REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0578.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: HPV, HPV vaccine; Social Media; Mobile Technology; HPV vaccine intervention; RE-AIM Framework
Online: 28 January 2021 (08:15:38 CET)
Social media HPV vaccination interventions show promise for increasing HPV vaccination rates. An important consideration for the implementation of effective interventions into real-world practice in the translation potential, or external validity, of the intervention. To this end, we conducted a systematic literature review to describe the current body of evidence regarding the external validity of social media HPV vaccination-related interventions. Constructs related to external validity were based on the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance) framework. Seventeen articles published between 2006 and 2020 met inclusion criteria. Three researchers independently coded each article using a validated RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness/efficacy, adoption, implementation, maintenance) framework. Discrepant codes were discussed with a fourth reviewer to gain consensus. Of these 17 studies, three were pilot efficacy studies, 10 were RCTs to evaluate effectiveness, one was a population-based study, and three did not explicitly state which type of study was conducted. Reflecting this distribution of study types, across all studies the mean level of reporting RE-AIM dimensions varied with reach recording 90.8%, effectiveness (72.1%), adoption (40.3%), implementation (45.6%), and maintenance (26.5%). This review suggests that while the current HPV vaccination social media-driven interventions provide sufficient information on internal validity (reach and effectiveness), few have aimed to gather data on external validity needed to translate the interventions into real world implementation. Our data suggest that implementation research is needed to move HPV vaccination-related interventions into practice. Included in this review are recommendations for enhancing the design and reporting of these HPV vaccination social media-related interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0525.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Fathers; Human papillomavirus (HPV); awareness; HPV knowledge; HPV vaccine acceptability; Latino; Hispanic men
Online: 21 December 2020 (12:14:51 CET)
Objective: Despite increasing interest in understanding factors influencing awareness, knowledge, and acceptability of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine among Latino parents to date, limited information is available specific to Latino fathers living in the United States. Methods: This descriptive qualitative study explored Latino fathers’ awareness, knowledge, and acceptability of the HPV vaccine for their adolescent children. Data were collected through individual, semi-structured interviews and analyzed using a hybrid method of thematic analysis that incorporated deductive and inductive approaches. Results: Nineteen, majority foreign-born Latino fathers (63.2%; n = 12) fathers of male and female adolescents participated in the study. Four main themes and two subthemes emerged from the analyses. Results found fathers’ low awareness and knowledge of HPV and the HPV vaccine. Results also identified fathers’ positive attitude toward vaccines in general. Moreover, results revealed fathers’ trust in healthcare providers. This trust translated into an increased willingness to vaccinate their children against HPV if recommended by their child’s primary healthcare provider. Conclusion: Findings indicate the need for increased efforts to raise awareness and knowledge among Latino fathers of HPV and the HPV vaccine. In addition, findings underscore the critical role of healthcare providers’ recommendation of the HPV vaccine. Given the limited research focused on Latino fathers, this study’s findings are valuable in building a knowledge foundation needed for developing future studies and interventions to promote the HPV vaccine by targeting Latino fathers living in the United States. Future research should quantify Latino fathers' awareness, knowledge, and acceptability of the HPV vaccine for their children, and preferences for educational interventions to promote HPV vaccination.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0206.v1
Online: 13 October 2021 (15:23:58 CEST)
Cancer/testis (CT) antigens exhibit selective expression predominantly in immunoprivileged tissues in non-pathological contexts but are aberrantly expressed in diverse cancers. Because of their expression pattern, they have historically been attractive targets for immunotherapies. The investigation of mechanistic roles of CT antigens in promoting oncogenesis has historically been a prominent research question, and a growing number of studies implicate CT antigens in promoting almost all the hallmarks of cancer. This suggests that CT antigens may act as cancer drivers. CT antigens are expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, although their role in the pathogenesis, prognostication, and treatment for this family of cancers remains poorly studied. Given that CT antigens hold intriguing potential as therapeutic targets and as biomarkers for prognosis and therapeutic response and that they can provide novel insights into oncogenic mechanisms, their further study in the context of head and squamous cell carcinoma is warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: high-risk HPV infection; E7 oncoprotein; cigarette smoking; HPV carcinogenesis; cervical cancer
