> 45 years). In addition, the possibility of EGFR mutation in lung adenocarcinoma patients with ACE1 rs4646994 DD genotype was lower than that of II or ID genotype carriers. Conclusions: Our study indicated that ACE1 rs4646994 polymorphism increases the risk of lung cancer in patients with pulmonary nodules from China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0730.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: market weight; cecal microbiota; metabolome; Guizhou yellow chicken; 16S rRNA
Online: 9 August 2023 (07:54:38 CEST)
The gut microbiota plays an important role in the physiological activities of the host and affects the formation of important economic traits in agricultural animals. We investigated the effects of cecal microbiota on chicken weights using the Guizhou yellow chicken as a model. We collected experimental cohorts from chickens with high (HC, n=16) and low body weights (LC, n=16) and integrated microbial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and non-targeted serum metabolome data to explore the effect and its metabolic mechanism of cecal microbiota on market weight. The genera Lachnoclostridium, Alistipes, Negativibacillus, Sellimonas and Ruminococcus torques group were enriched in the HC group while Phascolarctobacterium was enriched in the LC group (P<0.05). Metabolomic analysis determined that pantothenic acid, luvangetin (2H-1-benzopyran-6-acrylic acid) and menadione (vitamin K) were significantly higher in HC serum while beclomethasone dipropionate (a glucocorticoid) and chlorophene (2-benzyl-4-chlorophenol) were present at higher levels in the LC group. The microbes enriched in HC that were significantly positively correlated with metabolites including pantothenic acid and menadione and negatively correlated with beclomethasone dipropionate and chlorophene. These results indicated that specific cecal bacteria in Guizhou yellow chickens alter the host metabolism and growth performance. This study provides a reference for revealing the mechanism of cecal microbe actions that affect chicken body weight.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0919.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: P. ginseng; chemical component; ginsenoside; Alzheimer's disease; signaling pathways; spatial metabolomics
Online: 13 June 2023 (10:02:30 CEST)
Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (P. ginseng), has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It contains a number of chemical components and possesses a variety of pharmacological activities. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is neurodegenerative disease that creates a huge burden on the lives and health of individuals. In recent years, studies have indicated that the chemical components of P. ginseng, especially ginsenosides, play a pronounced positive role in the prevention and treatment of neurological diseases. This review aimed to summarize currently studies on chemical components and the mechanisms action in AD intervention treatment of P. ginseng, especially ginsenosides. In this review, the components of P. ginseng and their respective active effects were first introduced. Then the key molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of P. ginseng were introduced, and its different active ingredients in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease-related pathogenesis were also summarized from the pathogenesis of AD Aβ generation and aggregation, hyperphosphorylation of tau protein，oxidant stress，neuroinflammation，mitochondrial damage，disorder of neurotransmitter and gut microbiota. Signaling pathway networks related to the action of ginseng active ingredients was constructed, which could serve as a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease. In addition to a detailed report on P. ginseng in improving Alzheimer's disease-related pathogenesis, the application of the current technology, spatial metabonomics in AD therapeutics and diagnostics were later discussed. Spatial metabonomics could be applied to investigate the multi-target intervention of P. ginseng on Alzheimer's disease. Research perspectives for the study of P. ginseng in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease were provided for further studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0358.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Asian elephant; MaxEnt; habitat suitability; protected area; climate change; human footprint
Online: 28 February 2022 (12:00:28 CET)
