Due to low culturing costs and high seed protein contents, legumes represent the main global source of food protein. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is one of the major economically important legume crops, impacting both animal feed and human nutrition. Therefore, the quality of pea seeds needs to be ensured in the context of sustainable crop production and nutritional efficiency. Obviously, changes in seed protein patterns might directly affect both of these aspects. Thus, here we address the pea seed proteome in more detail and provide, to the best of our knowledge, the most comprehensive annotation of the functions and intracellular localization of pea seed proteins. Accordingly, 1938 and 1989 non-redundant proteins were identified in yellow and green pea seeds, in total. Only 35 and 44 proteins, respectively, could be additionally identified after protamine sulfate precipitation (PSP) potentially indicating the high efficiency of our experimental workflow. In total 981 protein groups could be assigned to 34 functional classes, which were to a large extent differentially represented in yellow and green seeds. Closer analysis of these differences by processing of the data in KEGG and String databases revealed their possible relation to a higher metabolic status and reduced longevity of green seeds.