ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0277.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Long Covid; post Covid; Post-acute COVID
Online: 21 March 2022 (08:25:20 CET)
Abstract: COVID-19 Long Haulers, an estimated 3% to 12% of people infected globally with coronavirus having latter devasting symptoms 12 weeks after the initial infection is on the rise. We conducted a collaborative study with the long covid patient organization in Greece in order to estimate the prevalence, symptoms and problems that adult long haulers experience and then propose a management plan for these patients. Symptoms were obtained from 208 patients using unstructured qualitative free text entries in an anonymized online questionnaire. The majority of respondents (68.8%) were not hospitalized and had been diagnosed more than six months ago with lingering symptoms (66,8%). Eighteen different symptoms (fatigue, tachycardia, shortness of breath, parosmia etc) were mentioned in both hospitalized and community patients. Interestingly, patients with initial mild symptoms suffer from the same persistent symptoms as those who were hospitalized. Awareness of long covid sequelae seems to be low even among medical doctors. Treatment options incorporating targeted rehabilitation programs are either not available or still excluded from the management plan of long covid patients. Since long COVID is a multi-systemic entity, we propose a holistic interventional approach using a multidisciplinary medical team in order to securely and effectively diagnose and treat these specific patients. Academic and medical community must collaborate with long covid patients’ organizations so as to provide personalized medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0413.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: long COVID; COVID 19 vaccination; COVID awareness
Online: 24 December 2021 (23:40:18 CET)
Background Recently, a surge of COVID 19 was observed globally, regionally and nationally. With increasing numbers of cases, the frequency of long COVID is on the rise. Management and control of long COVID depend on changes in respect of human behaviors and requires an understanding of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding health threats. MethodsA descriptive cross sectional study using online survey to gather data on the socio-economic background, knowledge, attitudes and practices on long-term complications of COVID. Results: Out of 201 respondents, 89.2% participants have heard about long-term complications of COVID 19. Only 35.9% have demonstrated adequate knowledge in the questions relating to co-morbidities and risk factors of COVID-19. A total of 92.2% believe that they should adhere to preventive measures following vaccination. Less than 60 % were following the advice on avoiding unnecessary travel and crowded places. Further, less than 50% were following COVID preventive measures. ConclusionAlthough the majority of participants have heard about long-term complications and common symptoms, the knowledge regarding co-morbidities that can lead to severe disease and long COVID was not satisfactory. The attitudes of the participants indicated increasing concern about long COVID. Practices indicate lack of adherence to key measures such as avoiding crowded places. These findings highlight the need for further increasing of awareness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0836.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Long covid; Post covid; Sleep disorders
Online: 11 May 2023 (09:42:22 CEST)
Objectives: To examine the long term impact of COVID-19 on sleep patterns and development of sleep disorders. Methods: Using the centralized Massachusetts General Brigham (MGB) Research Patient Data Registry (RPDR), SARS-CoV2 positive patients were surveyed about their sleep patterns before and after the viral infection. Information related to co-morbid conditions and medications were obtained through chart review. Results: Two hundred and forty five completed surverys were analysed. Average age was 53.3 ± 16.3 years, and participants were predominantly Non-Hispanic White (84.1%) and female (74.3%). Average BMI (kg/m2) was 29.9 ± 6.9, and a greater proportion was non-smokers (63.2%). After COVID-19, there was an increase in the percentage of participants reporting difficulty initiating (31 ± 46% vs. 39 ± 49%, P=0.01), and maintaining sleep (43 ± 49% vs. 57 ± 49%, P<0.001), and use of sleep aids (24 ± 43% vs. 30 ± 45% P=0.003) with an incidence rate of 24.3%, 37.4%, and 12.3% respectively. In addition, there was an increase in daytime fatigue and the need for napping (58 ± 49% vs. 36 ± 48%, P <0.0001) with an incidence of 8% and 23% respectively. The sleep symptoms persisted beyond 12 months among 28% of the participants and were predominantly seen among women. Conclusions: Infection with SARS-CoV2 has negative effects on sleep, and a significant proportion of adults experience insomnia and daytime sleepiness beyond 12 months after recovering from the initial infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1945.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: memory loss; long COVID; post COVID; depression; mental confusion; COVID-19
Online: 27 July 2023 (13:28:13 CEST)
Long Covid is a term used for patients who have recovered from COVID-19 but exhibit persistent cognitive dysfunction, including mental confusion, difficulties in attention, impairment in executive functions and slow movements, among other common symptoms. A study was conducted with 65 patients who had a positive RT-PCR diagnosis and reported symptoms of cognitive impairment, such as memory loss and attention difficulties after recovery. The patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation and completed questionnaires on cognition, mood, and quality of life. During the cognitive screening, 71% of the patients showed alterations, with deficits in visual memory (69%), language (54%), visuospatial construction (49%), verbal episodic memory (37%), executive functions (36%), attentional abilities (34%), and premorbid intelligence (12%). It is important to highlight the need for treatments and further studies to understand the long-term side effects of this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; depression; anxiety; post-acute COVID-19 syndrome; post-COVID
Online: 12 August 2022 (04:56:33 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to examine the course of Depression and anxiety in COVID-19 survivors with a psychiatric history compared with those without a psychiatric history. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey for COVID-19 survivors was conducted from July to September 2021. 6016 COVID-19 survivors, the accuracy of whose responses was determined to be assured, were included in analyses. Exposures included psychiatric history and time since COVID-19 infection, and the main outcomes and measures included severity of depression and anxiety, as assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), respectively. Results: Mean severity of PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were significantly higher in participants with a psychiatric history than in those without a psychiatric history. Two-way analysis of covariance for PHQ-9 showed a significant main effect of the presence of psychiatric history and a significant interaction effect of psychiatric history × time since infection. Two-way analysis of covariance for the GAD-7 score revealed a significant main effect of the presence of psychiatric history and time since COVID-19 infection and the interaction effect of these factors. Conclusions: The course of depression and anxiety was more severe in COVID-19 survivors with a psychiatric history than in those without a psychiatric history.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Clustering; COVID-19; Long COVID; disease severity
Online: 2 November 2022 (01:02:16 CET)
The increasing number of people living with Long COVID requires the development of more personalized care, as for now limited treatment options and rehabilitation programs adapted to the variety of Long COVID presentations are available. Our objective was to design an easy-to-use Long COVID classification to help stratifying people with Long COVID. Individual characteristics and a detailed set of 62 self-reported persisting symptoms together with quality of life indexes 12 months after initial COVID-19 infection were collected in a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 infected people in Luxembourg. A hierarchical ascendant classification (HAC) was used to identify clusters of people. We identified 3 patterns of Long COVID symptoms with a gradient in disease severity. Cluster-Mild encompassed almost 50% of the study population and was composed of participants with less severe initial infection, fewer comorbidities, and fewer persisting symptoms (mean=2.9). Cluster-Moderate was characterized by a mean of 11 persisting symptoms and a poor sleep and respiratory quality of life. Cluster-Severe was characterized by a higher proportion of women and smokers as in the other clusters, with a higher number of Long COVID symptoms, in particular of vascular, urinary, and skin symptoms. Our study evidenced that Long COVID can be stratified in 3 sub-categories in terms of severity. If replicated in other populations, this simple classification will help clinicians to personalize the care of people with Long COVID.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1317.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; long-COVID; post-COVID; cytokine storm; ACE-2
Online: 21 November 2023 (10:45:28 CET)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), instigated by the zoonotic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), rapidly transformed from an outbreak in Wuhan, China, into a widespread global pandemic. A significant post-infection condition, known as ‘long- COVID’, emerges in a substantial subset of patients, manifesting with a constellation of over 200 reported symptoms that span multiple organ systems. This condition, also known as 'post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection' (PASC), presents a perplexing clinical picture with far-reaching implications, often persisting long after the acute phase. While initial research focused on the immediate pulmonary impact of the virus, the recognition of COVID-19 as a multiorgan disruptor has unveiled a gamut of protracted and severe health issues. This review provides a summary of the primary effects of long COVID on the cardiovascular, nervous, and respiratory systems. It also delves into the mechanisms underlying these impacts and underscores the critical need for a comprehensive understanding of long COVID's pathogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: COVID-19; COVID pandemic; COVID and dental practise; dental public health; infection control
Online: 7 June 2020 (15:44:33 CEST)
Background: SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in a global pandemic, COVID-19. The disease has spread outrageously from Wuhan, china to rest of the world affecting millions of people. The human transmission is mainly known to occur by aerosols. As almost every dental procedure is associated with aerosol production, oral health care professionals are at a high risk of getting the infection. An attempt has been made to render cohesive practical suggestions for dental professionals amid COVID-19 outbreak. Objectives: The paper aims at providing evidence based information in managing dental patients during this pandemic. Material and Methods: The paper provides a broad overview of predominant findings based on electronic database search regarding COVID-19 outbreak and its effect on dental practice. Conclusion: Dental care should not be neglected due to the pandemic. Thorough knowledge about the disease and its prevention will not only help us in providing care to these patients but will also help in preventing the nosocomial spread of infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0192.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; Long COVID; EC16; EGCG-palmitate; Formulations
Online: 11 April 2023 (04:55:46 CEST)
Background: Chronic neurologic diseases are common sequelae of COVID. They severely impact the quality of life and increase the burden on healthcare systems. The long COVID neurological symptoms are due to the robust replication of SARS-CoV-2 in the nasal neuroepithelial cells, leading to neuroinvasion and inflammation of the central nerve system (CNS). Currently used medications and vaccines do not inhibit the robust SARS-CoV-2 replication in the nasal epithelial cells. EGCG-palmitate (EC16), a multifunctional compound, has the potential to become a novel intranasal-delivered drug for minimizing post-COVID neurologic symptoms. Method: EC16-containing formulations were developed and tested in vitro against human β coronavirus OC43 (CoV-OC43) using a TCID50 assay following three test protocols differing in exposure sequence. Results: EC16 formulations in normal saline, phosphate buffered saline, and cell culture medium were found to effectively inhibit human β-coronavirus infection (>99.99%) after a 30-min contact. A single 10-min application to cells after infection (i.e., without direct contact with the virus) resulted in >99% inhibition of viral replication. Conclusion: With its antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties, EC16 in nasal formulations could be further developed for clinical applications to COVID-19 patients for minimizing long COVID neurological symptoms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccines; capillary leak syndrome
Online: 11 January 2023 (09:41:36 CET)
Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) is an uncommon, potentially life-threatening disorder defined as recurrent attacks of pseudo-shock. This syndrome occurs due to the disruption of endothelial cells, which leads to increased vascular permeability, causing intravascular fluid to leak into the extravascular space and albumin to be retained in the interstitial space. SCLS can lead to hypovolemia, peripheral hypoperfusion, and acute renal insufficiency. The syndrome is presented with fever, generalized edema, pleural effusions, dyspnea, hypovolemia, hemoconcentration, prerenal azotemia, shock, and syncope. After ruling out other causes of hypovolemic shock, the diagnosis of SCLS can be considered on the presence of the classical triad of hypotension, hemoconcentration, and hypoalbuminemia. Eliminating the precipitating factors is the cornerstone of SCLS management. It is advisable to be very cautious and weigh the risks and benefits of vaccination of people with a history of this condition. This review will discuss and compare different aspects of SLCS after SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0408.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: hesitancy; covid-19; post-covid; medical doctors; indonesia
Online: 13 September 2022 (05:13:14 CEST)
This study is a cross-sectional survey involving physicians around Indonesia aimed to explore physician hesitancy to treat COVID-19 patients after experiencing COVID-19 infection coupled with associated occupational risk factors. The questionnaire was distributed via contact information from the Indonesian Physician Association database. Out of 383 participants, 25.6% suffered from moderate symptoms of COVID-19 and 2.9% were admitted for critical care. Hesitancy to treat suspected, probable, or confirmed COVID-19 patients was found in 20.3% of physicians. A higher hesitancy rate was found in older physicians and those with less experience in treating COVID-19 patients. Specialist trainees and those who work in public hospitals were physicians with the lowest hesitancy in treating COVID-19 patients. There is a significant hesitancy in treating COVID-19 patients among physicians who have suffered from COVID-19 which calls for further action by management and policy makers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; hypertension; blood pressure; endothelial dysfunction; long-covid; post covid
Online: 30 August 2023 (08:59:30 CEST)
Hypertension is one of the most common and significant cardiovascular risk factor. With the emergence of COVID-19, concerns have arisen about its potential to exacerbate cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several theories have emerged linking hypertension with COVID-19. However, the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and long-term risk of hypertension remains insufficiently explored. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 infection on blood pressure and long-term risk of hypertension developing. A comprehensive search was conducted in the PubMed and SCOPUS databases up to 10th August 2023 for relevant papers. The analysis included 35 eligible articles. The majority of the latest studies pointed to increase BP after COVID-19 infection. However, several observations contradicted the influence of SARS-CoV-2 on the hypertension development or suggesting a transient effect. The possible role of the loss of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, cytokine storm, increased sympathetic activity, and endothelial dysfunction were considered. On the other hand, BP changes following COVID-19 could be a consequence of lifestyle changes, which often accompanied COVID-19 infection. Our findings highlight the urgent need for comprehensive research on the COVID-19 and hypertension link. These insights are crucial for implementing effective prevention and management strategies for individuals with the history of COVID-19 infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Bivalent COVID-19 vaccine; COVID-19 vaccination booster; COVID-19; Omicron; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 6 March 2023 (07:00:00 CET)
The severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant of concern has been the dominant cause of worldwide COVID-19 cases since 2022. All the Omicron sublineage viruses have demonstrated high transmissibility and an ability to escape vaccine-induced immunity. While first-generation vaccines, including monovalent vaccines, continue to provide protection against severe disease, hospitalization and mortality, their efficacy against Omicron sub variants remains sparse. These vaccines have also been associated with rapidly waning protection against primary COVID-19 and COVID-19 reinfections conferred by evolving Omicron sublineages.. This led to the development and deployment of updated vaccines and the introduction of the bivalent booster. Through this review, we highlight the brief journey of the variants of concern leading to the dominance of Omicron and the effectiveness of the key vaccines against these variants, including the updated (bivalent) boosters.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0526.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Unreported COVID-19 Death; Provisional COVID-19 Death; Death Reporting Discrepancy; Bangladesh
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:32:05 CEST)