The reduction of biodiversity loss is one of the targets of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The protection of endangered species is critical for conserving global biodiversity. Asian elephants，as one of the last few mega-herbivores on Earth, are currently threatened by climate changes and anthropogenic modifications. The modelling of their living habitats is of top priority to the conservation of Asian elephant. In this study, we used the maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) to identify the current and potential future habitats of Asian elephants in South and Southeast Asia. We performed analyses for future projections with 17 scenarios by using the present results as baseline. To optimise the modelling results, we delineated the core habitats by using the Core Mapper Tool and compared them with existing protected areas (PAs) through gap analysis. The results showed that the current total area of core habitats is 491,455 km2 in size and will be reduced to 332,544 km2 by 2090 under SSP585 (the shared socioeconomic pathway). The projection analysis under differential scenarios suggested that most of the core habitats in the current protected areas would remain stable and suitable for elephants in the future. However, the remaining 75.17% of the core habitats lay outside the current PAs, and finally we mapped approximately 219,545 km2 of suitable habitats as priority protected areas in the future. Although our model did not perform well in some regions, our analyses and findings still could provide useful references to the planning of protected areas and conservation of Asian elephant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1928.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: failure definition; failure criterion; bitumen fatigue cracking performance; bitumen fatigue failure point
Online: 30 November 2023 (10:35:30 CET)
At present, failure definition and damage characteristic curve (DCC) analysis included in the framework to assess bitumen fatigue cracking performance have an inconsistency in ranking bitumen fatigue behaviour. This study utilized two types of self-healing polymers (STP and IPA1w) to modify the neat asphalt (NA), and research four different types of bitumens: NA, STP-modified bitumen, IPA1w-modified bitumen, and styrene-butadiene-styrene modified bitumen (SBSB), to evaluate the above-mentioned framework. All bitumens were subjected to short-term and long-term aging and tested utilizing the Linear amplitude sweep (LAS) test and simplified viscoelastic-continuum-damage (S-VECD) model. The results showed that the SBSB exhibited the highest numbers of loading cycles (in long-term aging analysis) to reach failure points at 25°C, 28°C, and 31°C which were 2290, 2340, and 2510, respectively. However, this bitumen failed to exhibit the best performance in terms of DCC assessment under the same conditions, confirming the above-mentioned inconsistency. Besides, the current failure criterion could not accurately predict bitumen fatigue behaviour under certain test conditions because two R2 values were below 0.1. As a result, this study proposed a new failure definition and failure criterion to overcome these issues. The proposed failure definition agreed with the DCC analysis to rank bitumen fatigue performance, and the proposed failure criterion showed R2 values higher than 0.9. The new framework presented the modified bitumen containing 0.5% of STP as the asphalt binder with the best fatigue cracking performance, according to the selected test conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0737.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: construction enterprise; digital transformation maturity; AHP-Decision Testing and Evaluation Laboratory (AHP-DEMATEL)
Online: 12 September 2023 (07:21:55 CEST)
With the continuous development of digital transformation and upgrading of Chinese construction enterprises, it is becoming increasingly important to measure their digital level, find the problems in the enterprise transformation process, and identify the key factors of enterprise digital capacity enhancement. This paper constructs a construction enterprise digital transformation maturity evaluation model from six first-level indicators and 20 second-level indicators, including digital strategy, digital business application, digital technology capability, data capability, digital organization capability, and change management. Digital maturity is divided into five levels: business management, process operation, intelligent construction, intelligent scene application, and industrial ecological collaboration. A detailed process of digital maturity evaluation based on the method of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)-Decision Testing and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) is then developed. A questionnaire survey of 25 experts is used to weight the various parameters in the model, which is then demonstrated with an example construction enterprise. The model comprehensively reflects digital levels under the background of the digital economy. Its application will help understand the advantages and disadvantages enterprises face in their digital transformation to enable targeted measures to improve their digital transformation capabilities and efficiency, enhance their core competitiveness of enterprises, and promote the development of digital transformation in the construction industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0117.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Bunyavirales; Nairoviridae; Peribunyaviridae; Phenuiviridae; taxonomy; nomenclature; species demarcation
