Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

It Takes Two to Tango; A Review of Oncogenic Virus and Host Microbiome Associated Inflammation on Head and Neck Cancer

These auth
These authors contributed equally to this work
Version 1 : Received: 15 June 2022 / Approved: 16 June 2022 / Online: 16 June 2022 (04:27:04 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

McKeon, M.G.; Gallant, J.-N.; Kim, Y.J.; Das, S.R. It Takes Two to Tango: A Review of Oncogenic Virus and Host Microbiome Associated Inflammation in Head and Neck Cancer. Cancers 2022, 14, 3120. McKeon, M.G.; Gallant, J.-N.; Kim, Y.J.; Das, S.R. It Takes Two to Tango: A Review of Oncogenic Virus and Host Microbiome Associated Inflammation in Head and Neck Cancer. Cancers 2022, 14, 3120.

Journal reference: Cancers 2022, 14, 3120
DOI: 10.3390/cancers14133120

Abstract

While the two primary risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are alcohol and tobacco, viruses account for an important and significant upward trend in HNSCC incidence. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent for a subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC)—a cancer that is impacting a rapidly growing group of typically middle-aged non-smoking white males. While HPV is a ubiquitously present virus (with about 7% of the population having oral HPV infection at any one time), only 1% of those infected develop OPSCC— suggesting that additional cofactors or coinfections may be required. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a similarly ubiquitous virus that is strongly linked to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Both of these viruses cause cellular transformation and chronic inflammation. While dysbiosis of the human microbiome has been associated with similar chronic inflammation and the pathogenesis of mucosal diseases (including OPSCC and NPC), a significant knowledge gap remains in understanding the role of bacterial-viral interactions in the initiation, development, and progression of head and neck cancers. In this review, we utilize the known associations of HPV with OPSCC and EBV with NPC to investigate these interactions. We thoroughly review the literature and highlight how perturbations of the pharyngeal microbiome may impact host-microbiome-tumor-viral interactions—leading to tumor growth.

Keywords

pharynx; oncogenic virus; oropharyngeal cancer; nasopharyngeal cancer; human papillomavirus (HPV); Epstein–Barr virus (EBV); microbiome; infection; inflammation; carcinogenesis

Subject

LIFE SCIENCES, Microbiology

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