Objective: We aim to assess the reporting discrepancy and the difference between confirmed and unreported COVID-19-like death counts.Study Design: The study is based on time-series data.Methods: We used publicly available data to explore the differences between confirmed death counts and deaths with Codiv-19 symptoms between March 8, 2020, and July 11, 2020, in Bangladesh.Results: During the week ending May 9, 2020, the unreported COVID-19-like death count was higher than the confirmed COVID-19 death count; however, it was lower in the following weeks. On average, unreported COVID-19-like death counts were similar to the confirmed COVID-19 death counts during the same period. However, the reporting authority neither considers these deaths nor adjusts for potential seasonal influenza or other related deaths, which might produce incomplete COVID-19 data and respective mortality rates. Conclusions: Documenting unreported deaths with COVID-19 symptoms needs to be included in provisional death counts because it is essential to estimate a robust COVID-19 mortality rate and to offer data-driven pandemic response strategies. An urgent initiative is needed to prepare an acceptable guideline for COVID-19 death reporting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2111.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; Post COVID syndrome; Concept map for management of long COVID; Health informatics; Public health; Management of long COVID
Online: 29 June 2023 (10:59:21 CEST)
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected millions of lives globally, with some individuals experiencing persistent symptoms even after recovering. Understanding and managing the long-term sequelae of COVID-19 is crucial for research, prevention, and control. As a result, to monitor the health of individuals affected by these conditions, they must maintain up-to-date health records using digital health informatics apps for surveillance. In this review, we provide an overview of the existing literature on identifying long COVID manifestations through hierarchical classification and the characterization of long COVID by different hierarchical groups based on the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). We outline the aspects of the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) and Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery (RECOVER) in artificial intelligence (AI) to identify long COVID. Knowledge exploration, using the concept map for the clinical pathways of long COVID presented in this paper, provides an overview of the data needed to explore tackling the long-term effect of COVID-19 by integrating innovative cohesive frameworks and designing health informatics-based applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to explore the potential incorporation of long COVID as a variable risk factor within a digital health informatics application.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0490.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Covid-19; Long Covid-19; Long Haulers Covid; Post Covid-19 Syndrome; Post-Acute Covid-19; Corona Virus; SARS-Cov-2; Novel Corona Virus 2019; Post-Acute SARS-CoV-2; PASC, Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19; Late Sequelae COVID-19
Online: 18 March 2021 (17:16:52 CET)
Introduction: Despite more than one year passed since the first cases of SARS-CoV-2 were reported, there is still no consensus on the definition and clinical management of post-acute-COVID-19. The condition has heterogeneously been named as Chronic COVID syndrome, Post COVID-19 Syndrome, post-acute sequela of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), and the more familiar long COVID. Method: In order to capture all relevant published studies, we undertook a multi-step search with no language restriction. The following four-step search strategy was utilized: First, a preliminary (limited) search was conducted on January 20, 2021, in Google Scholar and PubMed to identify the appropriate keywords. Then, on January 30, 2021, we adopted a search strategy of electronic databases from Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of sciences, using those keywords. Then, after duplicate removal, we screened all titles, abstracts, and full texts. This resulted in 66 eligible studies. Subsequently, after a forward and backward search of their references and citations an additional 54 publications were found, resulting in a total of 120 publications that formed the basis of the present analysis. The titles, abstracts, and full-texts of non-English articles were translated using Google Translate for further evaluation. We conducted our scoping review based on the PRISMA-ScR Checklist.Results: We found only one randomized clinical trial in our search. Of the 67 original studies, 22 were cohort and 28 were cross-sectional studies totaling 74.6% of the original studies. Of the total of 120 publications, 59 (49.1%) focused on signs and symptoms, 28 (23.3%) were focused on management, and 13 (10.8%) focused on pathophysiology. Ten (9%) publications focused on imaging studies. Ninety-one percent of the original investigations came from high and upper-middle-income countries, highlighting the scarcity of reports originating from low-income and lower-middle-income countries.Conclusion: The predominant symptoms among those with the so-called “Long COVID” were: fatigue, breathlessness, arthralgia, sleep difficulties, and chest pain. Recent reports also point to the risk of long-term sequela with cutaneous, respiratory, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, mental health, neurologic, and renal involvement in those who survive the acute phase of the illness. The ambiguity and controversies in its definition have impaired proper recognition and management of those requiring additional support following the resolution of the acute phase of this infection. This has resulted in long-standing distress for the patients and their families. Our findings highlight the need for a multidisciplinary approach, support, and rehabilitation for these patients in terms of long-term mental and physical health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0699.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19 infection; pandemic; clinical manifestations; complications; Long-COVID
Online: 11 July 2023 (09:47:37 CEST)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus - 2 (SARS-CoV-2), later renamed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in Wuhan, China, in early December 2019. Initially, the China office of the World Health Organization was informed of numerous cases of pneumonia of unidentified etiology in Wuhan, Hubei Province on December 31, 2019. This would subsequently result in a global pandemic with over 76 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 6.9 million deaths reported to the WHO. We have analyzed most of the data published since the beginning of the pandemic to compile this comprehensive review of SARS-CoV-2. We look at the core ideas, such as the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, diagnostics, histopathologic findings, consequences, therapies, and vaccines. We have also included the long-term effects and myths associated with some therapeutics of COVID-19. This study comprehensively assesses of the SARS-CoV-2 virology, vaccines, medicines, and significant variants identified during the pandemic. Our review article is intended to provide medical practitioners with a better understanding of the fundamental sciences, clinical treatment, and prevention of COVID-19. As of June 2023, this paper contains the most recent data made accessible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0240.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Locomotion; regulatory modes; resilience; COVID-19; Covid-19 anxiety.
Online: 4 July 2023 (13:48:34 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted a significant impact on mental health globally. The uncertainty, fear, and stress associated with this crisis have contributed to a heightened prevalence of anxiety, depression, and various other mental health disorders. In this scenario, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship between locomotion regulatory mode, resilience, and COVID-19 anxiety. It is worth noting that previous extensive research has established a significant correlation between high levels of locomotion and diverse positive psychological conditions, such as optimism, reduced hopelessness, and positive affect. A total of 243 participants completed measures of locomotion regulatory mode, resilience, and COVID-19 anxiety. In line with our hypotheses, individuals' locomotion regulatory mode was negatively, although non significatively, associated with COVID-19 anxiety. Furthermore, resilience was found to mediate the relationship between locomotion regulatory mode and COVID-19 anxiety, indicating that individuals displaying high locomotion may be better equipped to cope with the stress and uncertainty of the COVID-19 pandemic due to their greater levels of resilience. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of considering both locomotion and resilience in managing anxiety related to COVID-19 and suggest that interventions aimed at enhancing resilience may be beneficial particularly for individuals with low locomotion regulatory mode.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID-19; ACE2; severity; post-COVID-19 patients; comorbidity.
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:36:06 CEST)
ACE2 impact on the severity of COVID-19 is widely discussed but still controversial. To estimate its role in aspects of the main risk factors and comorbidities, we involved post-COVID-19 patients in Ternopil region (Ukraine). Recruitment period was July 2020 to December 2021. Medical records, treatment modalities and outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Serum human ACE2 protein was measured with Cusabio ELISA kits (Houston, TX, USA). Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS21.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The level of ACE2 serum protein was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in patients with mild symptoms compared to more severe course of disease, and inversely had changed from 1 to 90 days after recovery. In patients with mild COVID-19, ACE2 level significantly decreased over time, while among critical patients, it increased by 34.1percent. Such results could be explained by ACE2 shedding from tissues into circulation. Loss of the membrane-bound form of the enzyme decreases the virus entry into cells. Our studies did not identify any sex-related ACE2 serum levels correlation. The most common comorbidities were hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and diabetes mellitus. All comorbidities except respiratory diseases contribute to the severity of disease and correlate with ACE2 blood serum level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0344.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Long Covid; Covid-19 vaccine; thrombosis; clots; inflammation; therapeutics
Online: 12 April 2023 (10:04:23 CEST)
In the wake of the Covid-19 crisis, a need has arisen to prevent and treat two related conditions, Covid vaccine injury and long Covid, both of which have a significant vascular component. Therefore, the management of these conditions require the development of strategies to prevent or dissolve blood clots and restore circulatory health. This review summarizes the evidence on strategies that can be applied to treat both long and vaccine injuries based on similar mechanisms of action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0145.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; post COVID; liver; aspartate aminotransferase; risk factors
Online: 8 February 2023 (10:47:25 CET)
The long-term laboratory aspects of the effects of COVID-19 on liver function are still not well understood. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the hepatic clinical-laboratory profile of patients with up to 20 months of long-term COVID-19. A total of 243 patients of both sexes aged 18 years or older hospitalised in the acute phase of COVID-19 were included in this study. Liver function analysis was performed. Changes were identified in the mean levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and ferritin. Inflammatory markers such as ferritin > 300 U/L were observed in the group that presented more changes in liver function markers (ALT, AST, and GGT). Age ≥ 60 years, male sex, AST > 25 U/L, and GGT ≥ 50 or 32 U/L were associated with ALT > 29 U/L. There was a correlation between ALT and AST, LDH, GGT, and ferritin. Our findings suggest that ALT and AST levels may be elevated in patients with long-term COVID, especially in those hospitalised in the acute phase. In addition, ALT > 29 U/L was associated with other markers of liver injury, such as LDH, GGT, and ferritin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Covid-19; Neutrophil-Lymphocyte ratio (NLR); severe covid pneumonia
Online: 5 December 2022 (06:26:50 CET)
With covid infection having a periodic occurrence and each wave affecting millions of people, there is an urgent need for healthcare providers to develop readily available biological markers to predict the severity and mortality of COVID-19 infection at an early stage of the disease to predict the most optimal management. The Neutrophil – lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) and Platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), are novel inflammatory markers suggested to predict the severity of illness in COVID -19 patients. We evaluated a retrospective cohort of 224 patients with covid 19 illnesses from August 2020 to October 2020. We categorized the patients into 'mild' and 'moderate to severe as per the severity of their illnesses. The optimal cut-off values of the continuous NLR, PLR, and Age were calculated by applying the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated from ROC analysis. The results showed that Age, Hb, and NLR are significant predictors of the severity of illness. So we quantified the predictive contribution of those variables by its Z- score and showed that NLR is the strongest predictor followed by Age.ROC curve analysis revealed NLR to be an excellent predictor of disease severity (sensitivity 88.30% and specificity 82.60%) at a cut-off of > 4.24. A cut-off of 165.63 was obtained for PLR, which showed good predictive value for the severity of illness. A NLR > 6 was used as a predictor for mortality due to covid illness with good sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion: NLR and PLR can be used as prognostic markers to identify the severity of covid illness and the probability of mortality in the future in low-resource settings. Given its low cost, easily available, accessible, and reproducible data, it can be used as a useful marker to assist the physician in early referral and treatment of covid 19 infected patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0321.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: CoViD-19; Mortality; Weekly Cycle; Weekly Mortality Cycle; Pandemic
Online: 17 December 2020 (11:40:15 CET)
Background. The Weekly Mortality Cycle among CoViD-19 patients has been studied.Methods. Mortality data obtained from the 'Worldometer' website were analyzed with a comparison of absolute values, percentages, and p-value. Results. For patients suffering from CoViD-19, the most favorable or the safest days of the week were Sundays and Mondays. Conclusion. The weekly cycle with decreased mortality on Sundays and Mondays is a unique phenomenon observed among victims of CoViD-19. Presumably the decreased mortality on certain days of the week related to the optimized therapeutic protocols used on the "safest days".
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; asymptomaticspread; early-stage COVID-19 mitigation
Online: 20 April 2020 (06:18:33 CEST)
Background: Early-stage interventions in a potential pandemic are important tounderstand as they can make the difference between runaway exponential growththat is hard to turn back and stopping the spread before it gets that far. COVID-19 is an interesting case study because there have been very different outcomesin different localities. These variations are best studied after the fact if precisionis the goal; while a pandemic is still unfolding less precise analysis is of value inattempting to guide localities in the early stages to learn lessons of those that pre-ceded them. Methods: I examine three factors that could differentiate strategy: asymptomaticspread, differences in use of the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) tuberculosis vac-cine and cloth face masks.Results:Differences in disease progression as well as the possibility of alternativestrategies to prevent COVID-19 from entering the runaway phase or damping itdown later can be elucidated by a study of asymptomatic infection. A study todemonstrate not only what fraction are asymptomatic but how contagious they arewill also inform policy on universal mask wearing. Conclusions: While a COVID-19 outbreak is at a level that makes accurate trace-and test possible, investigation of asymptomatic transmission is viable and shouldbe attempted to enhance understanding of spread and variability in the disease aswell as policy options for slowing the spread.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1487.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: biomarkers; COVID-19; epidemiology; laboratory; long COVID; pathogenesis; post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-19 infection (PASC); post COVID; post-COVID syndrome (PCS)
Online: 22 May 2023 (09:41:11 CEST)
Long COVID (LC) encompasses a constellation of long-term symptoms experienced by at least 10% of people after the initial SARS-CoV-2 infection, and so far has affected about 65 million people. The etiology of LC remains unclear; however, many pathophysiological pathways may be involved, including viral persistence; chronic, low grade inflammatory response; immune dysregulation and defective immune response; reactivation of latent viruses; autoimmunity; persistent endothelial dysfunction and coagulopathy; gut dysbiosis; hormonal dysregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction; and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. There are no specific tests for the diagnosis of LC, and clinical features including laboratory findings and biomarkers may not specifically relate to LC. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to develop and validate biomarkers that can be employed for the prediction, diagnosis and prognosis of LC and its therapeutic response. Promising candidate biomarkers that are found in some patients are markers of systemic inflammation including acute phase proteins, cytokines and chemokines; biomarkers reflecting SARS-CoV-2 persistence, reactivation of herpesviruses and immune dysregulation; biomarkers of endotheliopathy, coagulation and fibrinolysis; microbiota alterations; diverse proteins and metabolites; hormonal and metabolic biomarkers; as well as cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. At present, there are only two reviews summarizing relevant biomarkers; however, they do not cover the entire umbrella of current biomarkers or their link to etiopathogenetic mechanisms, and the diagnostic work-up in a comprehensive manner. Herein, we aim to appraise and synopsize the available evidence on the typical laboratory manifestations and candidate biomarkers of LC, their classification based on main LC symptomatology in the frame of the epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of the syndrome, and furthermore assess limitations and challenges as well as potential implications in candidate therapeutic interventions.
