REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Wound healing; metastasis; oxidative stress; macrophage; HIF; NF-kB; Nrf2
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:28:28 CEST)
Many signaling pathways, molecular and cellular actors which are critical for wound healing have been implicated in cancer metastasis. These two conditions are a complex succession of cellular biological events and accurate regulation of these events is essential. Apart from inflammation, macrophages-released ROS arise as major regulators of these processes. But, whatever the pathology concerned, oxidative stress is a complicated phenomenon to control and requires a finely tuned balance over the different stages and responding cells. This review provides an overview of the pivotal role of oxidative stress in both wound healing and metastasis, encompassing the contribution of macrophages. Indeed, macrophages are major ROS producers but also appear as their targets since ROS interfere with their differentiation and function. Elucidating ROS functions in wound healing and metastatic spread may allow the development of innovative therapeutic strategies involving redox modulators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0320.v3
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: data; reproducibility; FAIR; data reuse; public data; big data; analysis
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:16:07 CEST)
With an increasing amount of "omics" data available publicly, there is a need for a guide on how to successfully download and use this data. The 10 simple rules for using public data are: 1) use public data in your research, 2) evaluate data for your use case, 3) check data reuse requirements and embargoes, 4) be aware of ethics for data reuse, 5) plan for data storage and compute requirements, 6) know what you are downloading, 7) download programmatically and verify integrity, 8) properly cite data, 9) make data FAIR and share, and 10) make pipelines and code FAIR and share. These rules are intended as a guide for researchers wanting to make use of available data and to increase data reuse and reproducibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0353.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: Africa; Maternal mortality rate; Joinpoint regression analysis; mortality; trends
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:06:07 CEST)
Background: United Nations Sustainable Development Goals state that by 2030, the Global maternal mortality rate (MMR) should be lower than 70 per 100,000 live births. MMR is still one of Africa's leading causes of death among women. This research aims to study regional trends in maternal mortality in Africa. Methods: We extracted data for Maternal mortality rates per 100,000 births from the World Bank database from 1990-2015. Joinpoint regression was used to study the trends and estimate the annual percent change (APC). Results: Maternal mortality has decreased in Africa over the study period by an average APC of -2.6%. All regions showed significant downward trends, with the sharpest decreases in East Africa. Only the North African region is close to the United Nations' sustainable development goals for Maternal mortality. The remaining sub-Saharan African regions are still far from achieving the goals. Conclusions: maternal mortality has decreased in Africa, especially in East Africa. The only region closed to the United Nations target is North Africa. The remaining sub-Saharan African regions are still far from achieving the goals. These results could be used for the development of Regional Policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0352.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bioreactor; secondary caries; caries model; DCPD; micro-CT
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:00:11 CEST)
This study evaluated the efficacy of experimental TEGDMA-functionalized dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (T-DCPD) filler-based resin-based composites (RBC) in preventing caries lesions around the restoration margins (secondary caries”, SC). Standardized Class-II cavities were made in sound molars having the cervical margin in dentin. Cavities were filled with a commercial resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) or experimental RBCs containing a BisGMA-TEGDMA resin blend and one of the following inorganic fractions: 60 wt.% Ba glass (RBC-0); 40 wt.% Ba glass, 20 wt.% T-DCPD (RBC-20); 20 wt.% Ba glass, 40 wt.% T-DCPD (RBC-40). An open-system bioreactor produced S. mutans biofilm-driven SC. Specimens were scanned using micro-CT to evaluate demineralization depths. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy characterized the specimens’ surfaces, while antimicrobial activity, buffering effect, and ion uptake by the biofilms were also evaluated. ANOVA and Tukey’s test were applied at p<0.05. RBC-0 and RBC-20 showed SC development in dentin, while RBC-40 and RMGIC significantly reduced the lesion depth at the restoration margin (p<0.0001). Initial enamel demineralization could be observed only around RBC-0 and RBC-20 restorations. A direct antibiofilm activity could explain SC reduction by RMGIC, while a buffering effect on biofilm’s acidogenicity explained the behavior of RBC-40. Experimental RBC with CaP-releasing functionalized T-DCPD filler could prevent SC with the same efficacy as F-releasing materials.
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Fitotoxicity; Seedling development; Germination; Micronuclei; Citotoxicity; Genotoxicity.
Online: 23 September 2022 (02:09:04 CEST)
Brazil is the number-one country in pesticide consumption, and corn is the second most cultivated crop in the country. Chemical control of weeds associated with corn cultivation is performed by application of herbicides with pre- and postemergence action, such as S-metolachlor. Currently, the toxicity of herbicides is a task of great concern. In this regard, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of an S-metolachlor-based herbicide through bioassays with the plant model Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) and Zea mays L. (maize). The herbicidal test solutions containing 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, 600, and 720 mg L-1 of the active ingredient S-metolachlor were prepared from commercial products. Distilled water was used as a negative control, and aluminum was used as a positive control. Macroscopic analyses (germination and growth) were performed for the two species, and microscopic analyses (chromosomal and nuclear changes) were performed for L. sativa. Negative interference of the S-metolachlor-based herbicide on lettuce was observed for all macroscopic and microscopic parameters tested. In maize, there was no significant interference in germination; however, the herbicide interferes negatively in seedling development. In brief, the herbicide based on S-metolachlor has phytotoxic potential, just as discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0350.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: black hole entropy; non-Dirichlet boundary condition; bounce
Online: 23 September 2022 (02:06:59 CEST)
In a series of recent works the relevance of gravitational boundary degrees of freedom and their dynamics in gravity quantization and black hole information has been explored. In this work we further the progress by keenly focusing on the boundary degrees of freedom as the origin of black hole entropy. Wald's entropy formula is scrutinized, and the reason that the Wald's formula correctly captures the entropy of a black hole is examined. Afterwards, limitations of the Wald's method are discussed; a coherent view of entropy based on boundary dynamics is presented. The discrepancy observed in the literature between holographic and Wald's entropies is addressed. We generalize the entropy definition so as to handle a time-dependent black hole. Large gauge symmetry plays a pivotal role. Non-Dirichlet boundary conditions and gravitational analogues of Coleman-De Luccia bounce solutions are central in identifying the microstates and differentiating the origins of entropies associated with different classes of solutions. The result in the present work leads to a view that black hole entropy is entanglement entropy in a thermodynamic setup.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0349.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: isoflurane; schizophrenia; adult neurogenesis; synaptic plasticity; parvalbumin-positive interneuron
Online: 23 September 2022 (02:05:41 CEST)
The therapeutic effects of volatile anesthetics on mental diseases, particularly schizophrenia, have gained considerable interest. Although isoflurane is a commonly used volatile anesthetic, there’s no more evidence that it could work on treating schizophrenia. Here, we discovered that inhaling isoflurane at low concentrations might reverse the behavioral phenotypes of schizophrenia caused by MK801, such as hyperlocomotion, pre-pulse inhibition impairment, and working memory loss. Isoflurane also helped recovering adult neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity impairments in the dentate gyrus (DG) induced by MK801. To better understand the mechanism, we discovered that isoflurane could reverse the reduction of parvalbumin (PV)-positive GABAergic interneuron (PVI) number and the aberration of NRG1-ErbB4 signaling in the DG; however, isoflurane could not reverse the schizophrenia-related phenotypes caused by PVI ablation, indicating that PVI are necessary for the therapeutic effect of isoflurane. Interestingly, isoflurane could reverse phenotypes caused by blocking PVIs GABA release in the DG, indicating the therapeutic impact is independent of PVI GABA release. Our research revealed that isoflurane might be used to treat schizophrenia, possibly through PVI in the DG.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0348.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: coupling constants; natural constants; neutrino mass; Higgs mass; Z boson mass; proton mass; nuclear binding; interaction function
Online: 23 September 2022 (02:04:12 CEST)
A simple mathematical interaction function, with the limit value w = e2π/e, derived as a basis for modelling emergent properties of nanoparticles, nanodrops and liquids, has been further developed. A correlation between physical systems of uniform particles and fundamental properties of natural numbers leads to a model, which acts as a bridge between properties of macroscopic systems and fundamental physical constants. The four fundamental coupling constants, and the masses of fundamental elementary particles, including the Higgs and Z bosons, are derived by using this interaction function. A proposal for the mass of the electron neutrino is given. Finally, the nuclear binding interaction is modeled with the interaction function. Only the experimental values of the Planck constant h and the speed of light c are needed for the model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0347.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: digital soil mapping; soil process units; soil parameter space; machine learning; unsupervised classification
Online: 22 September 2022 (15:08:05 CEST)
The national-scale evaluation and modelling of the impact of agricultural management and cli-mate change on soils, crop growth, and the environment require soil information at a spatial res-olution addressing individual agricultural fields. This manuscript presents a data science ap-proach which agglomerates the soil parameter space into a limited number of functional soil pro-cess units (SPUs) which may be used to run agricultural process models. In fact, two unsupervised classification methods were developed to generate a multivariate 3D data product consisting of SPUs, each being defined by a multivariate parameter distribution along the depth profile from 0 to 100 cm. The two methods account for differences in variable types and distributions and in-volve genetic algorithm optimization to identify those SPUs with the lowest internal variability and maximum inter-unit difference with regards to both, their soil characteristics and landscape setting. The high potential of the methods was demonstrated by applying them to the agricultural German soil landscape. The resulting data product consists of twenty SPUs. It has a 100 m raster resolution in the 2D mapping space, and its resolution along the depth profile is 1 cm. It includes the soil properties texture, stone content, bulk density, hydromorphic properties, total organic carbon content, and pH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: gastrointestinal cramps; gastrointestinal pain; irritable bowel syndrome; hyoscine butyl bromide; peppermint oil; over-the-counter treatment; pharmacy-based patient survey