Online: 5 January 2018 (11:48:47 CET)
Persistent cervical infection with high-risk Human papillomaviruses (hrHPVs) is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for the development of cervical cancer. Therefore, there are other co-factors facilitating the hrHPV carcinogenic process, one of which is smoking. In order to assess the effect of smoking on high-risk (hr) HPV DNA positivity and on the expression of HPV E7 oncoprotein, as a surrogate of persistent hrHPV infection, we used data from women recruited for the PIPAVIR project, which examined the role of E7 protein detection in cervical cancer screening. Women were tested for hrHPV DNA, using Multiplex Genotyping and E7 protein, using a novel sandwich ELISA method, and gave information on their smoking habits. Among 1473 women, hrHPV prevalence was 19.1%. The odds ratio (OR) for hrHPV positivity of smokers compared to non-smokers was 1.785 (95%CI: 1.365-2.332, p<0.001). The ORs for E7 positivity, concerning hrHPV positive women, ranged from 0.720 to 1.360 depending on the E7 detection assay used, but this was not statistically significant. Smoking increases the probability of hrHPV infection, and smoking intensity is positively associated to this increase. Smoking is not related to an increased probability of E7 protein positivity for hrHPV positive women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: hpv; papilloma; lsil; hsil; hpv clearance; immunomodulation; nk cells; casein hydrolysate; ditriamino; hupavir
Online: 3 December 2019 (12:07:59 CET)
Cervical cancer screening systems aim to detect established HPV infections early. However, if there are no high-grade lesions, the intervention choice is basically limited to observational follow-up with recommendations on life habits like diet, to favor infection control. Therefore, it is important to establish specific feeding guidelines that provide clear evidence about the benefit they may bring against HPV infections. The present study evaluates the benefits of nutritional supplementation with a casein hydrolysate-based formula in patients with HR-HPV infection, compared with a non-supplemented control group. A total of 118 patients completed 6 months of follow-up. Significant differences between supplemented and control groups were observed for total or partial HR-HPV clearance at 6 months (74.6% vs 35.6%). Supplemented patients also suffered a lower occurrence of new intracervical lesions (0% vs 28.6%), a significantly greater resolution (67.4% vs 41.9%) and less progression of pre-existing lesions (4.7% vs 9.7%) at 6 months. An increase in the effectors of cellular immunity that could be responsible for their effect was also observed in supplemented patients. We conclude that nutritional supplementation with this casein hydrolysate-based formula could improve the outcomes of observational management of HPV infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: El Salvador; Cervical cancer; Human papilloma virus (HPV); screen-and-treat; cervical precancer; HPV vaccine
Online: 23 May 2022 (05:15:50 CEST)
Cervical cancer is preventable through vaccination, early detection, and treatment of precancerous lesions. However, global inequalities mean that the disease remains a leading cause of cancer death around the world, with over 80% of new cases and 90% of deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). In El Salvador, joint efforts between the Ministry of Health (MoH) and the non-profit organization Basic Health International (BHI) have been in place since 2008 with the goal of reducing the country’s disease burden. While the World Health Organization’s (WHO) call to action to eliminate cervical cancer provided worldwide momentum to implement new public health initiatives, the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted ongoing programs and jeopardized plans for the future. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the progress that El Salvador has achieved in improving cervical cancer prevention, the impact of the pandemic on current strategies, and potential solutions that can help the country meet the WHO’s strategic targets by 2030 to accelerate the elimination of cervical cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0671.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: HPV; E7; variants; molecular dynamics simulation
Online: 25 December 2020 (16:05:04 CET)
The oncogenic potential of high-risk HPVs is focused on producing the E6 and E7 oncoproteins responsible for disrupting the control of the cell cycle. Epidemiological studies propose the presence of the N29S and H51N variants of the HPV16 E7 protein as a significant association with cervical cancer. It has been suggested that changes in the amino acid sequence of E7 variants may affect the oncoprotein 3D structure; however, this remains unknown. Analysis of the structural differences of the HPV16 E7 protein and its variants (N29S and H51N) was performed through homology modeling and structural refinement by molecular dynamics simulation. We propose for the first time a 3D structure of the E7 reference protein and two of its variants (N29S and H51N) and conclude that the mutations induced by the variants in N29S and H51N have a significant influence on the 3D structure of the E7 protein of HPV16, which could be related to the oncogenic capacity of this protein.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: cervical cancer; HPV vaccination; sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 12 July 2018 (14:32:40 CEST)