Online: 21 July 2020 (13:46:45 CEST)
Today, we are all threatened by an unprecedented pandemic: COVID-19. How different is it from other coronaviruses? Will it be attenuated or become more virulent? Which animals may be its original host? In this study, we analyzed 377 publicly available complete genome sequences for the COVID-19 virus, the previously known flu-causing coronaviruses (HCov-229E, HCov-OC43, HCov-NL63 and HCov-HKU1) and the lethal, pathogenic P3/P4 viruses, SARS, MERS, Victoria, Lassa, Yamagata, Ebola, and Dengue. We found strong similarities between the current circulating COVID-19 and SARS and MERS, as well as COVID-19 in rhinolophines and pangolins. On the contrary, COVID-19 shares little similarity with the flu-causing coronaviruses and the other P3/P4 viruses. Strikingly, we observed divergence of COVID-19 strains isolated from human hosts has steadily increased from December 2019 to March 2020, suggesting COVID-19 is actively evolving in human hosts. From all existing human COVID-19 genome sequences, we calculated the first common model that represents the shared sequences of the human COVID-19 strains, which provides important information for vaccine and antibody development. Geographic and time-course analysis of the evolutionary trees of the human COVID-19 reveals possibly heterogeneous evolutional paths among strains from 21 countries. This finding has important implications to the management of COVID-19 and the development of vaccines.
Online: 7 July 2020 (08:51:10 CEST)
In this paper we provide an ``expository overview" of classic epidemic projection models. Starting with the simple case of an epidemic that grows exponentially we then investigate ``compartmental" models. These assume that the growth of an infected population is limited endogenously by the size of the underlying pool of susceptibles. We then describe a new family of so-called "Exo-r" statistical models, which hinge on an exogenously driven growth rate of the infected population. This family, which can be used to model both infections and deaths, captures parsimoniously both the depletion of susceptibles and the effect of interventions such as lockdowns and ``social distancing". The model is used to fit numbers of Covid-19 infections in China. It is also used to model and project deaths in the United States. Results are used to inform a discussion on i) the challenges at hand and ii) the extent to which epidemic projection models may be useful despite being wrong.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0269.v1
Online: 21 June 2020 (11:59:21 CEST)
Understanding the clinical conditions and outcomes of Covid-19 infected patients with immunodeficiency like HIV will be an information for improving management and treatment modalities. It was reported a patient of HIV plus clinical confirmed Covid-19 in this presentation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0025.v1
Online: 4 June 2020 (06:03:16 CEST)
COVID-19 represents an unprecedented threat to global public health and economies. Assays are urgently needed for rapid detection and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients in order to inform treatment and quarantine strategies. Establishing globally accepted easy-to-access diagnostic tests is extremely important to understanding the epidemiology of the present pandemic. While nucleic acid-based tests are considered to be more sensitive with respect to serological tests, but the present gold standard RT-PCR-based assays possess limitations such as low sample throughput, requirement for sophisticated reagents and instrumentation. To overcome these shortcomings, recent efforts of incorporating LAMP-based isothermal detection, and minimizing the number of reagents required are on rise. Novel CRISPR- and other nuclease-based techniques, when merge with isothermal and allied technologies, promises to provide sensitive and rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids. Here we discuss and present compilation of state-of-the-art CRISPR based detection techniques for use in COVID diagnosis and epidemiology.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0077.v4
The Ongoing COVID-19 Epidemic Curves Indicate Initial Point Spread in China With Log-Normal Distribution of New Cases per Day With a Predictable Last Date of the Outbreak Version 4: Predictions for Selected European Countries, USA and the World as a Whole and Try to Predict the End of the Outbreak Including a Discussion of a Possible “New Normal”
Online: 19 April 2020 (08:15:10 CEST)
During an epidemic outbreak it is useful for planners and responsible authorities to be able to plan ahead to estimate when an outbreak of an epidemic is likely to ease and when the last case can be predicted in their area of responsibility. Theoretically this could be done for a point source epidemic using epidemic curve forecasting. The extensive data now coming out of China makes it possible to test if this can be done using MS Excel a standard spreadsheet program available to most offices. The available data is divided up for whole China and the different provinces. This and the high number of cases makes the analysis possible. Data for new confirmed infections for Hubei, Hubei outside Wuhan, China excluding Hubei as well as Zhejiang and Fujian provinces all follow a log-normal distribution that can be used to make a rough estimate for the date of the last new confirmed cases in respective areas. In the version 2 continuation work, 9 additional days were added for the Chinese data to evaluate the previous predictions. The extra data then available from China follows the previous predicted trend supporting the usefulness of this simple technique. In the version 2 we also tested the feasibility for a non-specialist to make similar predictions using additional data from S Korea now available. In this third continuation the predictions for Version 2 are evaluated for S Korea and fits well the beginning of the decline but it seems to be difficult to bring down numbers of cases per day under about 100 new cases per day, potential reasons for this is discussed. To further evaluate when in a prediction becomes reliable the Chinese data was used to evaluate to make predictions for each day around the peak in number of cases and after2-3 consecutive days of decreasing new cases per day the prediction becomes reliable. In version 3 data for Italy just reaching this point was used to make further predictions for that country. A second new analysis was also added to use the fitted equation to detect when the acceleration of new cases per day stopped increasing exponentially. In the Chinese case this measured point coincides with the date of the complete Hubei lockdown and in the new Italian analysis it coincides with the mandatory Italian lockdown. Predicted dates for the end of the Italian outbreak is also added. In version 4 we expand the analysis to selected European countries, USA and the World as a whole and try to predict the end of the outbreak. We further discuss the apparent success of the used techniques that might work to introduce a “new normal” not very different to the previous to stop secondary outbreaks of COVID19 and future COVIDs that are sure to come.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2032.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; post-COVID-19; pulmonary manifestations; spirometry; chest tomography.
Online: 28 July 2023 (12:48:47 CEST)
COVID-19 generated a scenario for global health with multiple systemic impairments. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical, radiological, and pulmonary functional evolution in 302 post-COVID-19 patients. Regarding post-COVID-19 pulmonary symptoms, dry cough, dyspnea, and chest pain were the most frequent. Of the associated comorbidities, asthma was more frequent (23.5%). Chest Tomography (CT) initially showed a mean pulmonary involvement of 69.7%, and the evaluation in the subsequent months showed an improvement in the evolutionary image, and with less than six months post-pathology, there was a commitment of 37 .7%, from six to twelve months, 20% and after 12 months, 9.9%. And as for most of the sample, 50.3% of the patients presented CT normalization in less than six months after infection, 23% normalized between six and twelve months, and 5.2% normalized the images after twelve months, with one remaining. Percentage of 17.3% who maintained post-COVID-19 pulmonary residual sequelae. Regarding spirometry, in less than six months after the pathology, 59.3% of the patients already showed a regular exam; 12.3% normalized their function within six to twelve months, and 6.3% concluded a normal exam after twelve months of post-pathology evaluation. Only 3.6% of the patients still showed some alteration in this period.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0305.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19 mitigation, education, indoor air quality, COVID-19 testing
Online: 16 March 2023 (11:16:45 CET)
In this case study, we describe a well-resourced private school system that implemented COVID-19 mitigation measures based on public health expert guidance as well as the lessons learned from this process. Avenues is a 10-year-old private school with campuses in NYC, São Paulo, Shenzhen, Silicon Valley, as well as online, which offers education at sixteen grades: 2 early learning years, followed by a pre-kindergarten–grade 12 school. We describe the mitigation measures Avenues implemented. We compare COVID-19 case prevalence at the school to the reported case prevalence in New York City, as reported by the New York State Department of Health. We compare the school's indoor air quality (IAQ) to ambient IAQ measures reported in the literature. The school's COVID-19 transmission mitigation measures successfully reduced the prevalence of COVID-19 among its students, staff, and faculty. The school also established a consistent high level of IAQ through various ventilation mechanisms. The school received positive parent and community feedback on the policies and procedures it established, with many parents commenting on the high level of communication and trust established by the school. This successful school reopening provides useful data for school closure and reopening standards to prepare for future pandemic and epidemic events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0414.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccinations; all-cause mortality; relative risk
Online: 24 February 2023 (02:03:36 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemics has had an unprecedented global impact, and the COVID-19 mass vaccination campaign has been commonly regarded as crucial to overcome the pandemics. Since all-cause mortality is the best way to measure the consequences of a health intervention, the present study was devised to analyze the all-cause mortality data of the United Kingdom (UK), which are made publicly available broken down by vaccination status. Data from January to May 2022 were retrospectively collected and analyzed according to age groups and vaccination status and the relative risk (RR) for all-cause mortality was calculated in comparison to the corresponding unvaccinated groups. All-cause mortality RR was also calculated from January to May 2021 for vaccinated people. Results show that the all-cause mortality RR was higher in people who received one or two doses of COVID-19 vaccines throughout the whole period and in any of the age groups considered. People vaccinated with three doses more than 21 days earlier had RRs lower than unvaccinated people, which however linearly increased over time. RR in vaccinated people of all ages in comparison to unvaccinated people were lower in January-May 2021, however they steadily grew over time. The finding that all-cause mortality RR in vaccinated in comparison to unvaccinated people increases over time requires careful examination to understand the underlying factors. Meanwhile, all the other major countries should undertake a systematic collection of all-causes mortality broken down by vaccination status, and mass vaccination campaigns should be suspended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID 19; health personnel; Burnout, Psychological; COVID 19 stress syndrome
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:42:28 CEST)
Purpose: The healthcare pressure and emotional tension during the first year of the COVID 19 pandemic have been able to affect the health of healthcare personnel. Physical and psychological symptoms attributed to a work situation and or COVID 19 infection are describ ed in health professionals. Objective: to analyze the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms directly or indirectly related to COVID 19 (occupational causes, illness or persistent COVID 19) after a 12 month pandemic. Methods: #COVID19PS is a cro ss sectional analytical study using an ad hoc questionnaire distributed through social media to record physical and psychological symptoms related to COVID 19 in health professionals. Variables: age, sex, geographical origin, profession, characteristics of the work environment, physical symptoms, Maslach test ( for health professionals. Univariate and bivariate statistical analysis using t distribution, Chi square, ANOVA using IBM SPSS v20®. Results: N=1.159 ( women, 21.8% men; 44.6% <35 years old, 23.9% between 35 45years); 96.5% Spaniards. Professions: 17.1% medicine, 12.7% nursing, 32% physiotherapy, 24.1% occupational therapy, 14.1% others; 47.5% belonged to direct care for COVID 19 patients. 28.2% had passed the disease and 3.7% had it acti ve. 61.6% had physical symptoms ( neurological, 31.7% musculoskeletal, 29.6% general, 20.9% gastrointestinal, 20.3% skin, 19.2% cardiovascular, 16% respiratory (p= 96.9% had a medium high Burnout index (p= 48.3% with high levels of Emot ional Exhaustion, 62.9% with medium high level of Depersonalization and 74% with medium low levels of Personal Accomplishment. Conclusion: all health professions present high rates of physical and burnout consequences of the first year of COVID 19 pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: sequelae; COVID-19; SARS-COV-2; long-COVID; systematic review
Online: 14 September 2022 (08:50:08 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 made its debut as a pandemic in 2020; since then, more than 607 million cases and at least 6.5 million deaths have been reported worldwide. While the burden of disease has been described, the long-term effects or chronic sequelae are still being described. Objective: To describe the findings of a current systematic review of the long-term effects related to post-COVID-19 sequelae. Design: A systematic review was carried out in which cohort studies, case series, clinical case reports were included, and the PubMed, Scielo, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases were ex-tracted. Information published 2020 to June 1, 2022, was sought. Results: We reviewed 300 manuscripts during the first step of the literature review process. Then 260 abstracts were analyzed. In the end, we included 32 manuscripts: 9 for pulmonary, 6 for cardiac, 2 for renal, 9 for neurological and psychiatric, and 8 for cutaneous sequelae. Conclusion: Studies show that the most common sequelae are those linked to the lungs, followed by skin, cutaneous and psychiatric alterations. Women report a higher incidence of the sequelae, as well as those with comorbidities and severer COVID-19 history. The COVID-19 pandemic has not only caused death and disease since its apparition but has also sickened millions of people around the globe who potentially suffer from serious illnesses that will continue to add to the list of health problems and further burden healthcare systems around the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19 reactions; ITP syndromes 2; COVID-vaccine women susceptibility
Online: 6 June 2022 (09:43:09 CEST)
Vaccination is the most promising approach for ending or containing the SARS-CoV2 pandemic. However, serious post-COVID vaccine reactions including immunocytopenia (ITP) syndrome has been increasingly reported. Several factors cause increased risks including multiple doses, age-dependent heterogeneity in immune-responses, platelet cross-reactions with microbial components, and Long-COVID syndrome. Thus, in the absence of a widely available specific therapeutics, vigilance is important while more studies are imperative. Using a structured questionnaire sent to different regions in Saudi Arabia, we conducted a comprehensive investigation on the frequency, rates, disease patterns, and patient demographics of post-COVID-19 side effects on febrile patients after three major vaccines. Results indicated the majority administered Pfizer BioNtech vaccine (81%, n=809); followed by AstraZeneca (16%, n=155); and Moderna (3%, n=34). In overall 998 participants, 74% (n=737) had no serious symptoms; however, 26.2% (n=261) revealed typical syndrome. In a focused group of 722, shortness of breath (20%), bruises or bleeding (18%), inattention (18%), GIT symptoms (17.6%), skin irritation (8.6%), and anosmia and ageusia (8%) were the most prominent. The onset time was mostly in 1-3 days in 49% (n=128), followed by 4-7 days in 21.8% (n=57), 8-14 days in 16.5% (n=43), and more than a month in 12.6% (n=33). The onsets occurred mostly after the first, second, or both doses 9%, 10%, and 7%, respectively. The frequency of symptoms was significantly higher among after Moderna ® vaccine (P-value = 0.00006) and it was significantly lower in participants who received Pfizer (P-value 0.00231). We did not find significant difference in symptoms related to differences in regions. Similarly, the region, age, gender, education, and nationality had no influence in the dose and onset timings. The findings of this study have significant clinical implications in disease management strategies, preventive measures, and vaccine development. Future vertical studies would reveal more insights into the mechanisms of post-COVID vaccine syndrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0415.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus; Vaccine hesitancy; COVID-19 Vaccine; Saudi Arabia