Online: 22 September 2022 (14:15:32 CEST)
Functional gastro-intestinal disorders (FGID) including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are frequently handled by self-management with over the counter (OTC) products such as hyoscine butylbromide (HBB), alone or in combination with paracetamol, and natural products such as peppermint oil. To obtain real-world information, we have performed an anonymous pharmacy-based patient survey among 1686 users of HBB, HBB + paracetamol and peppermint oil. Based on the distinct but overlapping indications for the three OTC products, multiple logistic regression was applied to compare them in users reporting gastrointestinal cramps and pain, bloating, flatulence, or IBS as cardinal symptom. All three treatments reduced symptoms and associated impairments of work/daily chores, leisure activities, and sleep by approximately 50%. Based on the four cardinal symptoms and the four dependent continuous variables of interest (change of intensity of symptoms and of the three impairment domains) a total of 16 logistic regression models were applied. HBB, HBB + paracetamol, and peppermint oil had similar reported overall effectiveness in those models. Gender, age, baseline symptom severity and impairment in one of three domains had small and inconsistent effects on perceived treatment success. We provide evidence that HBB, HBB + paracetamol, and peppermint oil have comparable effectiveness in their approved indications under real-world conditions in an OTC setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0345.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Abiotic Stress; Amazon; Canga; Iron mining; Mineland Rehabilitation; Proteomics; Symbiosis
Online: 22 September 2022 (13:34:43 CEST)
Mimosa acutistipula is endemic to Brazil and grows in ferruginous outcrops (canga) in Serra dos Carajás, eastern Amazon, where one of the largest iron ore deposits in the world is located. Plants that develop in these ecosystems are subject to severe environmental conditions and must have adaptive mechanisms to grow and thrive in cangas. Mimosa acutistipula is a native species used to restore biodiversity in post-mining areas in canga. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of M. acutistipula in canga is essential to deduce the ability of native species to adapt to possible stressors in rehabilitating minelands over time. In this study, the root proteomic profiles of M. acutistipula grown in a native canga ecosystem and rehabilitating minelands were compared to identify essential proteins involved in the adaptation of this species in its native environment and that should enable its establishment in rehabilitating minelands. The results showed differentially abundant proteins, where 436 proteins with significant values (p < 0.05) and fold change ≥ 2 were more abundant in canga and 145 in roots from the rehabilitating minelands. Among them, a representative amount and diversity of proteins were related to responses to water deficit, heat, and responses to metal ions. Other identified proteins are involved in biocontrol activity against phytopathogens and symbiosis. This research provides insights into proteins involved in M. acutistipula responses to environmental stimuli, suggesting critical mechanisms to support the establishment of native canga plants in rehabilitating minelands over time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: SNA; Foreign Trade; Social network analysis; Electronic integrated circuits; UCINET; COVID-19
Online: 22 September 2022 (11:26:03 CEST)
Social network analysis (SNA) is an effective method for characterizing networks from various specific perspectives. Global trade contracted sharply in 2020 owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, and growth is expected to be lower than the pre-pandemic trends. This study takes countries worldwide as the primary unit of analysis and uses different procedures of social network analysis (SNA), including network density, centrality, and core-periphery structure, and applies them to the field of trade in electronic integrated circuit products (ICPT). In addition to static and descriptive analysis, this study also uses of tools such as Ucinet 6.732 for visual analysis, visual analysis, and more convenient and precise display of the network structure of ICPT. The important countries play a central role in determining the overall structural features. The core-periphery structure in the network from both spatial and temporal perspectives, data on electronic integrated circuit products for the period 2015-2021 were used in SNA. This study found that the ICPT network became denser from 2015 to 2021 but declined and picked up in 2018 and 2020. Moreover, the core-peripheral structure exists in the ICPT network. The main core network countries are Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, mainland China, Malaysia, Japan, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, and other Asian countries, including the United States and Germany.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0343.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Lymphatic Filariasis; Indonesia; National Surveillance; Registry; BELKAGA
Online: 22 September 2022 (10:41:18 CEST)
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a vector-borne disease caused by parasitic helminths and constitutes a serious public health issue in tropical regions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), infected cases in Southeast Asia constitute 50% of the estimated 120 million infections globally. In Indonesia, LF is caused by all filarial species, and in 2018, 236 districts from a total of 514 districts in the entire country were declared as endemic areas. The global program to eliminate filariasis has been running for the last 19 years and has been conducted as a full national initiative for the last 8 years in Indonesia. The study describes the surveillance of LF cases and prevalence in Indonesia for the past 17 years (2001-2017) – during the global and national LF elimination programs-, using national registry-based data. The data demonstrates that the national program has been largely effective in the areas it has been active the longest, while there are provinces lagging behind in the successful suppression of LF. The high geographical fragmentation of the country with the associated ecological parameters relating to LF incidence, likely play an important role in maintaining the highly varied incidence rate across Indonesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: anoikis; Low-grade glioma; signature; prognosis; immune microenvironment
Online: 22 September 2022 (10:38:43 CEST)
Low-grade glioma (LGG) is a highly aggressive disease in the skull. On the other hand, anoikis, a specific form of cell death induced by the loss of cell contact with the extracellular matrix, plays a key role in cancer metastasis. In this study，anoikis-related genes (ANRGs) were used to identify LGG subtypes and to construct a prognostic model for LGG patients. In addition, we explored the immune microenvironment and enrichment pathways between different subtypes. We constructed an anoikis-related gene signature using the TCGA cohort and investigated the differences in clinical features, mutational landscape, immune cell infiltration, etc. between different risk groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the characteristics of ANRGs in the high-risk group were associated with poor prognosis in LGG patients. The risk score was identified as an independent prognostic factor. The high-risk group had higher immune cell infiltration, tumor mutation load, immune checkpoint gene expression, and ICB treatment response. Functional analysis showed that these high- and low-risk groups had different immune statuses and drug sensitivity. Risk scores were used together with LGG clinicopathological features to construct a nomogram, and DCA analysis showed that the model could enable patients to benefit from clinical treatment strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0341.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Real State; Regressors; Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Data-informed; Boston
Online: 22 September 2022 (10:33:09 CEST)
Real estate market analysis and place-based decision-making can both benefit from understanding house price development. Although considerable amounts of interest have been devoted to housing price modelling, the assessment of house price fluctuation still requires further comparing studies. Housing price prediction is challenging as contributing factors are quite dynamic and subject to a variety of regulating elements. The future understanding of the housing market trends not only provides sufficient customers’ investment trust potential but also enables the financial support to progress more realistic in advance. In this study, a comprehensive data-informed framework is developed to investigate and anticipate real estate house prices using historical data by combining explanatory features. We examined about 500 houses in the Boston area as a case study and discussed how the increase in housing prices could vary by each of the contributing components. Fourteen Machine Learning (ML) regressors imply to the dataset and lead to a comparative study of the accuracy of all the models. ML-based regressors forecast real estate home prices as a function of thirteen influencing factors. The most informative features were also selected by conducting the Permutation Feature Importance technique on all the features The study provides a comprehensive tool for evaluating the robustness and efficiency of ML models for housing price predictions. The results highlighted Random Forest as the best model has an R2 equals to 0.88 and Voting Regressor as the second highest rated model has R2 equals to 0.87. Results of multivariate exploratory data analysis also implied that the average number of rooms and percentage of the lower status of the population have the most significant impact on the price range predictions.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0340.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Locomotion; Motor Control; Muscle Synergies; Physiology; Running
Online: 22 September 2022 (10:30:24 CEST)
Instep weights cause mechanical changes, modifying muscle activity and changing ground plantar support. 30 semi-professional sprinters, randomized in 3 groups [no-weight, Ascending (50, 100, 150 and 200g), Descending (200, 150, 100 and 50g)] run 6 consecutive 50-meter series at maximum speed (first and sixth without weights); partial, total times and speed were analyzed. Instep weights were safe and well tolerated. 6th series speed decreased except in men’s ascending group, who achieved a lower time in sixth compared to first series. Weights presented in ascending order in men during warm-up could improve running time. Instep weights neuromuscular effects could compensate men’s tiredness in last series; weights could be included in training methodologies. Men training weights presented in ascending order may provide better results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0339.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: cis-prenyltransferase; DHDDS; dolichol; Nogo-B receptor; retinal degeneration; RP59