Online: 8 February 2022 (14:38:01 CET)
In recent years, the taxonomy of the families of Phenuiviridae, Nairoviridae, and Peribunyavidae in Bunyavirales was updated frequently, because many novel viruses in these families have been identified and the species demarcation criteria of these families have been changed. As per these criteria and sequence analysis, we found that the taxonomy of 19 species in these families should be revised. We presented six proposals for optimizing virus species taxonomy using the examples from these families. First, the species demarcation criteria for the same family (e.g., Peribunyavidae) should be unified. Second, the methods and parameters for the taxonomic calculation in the same order (e.g., Bunyavirales) should be unified. Third, virus species taxonomy should be based on phylogenetic relationships, rather than a cutoff value of sequence identities that is a self-contradictory demarcation criterion, although sequence identities aid virus taxonomy greatly. Fourth, virus species taxonomy should be based on the phylogenetic relationship of a key viral gene (e.g., the RdRp gene of Bunyavirales), which is important for the taxonomy of virus recombinants or reassortants. Fifth, a virus can be demarcated without a species before its biomedical significance has been revealed. Sixth, names of all viruses and virus species should be constituted exclusively with common characters (English letters and Arab numbers), to minimize difficulty in spelling and communication. These proposals are rational, flexible, and can accommodate all known viruses. They can also bridge the taxonomy history and the future demands due to their flexibility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0350.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: arbovirus; evolution; genome; host; pathogenesis; Phenuiviridae
Online: 19 November 2021 (12:33:53 CET)
The newly established virus family Phenuiviridae in Bunyavirales harbors viruses infecting three kingdoms of host organisms (animals, plants, and fungi), which is rare in known virus families. Many phenuiviruses are arboviruses and replicate in two distinct hosts (e.g., insects and humans or rice). Multiple phenuiviruses, such as Dabie bandavirus, Rift Valley fever phlebovirus, and Rice stripe tenuivirus, are highly pathogenic to humans, animals, or plants. They impose heavy global burdens on human health, livestock industry, and agriculture and are research hotspots. In recent years the taxonomy of Phenuiviridae has been expanded greatly, and researches on phenuiviruses have made significant progress. With these advances, this review drew a novel panorama regarding the biomedical significance, distribution, morphology, genomics, taxonomy, evolution, replication, transmission, pathogenesis, and control of phenuiviruses, to aid researchers in various fields to recognize this highly adaptive and very important virus family.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1224.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Optimum calcium concentration; growth; photosynthesis; water use efficiency; stress resistance
Online: 29 April 2023 (07:44:57 CEST)
Ca2+ is a crucial second messenger in plant cells, playing a vital role in various physiological and biochemical processes, including plant growth and development, photosynthesis, and enzyme regulation. Exogenous calcium concentration can have different effects on plant growth. This study aimed to investigate the optimal calcium concentration for the growth of four tree species, namely Pinus tabuliformis, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Populus, and Morus alba seedlings, and whether the optimal calcium concentration varies among different tree species. The study utilized five calcium concentration gradients (0, 100, 200, 400, 800 mg·kg-1) for each species with three repeated treatments. Various growth indexes, photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, water use efficiency, and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed to determine each species' calcium concentration requirements. The results showed that exogenous calcium significantly affected the growth and development of each seedling. The growth, biomass, photosynthetic parameters, photosynthetic products, photosynthetic pigments, water use efficiency, and antioxidant enzyme activity all increased initially and then decreased with increasing calcium concentration. Leaf calcium concentration also increased with the exogenous calcium content. Thus, there is an optimal calcium concentration for plant growth, and high or low calcium concentration is not conducive to plant growth. Furthermore, the study found that different tree species have varying optimal calcium concentrations. The optimal calcium concentration for Pinus tabuliformis, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Populus, and Morus alba seedlings was 100, 100, 200, and 400 mg·kg-1, respectively. Finally, the study revealed that broadleaf species require higher calcium concentrations than coniferous species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0514.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: millimeter bands; fifth Generation; Handover; Deep Reinforcement Learning; and Jump Markov Linear System