Online: 31 May 2022 (09:22:49 CEST)
On 11th March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a pandemic. Vaccination programs have advanced greatly in the global health period, despite widespread anti-vaccination attitudes and misinformation. Vaccine hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccine is currently a major issue in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study was carried out from June 25, 2021 to October 2021 in order to investigate the knowledge levels of acceptance and hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccine among Saudi’s nationals. The data was collected through a close-ended structured questionnaire from a total of 565 respondents. Overall, 78.41% respondents were female, 62.48% having university level education and 61.06% were unemployed. Majority of the participants 82.30% (n=465) think that Pfizer vaccine has the highest efficiency against COVID-19. Our study concludes that majority of the participants have satisfactory knowledge about COVID-19 vaccination. Concerns over vaccine components, effectiveness of vaccine and possible side effects are among the key causes for vaccine hesitancy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0416.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; CoVID-19 Dignosis; CoVID-19 Chemistry & Biology
Online: 16 March 2021 (11:54:28 CET)
CoVID-19 is a multi-symptomatic disease which has made a global impact due to its ability to spread rapidly, and its relatively high mortality rate. Beyond the heroic efforts to develop vaccines, which we will not discuss, the response of scientists and clinicians to this complex problem has reflected the need to detect CoVID-19 rapidly, to diagnose patients likely to show adverse symptoms, and to treat severe and critical CoVID-19. Here we aim to encapsulate these varied and sometimes conflicting approaches and the resulting data in terms of chemistry and biology. In the process we highlight emerging concepts, and potential future applications that may arise out of this immense effort.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0005.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Covid-19; post-COVID syndrome; neuroendocrine disorders; chronic fatigue; brain fog; phospholipids; phospholipid liposome; phosphatidylserine
Online: 15 August 2023 (05:03:11 CEST)
Long Covid is a heterogeneous clinical condition in which Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) and brain fog stand out among the different clinical symptoms and syndromes. The cerebral metabolic alterations and neuroendocrine disorders seem to constitute an important part of Long Covid. Given the substantial lack of drugs and effective therapeutic strategies, hypothalamic phospholipid liposomes which have been on the market for several years as adjuvant therapy of cerebral metabolic alterations resulting from neuroendocrine disorders, can be taken into consideration in an overall therapeutic strategy that aims to control the Long Covid associated symptoms and syndromes. Their pharmacological mechanisms and clinical effects strongly support their usefulness in Long Covid. Our initial clinical experience corroborates this rationale. Further research is imperative in order to obtain robust clinical evidence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0275.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; real-time RT-PCR; COVID-19 symptoms; COVID-19 hematological findings; Bangladesh
Online: 21 June 2020 (14:47:03 CEST)
Objective: SARS-Cov-2 infection or COVID-19 is a global pandemic. From the time of identification to till, multiple clinical symptoms and parameters have been identified by the researchers of various countries and regions regarding the diagnosis and presentations of COVID-19 disease. In this manuscript, we investigated the primary symptoms and basic hematological presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the Bangladeshi patients. Methodology: We have collected the disease history of mild to moderate degree of COVID-19 patients; hematological and biochemical on admission reports of moderate degree COVID-19 patients. All of them were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR in different institutes in Bangladesh. Results: According to this study though COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh commonly presented with fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and sore throat, but symptoms like myalgia, diarrhea, skin rash, headache, Abdominal pain/cramp, nausea, vomiting, restlessness, and a higher temperature of >1000F have a greater presentation rate and more frequent than other published studies. CRP and Prothrombin time was found to increase in all the patients. Serum ferritin, ESR, SGPT, and D-Dimer were found increased among 53.85%, 80.43, 44%, and 25% patients respectively. 17.39% of the patients had leukocytosis and neutrophilia. 28.26% of patients presented with lymphocytopenia. 62.52% of patients had mild erythrocytopenia. Conclusion: Despite some similarities, our study has evaluated a different expression in presenting symptoms in the case of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh. CRP, Prothrombin time, serum ferritin, ESR, SGPT, D-Dimer, erythrocytopenia, and lymphocytopenia can be initial diagnostic hematological findings and assessment for prognosis COVID-19 disease. Also, gender variations have a different scenario of clinical and laboratory appearance in this region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0500.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; impact on society during COVID-19; behavioral impact of COVID-19; government policies against COVID-19; measures adopted by the government; COVID-19 Statistics; Infection rate and Data analysis
Online: 21 September 2020 (11:09:11 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 pandemic has pulled us all a few steps back, were we never shake hands or hug each other when we meet our friends and family after a gap, but instead we greet them by saying Namaste and joining our hands together. As we all know, COVID-19 spreads through air and the only way to shield ourselves is by maintaining a safe distance from one another. Methodology: In order to conduct a meta-analysis on the number of COVID-19 cases in Kerala and India, the data was retrieved from various sites hosted by the government bodies. The data for analysis was collected from May 2020 to July 2020. The average number of days required to reach every 5000 fresh cases were also calculated using this data. COVID-19 has affected all the economy holistically regardless of financial, behavioral, or societal aspects. Conclusion: Lifting of the lockdown in a step by step process keeping in mind the necessities for the nation was a thoughtful act, but the people who mistook this opportunity and did not remain in quarantine after coming from abroad was recognized as the reasons behind the sudden and uncontrolled rise in the number of COVID-19 cases in Kerala, India. The government authorities had no other option but to lift the restrictions to reduce the economic burdens that had already affected the daily wage worker and farmers prompting them to give up their lives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1915.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: post-COVID-19 syndrome; diabetes; overweight; COVID-19 pneumonia; observational study
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:18:29 CEST)
In the aftermath of the COVID pandemic, post-COVID-19 syndrome (PCS) remains a challenge and may continue to represent a major health problem in the future. Moreover, the influence of type 2 diabetes and being overweight on PCS remains unclear. This study aimed to assess this influence. We performed an observational study from October 2020 to July 2022, which included 466 patients (269 males and 197 females) with a median age of 65. They were hospitalized due to COVID-19 pneumonia and had persistent symptoms after 1 month of COVID-19 infection. The patients were divided into four groups according to the study objectives: patients with type 2 diabetes, overweight patients, overweight patients with type 2 diabetes, and normal-weight patients without type 2 diabetes. The clinical and demographic data collected during hospitalization and regular visits at the Community Healthcare Center dr. Adolf Drolc Maribor were analyzed. Our results showed that type 2 diabetes patients had a more difficult course of treatment and longer hospitalization. Moreover, more type 2 diabetes patients underwent rehabilitation than the other study groups. The prevailing symptoms in our patients with PCS were dyspnea and fatigue, mostly in female patients with type 2 diabetes. Our study also showed that more women with type 2 diabetes and more overweight women with type 2 diabetes suffered from secondary infections. Further, more overweight patients were treated in the intensive care unit compared to the other groups. However, our study showed an interesting result that patients with type 2 diabetes had the shortest PCS durations. Type 2 diabetes and being overweight are risk factors for PCS onset and prolonged duration. Therefore, our data that revealed a shorter duration of PCS in type 2 diabetes patients compared to the other investigated groups was unexpected. We believe that answering this question regarding the results will enable us to improve PCS treatment in general.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1470.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; phospho-calcium; parathyroid hormone, post-COVID complications, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia.
Online: 21 July 2023 (09:23:41 CEST)
Phosphocalcium metabolism disorders have emerged as potential complications in individuals recovering from COVID-19. This abstract provides a concise summary of the current understanding of phosphocalcium metabolism disturbances post-COVID, their prevalence, clinical manifestations, and underlying mechanisms. The impact of COVID-19 on phosphorus, calcium, and parathyroid hormone levels is discussed, highlighting the importance of regular monitoring and appropriate management strategies. The abstract emphasizes the need for further research to enhance our understanding of these disorders and improve post-COVID patient care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0136.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; health personnel; fear to COVID-19
Online: 8 February 2023 (02:34:46 CET)
The aim of this study was to estimate the association between fear of COVID-19 and risk perception with preventive behavior in health professionals from three Latin American countries. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted. Health professionals with on-site care in Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Peru were surveyed. Information was collected through an online self-report questionnaire. The main variables were preventive behavior as the dependent variable and fear of COVID-19 and risk perception as independent variables. Linear regression was used, and Beta coefficients and p-values were calculated. 435 health professionals were included, the majority were aged 42 years or older (45.29%, 95%CI: 40.65%-50.01%) and female (67.82%, 95%CI: 63.27%-72.05%). It was shown that the greater the fear of COVID-19, the greater the preventive behavior of COVID-19 infection (B=2.21, p=0.002 for total behavior; B=1.12, p=0.037 for additional protection at work; B=1.11, p<0.010 for hand washing). The risk perception of COVID-19 infection had a slight direct relationship with preventive behaviors (B=0.28, p=0.021 for total behavior; B=0.13, p=0.015 for hand washing), with the exception of the preventive behavior of using additional protection at work (p=0.339). We found that fear and risk perception are associated with increased practice of hand washing and use of additional protection at work. Further studies are required on the influence of working conditions, job performance and the occurrence of mental health problems in frontline personnel with regard to COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0336.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19 Booster; Influenza and COVID-19; Vaccination Strategy; Combining Vaccination
Online: 17 November 2022 (10:31:53 CET)
Background: The uptake of COVID-19 booster vaccines has been significantly low. Therefore, it is questionable whether combining the COVID-19 booster vaccines with Influenza vaccines can increase the population's interest in taking such vaccines and manage the health pandemic effectively. Methodology: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, a synthesis of the findings and summary of a total of 30 research articles based on the topic, ‘combining influenza and COVID-19 booster vaccination strategy’ was undertaken. The research articles were identified from three databases, namely, PubMed, Cochran Library, and Google Scholar using specific keywords and inclusion criteria. However, research articles that were not peer-reviewed and not published in English were excluded from the systematic review and meta-analysis. The average risk ratio of the included articles was 0.78% based on a 95% CI. On the other hand, the heterogeneity between such studies was I2 = 35%, while the statistical significance of their findings occurred at p < 0.05. The average p-value of the included research studies was p = 0.62, implying that the null hypothesis was not rejected in almost all the studies. Results: A synthesis of the chosen research articles revealed that when influenza and COVID-19 booster vaccines are combined, there is potential for an increase in the uptake of the latter, mainly because many populations have already been accustomed to taking influenza vaccines on an annual basis. Conclusions: In this way, through such findings, medical health experts can make informed decisions to increase the population's willingness to receive the COVID-19 booster vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: second COVID-19 booster; vaccination; COVID-19; willingness; predictors; general population
Online: 2 June 2022 (04:07:07 CEST)
Given the concerns of waning immunity from the primary COVID-19 vaccines and the first booster dose, we conducted an on-line cross-sectional study in May 2022 to investigate willingness to receive a second COVID-19 booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine and its associated factors. Overall, 22.7% of participants were willing to be vaccinated, 39.3% were unsure, but tend to be willing, 25.8% were unsure, 4.9% were unsure, but tend to be unwilling, and 7.4% were unwilling to be vaccinated. The main reasons against accepting a second COVID‐19 booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine COVID-19 dose included concerns about the side effects, the opinion that further vaccination is unnecessary, and effectiveness uncertainties. Males, younger individuals, participants without a previous COVID-19 diagnosis, and those with good/very good self-perceived physical health were significantly more frequently willing to receive a second COVID‐19 booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine. Also, increased fear of the COVID-19, increased trust in COVID-19 vaccination and decreased fear of a second booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine were associated with increased willingness. Our results show some hesitancy and unwillingness toward further COVID-19 vaccination and indicate that fear of COVID-19 and trust in COVID-19 vaccination affect public opinion
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; post-COVID pulmonary fibrosis; lung injury; anti-fibrotic agents
Online: 18 May 2021 (11:32:07 CEST)
Total 219 countries and territories globally suffering from the recent pandemic COVID-19 is now in its second wave with more brutality, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) . It has several symptoms like as persistent fever; respiratory illnesses; cough; fatigue; shortness of breath; loss of appetite; persistent pain or pressure in the chest; dysgeusia; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) etc., and here the things to worry about is the development of pulmonary fibrosis after COVID-19 in both peoples who had died of due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or those who survived. Due to COVID-19, dysregulated immune response and wound repair mainly in elderly patients causes this secondary pulmonary fibrosis. Thus using anti-fibrotic agents could be meaningful in these circumstances although their efficacy in treating COVID-19 is subject to more detailed laboratory research works. In this review article you will get to know about the lung fibrosis generation due to COVID-19 infection, about anti-fibrotic agents and the currents challenges of this field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0055.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Coronaviruses; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Viral Persistence; Reinfection; Long COVID