Online: 22 September 2022 (10:18:11 CEST)
Retinitis pigmentosa-59 (RP59) is a rare, recessive form of RP, caused by mutations in the gene encoding DHDDS (dehydrodolichyl diphosphate synthase). DHDDS forms a heterotetrameric complex with Nogo-B Receptor (NgBR; gene NUS1) to form a cis-prenyltransferase (CPT) enzyme complex, which is required for synthesis of dolichol, which in turn is required for protein N-glycosylation as well as other glycosylation reactions in eukaryotic cells. Herein, we review the published phenotypic characteristics of RP59 models extant, with an emphasis on their ocular phenotypes, based primarily upon knock-in of known RP59-associated DHDDS mutations as well as cell type- and tissue-specific knockout of DHDDS alleles in mice. We also briefly review findings in RP59 patients with retinal disease and other patients with DHDDS mutations causing epilepsy and other neurologic disease. We discuss these findings in the context of addressing “knowledge gaps” in our current understanding of the underlying pathobiology mechanism of RP59, as well as their potential utility for developing therapeutic interventions to block the onset, or to dampen the severity or progression, of RP59.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0338.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Road; Accidents; Black spots; spatial analysis; Factor analysis
Online: 22 September 2022 (09:41:07 CEST)
This paper deals with identifying the accident black spots and the influencing factors causing accidents using factored analysis in the medium-sized city (Tirunelveli) in India. From the literature review, the geospatial technique to identify the black spots and the factors causing accidents was used for analysis. The most influencing factors driving the accident were identified and ranked based on the repetitive occurrence of accidents in the black spot area. The spearman ranking system obtained the correlation among the factors causing accidents. The factor analysis technique was utilized to identify the key factors driving the repetitive accidents and group them. This study will help transportation planners to understand the factors causing accidents and take appropriate measures to reduce the casualties in the road construction planning stage and existing conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0337.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: optical emission spectroscopy; laser induced optical breakdown; trichosanthes dioica; pointed gourd; diabetes; biomedicine; biophysics
Online: 22 September 2022 (09:41:00 CEST)
This interdisciplinary work communicates identification and quantification of elements responsible for the bioactive potency of leaves from pointed gourd, trichosanthes dioica,using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Calibration-free LIBS determines the presence of various trace and major elements, their concentrations, and ratios in which they are present in the leaves. The presence of specific elemental ratios of magnesium/sodium and magnesium/potassium could be promising for managing diabetes mellitus. Variable doses of 500, 750, 1000, and 1250 mg per kg body weight of aqueous extract from trichosanthes dioica leaves are administered. A dose of 1000 mg per kg body weight is found to be the most effective. Based on encouraging results, the extract could be harvested to serve as anti-diabetic medication for diabetes and associated symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0336.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: Walnut diversity; germplasm evaluation; late-leafing; pomological characteristics; superior geno-types
Online: 22 September 2022 (08:47:22 CEST)
Evaluating genetic diversity in walnut (Juglans regia L.) populations is a rapid approach used by walnut breeding programs to distinguish superior genotypes. The present study identified the Hamedan province walnut population as one of the richest, most genetically diverse regions in Iran during 2019-2020. After initial screening, 47 genotypes were selected for further evaluation of pomological and phenological traits based on International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) descriptors. Nut and kernel weights among the selected genotypes ranged between 7.15-21.05 g and 3.0-10.8 g, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) categorized genotypes into three distinct groups while cluster analysis (CA) further categorized genotypes into one of four groups. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation (P <0.01) between nut weight (NWT), nut size, and kernel weight (KW) while a negative correlation (P <0.01) between shell thickness (STH) and packing tissue thickness (PTT) with kernel percentage (KP) was observed. Lastly, 10 of 47 genotypes (TAL8, TAL9, TAL10, TAL14, TAL19, TAL22, TB2, TB4, TB6, and RDGH5) were considered superior. Superior genotypes were late-leafing (25-40 days after the standard) and displayed a lateral bearing (LB) habit with heavy nuts (12.52–16.82 g) and kernels (6.53–8.15 g), thin-shells (1.06–1.25 mm), and lightly-colored kernels. Cuttings of superior genotypes were then grafted in the orchard. Detecting superior and late-leafing genotypes in this investigation suggests cultivars resistant to late-spring frost may soon be isolated.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: philosophy; family-centered care; nurse; child
Online: 22 September 2022 (08:04:33 CEST)
Family-Centered Care (FCC) as a philosophy is defined as a care provider that emphasizes and involves the important role of the family. However, there are several obstacles in implementing family center care for children where parents have different perceptions from health workers. Parents are angry when they are involved in a job they consider to be a nurse's job and the attitude of nurses prevents parents from participating. This difference in perception causes the implementation of Family Center Care (FCC) has not been carried out optimally, this has an impact on discomfort during treatment. Along with the not yet optimal implementation of family center care when providing care to children, further discussion is needed regarding the philosophy of child nursing with a family center care approach. The reasons for the importance of implementing family center care include building a collaborative system, focusing on family strengths and resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: cervical cancer screening; barriers; recommendations; slum; low-resource settings; qualitative
Online: 22 September 2022 (07:31:38 CEST)
Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women globally despite being a largely treatable and preventable malignancy. Developing countries account for over 80% of all new cases of cervical cancer. Women residing in low-resource settings such as those residing in slums have a higher risk of cervical cancer, and lower uptake of cervical cancer screening. Diverse barriers influence the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in low-resource settings. Objectives: This qualitative study was carried out prior to a cervical cancer screening program and explored women’s knowledge about cervical cancer, and their perceived barriers and recommendations for the program.Method: Four focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted among 35 women between the ages of 21 – 65 years residing in two urban slums in Lagos, Nigeria. Each FGD was limited to 8-10 participants of women of similar ages. Voice recordings were transcribed verbatim and analysis was done using thematic analysis.Results: Most of the women were not aware of cervical cancer and none knew the symptoms or risk factors of cervical cancer. The participants felt that the cervical cancer screening program would be well accepted in the community, however, they expressed concerns about the cost of the screening test and the sex of the person performing the test. The recommendations proffered for a successful cervical cancer screening program include; reducing the cost of the test or providing the test free of charge, having people that speak the local language as part of the team, using female health care providers, using a private location within the community or nearby PHC, and publicizing the program with the use of SMS, phone calls, town crier, and health talks. It was recommended that organizing health education sessions would help improve women’s poorly perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer.Conclusion: Interventions to increase uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in low resource settings need to improve knowledge and understanding of cervical cancer and address the barriers to cervical cancer screening such as cost, distance, and as much as possible, sex of the healthcare provider should be considered.
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: carbon; atomic structure; electron-dynamics; potential energy; force-exertion; atomic binding
Online: 17 May 2019 (08:36:23 CEST)
Many studies discuss carbon-based materials because of the versatility of its element. They include different opinions for scientific problems and discuss fairly at convincing and compelling levels within the scope and application. A gas-state carbon atom converts into various states depending on its conditions of processing. The electron transfer mechanism in the gas-state carbon atom is responsible to convert it into various states, namely, graphite, nanotube, fullerene, diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene. The shape of ‘energy trajectory’ enables transferring electrons from the left- and right-sides of an atom is like a parabola. That ‘energy trajectory’ is linked to states (filled state and suitable nearby unfilled state) where force-exertion along the poles of transferring electrons is remained balance. So, the mechanism of originating different states of a gas-state carbon atom is under the involvement of energy first. This is not the case for atoms executing confined inter-state electron-dynamics as the force is involved first. Graphite-, nanotube- and fullerene-state atoms ‘partially evolve partially develop’ (form) their structures. These possess one-dimensional, two-dimensional and four-dimensional ordering of atoms, respectively. Their structural formation also comprises ‘energy curve’ having a shape-like parabola. Transferring suitable filled state electron to suitable nearby unfilled state is under a balance force exerting along the poles. The graphite structure under only attained-dynamics of atoms can also be formed but in two-dimension. Here, binding energy between graphite-state carbon atoms is for a small difference of exerting forces along their opposite poles. Structural formation in diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene atoms involve energy to gain required infinitesimal displacements of electrons through which they maintain orientationally-controlled exerting forces along dedicated poles. In this study, the growth of diamond is found to be south to east-west (ground) where atoms bound ground to south. Thus, diamond atoms merge for a tetra-electron ground to south topological structure. Lonsdaleite atoms merge for a bi-electron ground to just-south topological structure. The growth of graphene is found to be north to ground where atoms bound ground to north. Thus, graphene atoms merge for a tetra-electron ground to north topological structure. Glassy carbon exhibits layered-topological structure where, tri-layers of gas-, graphite- and lonsdaleite-state atoms successively bind in repetitive order. Nanoscale hardness is also sketched based on different force-energy behaviors of different state carbon atoms. Here, structure evolution in each carbon state atom explores its own science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0207.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Adverse Drug Reaction; Spontaneous reporting; Active surveillance; Underreporting; Antiglau-coma; Artificial tear
Online: 22 September 2022 (07:17:10 CEST)