Online: 29 November 2021 (07:50:19 CET)
The fifth Generation (5G) mobile networks use millimeter Waves (mmWaves) to offer giga bit data rates. However, unlike microwaves, mmWave links are prone to user and topographic dynamics. They easily get blocked and end up forming irregular cell patterns for 5G. This in turn cause too early, too late, or wrong handoffs (HOs). To mitigate HO challenges, sustain connectivity and avert unnecessary HO, we propose a HO scheme based on Jump Markov Linear System (JMLS) and Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL). JMLS is widely known to account for abrupt changes in system dynamics. DRL likewise emerges as an artificial intelligence technique for learning highly dimensional and time-varying behaviors. We combine the two techniques to account for time-varying, abrupt, and irregular changes in mmWave link behaviour by predicting likely deterioration patterns of target links. The prediction is optimized by meta training techniques that also reduces training sample size. Thus, the JMLS-DRL platform formulates intelligent and versatile HO policies for 5G. Results show our proposed prediction scheme about target link behavior post HO to be highly reliable. The scheme also averts unnecessary HOs thus ably supports longer dew time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0418.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: ice XIV; vibrational spectrum; hydrogen bond; CASTEP, first-principles; DFT
Online: 26 June 2018 (12:44:03 CEST)
It is always a difficult task to assign the peaks recorded from vibrational spectrum. Herein we explored a new pathway of density functional theory (DFT) simulation to present three kinds of spectra of ice XIV and can be referenced as inelastic neutron scattering (INS), IR, and Raman experimental spectrum. The INS spectrum is proportional to phonon density of states (PDOS) while the photon scattering signals reflect the normal vibration frequencies near the Brillouin zone (BZ) center. Based on good agreements with experimental data, we identified the relative frequency and made scientific assignments by normal vibration modes analysis. The debating two hydrogen bond (H-bond) peaks among ice phases from INS have been discussed and the dynamic process of H-bond vibrations were found to be classified into two basic modes. we deduce that two H-bond modes are a general rule among ice family and more works are ongoing to investigate this subject.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1276.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Paeonia suffruticosa; benzofuranones; cytotoxicity; NO production inhibition
Online: 18 May 2023 (05:26:34 CEST)
The Paeonia suffruticosa, called as 'Feng Dan', has been used for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine. In our chemical investigation on the root bark of the plant, five new phenolic dimers, namely paeobenzofuranone A‒E (1‒5), have been characterized. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, UV, and IR, as well as ECD calculations. Compounds 2, 4, and 5 showed cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 6.7 to 25.1 μM. Compounds 1 and 2 showed certain inhibitory activity on NO production. To the best of our knowledge, the benzofuranone dimers and their cytotoxicity of P. suffruticosa are reported for the first time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0439.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: executive function; early childhood; fNIRS; working memory; cognitive shifting; inhibitory control
Online: 28 October 2022 (07:02:39 CEST)
This study examined the relationship among the three domains of executive function (EF; cognitive shifting, inhibitory control, and working memory) to test the applicability of the unity-diversity model in preschoolers using both behavioral and fNIRS approaches. Altogether 58 Chinese preschoolers (34 boys, 24 girls, Mage = 5.86 years, SD = 0.53, Age range = 4.83-6.67 years) were administered the Dimensional Card Change Sort (DCCS), go/no-go, and missing scan task. Their brain activations in the prefrontal cortex during the tasks were examined using fNIRS. First, the behavioral results indicated that the missing scan task scores (working memory) correlated with the DCCS (cognitive shifting) and go/no-go tasks (inhibitory control). But the latter two did not correlate with each other. Second, the fNIRS results demonstrated that the prefrontal activations during the working memory task correlated with those in the same regions during the cognitive shifting and inhibitory control tasks. Still, the latter two did not correlate. The behavioral and neuroimaging evidence jointly indicates that the unity-diversity model of EF does apply to Chinese preschoolers.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0185.v3