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:44:52 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to wreak havoc threatening the public health services and imposing economic collapse worldwide. Tailoring public health responses to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic depends on understanding the mechanism of viral replication, disease pathogenesis, and accurately identifying acute infections and mapping the spreading risk of hotspots across the globe. However, effective identification and isolation of persons with asymptomatic and mild SARS-CoV-2 infections remain the major obstacles to efforts in controlling the SARS-CoV-2 spread and hence the pandemic. Understanding the mechanism of persistent viral shedding, reinfection, and the post-acute sequalae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) is crucial in our efforts to combat the pandemic and provide better care and rehabilitation to survivors. Here we present a living literature review on SARS-CoV-2 viral persistence, reinfection and PASC. We also highlight potential areas of research to uncover putative links between viral persistence, intra-host evolution, host immune status, and protective immunity to guide and direct future basic science and clinical research priorities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0619.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19 Mexico; stress in healthcare professionals; COVID-19 stress scale
Online: 26 September 2020 (08:07:00 CEST)
The world is currently, subjected to the worst health crisis documented in modern history; an epidemic led by the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). At the epicenter of this crisis, healthcare professionals continue working to safeguard our well-being. To the regular high levels of stress, COVID new heights even more to healthcare professionals so depending on the area, specialty, and type of work. Here we investigated what are the tendencies, or areas most affected. Through an adaptation of the original COVID-stress scale, we developed a remote, fast test designed for healthcare professionals of the Northeastern part of Mexico, an important part of the country with economic and cultural ties to the US. Our results showed 4 key correlations as highly dependent: Work area – Xenophobia (p < 0.045), Work with COVID patients - Traumatic stress (p < 0.001) and Total number of COVID patients per day – Traumatic stress (p < 0.027), and Total number of COVID patients - Compulsive checking and reassurance. Overall concluding that normal levels of stress have increased (mild – moderate). Additionally, we further determine that the fear of being an asymptomatic patient (potential to spread without knowing) continues being a concern.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Virus; Vaccine; SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus; Covid-19; Covid-19 vaccine
Online: 7 September 2020 (03:46:59 CEST)
This tutorial is organized into three major sections—viruses, vaccines and the race for a Covid-19 vaccine. The goal is to provide enough background on viruses, history of vaccines, and the science of vaccinology founded on the principles of immunity. The hope is that this will enable us to understand the challenges, methods and prospects for developing a safe and effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Many important viruses such as smallpox, HIV, HCV and SARS-CoV-2 which is responsible for causing the Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) are presented in detail, which is then followed by a description of different vaccine development methods and strategies. The tutorial then discusses different candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and provides specific details of many of the prospective vaccines on the leader-board which are undergoing clinical trials. The tutorial concludes with a realistic projection for a safe and effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 based on the historical scientific record.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: China's COVID-19 Guide; Remdesivir; Xuebijing; Hydroxychloroquine; IL6 inhibitors; COVID-19
Online: 26 March 2020 (01:48:42 CET)
Currently, there is no specific treatment for COVID-19 proven by clinical trials. WHO and CDC guidelines therefore endorse supportive care only. However, frontline clinicians have been applying several virus-based and host-based therapeutics in order to combat SARS-CoV-2. Medications from COVID-19 case reports, observational studies and the COVID-19 Treatment Guideline issued by the China's National Health Commission (7th edition published March 3rd, 2020. Edited translation attached) are evaluated in this review. Key evidence from relevant in vitro researches, animal models and clinical studies in SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV are examined. Antiviral therapies remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and umifenovir, if considered, could be initiated before the peak of viral replication for optimal outcomes. Ribavirin may be beneficial as an add-on therapy and is ineffective as a monotherapy. Corticosteroids use should be limited without indicating comorbidities. IVIG is not recommended due to lack of data in COVID-19. Xuebijing may benefit patients with complications of bacterial pneumonia or sepsis. The efficacy of interferon is unclear due to conflicting outcomes in SARS and MERS studies. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have shown in vitro inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 and may be beneficial as both prophylactic and treatment therapy. For patients who developed cytokine release syndrome, interleukin-6 inhibitors may be beneficial. Given the rapid disease spread and increasing mortality, active treatment with readily available medications may be considered timely prior to disease progression.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: rotavirus; coronavirus; vaccine; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; cross immunity; trained immunity; vaccinated breakthrough infections; COVID variants; long-Covid
Online: 29 May 2023 (09:29:18 CEST)
This proposal was prepared in the very first weeks of 2020 because of the outbreak of COVID-19. There are good reasons to suppose that rotavirus vaccine can be used as protection tool to effectively and safely fight and mitigate SARS-CoV-2 infection and the impact caused by COVID- 19 in adult humans, due to the development of cross and trained immunity following rotavirus vaccination. Up-to-date, some rotavirus vaccines are available and approved, two of them have a large experience in results and safety. Little experience has been achieved in the use of rotavirus vaccine in adults. However, it can be expected that it would be safe and effective in adults and in the elderly as well. This proposal explains the background of this hypothesis based on lungs and intestine relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0410.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Heart rate variability; COVID-19; post-COVID-19 condition; long COVID; autonomic dysfunction; vagal nerve activity; symptomatology; lung function
Online: 22 December 2022 (03:13:53 CET)
Persistence of symptoms beyond three months after COVID-19 infection, often referred to as post-COVID-19 condition (PCC), is commonly experienced. It is hypothesized that PCC results from autonomic dysfunction with decreased vagal nerve activity, which can be indexed by low heart rate variability (HRV). The aim of this study was to assess the association of HRV upon admission with pulmonary function impairment and number of reported symptoms beyond three months after initial hospitalization for COVID-19 between February and December 2020. Follow-up took place three to five months after discharge and included pulmonary function tests and the assessment of persistent symptoms. HRV analysis was performed on one 10s electrocardiogram obtained upon admission. Analyses were performed using multivariable and multinomial logistic regression models. Among 171 patients who received follow-up, and with an electrocardiogram at admission, decreased diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (41%) was most frequently found. After a median of 119 days (IQR 101-141), 81% of the participants reported at least one symptom. HRV was not associated with pulmonary function impairment or persistent symptoms three to five months after hospitalization for COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1872.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: COVID-19; children; mortality
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:35:39 CET)
Background: COVID-19 is currently one of the most important medical challenges as it affects the entire population with children being infected as easily as adults. Objective: The study evaluated the mortality of under 17-year-olds and compare the frequency with that of adults in a cohort of 8986 COVID-19 positive patients hospitalized in a single care center. Design: retrospective clinical trial, all hospitalizations of COVID-19 positive patients as diagnosed by RT-qPCR were analyzed by revisiting their medical records. Setting: 8986 COVID-19 positive patients hospitalized in a Hospital de Base and the Infant and Maternal Hospital of São Jose do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil (HB/HCM) being these totals of 383 COVID-19 positive under 17-patients. Patients: patients COVID-19 positive under 17-year-olds were grouped by age and evaluated by analyzing their medical records. They were categorized as Group I, children, and adolescents under 19 years old and Group II, adults over 19 years. Results: Overall mortality in under 19-year-olds was 12 deaths, that is, 3.13% of the patients in this age group and 0.55% of the overall mortality from COVID-19. Mortality in the group of adults was 2197 equivalent to 24.45% of the hospitalized adults and 99.45% of overall deaths. Mortality was significantly higher for adults than for under 19-year olds (p-value < 0.0001). Regarding the different ages of children and adolescents, the number of deaths of under 1-year olds was 2/123 (1.62%), of 1-4 years it was 4/95 (2.11%), of 5-9 years it was 1/47 (2.13%), of 10-14 years it was 1/40 (2.5%) and of 15-19 years it was 4/78 (5.13%). There were no statistical differences between the different age groups ( p-value = 0.3). Conclusion: Mortality from COVID-19 in children and adolescents was lower than in adults and generally associated with other comorbidities with the main association being with heart disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1530.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Screening; COVID
Online: 22 August 2023 (10:53:19 CEST)
Background: The interruption of the activity of the population-based organized colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs due to the COVID pandemic may have affected their results in terms of detection of preneoplastic lesions and CRC. We evaluated the impact of the COVID pandemic on the delays, participation, adherence to colonoscopies, lesions detected, and CRC stage at di-agnosis in a CRC screening program. Methods: We analyzed all the invitations between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2021. We defined the pandemic period as the period after March 12, 2020. We calculated the delay intervals (successive and all rounds), the rates of participation, adherence to colonoscopy after a positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT), and the diagnostic yield of colonoscopy, specifically CRC and colorectal neoplasia (CRC and/or adenoma), as well as CRC stage at diagnosis. Results: In the period analyzed, 976,187 invitations were sent (61.0% pandemic), 439,687 FIT were returned (62.4% pandemic) and 23,092 colonoscopies were performed (59.1% pandemic). Colon-oscopies were normal in 7,378 subjects (32.4%) and a CRC was detected in 916 subjects (4.0%). In successive rounds, the delay increased significantly seven months during the pandemic period (p<0.001). In all the invitations, the delay from the invitation to the colonoscopy increased sig-nificantly by 8 days (p<0.001). Once adjusted for the confounding variables, participation in the screening program increased significantly (OR=1.1; 95% CI=1.09-1.11), with no changes in the adherence to colonoscopy (OR=0.9; 95% CI=0.8-1.0). We found no differences in the diagnostic yield of colonoscopy in terms of CRC (OR=0.90; 95% CI=0.78-1.02) or colorectal neoplasia (OR=0.98; 95% CI=0.92-1.03) detection. Finally, we found no differences in CRC stage at diagnosis (p=0.2). Conclusions: Although the interruption of the CRC screening program due to the COVID pan-demic increased the delays, it did not reduce participation, adherence to colonoscopy, or the di-agnostic yield of colonoscopy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0390.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Covid-19; inequalities; vaccination
Online: 6 July 2023 (13:24:07 CEST)
Socio-demographic factors are responsible of health inequalities also in vaccination. The aim of this study was to evaluate their role at population level through a population-based study performed on the whole population entitled to receive COVID-19 vaccines in Umbria Region, Italy, and registered to the Regional Healthcare Service as of February 28th, 2021. Socio-demographic characteristics and vaccination status in terms of uptake at least one dose of any available vaccine, completion of the primary vaccination cycle and uptake of the booster doses as of February 28th, 2022 were col-lected from the Umbria regional database. The percentage of eligible population who did not initiate the COVID-19 vaccination, complete the full vaccination cycle and get the booster dose was 11.8%, 1.2% and 21.5% respectively. A younger age, being a not-Italian citizen, and not holding an ex-emption for chronic disease/disability and a GP/FP were associated to all the endpoints. Females, as compared to males, were more likely to not initiate the vaccination but less likely to not receive the booster dose. On the contrary, results on the deprivation index were not conclusive. The findings, beyond confirming current knowledge at population level, provide new inputs for better tailoring vaccination campaigns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0995.v1
Online: 26 April 2023 (13:11:27 CEST)
In this study, we use descriptive statistics and data visualization techniques to analyze datasets and identify patterns and relationships between bikeshare and other transportation modes. We also use regression analysis to quantify the impact of various factors on bikeshare usage. Our results indicate that bikeshare trips during the pandemic were much longer compared to pre-pandemic times. Moreover, usage of bikeshare differed by user group, with casual users showing a greater increase in usage compared to subscribers. We plotted bivariate choropleth maps to visualize the spatial distribution of changes in bikeshare usage. Our findings suggest that an increase in bikeshare travel was associated with a reduction in travel by ride-hailing and public transit, especially in the northern part of the city, indicating a potential replacement of other modes of transportation. On the western and southern boundary of the city, bikeshare had a complementary effect with other modes. Overall, the data acquired for this study provides a valuable opportunity to understand the behavior of bikeshare users in Chicago, the intercorrelation of bikeshare with other transportation modes, and the impact of infrastructure on bikeshare usage. The findings of this study can inform the design and implementation of bikeshare systems in other cities and contribute to the development of a more sustainable transportation system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0152.v1
Online: 7 June 2021 (08:29:46 CEST)
Fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is one of the most critical challenges facing the global health system today. The possibility to identify the group of persons in the cohort of people under 50 years old, who are sensitive to the COVID-disease by non-invasive methods, is a very perspective approach for estimating the epidemiological state of the human population. The study aimed to identify the features of people's faces with COVID-19 that the most correlate with disease severity could serve as one of these approaches. For this aim, 525 photos of patients' faces with different outcomes of COVID-19 disease were analyzed using the Dlib face recognition convolutional neural network pre-trained for face recognition. Face descriptor vectors were obtained using the convolutional neural network. Facial features were found that predict a person's sensitivity to the SARS-CoV-2 virus (disease severity), and the contribution of each of the features to the risk of developing a severe form of COVID in a person was found. The accuracy of the binary classification of the individual severity of the COVID-19 course using the k-nearest neighbors algorithm on the test dataset was accuracy - 84%, AUC - 0.90.