(1)Aims of the study: calculating the underreporting ratio for two different medications, a fixed combination of 0.5% timolol + 0.2% brimonidine + 2.0% dorzolamide (antiglaucoma) and a fixed combination of sodium hyaluronate 0.1% + chondroitin sulfate 0.18% (artificial tear) and characterizing the features influencing the reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in spontaneous reporting; (2) Methods: the underreporting ratio was calculated by comparing the adverse drug reactions reported in the spontaneous reporting database for every 10,000 defined daily doses marketed and the adverse drug reactions from an active surveillance study for every 10,000 defined daily doses used for different drugs (antiglaucoma and artificial tear). The factors related to the report in spontaneous reporting through statistical tests were also determined; (3) Results: The underreporting ratio of spontaneous reporting was 0.006029% for antiglaucoma and 0.003552% for artificial tear; additionally, statistically significant differences were found for severity, unexpected adverse drug reactions, and incidence of adverse drug reactions in females; (4) Conclusions: The underreporting ratio of ADRs related to ophthalmic medications indicates worry since the cornerstone of pharmacovigilance focuses on spontaneous reporting. Besides, since underreporting seems to be selective, the role of certain aspects like gender, seriousness, severity, and unexpected ADRs, must be considered in future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0333.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: rosé wine; probiotic yeast; fermentation; distillation; viability
Online: 22 September 2022 (05:44:56 CEST)
This paper reports for the first time on the production of probiotic alcoholic and non-alcoholic rosé wines with enhanced health benefits made with Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii probiotic yeast. The alcohol, sugar, volatile acidity lactic and malic acid contents were assessed for S. cerevisiae var. boulardii before and after fermentation and distillation and compared with a conventional Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ex-bayanus) yeast. The free amino nitrogen and gluconic acid concentrations in the musts were determined. Yeast viability was evaluated after fermentation and distillation as a function of time (0, 15 days, 3 months and 6 months) both at room temperature (25±0.5ºC) and refrigerator temperature (4±0.5ºC). The results obtained showed that the probiotic rosé wine produced with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii possesses the typical values and sensory attributes of other commercial wines produced with S. cerevisiae (ex-bayanus). The probiotic S. cerevisiae var. boulardii yeast survives the high alcohol content produced during fermentation and vacuum distillation. The study also showed that this probiotic rosé wine stored either at room temperature or in a refrigerator keeps its probiotic viability for at least six months, which makes it a promising for large-scale production, in which long storage times are required by both producers and consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0332.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: COVID-19; safety performance; safety climate; safety leadership; risk management
Online: 22 September 2022 (05:43:27 CEST)
COVID-19 had a significant impact on construction projects due to labor shortages and COVID-19 restrictions, yet little is known about the impact it had on construction safety. To address this gap, an Australian construction project was selected to study the impact of COVID-19 on safety performance, safety climate and safety leadership. The study collected data from safety climate surveys, leading and lagging safety indicators and used linear regression to compare safety performance pre and post the onset of COVID-19. Our results showed after the onset of COVID-19 there was a significant reduction (Pr>F at 0.05%) in incident rate, an improvement in supervisor safety leadership and safety climate, and satisfaction with organisational communication. The study identified the increase level of safety awareness due to COVID-19 did not result in an increase in the level of engagement in safety leadership. Interestingly, participation in the safety leadership activities did not improve until a change of Project Manager occurred. The study determined leaders who establish a positive safety climate within a project could negate the safety performance impact of COVID-19. The study confirms the importance of site safety leadership in maintaining engagement in risk management and the value of focused safety communication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0331.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Ramsey theory; complete graph; vibrational spectrum; eigenfrequency; selection rule; cyclic molecule
Online: 22 September 2022 (03:33:14 CEST)
Ramsey theory influences the dynamics of mechanical systems, which may be described as abstract complete graphs. We address a mechanical system which is completely interconnected with the two kinds of ideal Hookean springs. The suggested system mechanically corresponds to the cyclic molecules, in which functional groups are interconnected with two kinds of chemical bonds, represented mechanically with two springs k1 and k2. In this paper, we consider a Cyclic system (molecule) built of six equal masses m and two kinds of springs. We pose the following question: what is the minimal number of masses in the such a system in which three masses are constrained to be connected with spring k1 or three masses to be connected with spring k2? The answer to this question is supplied by the Ramsey theory, and it is formally stated as follows: what is the minimal number R3,3? The result emerging from the Ramsey theory is R3,3=6. Thus, in the aforementioned interconnected mechanical system will be necessarily present the triangles (at least one triangle), built of masses and springs. This prediction constitutes the vibrational spectrum of the system. Thus, the Ramsey Theory supplies the selection rules for the vibrational spectra of the cyclic molecules. Symmetrical system built of six vibrating entities is addressed. The Ramsey approach works for 2D and 3D molecules, which may be described as abstract complete graphs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0153.v3
Online: 22 September 2022 (03:22:16 CEST)
Background: Severe hypoglycemia is defined as low blood glucose levels that requires another person to be treated. Severe hypoglycemia is an emergency and is a complication that can occur in people taking insulin and some anti-diabetic drugs. The aim of our study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with hospitalization. Methods: We performed a retrospective study based on the clinical records of adults with severe hypoglycemia who were admitted consecutively to the Emergency Department (ED) of the Carlo Poma Hospital from January 2021 to December 2021. Results: Overall, 50 patients were identified and most of these were elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. They were treated with oral hypoglycemic drugs such as sulfonylureas or glinides (42%), insulin (46%) or both (6%). Hospitalization rates and in-hospital deaths occurred in 62% and in 4%, respectively. No risk factors were statistically significant correlated with hospitalization. The frailty of the elderly patients and their comorbidities were often the reason of hospitalization, rather than the episode of severe hypoglycemia. Conclusions: In our study, episodes of severe hypoglycemia can be a sign of the frailty of elderly diabetic patients and poor home care, who often require hospitalization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0330.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: coumarin; 1,2-benzopyrone; Melilotus officinalis; narrative review; primary lymphoedema; secondary lymphoedema; hepatotoxicity
Online: 22 September 2022 (03:20:25 CEST)
Coumarin is an effective treatment for primary lymphoedema, as well as lymphoedema related to breast cancer radiotherapy or surgery. However, its clinical use is limited in several countries due to the possible occurrence of hepatotoxicity, mainly in the form of mild to moderate transaminase elevation. Noteworthy, only few cases of severe hepatotoxicity have been described in literature, with no reported cases of liver failure. Data available on coumarin absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion have been reviewed, focusing on hepatotoxicity studies carried out in vitro and in vivo. Finally, safety and tolerability data from clinical trials have been thoroughly discussed. On the basis of these data, coumarin-induced hepatotoxicity seems to be restricted to a small subset of patients, probably due to the expression of specific alleles of CYP450 isoform not yet well characterized. In summary, more research is needed in order to identify patients at risk of developing hepatotoxicity following coumarin treatment, in order to improve the risk/benefit ratio of the product and allow more patients to benefit from its therapeutic properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0329.v1
Online: 22 September 2022 (02:35:29 CEST)
We study an air-fluidized granular monolayer, composed in this case of plastic spheres, which roll on a metallic grid. The air current is adjusted so that the spheres never loose contact with the grid, so that the dynamics may be regarded as pseudo two-dimensional (or two-dimensional, if the effects of sphere rolling are not taken into account). We find two surprising continuous transitions, both of them displaying two coexisting phases. Moreover, in all cases, we found the coexisting phases display strong energy non-equipartition. In the first transition, at weak fludization, a glassy phase coexists with a disordered fluid-like phase. In the second transition, a hexagonal crystal coexists with the fluid phase. We analyze, for these two-phase systems, the specific diffusive properties of each phase, as well as the velocity correlations. Surprisingly, we find a glass phase at very low packing fraction and for a wide range of granular temperatures. Both phases are characterized also by a strong anti-correlated velocities upon collision. Thus, the dynamics observed for this quasi two-dimensional system unveils phase transitions with peculiar properties, very different from the predicted behavior in well know theories for their equilibrium counterparts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; outpatient cohort; seroprevalence; mild infections; asymptomatic cases; COVID-19 contacts; PCR-positivity and symptoms; first year of the pandemic; Hungary
Online: 22 September 2022 (02:08:09 CEST)
We aimed to estimate the proportion of the population infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the first year of the pandemic. The study population consisted of outpatient adults with mild or no COVID-19 symptoms, and was divided into subpopulations with different levels of exposures. Of the subpopulation without known previous COVID-19 contacts 4143, of the subpopulation with known COVID-19 contacts 594 persons were investigated. IgG- and IgA-seroprevalence and RT-PCR positivity were determined in context with COVID-19 symptoms. We hope to have contributed to the understanding of the significance of the asymptomatic and mild infections in the long persistence of the pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: scRNA-seq; bioinformatics; subpopulations; analysis methods; single-cell RNA sequencing
Online: 21 September 2022 (11:22:50 CEST)
