Mexico is an exceptional setting for ethnomycology since human cultures have interacted with fungi for thousands of years; the state of Michoacán is particularly important since nearly 11% of the fungi species recorded in Mexico occur there, 139 species being edible. This study aimed to analyze the taxonomic diversity and use forms of fungi, their position in worldview of people, and the management forms practiced on edible fungi in the Purépecha communities of Cherán and Pichátaro and the environmental problems in relationship with fungi management. We conducted semi-structured interviews during visits to regional markets, participant observations in harvesting areas, workshops, and presentation of results to the communities and communal authorities. We recorded ethnoecological information for 21 edible fungi species. The words jongo and terekua correspond to useful fungi in Purépecha, while jeramba refers to not edible fungi. In Cherán people identify different vegetation types where mushrooms occur; they recognize the “pinadas forest” dominated by Pinus leiophylla, “encineras” (dominated by Quercus crassipes), “tepamu forest” (dominated by Alnus acuminata), “sharhari forest” (Quercus aff. laeta), and grasslands, all of them sites where mushrooms grow. Fungi handlers identified environmental problems like land use changes, illegal extraction of forest resources, deforestation, unplanned urban growth, uncontrolled fires, livestock raising, and agricultural intensification, which affect fungi communities. In turn, these factors have secondary consequences like soil erosion, reduction of native vegetation and reduction of rainwater retention that directly disturb diversity, distribution, and abundance of fungi. Information from this study and workshops conducted with the community helped to design strategies for conservation of both forests and fungi.