Online: 17 May 2021 (17:06:31 CEST)
The most severe threat that the Covid-19 pandemic poses to the global economy is the need to choose between human lives and livelihoods. Bangladesh must assess the implications of such impacts on Bangladesh's macro-financial scenario to maintain the economy's current high growth trajectory. The paper outlines the major Covid-19 shock wave transmission channels to the four major sectors of the Bangladesh economy. Authorities around the world have taken every precaution possible to halt the spread of the pandemic. An aggregate transmission framework that includes these four sectors is required to contain the impact of Covid-19 can propagate through these sectors and eventually impact macro-financial stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0139.v1
Online: 5 April 2021 (14:00:43 CEST)
Resilience is an adaptive coping mechanism needed by health workers, especially nurses who have longer working hours than other health workers to provide care to patients in the era of the Covid-19 pandemic which is a global health problem. The aim of this literature review is to identify the resilience of nurses during the covid-19 pandemic the 21 st century global nursing paradigm. This language method uses literature reviews which are summaries of 10 articles in the publication years of 2020-2021 on search 4 databased electronic searches contain namely Scopus, ProQuest, Pubmed, and Scient Direct. This review used prisms. The eligibility of these studies were from its title, abstract, research methodology, results and discussion. The results of the review were presented in narrative form. The results of a review of 10 articles found that the form of psychological factors during the covid-19 pandemic, mental distress and influencing factors in nurses caring for patients with COVID-19, resilience nurses during the covid-19 pandemic. Conclusion: The 21 st century global nursing paradigm, one of the global problems in the health sector, with the outbreak of the corona virus disease (Covid-19), the role of nurses as the front guard is needed by the community to provide health services in line with the increasing incidence of covid-19 cases. Strong nurses need an adaptive inner coping mechanism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Psychological; Stigma; Covid-19
Online: 2 April 2021 (17:02:40 CEST)
Introduction: Corona Virus Disease 2019 causes health problems in the world in the form of a health crisis that results in psychological problems as fear and anxiety. The purpose of this study to determine the factors that influence psychological and stigma during the Covid-19 pandemic.Methods: This study is a literature review with five databases (Scopus, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and ProQuest), studies design used a cross-sectional or quasi-experimental, with a date of March 2021. The Center for Review and Dissemination and the JBI Guide are used to measure the Quality and Prism checklist for guide reviews. A feasibility study based on title, abstract, full text, and research methodology. The data analysis used narrative analysis based on the research findings.Results: Eleven articles met the predefined review inclusion criteria. Research is base on related factors psychology, related factors stigma, and factors related to psychological and stigma. Most of the factors associated with psychological conditions and stigma have a quasi-experimental and cross-sectional design. Participants averaged over a thousand for each study and discussed psychology factors related to the stigma. Conclusion: Factors related to psychological are age, education, symptoms and health conditions, gender, information, economy, exposure duration, and social support, while factors related to stigma are environment, history of comorbid diseases, discrimination, and public perceptions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0066.v1
Online: 1 February 2021 (17:34:13 CET)
In critically ill patients with COVID-19, concomitant abnormalities of coagulation have been seen with an unusually high incidence. Standard coagulation tests are limited in their ability accurately to reflect the severity of the pro-thrombotic phenotype observed in severe COVID-19 infections. In this narrative review we consider the role of rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) as a near bedside test allowing a more comprehensive assessment of haemostatic function in the context of COVID-19 infection. Comprehensive literature search was conducted on PubMed, revealing 13 publications on the subject. The coagulopathy of this disease process appears to be insufficiently represented with often normal conventional coagulation test parameters. Whilst not the perfect substitute for in vivo coagulation, studies utilising rotational thromboelastometry assays in COVID-19 patients have demonstrated increased maximum clot firmness (consistent with hyper-coagulability) and reduced maximum lysis (consistent with “fibrinolytic shutdown”). ROTEM appears to be a possible tool for risk stratification and to monitor the potential modulation of fibrinogen-dependent coagulation processes with enhanced anti-coagulation strategies. Precisely how these coagulation abnormalities can be modified by optimum, individualised medical interventions to improve clinical outcome, however, remains unclear.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0607.v1
Online: 24 December 2020 (08:54:34 CET)
The Saudi government has undertaken rapid and swift actions, such as suspending Omrah and holding international flights. Such affirmative actions enhanced citizens and residents’ confidence in the government officials’ ability to fight the pandemic. However, there are more than 361,178 reported cases of Covid-19 with 6131 deaths as of December 22, 202. As nurses are the largest component of the health care workforce in Saudi Arabia, it is important that they are trained and have the skills and resources to adapt, whether on the frontline of a crisis or in a clinical environment. Nurses play a key function in fulfilling the needs of medical treatment by being the most important part of the health care delivery system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0173.v1
Online: 7 December 2020 (15:36:05 CET)
Culture, gender and religion are closely linked each other’s, profoundly affect the role of each person within the Society, and also affect the ability to access to the health resources. We are now living a worldwide crisis due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In order to appropriately tackle it, an alliance between science, politics and citizens is needed. In this article, we summarize current evidences of how religions can represent, on one hand, a risk moment for spreading the virus (in relation with overcrowded events), on the other, a precious opportunity to engage people, and in particular minorities, in fighting the pandemic. To win this fight, we need a multicultural approach that takes into account every aspect of human life, and among these religion, which influences so much culture, everyday life and well-being.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; Sepsis; Inflammation
Online: 19 July 2020 (15:11:24 CEST)
Severe COVID-19 disease is characterised by an exaggerated inflammatory response, called cytokine storm, accompanied by a condition of immune depression. Even sepsis is characterised by an exaggerated inflammatory response, called SIRS (Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome), accompanied by a condition of immune depression called CARS (compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome). Clinical studies reveal that most sepsis patients who did not die during the hyper inflammatory response (SIRS) subsequently succumbed to the condition of immune depression (CARS). Severe acute pancreatitis begins with local inflammation that induces systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), accompanied and followed by a compensatory anti-inflammatory response (CARS). In COVID-19 disease, the male response to SARS CoV-2 virus is typically characterised by a robust inflammatory response. Instead, a cell-mediated immune response is dominant in women. This means that the male sex tends to have a more robust hyper inflammatory response than the female one. Furthermore, in women the condition of immune depression is less represented, therefore they are more protected. Sepsis, severe acute pancreatitis and COVID-19 disease evolve between two fundamental aspects: hyper inflammation and immunodepression. The experience gained over years of studies of sepsis and severe acute pancreatitis suggests that therapies should be differentiated according to the evolutionary stage of the disease. The goal is to save the lives of most patients with COVID-19 disease. The identification of critical points, suitable for designing the windows of therapeutic opportunity, may allow the use of therapeutic interventions, in the COVID-19 disease, which are effective (there are no approved drugs yet), safe (without significant side effects), targeted (based on the evolutionary phase of the disease) personalized, (based on sex, co-morbidities, age, etc.) and timely (based on signs, symptoms, laboratory parameters and instrumental investigations).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0228.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Superspreaders; COVID-19; Influencers
Online: 11 July 2020 (04:19:54 CEST)
Since the first confirmed case of COVID-19, information was spreading in large amounts over social media platforms. Information spreading about the COVID-19 pandemic can strongly influence people’s behavior. Therefore, identifying information superspreaders (or influencers) during the COVID-19 pandemic is an im- portant step towards understanding public reactions and information dissemination. In this work, we present an analysis over a large Arabic tweets collected during the COVID-19 pandemic. The presented study con- struct a network from users’ behaviors to identify information superspreaders during the month of March, 2020. We employed both HITS and PageRank algorithms to analyze the influence of information spreading, and compared the ranking of the users. The results show that both HITS and PageRank discovered a similar subset of superspreaders with 40% were found to be verified Twitter accounts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: infodemic; misinformation; COVID-19
Online: 3 June 2020 (05:16:33 CEST)
Misinformation during the COVID-19 outbreak has shaped our perception of the disease. Some people thinkthe disease is a bioweapon while others are convinced that it is a hoax. Heightened anxiety often producesfearful rumors, some of which are absurd while others seem plausible and are laced with some truths. But, how does misinformation affect disease spread? In this paper, we construct a mathematical model parameterized by Ugandan data, to study the effect of misinformation on community COVID-19 spread. The analysis shows that misinformation leads to high number of COVID-19 cases in a community, and the effect is highest in the rumour initiators and spreaders. This analysis underscores the importance of addressing misinformation in COVID risk communication.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; ACE2; amblygeustia
Online: 24 April 2020 (03:34:21 CEST)
The infected and fatal cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) keep increasing around the world, to explore the infection routes and pathogenesis of 2019-nCoV could be meaningful for prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Previous studies showed that the oral cavity is at potentially high risk of 2019-nCoV infection. The ACE2 receptor of 2019-nCoV was reported could express on oral epithelium and salivary glands, and 2019-nCoV could be detected in patients’ saliva. Recently, the amblygeustia were found to widely exist in the COVID-19 patients. To explore the potential mechanism of amblygeustia, we performed further analysis via independent in-house single-cell profiles. Our results showed that ACE2 was inclined to express in taste cells, which indicated that 2019-nCoV may invade into taste cells at the early stage of COVID-19, and lead to the amblygeustia of patients. Above findings about the 2019-nCoV and COVID-19 in oral cavity are valuable and enlightening for future epidemic prevention strategy.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0353.v1
Online: 19 April 2020 (16:54:43 CEST)
We have proposed a model considering two equally sized population (group A and group B) with low and high levels of disease tolerance. We have argued that in the more tolerant group (group B) the progression of the disease with respect to time will be slow with lower number of infections at any given time. We attribute this effect to the innate immunity which advantageously, can also be one of the major contributing factors for flattening the curve. We have compared the growth of Covid-19 disease in various countries to understand this effect.
DATASET | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0263.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Twitter; Arabic; COVID-19
Online: 16 April 2020 (08:15:28 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic spread of the coronavirus across the globe has affected our lives on many different levels. The world we knew before the spread of the virus has become another one. Every country has taken preventive measures, including social distancing, travel restrictions, and curfew, to control the spread of the disease. With these measures implemented, people have shifted to social media platforms in the online sphere, such as Twitter, to maintain connections. In this paper, we describe a coronavirus data set of Arabic tweets collected from January 1, 2020, primarily from hashtags populated from Saudi Arabia. This data set is available to the research community to glean a better understanding of the societal, economical, and political effects of the outbreak and to help policy makers make better decisions for fighting this epidemic.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19; azithromycin; bee
Online: 2 April 2020 (11:06:47 CEST)
The pharmacology of azithromycin, and the actions of certain bee products, suggest the possibility of overlap with the pathophysiology of COVID-19 at several points in the disease process. First, intercellular epithelial tight junctions of the respiratory tract serve as a critical barrier to invaders. Pathophysiological factors capable of disrupting this epithelial barrier include viral virulence factors such as those observed for other coronaviruses; virulence factors derived from potentially synergistic pathogens such as Candida albicans and Porphyramonas gingivalis; and imbalances in the host inflammatory response. Azithromycin, and to a lesser extent, certain bee products, appear to have actions that oppose such processes. Second, the matrikine PGP or its derivatives may contribute to risk in individuals at high risk for serious COVID-19 infection, especially during reactivation; but azithromycin is capable of modulating PGP in some contexts. Third, the most serious COVID-19 infections are associated with massive upregulation of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF alpha, and other inflammatory cytokines. The anti inflammatory actions of azithromycin and bee derived products such as melittin are potentially capable of modulating these processes, as well. Azithromycin is already in current use as a treatment for COVID-19; however, it's utility as a protector of epithelial barrier function would be most likely to be realized in prophylactic context rather than in a treatment context. Similarly, since the anti inflammatory effects of bee products take time, their effectiveness of melittin and other bee products would be expected to be maximized in a prophylactic context. In the context of the current pandemic, prophylaxis with azithromycin, bee products, or both, might be warranted for individuals at high risk for serious COVID-19 infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0308.v1
Online: 20 March 2020 (07:01:44 CET)
Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) can lead to multiple organ injuries such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute renal injury (AKI) and so on. ACE2 is an important part of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and a key protein needed for COVID-19 to invade cells. First of all, we searched the HPA, GTEx and FANTOM5 Databases and found that the expression of ACE2 in kidney tissue was significantly higher than that in lung tissue. Then, by searching the Nephroseq Database, it is further verified that ACE2 is highly expressed in renal tissue and plays a protective role in renal tissue. However, current studies have found that the incidence of AKI caused by COVID-19 is much lower than that of ARDS. Because of this, we further searched the proteins interacting with ACE2 protein through the STING Database and analyzed the expression of tissue protein mRNA in the HPA Database. It was noted that AGTR2 mRNA was highly expressed in lung tissue, but low in kidney tissue, and hard tissue specificity in lung tissue. Through further research, it is found that AGTR2 plays a major role in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, AGTR2 may be a key protein in COVID-19 pneumonia, and AGTR2 may be a potential new therapeutic target for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1228.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome; COVID-19; Post-COVID; heart rate variability; autonomic dysfunction
Online: 20 November 2023 (07:51:21 CET)
Background There is a considerable overlap between clinical presentation of post-COVID-19 condition (PCC) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) . Many of their common symptoms can be linked to dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system (dysautonomia). This study aimed to objectively assess autonomic function in patients with PCC and in patients with ME/CFS whose disease was not related to COVID-19. Methods Synchronous recordings of an electrocardiogram, continuous dynamics of blood pressure in the digital artery using the Penaz method and ultrasound pneumotachography with the spirography function were obtained with spiroarteriocardiorhythmography method in 34 patients diagnosed with ME/CFS, in whom the onset of the disease was not associated with COVID-19, 29 patients meeting PCC definition and 32 healthy controls. Heart rate variability (HRV), systolic and diastolic blood pressure variability (RV), respiration variability were assessed at rest and in tests with fixed respiratory rates. At rest, indicators of baroreflex regulation were additionally determined (baroreflex effectiveness index and baroreflex sensitivity). Results The total power, power of very low frequency, low-frequency and high-frequency of RR interval variability at rest as well as baroreflex effectiveness index in up-ramps of arterial blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity were significantly lower both in PCC and ME/CFS patients compared to HC. Several diagnostic prediction models for ME/CFS were developed based on HRV parameters. During slow breathing HRV parameters return to normal in PCC, but not in ME/CFS. Correlation analysis revealed a close relationship of HRV, RV parameters and baroreflex sensitivity with fatigue, but not with HADS depressive/anxiety symptoms in ME/CFS and PCC. Conclusion A similar pattern of HRV and baroreflex failure with signs of a pathological acceleration of age-dependant dysautonomia was identified in ME/CFS and PCC. The clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these findings are discussed, in light of previously described relationship between inflammation, vascular pathology, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and autonomic dysfunction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0243.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Earnings Management, Financial distress, Pre-Covid era, Post-Covid era, Firm size
Online: 5 September 2023 (09:14:56 CEST)
Earnings management and financial distress are two critical facets of financial management in corporations that have lately been the focus of thorough research from both scholars and practitioners. The purpose of the research is to evaluate the influence of financial distress on the earnings management of companies listed at the NSE during the pre- and post-COVID eras. Multiple linear regression was applied in this study to examine the causal association between earnings management and financial distress. To assess the effect of financial distress on earnings management, the study analyzed data from 37 listed companies during the pre-COVID and post-COVID periods. The methodology also takes into account control factors like firm size, GDP, and inflation. The pre-COVID research indicates a significant positive correlation between financial strain and earnings management. In contrast, the correlation between financial distress and earnings management is not statistically significant in the post-COVID analysis. However, research shows that firm size has a statistically significant negative influence on managing earnings. The results of this study show that smaller firms are more inclined to engage in earnings management during the post-COVID era than bigger ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19 Coagulopathy; hormonal contraception; COVID-19; venous thromboembolism; pulmonary embolism; thrombolysis