Single-cell RNA sequencing data facilitates investigation of cell heterogeneity and subpopulations as well as differentially abundant states however modern single-cell RNA sequencing datasets are growing in size and complexity requiring advances in the bioinformatic methods that analyze them. Many methods exist for each step of analysis including read alignment, normalization, quality control, batch effect correction, imputation and dimensionality reduction. With so many options to choose from at each step of the analysis, benchmarking and a synthesis of the literature on the methods available is necessary to inform biological researchers on the most optimal workflow for their data. Here, recent key methods of analysis are highlighted with a focus on methods that facilitate identification of cell subpopulations and differentially abundant cell states. With a constantly expanding toolset for each step in single-cell RNA sequencing dataset analysis, biological researchers should stay informed to utilize the most applicable methods for their own analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0326.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: multidrug resistance organism; sepsis; adequate empirical antibiotics; source of infection; APACHE II; ICU length stay; predictors; risk factors; mortality
Online: 21 September 2022 (10:45:23 CEST)
Background: Multi-drug resistance organisms (MDRO) often cause increased morbidity, mortality, and length of stays (LOS). However, there is uncertainty whether the infection of MDRO increase the morbidity, mortality, and ICU-LOS. Objective: This study performed to determine the prevalence of MDRO in ICU, site of infection and the association of MDRO or site of infection with mortality. Secondary outcome was determined by ascertaining the association of MDRO or site of infection with (ICU-LOS). Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed with adult sepsis patients in ICU. Univariate and multivariate (MVA) logistic regression with cox regression modeling were performed to compute the association of MDRO on ICU-mortality. MVA modelling was performed for ICU-LOS predictors. Results: Out of 228 patients, the isolated MDRO was 97 (42.5%) of which 78% were gram-negative bacteria. The mortality rate among those with MDRO was 85 (37.3%). The hospital acquired infection (HAI) was significantly predictor for ICU-LOS in univariate linear regression (R² = 0.034, P=0.005). In MVA linear regression, both Enterococcus faecalis infection and acinetobacter baumannii (AC) -MDRO were predictors for ICU-LOS with (R² = 0.478, P<0.05). In the univariate cox regression, only the infection with AC- MDRO was a risk factor for ICU-mortality with [ HR =1.802 (95% CI: 1.2 – 2.706; P = 0.005)]. Conclusions: Identifying risk factors for MDRO highlight the appropriate administration of empirical antibiotics and effectively control of source of infection which would reduce mortality and ICU-LOS. The usage of broad- spectrum antibiotics should be limited for those having substantial risk factors to acquire MDRO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0325.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Maternal satisfaction; Gondar public health facility; Ethiopia
Online: 21 September 2022 (10:37:22 CEST)
Background: Immunization prevents over 4-6 million deaths each year worldwide. Ensuring mother satisfaction is an important means of preventing the death of children caused by communicable diseases. However, in Ethiopia, there is paucity of evidence on maternal satisfaction with immunization services. Thus, this study is aimed at assessing the level of maternal satisfaction with childhood immunization services and associated factors among children’s caregivers. Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 556 systematically selected children’s caregivers in public health facilities at Gondar Town from May through June, 2022. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. P≤ 0.25 during the bivariate binary logistic regression analysis was included in the multivariate analysis. From the multivariable analysis, variables with p ≤ 0.05 were declared statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of maternal satisfaction towards childhood immunization services was 69.3%(95%CI: 65.5, 73.1%). Of mothers, 45.3% had adequate knowledge, while 43.9% had favorable attitude. Mothers 19-24 years old [AOR = 5.29; 95%CI:2.58,10.86], mothers who waited less than one hour [AOR = 3.03; 95%CI: 1.92,4.77], mothers less than thirty minutes waiting in health facility[AOR=1.98;95%CI:1.24,3.15], mother feel happy during service[ AOR=4.00; 95%CI: 2.53,6.34], mothers adequate knowledge [AOR=2.91; 95%CI: 1.79, 4.73] and had favorable attitude [AOR=3.64; 95%CI: 2.25, 5.91] were significantly associated with maternal satisfaction during childhood immunization services.Conclusions: The overall level of mothers’ satisfaction with childhood immunization services was considerably lower as compared with other studies. Thus, the town health office and concerned stakeholders need more efforts to improve mothers’ satisfaction with childhood immunization services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0324.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Insurance; natural language processing; topic modelling; text analysis; complex networks; risk ranking
Online: 21 September 2022 (10:25:26 CEST)
The ability to identify and rank risk is essential for efficient and effective supervision of financial service firms, such as banks and insurers. Risk ranking ensures limited resources are allocated where they are most needed. Today, automatic risk identification within insurance supervision primarily relies on quantitative metrics based on numerical data (e.g. returns). The purpose of this work is to assess whether Natural Language Processing (NLP) and cognitive networks can achieve similar automated risk ranking and identification by analysing textual data, i.e. NIDT=829 investor transcripts from Bloomberg. To this aim, this work explores and tunes 3 NLP techniques: (1) keyword extraction enhanced by cognitive network analysis; (2) valence/sentiment analysis; and (3) topic modelling. Results highlight that keyword analysis, enriched by term frequency-inverse document frequency scores and semantic framing through cognitive networks, could detect events of relevance for the insurance system like cyber-attacks or the COVID-19 pandemic. Cognitive networks were found to highlight events that related to specific financial transitions: The semantic frame of "climate" grew in size by +538% between 2018 and 2020 and outlined an increased awareness that agents and insurers expressed towards climate change. A lexicon-based sentiment analysis achieved a Pearson’s correlation of ρ=0.16 (p<0.001,N=829) between sentiment levels and daily share prices. Although relatively weak, this finding indicates that insurance jargon is insightful to support risk supervision. Topic modelling is considered less amenable to support supervision, because of a lack of results’ stability and an intrinsic difficulty to interpret risk patterns. We discuss how these automatic methods could complement existing supervisory tools in automated risk ranking.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0323.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: COVID-19; Open-source dataset; Drug Repurposing; Database system; Web application devel-opment; software development; Drug fingerprints; Bulk upload
Online: 21 September 2022 (10:14:11 CEST)
Although various vaccines are now commercially available, they have not been able to stop the spread of COVID-19 infection completely. An excellent strategy to quickly get safe, effective, and affordable COVID-19 treatment is to repurpose drugs that are already approved for other diseases as adjuvants along with the ongoing vaccine regime. The process of developing an accurate and standardized drug repurposing dataset requires a considerable level of resources and expertise due to the commercial availability of an extensive array of drugs that could be potentially used to address the SARS-CoV-2 infection. To address this bottleneck, we created the CoviRx platform. CoviRx is a user-friendly interface that provides access to the data, which is manually curated for COVID-19 drug repurposing data. Through CoviRx, the data curated has been made open-source to help advance drug repurposing research. CoviRx also encourages users to submit their findings after thoroughly validating the data, followed by merging it by enforcing uniformity and integ-rity-preserving constraints. This article discusses the various features of CoviRx and its design principles. CoviRx has been designed so that its functionality is independent of the data it dis-plays. Thus, in the future, this platform can be extended to include any other disease X beyond COVID-19. CoviRx can be accessed at www.covirx.org.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0322.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; physical activity; mental health; wellbeing, outdoor space
Online: 21 September 2022 (10:08:45 CEST)
Background Several quantitative studies have found a decline in physical activity in response to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions. The aim of the present study was to use large-scale free text survey data to qualitatively gain a more in-depth understanding of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity, then map barriers and facilitators to the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, and Behaviour (COM-B) Model of Behaviour to aid future intervention development. Methods 17,082 participants provided a response to the free text module, and data from those who mentioned physical activity in any context were included. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and key themes identified. Results 5396 participants provided 7490 quotes related to physical activity. The sample were predominately female (84%), white (97%) and aged <60 years (57%). Seven key themes were identified: the importance of outdoor space, changes in daily routine, impact of COVID-19 restrictions, perceived risks or threats to participation, the importance of physical health, the importance of physical activity for mental health and the use of technology. Conclusion Future physical activity interventions could encourage people to walk outdoors, which is low cost, flexible, and accessible to many. Developing online resources to promote and support physical activity provides a flexible way to deliver quality content to a large audience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0321.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adipose-derived regenerative cells; flow cytometry; microfragmented fat; NucleoCounter; regenerative medicine; stem cells; UA-ADRCs
Online: 21 September 2022 (10:08:34 CEST)
Uncultured, unmodified, autologous, adipose-derived regenerative cells (UA-ADRCs) are a safe and effective treatment option for various musculoskeletal pathologies. However, it is unknown whether the composition of the final cell suspension systematically varies with the subject's individual age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and ethnicity. UA-ADRCs were isolated from lipoaspirate from n=232 subjects undergoing elective lipoplasty using the Transpose RT system (InGeneron, Inc.; Houston, TX, USA). The UA-ADRCs were assessed for the number of nucleated cells, cell viability and the number of viable nucleated cells per gram of adipose tissue harvested. Flow cytometry was used to further characterize the UA-ADRCs. UA-ADRCs isolated with the Transpose RT system (InGeneron) can be recommended for all ages, genders, BMIs and ethnicities. Furthermore, it was found that for all experimental methods and commerically available systems described in the literature to isolate UA-ADRCs or systems that provide non-enzymatic, mechanical dissociation of lipoaspirate, the Transpose RT system yielded the highest mean relative numbers of CD45- / CD31- / CD34+ cells (adipose tissue derived progenitors), CD45- / CD31+ / CD34+ cells (endothelial progenitors) and CD45+ / CD206+ cells (M2 macrophages). Application of these cell types may significantly contribute to tissue regeneration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0320.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: marine natural products; oxygen heterocycles; tetrahydrofuran; total synthesis; biological activity; terpenes; fatty acids.