In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), cervical cancer is a critical public health issue; it is the second leading cause of cancer among women and the leading cause of female cancer deaths. Incidence and mortality rates are substantially higher than in high-income countries with population-based screening programs, yet implementing screening programs in SSA has so far proven to be challenging due to financial, logistical and sociocultural factors. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is an effective approach for primary prevention of cervical cancer and presents an opportunity to reduce the burden from cervical cancer in SSA. With a number of SSA countries now eligible for GAVI support for vaccine introduction, it is timely to consider the factors that impede and facilitate implementation of vaccine programs in SSA. This article reviews the epidemiological and clinical features of cervical cancer in SSA and describes the current status of HPV vaccine implementation in SSA countries. The review considers the challenges that will need to be addressed, and effective approaches to the design and implementation of HPV vaccination programs, using Rwanda as a case study. The review aims to provide suggestions and guidance to those involved in the development and implementation of HPV vaccination programs in SSA.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Human papillomavirus (HPV); cervical cancer; prevalence; genotypes; China
Online: 1 August 2020 (16:25:46 CEST)
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays a key role in the development of cervical cancer that ranks as the third most common gynecological cancer in China. We attempt to investigate the age and genotype-specific prevalence of HPV DNA in western Chinese females. Methods: A total of 301,880 woman were recruited from 4 different regions of western China. Routine cervical samples were collected and HPV screening was performed using 21 HPV Genotyping test (Hybribio). The overall prevalence, age-specific prevalence, and genotype distribution were analyzed. Results: The overall prevalence of HPV was 18.01%. The high-risk HPV infection rate was 79.14%, the low-risk HPV infection rate was 12.56%, and the mixed HPV infection rate was 8.30%. The most common 4 HR HPV subtypes were HPV-52, 16, 58 and 53, which accounted for 20.49 %, 19.93 %, 14.54 % and 10.01 %. In LR HPV genotype, HPV-6 ranked the highest (28.17 %), followed by HPV-81 (9.09 %), HPV-11 (3.78 %). HPV genotype subgroup analysis also showed that single-type infections had the highest prevalence rate (77.26%) among HPV positive individuals. Among muti-infection genotype, double infection was most common with frequencies of 76.04%. Conclusion: This large report shows that the overall prevalence of HPV was high in China, whose distribution exhibits different patterns across different particular age and regions. Viral genotypes HPV53, 6 were are frequently detected in this population, which is worth of significant clinical attention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0302.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: HPV vaccination; vaccine hesitancy; barriers; health literacy; cervical cancer
Online: 22 March 2022 (13:58:09 CET)
The incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer are rising among young women in Japan. In November 2021, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare reinstated the active recommendation for the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, which was discontinued in June 2013 due to reports of adverse reactions, including chronic pain and motor dysfunction, following vaccination. However, vaccine hesitancy among the younger generation remains, and it is essential to identify the barriers in vaccination uptake. Therefore, we aim to conduct a randomized study using different methods of providing educational contents to improve health literacy regarding cervical cancer and HPV vaccination among female students in Japan. Here, we present the results of our preliminary report and discuss current topics related to HPV vaccination in Japan. Data were collected from 27 female students—divided into three groups: no intervention, print-based intervention, and SNS-based intervention—using the Health Literacy Scale and Communicative and Critical Health Literacy scale. Our primary results indicate that participants’ knowledge and health literacy improved post intervention. Therefore, medical professionals must provide accurate scientific knowledge regarding routine HPV vaccination and the risk of cervical cancer to young women to improve their health literacy and subsequently increase the HPV vaccination rates.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0298.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: papillomaviruses; HPV; replication; transcription; E1; E2; IFIT1; cancer; HNSCC
Online: 30 January 2019 (04:42:41 CET)