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: case fatality rate; co-infection; control; COVID-19; pandemic; policy; risk; vaccination
Online: 6 May 2022 (03:38:30 CEST)
There are two contrary opinions regarding the risk if mainland China (MC) moves away from its zero-COVID policy. Some experts think the risk shall be much lower than influenza as per MC’s own COVID-19 case fatality rate (CFR), while some other experts think the risk shall be much higher than influenza as per the COVID-19 CFRs of other regions. We elucidate here that this and multiple other striking differences in the CFR between various scenarios all support and substantially resulted from the view that good IDM is highly powerful to mitigate COVID-19, where IDM (isolation-disinfection-maintenance) means isolation of COVID-19 cases from other people, disinfection of their living environments, and health maintenance (e.g., rest, nutrition, breathing). The high effect of good IDM is also supported by the theoretic functions of IDM in minimizing co-infections and maintaining body functions, and the fact that all the 505 COVID-19 deaths reported in MC in 2022 before May 5 died directly of severe underlying diseases with COVID-19. Although it is tough for people in poverty to obtain good IDM, good IDM can be feasible at home for the most mild cases and in hospitals for the most severe cases. Therefore, good IDM can be crucial to mitigating COVID-19 worldwide. It also suggests that the risk for China to end its zero-COVID policy depends on China’s control policies or measures. Based on the effect of IDM, the cautious co-existence policy was proposed for COVID-19 control. This policy could reduce the whole death toll in MC because good IDM is non-specific and can reduce deaths of various other diseases. The cautious co-existence policy (non-specific) and the vaccination policy (specific) aid each other to mitigate COVID-19, and they cannot replace each other. Those who are qualified in health for vaccination should be vaccinated against COVID-19 timely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: carbon emissions reduction; technology spillover; game theory; supply chain coordination
Online: 8 September 2016 (11:39:40 CEST)
We study a two-echelon supply chain made up of a supplier and a manufacturer, both of which can reduce their component/product carbon emissions. With the vertical technology spillovers, we explore the optimal decisions of centralized and decentralized supply chains with price dependent demand and propose coordination strategy for the decentralized supply chain. Considering the cost contraction effectiveness of the technology spillovers, the centralized and decentralized game theoretic models of a two-echelon supply chain are developed to investigate optimal decisions of pricing and carbon emissions reduction. Through a systematic comparison and numerical analysis, we show that the profits of both players and the entire supply chain improve with the effect of technology spillovers increasing. Carbon emissions reduction will be taken by various protective measures so that the supplier and the manufacturer who do not innovate can hardly share the results of innovating via the “free-riding” methods when the technology spillover is relatively small. We also propose a revenue-cost sharing contract through bargaining to enhance the performance of the decentralized supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0449.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: mechanization; design; film side outcrop cultivation; Codonopsis
Online: 7 July 2023 (05:36:39 CEST)
In response to the problem of no supporting equipment for the cultivation of Codonopsis in the hilly and mountainous areas of northwest China, a combined machine for transplanting outcrop of Codonopsis with micro ridge covered with film is designed. The key components of the prototype are analyzed and designed, and the structures and working parameters of the seedbed preparation device, seedling casting device, rotary tillage soil-covering device, film covering device, seedling head burial and film edge soil-covering device are determined. The transmission system scheme is established, and the working mechanism of the core components is analyzed. Field experiments show that when the target seedling spacing is 4.4cm and the machines moves forward at the speed of 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2m/s, the variation coefficient of planting spacing and the qualification rate of planting depth all meet the standard requirements. The qualified rate of planting posture and film side outcrop are greatly affected by the operating speed of the machine, and decrease with the increase of operating speed. When the operating speed reaches 0.1m/s, the average variation coefficient of planting spacing is 0.08%, the average qualified rate of planting depth, planting posture and film side outcrop is 95.83%, 94.17% and 93.33% respectively, which shows that the operating performance is better than that of the operating speed of 0.15m/s and 0.2m/s. This study provides new reference for the theoretical research and design of mechanized and automated transplanting machinery for Codonopsis seedlings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0084.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: thyme; essetial oil; chemical type; antioxidant; multivariate statistical analysis