Online: 21 September 2022 (10:04:09 CEST)
heterocycles are particularly common moieties within marine natural products. Specifically, tetrahydrofuranyl rings are present in a variety of compounds which present complex structures and interesting biological activities. Focusing on terpenoids, a high number of tetrahydrofuran-containing metabolites have been isolated during the last decades. They show promising biological activities, making them potential leads for novel antibiotics, antikinetoplastid drugs, amoebicidal substances or anticancer drugs. Thus, they have attracted the attention of the synthetic community, and numerous approaches to their total syntheses have appeared. Here, we offer the reader an overview of marine-derived terpenoids and related compounds, with a special focus on their isolation, structure determination, biological profiles and total syntheses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0309.v9
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: obesity; body weight regulation; macronutrients; energy balance theory; mass balance model; paradigm shift; living review
Online: 16 September 2022 (03:18:08 CEST)
According to known laws of physics, chronic positive mass balance is the actual etiology of obesity, not positive energy balance. The relevant physical law in terms of body mass regulation is the Law of Conservation of Mass, not the Law of Conservation of Energy. A recently proposed mass balance model (MBM) describes the temporal evolution of body weight and body composition under a wide variety of feeding experiments, and it seems to provide a highly accurate description of the very best experimental human feeding data. By shifting to a mass balance paradigm of obesity, a deeper understanding of this disease may follow in the near future. The purpose of this living review is to present the core issues of the upcoming paradigm shift as well as some practical applications related to the topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0319.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cytokine; S100 protein; S100P; protein–protein interaction
Online: 21 September 2022 (09:45:39 CEST)
S100 proteins are multifunctional calcium-binding proteins of vertebrates that act intracellularly, extracellularly, or both, and are engaged in the progression of many socially significant diseases. Their extracellular action is typically mediated by the recognition of specific receptor proteins. Besides, recent studies indicate the ability of some S100 proteins to affect cytokine signaling through direct interaction with cytokines. S100P was shown to be the S100 protein most actively involved in interactions with some of four-helical cytokines. To assess selectivity of S100P protein binding to four-helical cytokines, we have probed interaction of Ca2+-bound recombinant human S100P with a panel of 32 four-helical human cytokines covering all structural families of this fold, using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. 22 cytokines from all families of four-helical cytokines are S100P binders with the equilibrium dissociation constants, Kd, ranging from 1 nM to 3 µM (below the Kd value for the S100P complex with the V domain of its conventional receptor, receptor for advanced glycation end products, RAGE). Molecular docking and mutagenesis studies revealed the presence in the S100P molecule of a cytokine-binding site, which overlaps with the RAGE-binding site. Since S100 binding to four-helical cytokines inhibits their signaling in some cases, the revealed ability of S100P protein to interact with ca 71% of the four-helical cytokines indicates that S100P may serve as a poorly selective inhibitor of their action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0318.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: BA.2.75 variant; Gibbs energy of binding; binding rate; infectivity; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 21 September 2022 (09:44:34 CEST)
Omicron BA.2.75 may become the next globally dominant strain of COVID-19 in 2022. BA.2.75 sub-variant has acquired more mutations (9) in spike protein and other genes of SARS-CoV-2 than any other variant. Thus, its chemical composition and thermodynamic properties have changed comparing to earlier variants. In this paper Gibbs energy of binding and antigen-receptor binding rate is reported for the BA.2.75 variant. Gibbs energy of binding (driving force of binding) of Omicron BA.2.75 variant is more negative than that of the competing variants BA.2 and BA.5.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Bibliometric analysis; Scopus database; Syphilis; Sexually Transmitted Infections; Public Health; Research; Global
Online: 21 September 2022 (07:14:19 CEST)
Sexually transmitted infections encompass considerable effects on human sexual and reproductive health. Its presence is ubiquitous despite decades of prevention and management. The present study has been conducted to provide an insightful bibliometric analysis of syphilis based on the Scopus repository. Therefore, given the dearth of a consolidated bibliometric analysis on Syphilis, this investigation aimed to compile the literature of the last century (1921-2021) to gain insight into the publications pertinent to the burden, diagnosis, treatment, and management of Syphilis. In this study, we have provided the year-wise, and subject-wise publications, type of articles, country, funding organizations, institutions, citations, and H-index. The data obtained from the Scopus database was exported to CSV file format and then converted to Microsoft Excel version for analysis to curtail the chances of error in the information. It has been evidenced that the USA possesses the highest track of proven publications. Therefore, this study considerably contributes to the future leaders, researchers & specialists/ clinicians of the domain
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: stoma closure; incisional hernia; mesh prophylaxis; cost-utility analysis
Online: 21 September 2022 (07:07:06 CEST)
Background: Stoma closure is a widely performed surgical procedure, with 6295 undertaken in England in 2018 alone. This procedure is associated with significant complications; incisional hernias are the most severe, occurring in 30% of patients. Complications place considerable financial burden on the NHS; hernia costs are estimated at GBP 114 million annually. As recent evidence (ROCSS, 2020) found that prophylactic meshes significantly reduce rates of incisional hernias following stoma closure surgery, an evaluation of this intervention vs. standard procedure is essential. Methods: A cost-utility analysis (CUA) was conducted using data from the ROCSS prospective multi-centre trial, which followed 790 patients, randomly assigned to mesh closure (n=394) and standard closure (n=396). Quality of life was assessed using mean EQ-5D-5L scores from the trial, and costs in GBP using UK-based sources over a 2-year time horizon. Results: The CUA yielded an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of GBP 128,356.25 per QALY. Additionally, two univariate sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the model. Conclusion: The results demonstrate an increased benefit with mesh prophylaxis, but at an increased cost. Although the intervention is cost-ineffective and greater than the ICER threshold of GBP 30,000/QALY (NICE), further investigation into mesh prophylaxis for at risk population groups is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0315.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Plastic pollution; waste management; environmental behavior; recycling
Online: 21 September 2022 (07:05:39 CEST)
Excessive production, consumption and indiscriminate disposal of plastic waste cause an increasing plastic pollution with detrimental impacts on environment and human health. This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) towards plastic pollution among Malaysians and evaluate the variation of plastic pollution related KAP among various socio-demographics. An online survey was conducted, and 294 valid responses was obtained. Descriptive statistics, KAP scoring and cross tabulation of responses were estimated. One-way analysis of variance, paired t-test and binary logistic regressions were carried out. Results showed that respondents had poor knowledge (mean 7.41 ± 1.80) and practice score (3.81 ± 1.39) across all socio-demographics. Compared to younger (18-30 years) respondents, older ones (>46 years) had higher knowledge (odds ratio, OR 4.304; p<0.01). However, middle aged (31-45 years) respondents reported significantly (p<0.01) higher attitude (OR 4.019) and practice (OR 4.056; p <0.05). Respondents with environmental related university education had showed higher odds about plastic pollution related knowledge (OR 10.343; p<0.01). Suggestions are made to undertake interventions such as environmental awareness creation, incorporating plastic pollution topics in formal and informal education, and providing recycling facilities nearby the localities for encouraging good practices towards minimizing plastic uses and pollution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Diabetes; Theory; Model; Concept; Management; Health Care
Online: 21 September 2022 (05:46:19 CEST)
BackgroundGood management behavior in patients with diabetes mellitus can reduce disease complications and improve quality of life. This philosophical problem is very important for nurses who are able to provide management care for diabetic patients. The purpose of this literature review is to describe the concept, model or theory that can be used in improving the management of diabetes mellitus patients.MethodsThe method used is by searching several studies published through the Scopus database, PubMed, CINAHL, SpingerLink, and web of science (WOS). The search strategy uses a combination of the terms MeSH Terms. The research questions were designed using the principles of the PICOS framework. Selected studies were published from 2017-2022.ResultsA total of 15 studies were included, with 12 using quantitative methodology and 3 were qualitative. The studies were conducted across various countries. The majority of articles used the concept of self-management intervention based on digital-based development and e-health (n=6), Dorothea Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory n=2) and the transtheoretical model (n=2). These concepts, models and theories are able to improve good self-management through lifestyle changes, psychosocial, cultural acculturation and increase in spiritual values (n=6).ConclusionTransitional change focuses on changing the modifiable factors found in the concepts, models and theories of the articles obtained. Future research can be developed to assess the existence of elaborations and modifications based on the philosophy that people with diabetes are responsible for their own health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0313.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: multilocation; AMMI; GGE; vegetable; Alium cepa
Online: 21 September 2022 (05:13:46 CEST)
Onion is one of the most economically and nutritionally important vegetable crops in West Africa. However, high-yielding varieties that are accessible to farmers remain scarce. Onion lines from the World Vegetable Center’s Allium program were evaluated during the cool and dry season from September to March for three years to identify adapted onion lines suitable for sustainable intensi-fication of production systems in Northern Ghana and Southern Mali. Trials were implemented in the Upper East and Northern Regions of Ghana and in two districts in the Sudan savanna zones of Mali (Bougouni and Koutiala). Nine onion lines, including a check variety were assessed for yield stability using a randomized complete block design. The trials were carried out in “technology parks” under the joint management of farmers and researchers. Onion bulb weight was recorded for each plot after harvest. Separate analyses of variances were performed for each location and season. Analysis of variance of combined locations, seasons and lines was made to determine the most stable varieties using the line-superiority measure and ecovalence stability coefficients. Results indicated that lines AVON1310 and AVON1325 were most stable for yield performance over lo-cations and seasons. From the genotype main effects and genotype-by-environment interaction (GGE) biplot, the best performing lines were AVON1310 (33.32 t.h-1), AVON1308 (28.81 t.h-1) and AVON1325 (31.68 t.h-1). These lines are potential candidates for sustainable intensification of onion production in Ghana and Mali.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: quenching transmitter; super-regenerative transceiver; MICS band; quenching signal controller; Colpitts oscillator; TSPC divider
Online: 21 September 2022 (03:18:24 CEST)
This paper demonstrates an on-off keying (OOK) super-regenerative quenching transmitter operating in 402- 405MHz MICs band applications. To reduce power consumption, the transmitter is controlled by a novel digital quenching signal controller that generates a digital control signal to start transmitter operation when a baseband signal is input to the transmitter. The digital signal controller consists of an envelope detector, a comparator, and a quench timer designed using a state machine to synchronize the operation between the digital controller and the input baseband signal. The transmitter consists of a Colpitts oscillator operating in double operating frequency followed by a frequency divider by 2, this configuration reduces system area and improves phase noise and signal spectrum. The proposed transmitter is implemented using UMC 130nm CMOS technology, and a 1.2V supply. Simulation shows that the proposed transmitter can meet MICS band mask specifications with data rates up to 1Mbps and total power dissipation of 537uW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0311.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: opinion model; user modeling; information content; dialogue strategy; dialogue system
Online: 21 September 2022 (02:27:12 CEST)