The incidence of human papillomavirus-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HPV+HNSCC) has reached epidemic levels in the last decade. While prophylactic vaccines will prevent future HPV infections, there are currently no HPV-specific antiviral drugs to treat current HPV infections or HPV+HNSCC. HPV replication and transcription are promising targets for anti-HPV therapeutics, as modulation of these processes can alter expression levels of HPV E6 and E7, which are required for maintenance of the transformed phenotype. This is a particularly attractive target in in HPV+HNSCC where the majority of tumors have episomal genomes replicating in an E1-E2 dependent manner. Here, we describe a model system to study HPV16 E1-E2 mediated DNA replication and HPV16 E2-mediated transcriptional activation and repression in multiple HNSCC cell lines. Our results demonstrate that low levels of IFIT1 are required for HPV16 replication in HNSCC cell lines and HPV16 E1 interacts with IFIT1. Restoration of IFIT1 expression in HNSCC cell lines partially inhibits HPV16 E1-E2 mediated replication. This system can be used to study replication and transcription by HPV16 E1 and E2 in HNSCC as well as be utilized to screen potential anti-HPV therapeutics that target HPV16 replication and transcription.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0426.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma; Head and neck; HPV; p16; Survival
Online: 28 January 2022 (07:20:10 CET)
Background: Sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) is rare in the general population. No clear and consistent etiologic correlation between human papillomavirus and SNSCC has yet been delineated in literature. p16 is a tumour suppressor protein used as a surrogate marker for HPV. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between p16 overexpression in SNSCC and its role in prognosis and survival. Methods: A population-based retrospective analysis was performed using prospectively collected data from the Northern Alberta Head and Neck Tumour Board, Alberta Cancer Registry, and Alberta Cancer Research Biobank. p16 overexpression was analyzed from pathologic sample of patients meeting study criteria, and participants were dichotomized by status. Subsequently, nonparametric analysis of demographics, initial staging, and initial treatment were performed, and a Kapan-Meier curve was developed to assess differences in survival. Results: 16 patients were included in analysis. p16 overexpression was seen in 68.8% of patients. p16 positive and negative groups were comparable for age, gender, smoking status, stage, and treatment. A statistically significant five-year survival advantage was observed in patients with p16 positive SNSCC (p = 0.013). Conclusions: This is the first Canadian study to demonstrate a high prevalence of p16 positivity in SNSCC and its presence denoting a statistically significant survival advantage. Results demonstrate a previously unconfirmed role of oncogenic HPV in SNSCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0249.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: cervical cancer screening; HPV self-sampling; sub-Saharan Africa; preference
Online: 15 November 2021 (10:55:02 CET)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (Self-HPV) is a promising strategy to improve cervical cancer screening coverage in low-income countries. However, issues associated with women who prefer conventional HPV clinical-sampling over HPV self-sampling may affect screening participation. To address this issue, our study assessed factors associated with women’s preferences related to Self-HPV. This study was embedded in a large clinical trial recruiting women aged 30–49 years in a primary HPV-based study termed “3T-Approach” (for Test-Triage-Treatment), launched in 2018 at Dschang District Hospital, West Cameroon. Participants were invited to perform a Self-HPV. After the sampling and before receiving the results, participants completed a questionnaire about cervical cancer screening and their preferences and perceptions around Self-HPV. The median age of the 2201 participants was 40.6 (IQR 35–45) years. Most (1693 (76.9%)) preferred HPV self-sampling or had no preference for either method and 508 (23.1%) preferred clinician-sampling. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of reporting a clinician-sampling preference were tertiary educational level (14.4% CI: 12.8–16.1 vs 29.5% CI: 25.6–33.6) and being an employee with higher grade professional or managerial occupations (5.5% CI: 3.8–7.9 vs 2.6% CI: 2.3–2.8). The main reported reason for women preferring clinician-sampling was a lack of “self-expertise”. Most women (>99%) would agree to repeat HPV self-sampling and would recommend it to their relatives. HPV self-sampling in the cultural context of central Africa was well accepted by participants, but some participants would prefer to undergo clinician sampling. Health systems should support well-educated women to increase self-confidence in using HPV self-sampling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0199.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: human papillomavirus; HPV; cervical cancer; cancer screening; self-sampling; vaginal microbiome
Online: 1 December 2017 (07:19:13 CET)