Online: 2 November 2023 (07:20:51 CET)
Thymus is an herbaceous perennials or subshrubs of the Lamiaceae family and is widely distributed worldwide. Essential oils extracted from thymus have attracted much attention owing to their potential biological functions. Here, we evaluated the chemical compositions of eight thyme essential oils (TEOs) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assessed their antioxidant activity and in potential role in antibacterial and tumor therapy. The results showed that (1) the main components in eight TEOs were monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes, and the chemical compositions of TEOs were affected by the specie factor; (2) eight TEOs could be divided into 3 groups (thymol-, geraniol-and nerol acetate-type), and thymol was main type; (3) eight TEOs had some common compounds, such as thymol and p-cymene, which were the main components in seven TEOs; (4) eight TEOs had antioxidant activit, and thymol-type EOs had strong antioxidant activity, while geraniol-type EOs had relatively weak antioxidant activity. In addition, it was found thymol had strong antibacterial activity against the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and antimigratory activity of A549 cell. Overall, our results can provide theoretical basis for further exploring the function of natural products from thyme essential oils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1273.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Pyrus pyrifolia; early-maturing; seed; germination; dormancy
Online: 19 October 2023 (12:13:00 CEST)
Breeding early-maturing cultivars is one of the most important objectives for pear breeding. Very early-maturing pear provides an excellent parental material for crossing, while the immature embryo and low seed germination of its hybrid progenies often limit the selection and breeding of new early-maturing pear cultivars. In this study, we choose a very early maturing pear cultivar ‘Pearl Pear’ as study object, and investigate the effects of cold stratification, culture medium and seed coat on the germination and growth of early maturing pear seeds. Our results show that cold stratification (4℃) treatment could significantly improve the germination rates of early maturing pear seeds. A 100 days of low temperature pre-treatment and germination on White medium could increase the germination rate up to 84.54%. We also observe that seed coat removal could improve the germination activity of early maturing pear seeds, and middle seed coat removal (MSR) represents an optimal method with its high germination rate and low contamination. The results of our study established an improved protocol for seed germination of early-maturing pear seeds, which will greatly facilitate the breeding of new very early-maturing pear cultivars.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0398.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Cladosporium sp.; altertoxins; quorum sensing inhibitory activity
Online: 31 December 2019 (02:31:16 CET)
Five new perylenequinone derivatives, altertoxins VIII-XII (1-5), as well as one known compound cladosporol I (6), were isolated from the fermentation broth of Cladosporium sp. KFD33 from a blood cockle from Haikou Bay, China. Their structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods and ECD spectra analysis along with quantum ECD calculations. Compounds 1-6 exhibited quorum sensing inhibitory activities against Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 with MIC values of 30, 30, 20, 30, 20 and 30 μg/well, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0181.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: total aflatoxin; quantum dot nanobead; test strip; on-site; peanut and rice; agro-food safety
Online: 24 March 2017 (03:59:06 CET)