When designing rule-based dialogue systems, the need for elaborate design by the designer is a challenge for dialogue systems. One way to reduce the cost of creating content is to generate utterances from data collected in an objective and reproducible manner. This study focuses on rule-based dialogue systems using survey data, and more specifically on opinion dialogue where the system models the user. In opinion dialogue, there has not been much study of topic transition methods for modeling users while maintaining their motivation for dialogue. To model them, we adopted information content. Our contribution includes the design of a rule-based dialogue system that does not require elaborate design. We also reported an appropriate topic transition method based on information content. This is confirmed by the influence of the user's personality characteristics. The content of questions can give the user a sense of the system's intention to understand them. We also reported the possibility that the system's rational intention contributes to the user's motivation for dialogue with the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0310.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19; CoviRx.org; database; drugs; pandemic; repurposing; SARS-CoV-2; therapies; treatments; Variants of Concern (VOC)
Online: 20 September 2022 (15:00:48 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2, is the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic which has claimed more than six million lives worldwide, devastating the economy and overwhelming healthcare systems globally. The development of new drug molecules and vaccines has played a critical role in managing the pandemic; however, new variants of concern still pose a significant threat as the current vaccines cannot prevent all infections. This situation calls for the collaboration of biomedical scientists and healthcare workers across the world. Repurposing approved drugs is an effective way of fast-tracking new treatments for recently emerged diseases. To this end, we have assembled and curated a database consisting of 7817 compounds from the Compounds Australia Open Drug collection. We developed a set of eight filters based on indicators of efficacy and safety that were applied sequentially to down-select drugs that showed promise for drug repurposing efforts against SARS-CoV-2. Considerable effort was made to evaluate approximately 14000 assay data points for SARS-CoV-2 FDA/TGA-approved drugs and provide an average activity score for 3539 compounds. The filtering process identified 12 FDA approved molecules with established safety profiles that have a plausible mechanism for treating COVID-19 disease. The methodology developed in our study provides a template for prioritising repurposable drug candidates that are safe, efficacious, and cost-effective for the treatment of COVID-19, long COVID, or any other future disease. We present our database in an easy-to-use interactive interface (CoviRx, https://www.covirx.org/) that was also developed to enable scientific community to access to the data of over 7000 potential drugs and to implement alternative prioritisation and down-selection strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0309.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: machine learning; natural language processing; commit messages; change prediction model
Online: 20 September 2022 (14:52:49 CEST)
Version Control and Source Code Management Systems, such as GitHub, contain large amount ofunstructured historical information of software projects. Recent studies have introduced Natural Language Processing (NLP) to help software engineers retrieve information from very large collection of unstructured data. In this study, we have extended our previous study by increasing our datasets and ML and clustering techniques. Method: We have followed a complex methodology made up of various steps. Starting from the raw commit messages we have employed NLP techniques to build a structured database. We have extracted their main features and used as input of different clustering algorithms. Once labelled each entry, we have applied supervised machine learning techniques to build a prediction and classification model. Results: We have developed a machine learning-based model to automatically classify commit messages of a software project. Our model exploits a ground-truth dataset which includes commit messages obtained from various GitHub projects belonging to the HEP context. Conclusions: The contribution of this paper is two-fold: it proposes a ground-truth database; it provides a machine learning prediction model. They automatically identify the more change-proneness areas of code. Our model has obtained a very high average precision, recall and F1-score.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0308.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Vernier effect; Strain Sensor; Hollow core fiber; Fabry-Perot interferometers
Online: 20 September 2022 (13:32:24 CEST)
A highly sensitive strain sensor based on tunable cascaded Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Cascaded FPIs consist of a sensing FPI and a reference FPI which effectively generate the Vernier Effect (VE). The sensing FPI comprises a hollow core fiber (HCF) segment sandwiched between single-mode fibers (SMFs), and the reference FPI consists of a tunable air reflector, which is constituted by a computer programable fiber holding block to adjust the desired cavity length. Simulation results predict the dispersion characteristics of modes carried by HCF. The sensor’s parameters are designed corresponding to a narrow bandwidth range, i.e., 1530 nm to 1610 nm. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed sensor exhibits optimum strain sensitivity of 23.9 pm/με in the range of 0 to 3000 με which is 13.73 times higher than the single sensing FPI strain sensitivity of 1.74 pm/με. The strain sensitivity of the sensor can be further enhanced by extending the source bandwidth. The proposed sensor exhibits ultra-low temperature sensitivity of 0.49 pm/°C in the wider temperature range of 25 °C to 135 °C, providing good isolation for eliminating cross-talk between strain and temperature. The sensor is very robust, cost-effective, easy to manufacture, repeatable, and shows a highly linear and stable response in the wider range of axial strain. Based on the sensor’s performance, it may suit plenty of practical applications in the real sensing world
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: emotional intelligence; brain injury; cognitive impairment
Online: 20 September 2022 (13:14:54 CEST)
Background: Cognitive-behavioral alterations can occur after an acquired brain injury. It is a stressful situa-tion for patient and relatives. Objectives: To develop and evaluate a synchronous online training program on emotional intelligence (EI) for caregivers of adult patients with cognitive-behavioral impairment due to acquired brain injury. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was designed, a target population of ten caregivers attended to a one-month virtual synchronous course about EI. The emotional status of caregivers was registered one-month-previous and one-month-post program using comparative measures: The Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Results: Median age of the ten caregivers was 48 years, 80% of women with a median care-time of 6 years. 50% of them were spouses of the patients. 60% of the patients were affected by stroke (hemorrhagic or ischemic cause). The main cognitive impairment of the patients reported by relatives was memory deficit. After re-ceiving training, favorable changes were found regarding emotional affect measured with the PANAS, both positive (increase) and negative (decrease), as well as with the TMMS-24-mood-repair area (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Training in EI helps caregivers to make their mood more positive and improve aspects of their emotional intelligence such as emotional regulation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0403.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Nature-based solutions; climate change adaptation; climate change vulnerability; social-ecological systems
Online: 20 September 2022 (12:35:06 CEST)
Nature-based solutions (NbS) - working with and enhancing nature to address societal challenges - are increasingly being featured in climate change adaptation policy and plans. While there is growing evidence that NbS can reduce vulnerability to climate change impacts in general, there is a lack of understanding on the mechanisms through which this can be achieved, particularly in the Global South. To address this, we analyse 85 nature-based interventions in rural areas across the Global South, and factors mediating their effectiveness, based on a systematic map of peer-reviewed studies encompassing a wide diversity of ecosystems, climate impacts, and intervention types. We develop and apply an analytical framework of people’s social-ecological vulnerability to climate change, in terms of six pathways of vulnerability reduction: social and ecological exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Most cases (95%) report a reduction in vulnerability, primarily by lowering ecosystem sensitivity to climate impacts (73% of interventions), followed by reducing social sensitivity (52%), reducing ecological exposure (36%), increasing social adaptive capacity (31%), increasing ecological adaptive capacity (19%) and/or reducing social exposure (14%). An analysis of mediating factors shows that social dimensions are equally important as technical factors in NbS to achieving equitable and effective outcomes. Attention to the distinct social and ecological pathways through which vulnerability is reduced helps to harness the multiple benefits of working with nature in a warming world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0151.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: time interval; measurement event; Noether charge; structure constants; differentiation properties; star source radiation propagation; gravitation
Online: 20 September 2022 (11:21:14 CEST)
The time interval description is a natural way to introduce finite intervals, like finite time intervals. This approach depends on results for radiation propagation from star sources, where properties relate to a propagation surface, which is finite for every realistic event and measurement. In contrast the usual vector approach like for Newton’s laws depends on introducing an infinite coordinate system. A time interval only approach necessarily has to start from scratch. Properties for time intervals have to be defined with time intervals. Where the first parts of this paper are devoted to time interval set properties, in the discussion part these are applied to quantities and measurements within astronomy. The introduction provides a survey of results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0306.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: AIoT; Artificial Intelligence; Assistive Technology; Deep Learning; Machine Learning
Online: 20 September 2022 (10:45:15 CEST)
According to the World Health Organization, about 15% of the world’s population has some form of disability. Assistive Technology, in this context, contributes directly to the overcoming of difficulties encountered by people with disabilities in their daily lives, allowing them to receive education and become part of the labor market and society in a worthy manner. Assistive Technology has made great advances in its integration with Artificial Intelligence of Things (AIoT) devices. AIoT processes and analyzes the large amount of data generated by IoT devices and applies Artificial Intelligence models, specifically Machine Learning, to discover patterns for generating insights and assisting in decision making. Based on a systematic literature review, this article aims at identifying the Machine Learning models used in multiple different research about Artificial Intelligence of Things applied to Assistive Technology. The survey of the topics approached in this article also highlights the context of such research, their application, IoT devices used, and gaps and opportunities for further development. Survey results show that 50% of the analyzed research address visual impairment, and for this reason, most of the topics cover issues related to computational vision. Portable devices, wearables, and smartphones constituted the majority of IoT devices. Deep Neural Networks represent 81% of the Machine Learning models applied in the reviewed research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0028.v9
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: heat energy; photon energy; fundamental forces; nanoscale phenomenon; atomic scale phenomenon; electron scale phenomenon
Online: 8 December 2017 (03:46:45 CET)