In most industrialized countries, screening programs for cervical cancer have shifted from cytology (Pap smear or ThinPrep) alone on clinician-obtained samples to the addition of screening for human papillomavirus (HPV), its main causative agent. For HPV testing, self-sampling instead of clinician-sampling has proven to be equally accurate, in particular for assays that use nucleic acid amplification techniques. In addition, HPV testing of self-collected samples in combination with a follow-up Pap smear in case of a positive result is more effective in detecting precancerous lesions than a Pap smear alone. Self-sampling for HPV testing has already been adopted by some countries, while others have started trials to evaluate its incorporation into national cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling may result in more individuals willing to participate in cervical cancer screening, because it removes many of the barriers that prevent women, especially those in low socioeconomic and minority populations, from participating in regular screening programs. Several studies have shown that the majority of women who have been underscreened but who tested HPV-positive in a self-obtained sample, will visit a clinic for follow-up diagnosis and management. Additionally, a self-collected sample can also be used for vaginal microbiome analysis, which can provide additional information about HPV infection persistence as well as vaginal health in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0622.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: human papillomavirus virus; cervical cancer; random network model; vaccination programs; oncogenic HPV eradication
Online: 25 March 2021 (14:35:21 CET)
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women worldwide, although it is preventable with prophylactic HPV vaccination. HPV transmission-dynamic models can predict the potential for global elimination of cervical cancer. The random network model is a new approach that allows individuals to be followed, and to implement a given vaccination policy according to their clinical records. We developed an HPV transmission dynamics model on a lifetime sexual partners network based on individual contacts, also accounting for the sexual behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM). We analyzed the decline in the prevalence of HPV infection in a scenario of 75% and 90% coverage for both sexes. An important herd immunity effect for men and women was observed in the heterosexual network, even with 75% coverage. However, HPV in-fections are persistent in the MSM population, with sustained circulation of the virus among un-vaccinated individuals. Coverage around 75% of both sexes would be necessary to eradicate HPV-related conditions in women within five decades. Nevertheless, the variation in the decline in infection in the long term between vaccination coverage of 75% and 90% is relatively small, suggesting that reaching coverage of around 70-75% in the heterosexual network may be enough to confer high protection. Nevertheless, HPV eradication maybe achieved if men’s coverage is strictly controlled. This accurate representation of HPV transmission demonstrates the need to maintain high HPV vaccination coverage, especially in men, for whom the cost-effectiveness of vaccination is questioned.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0268.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: HPV self-sampling; cervical cancer; women living with HIV; low- and middle-income coutries
Online: 20 May 2022 (03:40:58 CEST)
Introduction. Self-sampling has the potential to increase cervical cancer screening (CCS) among women living with HIV (WLWH) in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, our understanding of how HPV self-collection studies have been conducted in WLWH is limited. The purpose of this scoping review was to examine the extent to which the HPV self-sampling has been applied among WLWH in LMICs. Method: We conducted multiple searches in several databases for articles published between 2000 and January 2022. With the combination of keywords relating to HPV self-sampling, LMICs, and WLWH, we retrieved over 9,000 articles. We used pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria to select relevant studies for this review. Once a study met the inclusion criteria, we created a table to extract each study’s characteristics and classified them under common themes. We used a qualitative descriptive approach to summarize the scoping results. Results: A total of 12 articles were included in the final review. Overall, 3,178 women were enrolled in those studies and 2,105 (66%) of them were WLWH. The self-sampling participation rate was 92.6%. The findings of our study show that 43% of the WLWH in 8 of the studies reviewed tested positive for high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) genotypes, indicating 4 out of 10 WLWH in the studies are at risk of cervical cancer. The prevalence of the hr-HPV in WLWH was 18% higher than that of HIV-negative women. Most women in the study found the self-sampling experience acceptable, easy to use, convenient, and comfortable. Self-sampling performance in detecting hr HPV genotypes is comparable to clinician-performed sampling. However, limited access (i.e., affordability, availability, transportation), limited knowledge about self-screening, doubts about the credibility of self-sampling results, and stigma remain barriers to wide acceptance and implementation of self-sampling. In conclusion, the findings of this review highlight that (a) cervical cancer is a threat to every sexually active woman but for WLWH the threat increases, (b) self-sampling laboratory performance is similar to clinician performed sampling, (c) self-sampling is associated with an increase in cervical cancer screening uptake and (d) WLWH reported a positive experience with self-sampling. However, personal, environmental, and structural barriers challenge the application of self-sampling in LMICs, and these need to be addressed. Keywords: keyword 1; keyword 2; keyword 3 (List three to ten pertinent keywords specific to the article yet reasonably common within the subject discipline.)
