Over half of adult Americans now have diabetes or prediabetes and worse, this epidemic is now world-wide and shows no signs of slowing, with rates of both diabetes and diabetes-related health complications still rising. When advising patients with diabetes on food choices, many providers rely on nutrition guidelines provided by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), and these guidelines influence other recommendations across the globe. Given the alarming trends in diabetes, it is paramount to review the treatment guidelines to ensure they are based on rigorous and accepted scientific methods. Our review included the evidence cited by the ADA in support of its claims and recommendations for eating patterns to combat diabetes (see Description of Eating Patterns, Supplemental Appendix), as presented in the most current edition of the annual ADA’s Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes (2018 Standards). Our review also includes sources cited in the latest edition of the ADA’s Nutrition Therapy Recommendations for Adults with Diabetes (2014 Recommendations), which also informed the 2018 Standards. In October 2018 low carbohydrate was named as a recommended eating pattern by the ADA and European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD)5but only citations from the 2014 and early 2018 ADA documents were reviewed.