An on-site, ultra-sensitive, and quantitative sensing method was developed based on quantum dot nanobeads (QDNBs) and test strip for the determination of total aflatoxins (AFTs) in rice and peanut. The monoclonal antibody against AFT (mAbAFT) was home-made and labeled with QDNB. After the pre-coating of the AFT antigen on the test line (T line), the competitive immunoreactions were conducted between AFT and AFT antigen on the T line with QDNBs-mAbAFT. Under optimal conditions, this approach allowed a rapid response towards AFT with a considerable sensitivity of 1.4 pg/mL and 2.9 pg/mL in rice and peanut matrices, respectively. The put-in and put-out duration were within 10 min. The recoveries for AFT in rice and peanut samples matrices were recorded from 86.25–118.0% with the relative deviations (RSD) below 12%. The assay was further validated via the comparison between this QDNB strip and the conventional HPLC method using spiked samples. Thus, the design provided a potential alternative for on-site, ultra-sensitive, and quantitative sensing of AFT that could also be expanded to other chemical contaminants for food safety.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0022.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: monkeypox; risk; elimination; epidemiology; outbreak; prediction
Online: 14 November 2022 (09:43:24 CET)
Human monkeypox, caused by monkeypox virus, has spread unprecedentedly to more than 100 countries since May 2022. Here we summarized the epidemiology of monkeypox through a literature review and elucidated the risks and elimination strategies of this outbreak mainly based on the summarized epidemiology. We demonstrated that monkeypox virus became more contagious and less virulent in 2022, which could result from the fact that the virus entered a special transmission network favoring close contacts (i.e., sexual behaviors of men who have sex with men outside Africa) and the possibility that the virus accumulated a few adaptive mutations. We gave the reasons to investigate whether cattle, goats, sheep, and pigs are susceptible to monkeypox virus and whether infection with monkeypox virus could be latent in some primates. We listed six potential scenarios for the future of the outbreak (e.g., the outbreak could lead to endemicity outside Africa with increased transmissibility or virulence). We also listed multiple factors aiding or impeding the elimination of the outbreak. We showed that the control measures strengthened worldwide after the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) could eliminate the outbreak in 2022. We clarified eight strategies, i.e., publicity and education, case isolation, vaccine stockpiling, risk-based vaccination or ring vaccination, importation quarantine, international collaboration, and laboratory management, for the elimination of the outbreak.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0380.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: malignant pleural mesothelioma; CXCL12/CXCR4; EAAT1; glutamine synthetase; invasion; migraiton
Online: 17 September 2020 (07:29:16 CEST)
Purpose: To elucidate the mechanism of CXCR4/EAAT1/GS pathway in CXCL12 regulating invasion and migration in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Methods: Immunohistochemistry for CXCL12, CXCR4, EAAT1 and GS stainings and correlation analysis between them were conducted in MPM and normal tissues. Western blot and real-time PCR were performed to examine the CXCR4, EAAT1 and GS expression in H2052 cells. Wound healing and transwell assay were applied to determine the cell migration and invasion. MTT was utilized to assess cell viability. Results: CXCL12, CXCR4, EAAT1 and GS were highly expressed in MPM tissues and correlated with each other. CXCL12 upregulated both in protein and mRNA levels of CXCR4, EAAT1 and GS in H2052 cells. The EAAT1 and GS expression upregulated or not by CXCL12 were decreased by CXCR4 and EAAT1 knockdown. CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 and EAAT1 antagonist TFB-TBOA also resulted in the same effects as CXCR4 and EAAT1 knockdown, respectively. CXCL12 promoted cell invasion and migration and increased the Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) mRNA level. CXCR4 and EAAT1 knockdown suppressed all these functions. Furthermore, CXCL12 promoted H2052 cells growth in nude mice, both AMD3100 and TFB-TBOA inhibited this promotion. Conclusions: CXCL12 regulated the invasion and migration through CXCR4/EAAT1/GS pathway in H2052 cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0670.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: MTHFR; bovine; bioinformatics; gene expression; testes
Online: 30 August 2020 (15:00:47 CEST)
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), an enzyme expressed in mammalian testes exerts direct effect on spermatogenesis; however, its protein characteristics in bovine testes remain unknown. Here, we analysed bovine testicular structure, MTHFR bioinformatics profile, mRNA, and protein expression characteristics in yellow-cattle (y-c) and yak testis using histological procedures, bioinformatics analysis, qRT-PCR, and western blot. Testes from 13 bovines, ≤ 2 years juvenile (y-c, n = 3; yak, n=3) and ≥ 3 years adult (y-c, n = 3; yak, n = 4) were collected and analysed. Anatomical characteristics of testis in y-c and yak were similar except the weight or size for which that of y-c was significantly higher or greater than yak. In y-c, an open reading frame (ORF) for 2600 nucleotides sequence, encoding 655 amino acids showed high homology with zebu cattle (99.51%) and wild yak (98.68%). Secondary and 3D protein structures were similar to that of humans with differences in number of nucleotides, amino acids, and some physico-chemical characteristics. MTHFR mRNA expression in y-c and yak were significantly higher in adult testes compared with juvenile ones. However, its protein expression was higher but not statistically significant in adult y-c and yak compared to the juvenile ones. The highlights and inferences of these and other findings are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0291.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Penaeus vannamei; Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei; Transcriptome; Hormone; Molting