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0441.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Cervical cancer; cervical dysplasia, HPV, HLA, GWAS, genetic susceptibility, meta-analysis, SNP, eQTL, Papillomavirus
Online: 24 September 2021 (15:28:14 CEST)
Cervical cancer is the fourth common cancer amongst women worldwide. Environmental factors such as smoking and obesity, and recurrent infection by high-risk human papillomavirus subtypes are known to promote progression towards invasive cervical disease. Infection by high-risk HPV is necessary in most cases but not sufficient to develop invasive cervical cancer. Despite a predicted genetic heritability of between 27-36%, known genetic susceptibility loci that may be tumorigenic or influence host response to infection, only account for a small fraction of heritable risk factors so far. Various biobank-driven population based studies and meta-analyses have found corroborative evidence for several risk variants at the 6p21.3 locus (HLA), while many reports of variants outside the HLA region remain to be validated in other cohorts. Here, we review cervical cancer susceptibility variants arising from recent genome-wide association studies and meta-analysis in large cohorts and propose 2q14 (PAX8), 17q12 (GSDMB), and 5p15.33 (CLPTM1L) as consistently replicated non-HLA cervical cancer susceptibility loci. We further discuss the available evidence for these loci, knowledge gaps, future perspectives, and the potential impact of these findings on precision medicine strategies to combat cervical cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0149.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Bioinformatics; Cervical cancer; Deep Sequencing; Human papillomavirus; HPV genotyping; Metagenome; Next generation sequencing; Taxonomic classification; Virome
Online: 6 August 2021 (08:00:00 CEST)
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has actualized human papillomavirus (HPV) virome profiling for in-depth investigation of viral evolution and pathogenesis. However, viral computational analysis remains a bottleneck due to semantic discrepancies between computational tools and curated reference genomes. To address this, we developed and tested automated workflows for HPV taxonomic profiling and visualization using a customized Papillomavirus database in CLC Microbial Genomics Module. HPV genomes from Papilloma Virus Episteme were customized and incorporated into CLC “ready-to-use” workflows for stepwise data processing to include: 1) Taxonomic Analysis, 2) Estimate Alpha/Beta Diversities, and 3) Map Reads to Reference. Low-grade (n = 95) and high-grade (n = 60) Pap smears were tested with ensuing collective runtimes: Taxonomic Analysis (36 min); Alpha/Beta Diversities (5 sec); Map Reads (45 min). Tabular output conversion to visualizations entailed 1-2 keystrokes. Biodiversity analysis between low- (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) revealed loss of species richness and gain of dominance by HPV-16 in HSIL. Integrating clinically relevant, taxonomized HPV reference genomes within automated workflows proved to be an ultra-fast method of virome profiling. The entire process named “HPV DeepSeq” provides a simple, accurate and practical means of NGS data analysis for a broad range of applications in viral research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0065.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: human papillomavirus; head and neck cancer; cancer subtypes; gene expression; oropharynx; HPV integration; immune response; keratinization
Online: 5 May 2021 (13:39:59 CEST)
Until recently, research on the molecular signatures of HPV-associated head and neck cancers mainly focused on their differences with respect to HPV-negative HNSCCs. However, given the continuing high incidence level of HPV-related HNSCC, the time is ripe to characterize the heterogeneity that exists within these cancers. Here, we review research thus far on HPV-positive HNSCC molecular subtypes, and their relationship with clinical characteristics and HPV integration into the host genome. Different omics data including host transcriptomics and epigenomics, as well as HPV characteristics, can provide complementary viewpoints. Keratinization, mesenchymal differentiation, immune signatures, stromal cells, and oxidoreductive processes all play important roles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0602.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; DNA sequencing; DNA synthesis; enzyme; free-radicals; genome; HPV; oncogenes; retinoblastoma; ribonucleotide reductase; RnR; SMT; TCGA
Online: 6 July 2021 (11:32:47 CEST)
Presence of mutated genes strongly correlates with incidence of cancer. Decades of research, however, has not yielded any specific causative gene or set of genes for the vast majority of cancers. The Cancer Genome Atlas program was supposed to provide clarity but it only gave much more data without any accompanying insight into how the disease begins and progresses. It may be time to notice that epidemiological studies consistently show that the environment, not genes, has the principal role in causing cancer. Since carcinogenic chemicals in our food, drink, air and water are the primary culprit, we need to look at the biochemistry of cancer, with focus on enzymes which carry out any and all transformations in a cell. In particular, attention should be paid to the rate-limiting enzyme in DNA synthesis, ribonucleotide reductase (RnR) which is tightly linked to tumor growth. Beside the circumstantial evidence that cancer is induced at its vulnerable active-site by various carcinogens, there exists experimental proof of its role in initiating retinoblastoma and HPV-related cervical cancers. Blocking the activity of RnR is a certain way to arrest cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0007.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: molecular diagnostics; molecular epidemiology; HIV; HBV; HCV; HPV; Zika virus; Dengue virus; tuberculosis; SARS; MERS; nCov-2019