Online: 8 May 2023 (05:29:27 CEST)
Coronavirus 19 disease (COVID-19) may be complicated by thrombotic events, particularly venous thromboembolism (VTE), which have been reported both in critically ill hospitalized patients and in individuals with mild symptoms. It is known that the chronic use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) is associated with higher risk of VTE. To date, there are only few reports concerning the association of OCPs and VTE/pulmonary embolism (PE) in COVID-19 patients. Given that during the convalescent phase of disease, a state of endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability and a low-grade inflammation may be persistent, the occurrence of thromboembolic events following acute COVID-19 infection may be not surprising. Herein, we report a case of high-risk PE detected in a post-COVID-19 young woman under hormonal contraception, which required thrombolytic treatment. A number of prothrombotic phenomena, such as overweight, hormonal contraceptive therapy, recent COVID-19 infection and prolonged immobilization, might have synergically contributed to the development of a sublethal thromboembolic event.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0223.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Covid; Covid testing; sample pooling; resources; time; binary system; probability; positivity rate
Online: 15 September 2022 (08:14:36 CEST)
In Los Angeles, at one point, the Covid-19 testing positivity rate was 6.25%, or one in sixteen. This translates to, on average, one in sixteen specimens testing positive and the vast majority testing negative. Usually, we run sixteen tests on sixteen specimens to identify the positive one(s). This process can be time consuming and expensive. Since a group of negative specimens pooled together for testing will produce a negative result, one single test could potentially eliminate many specimens. Only when the pooled specimen tests positive do we need further testing to identify the positive one(s). Based on this concept, we designed a strategy that will identify the positive specimen(s) efficiently. Assuming one in sixteen specimens is positive, we find that only four tests are needed. Furthermore, we can run them simultaneously, saving both resources and time. Although, in the real world, we cannot make the assumption of only one positive specimen, the same strategy works with slight modification and proves to be much more efficient than the conventional testing. Our strategy returns an answer 48% of the time in four tests and one time cycle. Overall, the average number of tests is seven or eight depending on the follow-up testing, and the average time cycle is about one and a half.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0325.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: autonomic failure; lean test; active stand; long covid; Post-COVID-19 condition
Online: 28 July 2022 (03:42:35 CEST)
Autonomic dysfunction is an increasingly recognised complication in chronic neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease , and other medical conditions, including diabetes mellitus, chronic fatigue syndrome, postural tachycardia syndrome with and without Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, fibromyalgia and recently Long Covid. Despite laboratory-based tests to evaluate normal and abnormal autonomic function, there are no home-based tests to record neuro-cardiovascular autonomic responses to common stimuli in daily life that are dependent on the normal functioning of the autonomic nervous system. We have developed an adapted blood pressure/heart Autonomic Profile (aAP) that can be used by an individual independently and repeatedly in a domiciliary setting to determine the physiological and symptomatic response to standing, food, and physical and mental (cognitive, emotional) activities. The aAP aids separating autonomic failure (often irreversible) from autonomic dysfunction. This helps the individual and attending healthcare professional understand the relationship between symptoms and common triggers in daily life and informs on self-management in debilitating conditions such as the postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS) and Long Covid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0120.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Pre-COVID-19; Post-COVID-19; Secondary Schools; Water Demand; Groundwater; Nigeria
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:22:37 CEST)
The prevalence of corona virus and the novel COVID-19 disease in the entire globe has exacerbated different impact on socioeconomic spectrum in the world, including water use pattern. Thus a research was conducted to examine the comparative use of water during pre- and post-COVID-19 lockdown pattern among post-primary schools in Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria. A survey was conducted among fifteen schools which were randomly selected, but with eight public and seven private schools for the investigation. Both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were used in data analysis. The results revealed that the major source of water to the schools investigated is ground water which is obtained through hand-dug wells and boreholes. It was further discovered that there was increase in water use during post-COVID-19 lockdown era as a result of the directive by the government that clean water should be provided for hand-washing by all schools regardless of the owner to curtail the spread of COVID-19 disease in the country. One sample t-test also revealed that there was a significant difference in water use at (p<0.01) level. It is recommended that the government and other stakeholders in water sector to ensure that all-time and non-seasonal dependent source of water be provided rather than ground water source which is susceptible to variations in water yields from seasonal variations. This will enable continuous clean water supply, for all purposes, including COVID-19 protocols.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0474.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; fear of COVID-19; mental health; emotional distress; social effects
Online: 18 March 2021 (11:01:24 CET)
The aim of the article is to determine the predictors of mental health among Polish society. Research was conducted after the first wave of the pandemic. Due to such an approach, it was possible to determine whether secondary effects of the pandemic have impact on mental health, apart from socio-demographic and psychological factors. In order to gather the research material, the CAWI on-line survey method was applied and carried out within the framework of the Ariadna Research Panel on the sample of 1079 Poles aged 15 and over. The FCV-19S scale, which is used to measure the fear of COVID-19 was applied in the measurement. It is a verified diagnostic instrument used to measure mental health in a lot of countries. The results of a hierarchical regression analysis have shown that the factors which increase the level of fear of COVID-19 are demographic, social and psychological features as well as attitudes towards the pandemic. The results of research indicate the significance of social context in the analysis and explanation of the effects of disasters and cataclysms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0480.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19 death rates; COVID-19 vaccines; hydroxychloroquine; ivermectin; rates of COVID-19 testing; containment measures; social distancing; travel restriction,
Online: 25 November 2022 (10:16:41 CET)
Objectives to assess COVID-19 mortality rates per country population. To determine what if any independent country-specific variables from 9 different databases were correlated. Design population based retrospective cohort study. Setting analysis of global COVID-19 treatment and containment strategies using data from 9 worldwide websites. Participants 108 countries worldwide. Interventions none. Main Outcome Measures were COVID-19 death rates per country population analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis. The main outcome parameters were to determine if there are any correlations between the percentage of countrywide COVID-19 deaths/population by the countries’ percent vaccinated. Secondary outcome measures include the effect of other independent variables on COVID-19 death rates per country population including: health expenditures per capita, annual income per capita, COVID-19 tests per 1000 people, stringency index (a measure of each countries containment strategies), hydroxychloroquine score (a measure of each countries use), ivermectin score (a measure of each countries use), hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and specific countries and geographic locations. Results COVID-19 vaccination rates ranged from 0-99% in 108 countries. Univariate analysis demonstrates the following independent variables to correlate with COVID-19 deaths/population (correlation coefficient, p value): countrywide COVID-19 vaccination rates (+0.2936, p=0.002); healthcare costs per capita (+0.3212, p=0.0007), income per capita (+0.3051, p=0.0013), COVID-19 tests per 1000 population (+0.6981 p=0.0307); stringency index (+0.3098, p=0.0011); hydroxychloroquine index (-0.1337, p=0.0678); and ivermectin index (-0.1383, p=0.1535). Conclusions Increasing rates of COVID-19 vaccination are associated with increase COVID-19 death rates per country population (p=0.002). Other variables associated include healthcare costs per capita (+0.3212, p=0.0007), income per capita (+0.3051, p=0.0013), COVID-19 tests per 1000 population (+0.6981 p=0.0307); and stringency index (+0.3098, p=0.0011).
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0341.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Impact of COVID on TB; TB Notification in India; Integrated TB COVID Activity; Threats and Opportunity during COVID; Initiatives to improve TB Surveillance; TB Surveillance during COVID Pandemic
Online: 22 June 2021 (14:05:04 CEST)
Introduction: Due to COVID-19 pandemic, performance of many program has been declined and Tuberculosis (TB) program is not an exception. TB case detection and notification has been recognized as one of worst hit area. The objective of this study was to explore the TB notification status of India during this pandemic and explore options to mitigate the issue. Methods: A secondary data analysis was performed on open source TB notification database of India. Relevant literature review was done to find out remedies based on the different initiative taken by different states of India. Results: In 2020, total TB notification decreased in all the states in comparison to 2019. The percentage of loss in the country was 34%. Private TB notification also decreased in 2020 in all the states except in Jharkhand. The percentage of loss in private TB notification in the country was 35%. Notification started declining in the month of February 2020 and it was lowest in the month of April-2020. The trend of notification began to improve since May 2020 when the States started taking innovative initiatives like Integrated TB Covid Case Search. Conclusion: Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic the notifications of TB cases declined noticeably which has a serious implication in terms of silent spread within household and community. But the picture can be improved with integrated approach for TB-COVID case finding and management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0460.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; Myo-pericarditis and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; Multisystem-Inflammatory-Syndrome and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; arrhythmias and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; Pathogenesis of myocarditis following COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; MIS-A; MIS-C; MIS-V; Myocarditis; COVID-19 mRNA vaccine Adverse Events.
Online: 26 January 2023 (02:50:29 CET)
Each injection of any known vaccine results in a strong expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This is the result of the innate immune system activation, without which no adaptive response to the injection of vaccines is possible. COVID-19 mRNA vaccines would not escape this rule. Unfortunately, the degree of inflammation produced by these vaccines is variable, probably depending on the genetic background and previous immune experiences, which through epigenetic modifications, could have made the innate immune system of each individual tolerant or reactive to subsequent immune stimulations.We hypothesize that we can move from a limited pro-inflammatory condition to conditions of increasing expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines that can culminate in multisystem hyperinflammatory syndromes following COVID-19 mRNA vaccines (MIS-V). We have graphically represented this idea in a hypothetical inflammatory pyramid (IP) and we have correlated the time factor to the degree of inflammation produced after the injection of vaccines. Furthermore, we have placed the clinical manifestations within this hypothetical IP, correlating them to the degree of inflammation produced. Surprisingly, excluding the possible presence of an early MIS-V, the time factor and the complexity of clinical manifestations are correlated to the increasing degree of inflammation: symptoms, heart disease and syndromes (MIS-V).
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: macrophage-derived chemokine; MDC/CCL22, chemokines; novel coronavirus infection; COVID-19; post-COVID
Online: 6 May 2023 (10:40:04 CEST)
Macrophage-derived chemokine belongs to the CC subfamily. It is produced by dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages with or without external stimulation. We have previously shown a statistically significant depletion of MDC/CCL22 concentrations in a number of studies concerning COVID-19. These shifts in concentrations demonstrated stability unrelated to the SARS-CoV-2 genetic variant and remained noticeable even in convalescent patients. In this work, we analyze MDC/CCL22 dynamics in various diseases, including those that manifest with inflammation in lung tissue. In addition, we provide our hypothesis on such a decrease in MDC/CCL22 concentrations in COVID-19. If its secretion by producer cells is unperturbed, then it is possible for viral products to bind to this chemokine and to block its functional activity. There is, however, another possible explanation directly linked to depletion in DC subpopulations and the inhibition of their function. We also discuss MDC/CCL22's role in the immunology of novel coronavirus infection, based on both our own data and other studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0076.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: COVID-19; drug repurposing; long COVID; molecular docking; molecular dynamics; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 4 January 2023 (09:38:47 CET)
The novel coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has resulted in an estimated 20 million excess deaths and the recent resurgence of COVID-19 in China is predicted to result in up to 1 million deaths over the next few months. With vaccines unable to halt transmission it is important to continue our quest for safe, effective, affordable drugs that will be available to all countries. Drug repurposing is one of the strategies being explored in this context. Recently, out of 7,817 approved drugs, 214 candidates were systematically down-selected using a combination of 11 filters including approval status, assay data against SARS-CoV-2, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and toxicity profiles. These drugs were subjected in this study to virtual screening against various targets of SARS-CoV-2 followed by molecular dynamic studies of the best scoring ligands against each target. The chosen molecular targets were Spike receptor binding domain, Nucleocapsid protein RNA binding domain, and key non-structural proteins 3, 5, 12, 13 and 14. Four drugs approved for other indications — alendronate, cromolyn, natamycin and treprostinil — look sufficiently promising from our in silicostudies to warrant further in vitro and in vivo investigations as appropriate to ascertain their extent of anti-viral activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0084.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: long COVID; Post COVID-19 condition; sleep disorders, SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus; children
Online: 14 October 2022 (10:13:22 CEST)
Acute SARS-CoV-2 infections in children and adolescents are usually mild. However, they can suffer from ongoing symptoms generally referred as long COVID. Sleep disorders are one of the most frequent complaints in long COVID although precise data are missing. We assessed the sleep behavior of children and adolescents who presented at our outpatient clinic between January 2021 and May 2022 with the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ-DE). We compared sleep behavior at three different time points: pre-COVID-19, post-COVID-19 at initial presentation and post-COVID-19 at re-presentation. Data from 45 patients were analyzed. Of those, 64% were female and the median age was 10 years (range 0-18 years). Asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 disease was experienced in 89% of patients, whilst 11% experienced moderate disease. Initial presentation occurred at a median of 20.4 weeks (6 weeks - 14 months) after infection. The CSHQ-DE score increased significantly from pre-COVID-19 (45.82+8.7 points) to post-COVID-19 (49.40+8.3 points; p=<0.01). The score then normalized at re-presentation (46.98+7.8; p=0.1). The greatest changes were seen in the CSHQ-DE subscale score "daytime sleepiness". Our data show that children and adolescents with long COVID often suffer from sleep disturbance. For most children and adolescents these sleep disorders decreased over time without further medical intervention, aside from a basic sleep consultation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; long-COVID; sequalae; symptoms; Latin America; high altitude
Online: 22 August 2022 (06:04:53 CEST)
Background: Some patients who have recovered from COVID-19 have experienced a range of persistent symptoms or the appearance of new ones after a SARS-CoV-2 infection. These symptoms can last from weeks to months, impacting everyday functioning to a significant number of patients. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis based on an online, self-reporting questionnaire was conducted in Ecuador from April to July 2022. Participants were invited by social media, radio, and TV to voluntarily participate in our study. A total of 2103 surveys were included in this study. We compared socio-demographic variables and long-term persisting symptoms at low (< 2,500 m) and high altitude (>2,500 m).Results: Overall, 1100 (52.3%) responders claimed to have long-term symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Most of these symptoms were reported by women (64.0%), the most affected group was young adults (68.5%), and the majority of long-haulers were mestizos (91.6%). We found that high altitude residents were more likely to report persisting symptoms (71.7%) versus those living at lower altitudes (29.3%). The most common symptoms were fatigue or tiredness (8.4%), hair loss (5.1%) and difficulty concentrating (5.0%). The highest proportion of persisting symptoms was observed among those who received an incomplete vaccine scheme.Conclusions: This is the first study describing post-COVID symptoms' persistence in low and high-altitude residents. Our findings demonstrate that women, especially those aging between 20-40, are more likely to describe sequalae associated with post-COVID. We also found that living at a high altitude was associated with earlier onset and longer symptom duration. Finally, we found a greater risk to report long lasting symptoms among women, those with previous comorbidities and those who had a severer acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine; COVID-19 vaccine; cardiovascular effects; myocarditis; adolescents; Thailand