Online: 16 November 2022 (01:44:58 CET)
Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is an obligate intracellular parasite classified as a fungal pathogen, which causes hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) in shrimp, resulting in large economic losses to the shrimp culture industry. However, the molecular mechanisms of how EHP affects hormonal regulation in shrimp were rarely reported. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the transcriptomic data of the hepatopancreas of EHP-infected and uninfected shrimp to study the hormonal regulation corresponding to EHP infection. The results showed that there were 157 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at the hormonal regulatory level, of which 32 genes were upregulated and 125 genes were downregulated. Functional enrichment analysis showed that many DEGs were enriched in ecdysis-related pathways, including EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, thyroid hormone signaling pathway, and steroid hormone biosynthesis. Ten genes were randomly selected for qRT-PCR to verify the transcriptome sequencing results, and the results demonstrated that the expression of these genes were consistent with the results of the transcriptome. Our study provides an important dataset that contributes to further understanding of how EHP affects shrimp at the level of hormonal regulation. It provides a basis for further research and control of HPM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1403.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: semisolid; gene mapping; Aegilops tauschii; synthetic hexaploid wheat; lodging resistance
Online: 20 July 2023 (09:36:04 CEST)
Lodging is one of the important factors affecting the high and stable yield of wheat worldwide. Solid-stemmed wheat has higher stem strength and lodging resistance than hollow-stemmed wheat. There are many solid stemmed varieties, landraces and old varieties of durum wheat. However, the transfer of solid stem genes from durum wheat is suppressed by the suppressor gene located on chromosome 3D in common wheat, and only hollow-stemmed lines have been created. However, synthetic hexaploid wheat can serve as a bridge to transfer solid stem genes from tetraploid wheat to common wheat. In this study, the F1, F2, and F2:3 generations of the cross between solid-stemmed Syn-SAU-119 and semisolid-stemmed Syn-SAU-117 were developed. A single dominant gene, tentatively designated Su-TdDof, was identified in synthetic hexaploid wheat Syn-SAU-117 by genetic analysis, which suppresses stem solidity. Using bulked segregant RNA-seq (BSR-seq) analysis, Su-TdDof was mapped to chromosome 7DS and flanked by markers KASP-669 and KASP-1055 within a 4.53 cM genetic interval corresponding to 3.86 Mb and 2.29Mb physical region in the Chinese Spring (IWGSC RefSeq v1.1) and Ae. tauschii (AL8/78 v4.0) genome, respectively, in which three genes related to solid stem development were annotated. Su-TdDof differed from a previously reported solid stem suppressor gene based on its origin and position. Su-TdDof would provide a valuable example for research on the suppression phenomenon. The flanking markers developed in this study would be useful for screening Ae. tauschii accessions with no suppressor gene (Su-TdDof) to develop more synthetic hexaploid wheat lines for wheat lodging resistance breeding and further cloning the suppressor gene Su-TdDof.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0044.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast tumor kinase (BRK); protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6); breast cancer; pathways; therapeutics
Online: 2 August 2018 (09:58:55 CEST)
The search for improved therapeutic approaches to breast cancer are still on going. Breast tumor kinase (BRK, also known as PTK6) is one of the targets, it is highly expressed in breast carcinomas while displaying low or no expression in the normal mammary gland, which hints at the oncogenic role of this enzyme in breast cancer. In these twenty years, an increasing number of studies have focused on understanding the cellular roles of BRK in breast cancers. This review outlines the advances made towards understanding the cellular and physiological role of BRK, the molecular and chemical inhibitors and its therapeutic significance in breast cancer.