Online: 3 February 2020 (03:47:27 CET)
Infectious diseases are a global health problem affecting billions of people. Developing rapid and sensitive diagnostic tools is key for successful patient management and curbing disease spread. Currently available diagnostics are very specific and sensitive but time-consuming and require expensive laboratory settings and well-trained personnel; thus, they are not available in resource-limited areas, for the purposes of large-scale screenings and in case of outbreaks and epidemics. Developing new, rapid, and affordable point-of-care diagnostic assays is urgently needed. This review focuses on CRISPR-based technologies and their perspectives to become platforms for point-of-care nucleic acid detection methods and as deployable diagnostic platforms that could help to identify and curb outbreaks and emerging epidemics. We describe the mechanisms and function of different classes and types of CRISPR-Cas systems, including pros and cons for developing molecular diagnostic tests and applications of each type to detect a wide range of infectious agents. Many Cas proteins (Cas9, Cas12, Cas13, Cas14) have been leveraged to create highly accurate and sensitive diagnostic tools combined with technologies of signal amplification and fluorescent, potentiometric, colorimetric, or lateral flow assay detection. In particular, the most advanced platforms -- SHERLOCK/v2, DETECTR, or CRISPR-Chip -- enable detection of attomolar amounts of pathogenic nucleic acids with specificity comparable to that of PCR but with minimal technical settings. Further developing CRISPR-based diagnostic tools promises to dramatically transform molecular diagnostics, making them easily affordable and accessible virtually anywhere in the world. The burden of socially significant diseases, frequent outbreaks, recent epidemics (MERS, SARS and the ongoing coronoviral nCov-2019 infection) urgently need the developing of express-diagnostic tools. Recently devised CRISPR-technologies represent the unprecedented opportunity to reshape epidemiological surveillance and molecular diagnostics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0229.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: pharynx; oncogenic virus; oropharyngeal cancer; nasopharyngeal cancer; human papillomavirus (HPV); Epstein–Barr virus (EBV); microbiome; infection; inflammation; carcinogenesis
Online: 16 June 2022 (04:27:04 CEST)
While the two primary risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are alcohol and tobacco, viruses account for an important and significant upward trend in HNSCC incidence. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent for a subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC)—a cancer that is impacting a rapidly growing group of typically middle-aged non-smoking white males. While HPV is a ubiquitously present virus (with about 7% of the population having oral HPV infection at any one time), only 1% of those infected develop OPSCC— suggesting that additional cofactors or coinfections may be required. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a similarly ubiquitous virus that is strongly linked to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Both of these viruses cause cellular transformation and chronic inflammation. While dysbiosis of the human microbiome has been associated with similar chronic inflammation and the pathogenesis of mucosal diseases (including OPSCC and NPC), a significant knowledge gap remains in understanding the role of bacterial-viral interactions in the initiation, development, and progression of head and neck cancers. In this review, we utilize the known associations of HPV with OPSCC and EBV with NPC to investigate these interactions. We thoroughly review the literature and highlight how perturbations of the pharyngeal microbiome may impact host-microbiome-tumor-viral interactions—leading to tumor growth.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0482.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Telomerase reverse transcriptase; TERT; TERT promoter; TERTp; human papillomavirus; HPV; Epstein Barr virus (EBV); Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus; HHV-8; hepatitis B virus; HBV; hepatitis C virus; HCV; human T-cell leukemia virus-1; HTLV-1
Online: 30 September 2022 (10:11:58 CEST)
Human oncoviruses are able to subvert telomerase function in cancer cells through multiple strategies. The activity of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (TERT) is commonly enhanced in virus-related cancers. Viral oncoproteins, such as high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) LMP1, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV-8) LANA, hepatitis B virus (HBV) HBVx, hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein and human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) tax protein, interact with regulatory elements in the infected cells and contribute to the transcriptional activation of TERT gene. Specifically, viral oncoproteins have been shown to bind TERT promoter, to induce post-transcriptional alterations of TERT mRNA and to cause epigenetic modifications, which have important effects on the regulation of telomeric and extra-telomeric functions of the telomerase. Other viruses, such as herpesviruses, operate by integrating their genomes within the telomeres or by inducing alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) in non-ALT cells. In this review, we recapitulate recent findings on virus-telomerase/telomeres interplay and the importance of TERT-related oncogenic pathways activated by cancer causing viruses.