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:40:23 CEST)
This study focuses on cardiovascular effects, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis events, after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine injection in Thai adolescents. This prospective cohort study enrolled students from two schools aged 13–18 years who received the second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Data including demographics, symptoms, vital signs, ECG, echocardiography and cardiac enzymes were collected at baseline, Day 3, Day 7, and Day 14 (optional) using case record forms.We enrolled 314 participants; of these, 13 participants were lost to follow up, leaving 301 participants for analysis. The most common cardiovascular effects were tachycardia (7.64%), shortness of breath (6.64%), palpitation (4.32%), chest pain (4.32%), and hypertension (3.99%). Seven participants (2.33%) exhibited at least one elevated cardiac biomarker or positive lab assessments. Cardiovascular effects were found in 29.24% of patients, ranging from tachycardia, palpitation, and myopericarditis. Myopericarditis was confirmed in one patient after vaccination. Two patients had suspected pericarditis and four patients had suspected subclinical myocarditis. Conclusion: Cardiovascular effects in adolescents after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination included tachycardia, palpitation, and myocarditis. The clinical presentation of myopericarditis after vaccination was usually mild, with all cases fully recovering within 14 days. Hence, adolescents receiving mRNA vaccines should be monitored for side effects. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT05288231
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0410.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: COVID-19 variants; COVID-19 vaccine; IBD; ulcerative colitis; Crohn’s disease; anti-TNF
Online: 29 June 2022 (15:02:36 CEST)
Management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often relies on biological and immunomodulatory agents for remission through immunosuppression, raising concerns regarding the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine's effectiveness. The emergent variants have hindered the vaccine neutralization capacity, and whether the third vaccine dose has the capacity to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants in this population remains unknown. This study aims to evaluate the humoral response of SARS-CoV-2 variants in patients with IBD 60 days after the third vaccine dose [BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna)].56 su bjects with IBD and 12 healthy subjects were recruited. 90% of patients with IBD (49/56) were receiving biologics and/or immunomodulatory therapy. 24 subjects with IBD did not develop effective neutralizing capability against the Omicron variant. 70% (17/24) of those subjects were receiving anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor therapy [10= adalimumab, 7= infliximab], two of them had a history of COVID-19 infection, and one subject did not develop immune neutralization against three other variants: Gamma, Epsilon, and Kappa. All subjects in the control group developed detectable antibodies and effective neutralization against all seven SARS-CoV-2 variants. Our study shows that patients with IBD might not be protected against SARS-CoV-2 variants, and larger studies are needed to evaluate optimal immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0216.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Bioimpedance; COVID-19; E-health; Health Care Personnel; Pathophysiology; Post-COVID syndrome; Rheography
Online: 23 May 2022 (05:26:58 CEST)
At present, there are no hardware or biochemical systems allow to assess the severity of post-COVID syndrome in vivo. The hardware of the proposed biotechnical system is based on routine transthoracic electrical impedance rheography, which makes it possible to register the frequency characteristics of the patient's bioimpedance response to controlled stress stimulation, thereby simultaneously fixing the characteristics of his productive heart, the state of the hemomicrocirculatory bed, the efficiency of the gas transport function of his blood, and also reliably assess personal reactivity and adaptive potential. Subsequent mathematical approximation of the obtained biometric data by an original neural network makes it possible to rank the results obtained and automatically generate a program of medical rehabilitation for a particular patient, depending on the severity of his post-COVID syndrome. The study results proved two reliable physiological signs confirming the presence of latent post-COVID complications: a decrease in the base impedance value for light exercise and an increase in the length of the systolic arc of the rheocardiogram.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; with- COVID-19 age; infectious disease; local healthcare projects; healthcare systems
Online: 16 September 2021 (14:59:34 CEST)
Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the awareness of local residents regarding healthcare projects and to suggest some ideas for the revision of local ones. Methods: To delve into the opinions of local residents, the author of this study created a questionnaire composed of eight questions on the general characteristics of the respondents, eight questions on satisfaction with health centers, 16 questions on the awareness of healthcare projects, and 22 questions on local healthcare. The survey was conducted for 409 residents who visited public centers in Gimcheon from 15 March to 14 April 2021. Results: Data analysis revealed the following: The proportion of local residents who use health centers was 39.1%, and those users visit health centers, on average, 3.92 times a year. Among healthcare projects, the project known by the highest proportion of people was vaccinations (84.5%), which was also the project that was most used (38.1%). Among healthcare projects needed in the with-COVID-19 age, respondents awarded the highest score to vaccinations (4.15 points on a five-point Likert scale) and the second highest score to infectious disease management (4.12). Conclusions: For healthcare projects, central and local governments should focus on activating vaccinations, solving the problem of medical accessibility through untact remote treatment and establishing national infectious disease-specializing hospitals and local infectious disease management based on such national hospitals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0597.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19 detection; biosensor application; COVID-19 transmission styles; sensors interaction; artificial intelligence
Online: 27 August 2020 (08:01:55 CEST)
The global spread of coronavirus disease (COVID -19) worldwide has had a significant effect on social and economic growth. The contamination keeps on advancing quickly and eccentrically, representing a significant test to its recognition and conclusion. Coronaviruses are commonly recognized by seclusion from tests, regardless of whether natural or clinical, utilizing some atomic science procedures, which can take a few days. In this work an analytical review of virus transmission, methods of diagnosing COVID -19 using artificial intelligence techniques to classify images and types of biosensors. At long last, the deformities and points of interest of each kind of sensor are recognized and examined. This exploration gives an explanatory audit of the utilization of crown infection COVID-19 in 2019. Related examinations were led utilizing five dependable databases, for example, Science Direct, IEEE Xplore, Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed. An acceptable investigation is remembered for this audit, which can be depended upon as a logical database to put resources into another technique for recognizing COIVD-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: sars-cov-2, covid, covid-19, masks, dentistry, respirator, n99, n95, ffp2, ffp3,
Online: 18 August 2020 (04:30:45 CEST)
This literature review has been compiled to form an evidenced-based review on the standards for Dental Practices in their choice and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) within the COVID-19 Pandemic and beyond: it is prepared on the basis of the current best available evidence. The review encompasses risk management strategies for both Dental Personnel and Patients in the application and use of Face Masks & Respirators.In summation, from the evidence available, it is apparent that in the lab setting N95/FFP2 masks are superior in their efficiency but in the clinical setting such a difference is not seen as clearly. As such the minimum standard of care should be that of a standard surgical mask. Faced with the emergence of the virulent disease that is Covid-19, it is logical to use FFP2/N95 respirator masks in aerosol generating procedures where they offer greater resistance to fluid penetration and a better face seal when adequately fit tested as a gold standard. But if a dry field isolation technique involving high volume evacuation is used, there is no clear benefit of respirator masks (N95/FFP2 or N99/FFP3) when balanced with the extra risk of compliance, cost and comfort in wearing a standard fluid-resistant surgical mask.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0411.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Clinical Trials; disruption; non-COVID-19 clinical trials; drugs; therapeutic area
Online: 25 May 2020 (11:17:56 CEST)
COVID-19 is causing major turmoil around the globe, and the clinical trial industry is likely to face unprecedented challenges to health and business sectors. In an effort to find a suitable treatment and prevention options for COVID-19, several COVID-19 clinical trials are being planned and initiated, while a large number of clinical trials for non- COVID-19 indications are suffering delays. With over more than 1000 trials being disrupted and more trials being added to this category daily, there is a direct impact on trial site activation and patient enrolment. This analysis deals with the specific impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the clinical trial and pharmaceutical industry. The objective of this study is to provide an updated information of the disrupted clinical trials and its impact on various therapeutic areas and different drugs. Among the severely affected clinical trials, oncology and CNS trials are the hardest hit therapy areas.This article will certainly emphasize the need for advanced and innovative approaches to maintain the health of the clinical trial ecosystem by continuing the existing trials and the start of the new studies. We have to take and follow necessary actions to guarantee that the initiatives will not be locked during the COVID-19 pandemic, both for the treatment of patients and for the researchers to conduct decision-relevant clinical trials.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19 infection; immunity; risk of COVID-19 infection; pandemics; outbreaks; voluntary infection
Online: 13 May 2020 (05:53:07 CEST)
Draconian defensive measures have been implemented to combat the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. These important measures constitute a vital current priority but do little to increase communal immunity and avoid future outbreaks. A longer-term exit strategy for a sustainable return to normalcy has yet to be identified. The development of vaccines or effective therapeutics could largely solve the problem, but their timely development cannot be guaranteed. In this setting, and under the expected societal isolation fatigue from extended social distancing, we here propose the idea that at some point after the outbreak’s peak, hospitals, in addition to providing care for infected people who need it, could also be involved in the development of a controlled exit strategy designed to avoid future outbreaks. We postulate that controlled voluntary deliberate infection in a hospital setting and under continuous and close medical observation may offer a safer alternative compared to random en-masse exposure. We discuss potential risks and benefits, highlighting the need for careful consideration of the associated critical ethical issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0527.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Radiation oncology; COVID-19; Radiation therapist COVID-19 policy; Radiation oncology departmental Policy
Online: 30 April 2020 (11:02:58 CEST)
Abstract: This brief policy is written after experience treating COVID-19 positive radiation therapy patients to reduce risk to therapy staff and patients in radiation oncology department. It is important to prioritize the safety of staff and non-infected patients while ensuring the continuation of radiation oncology services. Radiation therapists have sustained contact with covid-19 patients in an enclosed vault. Protocols for correct disinfecting of equipment and room and therapists following methods for less transmission of virus is crucial. This policy covers prevention methods from COVID-19 transmission from patient to patient, patient to staff, staff to patient and staff to staff as follows A.Risk reduction by screening and preparing staff and rooms B.Radiation Therapist Policy for COVID-19 positive patient with CCC (Critical Cancer Care)
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0678.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: adaptive immunity to COVID-19; clinical vaccine trials; COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccines; innate immunity to COVID-19; mucosal vaccines; nasal vaccines; SARS-CoV-2; upper respiratory tract immunity; vaccine safety
Online: 11 October 2023 (10:52:38 CEST)
Rapid development and deployment of vaccines greatly reduced mortality and morbidity during the COVID-19 pandemic. The most widely used COVID-19 vaccines approved by national regulatory authorities require intramuscular administration. SARS-CoV-2 initially infects the upper respiratory tract where the infection can be eliminated with little or no symptoms by an effective immune response. Failure to eliminate SARS-CoV-2 in the upper respiratory tract results in lower respiratory tract infections that can lead to severe disease and death. Presently used intramuscularly administered COVID-19 vaccines are effective in reducing severe disease and mortality but are not entirely able to prevent asymptomatic and mild infections as well as person to person transmission of the virus. Individual and population differences also influence susceptibility to infection and the propensity to develop severe disease. This article provides a perspective on the nature and the mode of delivery COVID-19 vaccines that can optimize protective immunity in the upper respiratory tract to reduce infections and virus transmission as well as severe disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1835.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: COVID 19; thrombosis, DOAC; Anticoagulant
Online: 30 October 2023 (07:15:21 CET)
Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are at a higher risk of thrombotic events following discharge, however the role of extended thromboprophylaxis remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to evaluate current extended post-discharge thromboprophylaxis practice and its outcomes.This study was a single-center, retrospective chart review of patients within Hennepin Healthcare hospitalized with COVID-19 from April 1st 2020 to December 31st 2021 with increased risk of thrombotic event based on D-dimer. The primary outcome was to describe current prescribing practices based on the number of patients who were eligible and received anticoagulants on discharge. Secondary outcomes included comparing the patient’s risk for thromboembolism based on a modified International Medical Prevention Registry on Venous Thromboembolism (IMPROVE-VTE) score to the current internal prescribing practice guideline, evaluating efficacy outcomes based on new thromboembolic events, and assessing safety of extended-thromboprophylaxis using the International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis criteria for major bleeding within 30 days of hospitalization discharge.Of 1984 patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19 infection, 961 patients were eligible to receive thromboprophylaxis at discharge, with a total of 191 patients who received anticoagulation according to the Hennepin Healthcare practice guideline. However, using the IMPROVE-VTE score, only 206 patients qualified for post-discharge thromboprophylaxis, and 63 total patients received anticoagulation. A new thromboembolic event occurred in 20 patients (5.8%) and 14 patients (4.1%) experienced major bleeding.The Hennepin Healthcare guideline for extended thromboprophylaxis at discharge encompassed more patients compared to the IMPROVE-VTE score. The incidence of a new thromboembolic event and major bleeding were low in both groups, although venous thrombotic events occurred more in thromboprophylaxis group than in patients who did not receive anticoagulation at discharge, more clinical data are needed for a conclusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0165.v1
Online: 4 October 2023 (07:50:27 CEST)
Background As a major virus outbreak in the 21st century, the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to unprecedented hazards to mental health globally. Health care workers, patients with COVID-19 are experiencing post-traumatic stress disorders, anxiety, depression, and insomnia. Methods: A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire consisted of four parts: sociodemographic, current and previous health status, measures in a social isolation, and the Arabic version of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results: We had 110 patients who completed the data. 89 (80.9%) of patients recovered from COVID-19. They ranged from 18-84 with a mean of 37.6 years (SD = 9.8 years). We had 33.6% of patients re-ported moderate to extremely severe depression compared to 18.2% with mild reported symptoms. The anxiety severity showed that (35.4%) out of patients had moderate to extremely severe anxiety, compared to (6.4%) who had mild anxiety. While stress severity showed that (22.7%) had moderate to extremely severe stress compared to (13.6%) who had mild stress. Conclusion: COVID-19 has caused a significant increase in the prevalence of mental health illness in the general population. Large systematic reviews are required to set the general overall of impact of this pandemic on mental health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1465.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; influenza; vaccine hesitancy
Online: 21 September 2023 (10:34:49 CEST)
Vaccine hesitancy substantially impacts global vaccination rates. During the COVID-19 pandem-ic in Germany, vaccination uptake exhibited considerable regional disparities. To assess the fac-tors contributing to this variation, we examined the influence of sociodemographic variables on COVID-19, COVID-19 booster, and influenza vaccinations within a cohort of 37,078 participants from 13 German federal states in the digital health cohort study, DigiHero. Our findings re-vealed variations in vaccination rates based on sociodemographic factors. However, these fac-tors had limited explanatory power regarding regional differences in vaccine uptake. In contrast, we found substantial correlations between regional support of specific parties during last local elections and the vaccination uptake at Landkreis-level. In conclusion, sociodemographic factors alone did not suffice to explain the regional disparities in vaccine uptake. Political stances can play a major role, but the current investigation did not assess the individual political orienta-tion, but used only ecological approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0241.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: COVID-19; Child Development; Children
Online: 5 September 2023 (09:10:58 CEST)
Background: As a result of the pandemic, families and children have faced physical, emotional, and mental challenges. However, there has been little attention given to the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and child development. This systematic review aims to identify the impact of the pandemic on child development, globally. Methods: This study follows the PRISMA guidelines for the systematic review of 16 quantitative and qualitative studies conducted between 2020-2023. Results: This systematic review suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic played a crucial role in hindering child development in early childhood. Conclusion: Therefore, it is important to promote and implement the use of policies and strategies to overcome these obstacles.