Technology is in the way to reach in its climax but the basic understanding of science in many phenomena is still awaited even though the nature witnesses it. Scientific research reveals strong analogy between photon and electron. When an atom deals neutral state, it levitates electron of outer ring from the back surface while placing the bit-energy at front surface. Gravitation behavior of that electron starts at the centre of relaxation point by including the force of side pole where the pulling force of nearby unfilled state of that atom from the front surface results into depict forcing energy shape like Gaussian distribution symbol with both ends turned called unit photon. The inertia is being involved at each stage of changing direction of that electron by introducing the disappearances of forces of two poles against the appearances of forces of two opposite poles during rest to motion and motion to rest in the first half-cycle. The same is the case in the second half-cycle of that electron during rest to motion and motion to rest but it is under different introduction of the disappearances of forces against appearances of forces. However, at stage of levitating or gravitating period of electron, only one force is being involved at one time where the opposite force is disappeared. The uninterrupted confined inter-state electron-dynamics of atom under the availability of several bits of bit-energy results into generate forcing energy shape like a wave. Two bits of bit-energy where shape of bit for first half-cycle is like integral symbol and second half-cycle is like opposite integral symbol which are being placed along the configuring trajectory of inter-state electron-dynamics during forward-direction cycle and two bits of bit-energy shape in opposite order are being placed along the trajectory of inter-state electron-dynamics during back-direction cycle. Generating forcing energy of unit photon in each cycle is pushing to the rear side by remaining connected till the electron is not restoring the state of rest. Silicon atom is considered as a model system under neutral state. Uninterrupted confined inter-state electron-dynamics result into generate forcing energy that can travel immeasurable length and unavailability of necessitating bit-energy at any interrupted stage result into generate an overt photon. Inter-state electron-dynamics for at least two cycles generate an overt photon –a photon length twice to unit photon. Under certain interaction of unit photon, it divides equally into two bits of bit-energy instead of dividing into tits and bits of heat. The mechanism of generating photon characteristic current by the electron of neutral state atom validates that atoms are four-dimensional discs at centre of dealing no force. An isolated electron is being grounded under directed forcing energy to impinge a neutral state atom where the gained instantaneous velocity under merged energy resulting into distort atom at that point. Matter changes the role of energy and force under various sorts of interactions. Here, heat energy and photon energy explore matter at atomic and electron levels, thus, devise basis of science to describe.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0305.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Leucosceptoside A; Leucosceptoside B; occurrence in plants; biological activities
Online: 20 September 2022 (10:34:18 CEST)
In this review paper, the occurrence in the plant kingdom and the biological activities associated to two specific phenyl-ethanoid glycosides i.e., leucosceptoside A and leucosceptoside B, were shown and discussed. This is the first work ever done on such subject. Analysis of the literature data clearly indicates that leucosceptoside A is much more common in plants and exerts many more biological activities than leucosceptoside B even if this also presents some important elements. All of this was widely discussed in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0287.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: cosmological constant; dark energy; general relativity; electromagnetic aether; vacuum mechanics
Online: 20 September 2022 (10:27:39 CEST)
Lord Kelvin believed that the electromagnetic aether must also generate gravity. Presently, we have no methods to determine the density of the electromagnetic aether, or we say the $\Omega(1)$ substratum. Thus, we also suppose that vacuum is filled with another kind of continuously distributed substance, which may be called the $\Omega(2)$ substratum. Based on a theorem of V. Fock on the mass tensor of a fluid, the contravariant energy-momentum tensors of the $\Omega(1)$ and $\Omega(2)$ substrata are established. Quasi-static solutions of the gravitational field equations in vacuum are obtained. Based on an assumption, relationships between the contravariant energy-momentum tensors of the $\Omega(1)$ and $\Omega(2)$ substrata and the contravariant metric tensor are obtained. Thus, the cosmological constant is calculated theoretically. The $\Omega(1)$ and $\Omega(2)$ substrata may be a possible candidate of the dark energy. According to the theory of vacuum mechanics, only those energy-momentum tensors of discrete or continuously distributed sinks in the $\Omega(0)$ substratum are permitted to act as the source terms in the generalized Einstein's equations. Thus, the zero-point energy of electromagnetic fields is not qualified for a source term in the generalized Einstein's equations. Some people believed that all kinds of energies should act as source terms in the Einstein's equations. It may be this unwarranted belief that leads to the cosmological constant problem. The mass density of the $\Omega(1)$ and $\Omega(2)$ substrata is equivalent to that of around $3$ protons contained in a box with a volume of $1$ cubic metre.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0304.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: photovoltaic cell; photovoltaic module; photovoltaic panel; photovoltaic array; current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve; power-voltage (P-V) characteristic curve
Online: 20 September 2022 (10:25:43 CEST)
In this paper, a study of modeling PV cell (solar cell), PV module (solar modules) and PV array solar array) using Matlab/Simulink software is presented. This study is focused on the study to design photovoltaic cell, photovoltaic modules, photovoltaic panels and PV array (solar array) and to analyze the change in PV performance according to changes in different parameters such temperature, solar irradiation, reverse saturation current, series resistance and shunt resistance. This study shows the PV and IV characteristics curve for each model from which MPP (maximum power point) is determined. In this study, different PV and IV characteristic curves are gained for varying temperatures with specified solar irradiation conditions,s and then the MPP is tracked. The highest power output is also compared between the designed PV module and the selected PV module (MX Solar USA MX60-245)
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0303.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Ultraviolet irradiation; Dead Sea; psoriasis; photoclimatotherapy
Online: 20 September 2022 (10:23:03 CEST)
The Dead Sea basin is the lowest terrestrial site on the globe and is internationally recognized as a photoclimatotherapy center. Since the last century, questions raised regarding the possible presence of a unique incident ultraviolet irradiation, allowing successful treatment of psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and other dermatological diseases. Aim: Determine the characteristics of the solar ultraviolet irradiation and understand the mechanism of action of photoclimatotherapy while applying the results to clinical protocols of treatment. Methods: A meteorological station was established at the Dead Sea basin to continuously measure global, UVB and UVA irradiation. The same irradiation parameters are also being monitored continuously by a set of identical ultraviolet irradiation instruments installed on the campus of the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, in Beer Sheva. Results: This study details the results of these long-term measurements, ae well as their correlation with the success obtained by clinicians treating psoriasis patients. Conclusions: A database of more than 25 years has enabled the medical staff to establish tailor-made protocols for sun-exposure time intervals as a function of particular month and hour of day. The availability of such information has significantly improved the results of photoclimatotherapy for psoriasis and at the same time increasing the safety of sun-exposure at the Dead Sea.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0302.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: digital twin; energy saving; simulation; solar energy; smart building
Online: 20 September 2022 (10:16:50 CEST)
Hospital Pulau Pinang is the general hospital in Malaysia which targeting energy savings of 10% within five years from 2015 and other sustainability targets such as 3-star Energy Management Gold Standard and Green Building Certification. The targets are beneficial for the hospital itself to establish the Smart Building Program to improve its energy efficiency concurrent with the green policy of the Ministry of Health Malaysia and Sustainable Development Goals by the United Nations. This paper reviews the background of Hospital Pulau Pinang energy data , energy consumption trending, energy-saving trending, and energy conservation measures taken for the hospital from 2015 to December 2021.The yearly energy consumption baseline taken in 2016 was 27,496,731.00 kWh. It reduced significantly to 21,356,063 kWh in 2021 due to energy conservation measures. As a result, Hospital Pulau Pinang has achieved energy-saving about 16% at approximately RM7.3 million reduction in operational expenditure. The main objective of this paper is to provide further potential energy savings by studying the energy reduction by implementing solar photovoltaics using the simulation method. The simulation method can predict that Hospital Pulau Pinang can achieve another 5,130,000 kWh energy savings annually. This type of simulation has never been done before at a public hospital, and it will give further enhancing strategies to the Smart Building Program itself. Furthermore, the potential of smart building can be maximized to the next level by simulation, which helps the hospital energy committee make the potential decision on the energy-saving investment.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0301.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Warrior (-) race; stripe rust; GWAS; Yr29/Lr46 gene; European wheat; SNP marker
Online: 20 September 2022 (09:58:25 CEST)
To evaluate genetic variability and seedling plant response to a dominated Warrior (-) race of yellow rust in Northern and Central European germplasm, we used a population of 229 winter wheat cultivars and breeding lines for genome-wide association study (GWAS). A wide variation in yellow rust disease severity (based on infection types 1-9) was observed in this panel. Four breeding lines TS049 (from Austria), TS111, TS185, and TS229 (from Germany) and one cultivar TS158 (KWS Talent) from Germany were found to be resistant to Warrior (-) FS 53/20 and Warrior (-) G 23/19. GWAS identified five significant SNPs associated with yellow rust on chromosomes 1B, 2A, 5B, and 7A for Warrior (-) FS 53/20, while one SNP on chromosome 5B was associated with disease for Warrior (-) G 23/19. For Warrior (-) FS 53/20, we discovered a new QTL for yellow rust resistance associated with the marker Kukri_c5357_323 on chromosome 1B. The resistant allele G at the marker locus Kukri_c5357_323 on chromosome 1B and the susceptible allele T at the marker locus Excalibur_c17489_804 on chromosome 5B showed the largest effects (1.21 and 0.81, respectively) on the severity of yellow rust detected in Warrior (-) FS 53/20 and Warrior (-) G 23/19. Among 144 putative genes within the flanking sequence of the significant SNPs detected by GWAS, the function of the best candidate genes was determined as protein kinase activity and oxidoreductase activity. Our results provide the basis for knowledge-based resistance breeding in the face of the enormous impact of the Warrior (-) race on wheat production in Europe.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0300.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: health service managers; competency frameworks; capacity building; digital health; health informatics; health workforce; health management degrees
Online: 20 September 2022 (09:47:29 CEST)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has sped up digital health transformation across the health sectors to enable innovative health service delivery. Such transformation relies on competent managers with the capacity to lead and manage. However, the health system has not adopted a holistic approach in addressing the health management workforce development needs, with many hurdles to overcome. The objectives of this paper are to present the findings of a three-step approach in understanding the current hurdles in developing a health management workforce that can enable and maximise the benefits of digital health transformation, and to explore ways of overcoming such hurdles. Methods: A three-step, systematic approach was undertaken, including an Australian digital health policy documentary analysis, an Australian health service management postgraduate program analysis, and a scoping review of international literatures. Results: The main findings will guide the formulation of strategies in developing a digitally enabled health management workforce in the digital health era. Conclusions: With the ever-changing landscape of digital health, being able to lead and manage in times of system transformation requires a holistic approach to develop the necessary health management workforce capabilities and system-wide capacity. The evidence would support that this can be achieved with the required system, policy, educational and professional organizational enablers, which drive a digital health focused approach across all the healthcare sectors, in a coordinated and contextual manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0299.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: leprosy; ABO/Rh blood group; Clinical; Angola
Online: 20 September 2022 (09:28:22 CEST)
Introduction: Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae is one of the oldest infectious diseases in human history and its eradication is linked to poverty control, lack of basic sanitation, the fragility of health, and education services. Objective: To evaluate the frequency of blood groups (ABO/Rh) and the sociodemographic and clinical profile of Angolan patients with Leprosy treated at the Anti-Tuberculosis and Leprosy Dispensary in Luanda, the capital city of Angola. Methodology: A descriptive, introspective, cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach was carried out with 102 patients of Luanda, in the second half of 2021. Results: Of the 102 patients included in the study, the majority belonged to the ORh+ group (51.9%), followed by the BRh+ group (27.4%) and ARh+ (18.6%), most were under 51 years of age ( 87.3%), with low education (54.9%), coming from urban areas (44.1%). As for clinical conditions, most had a multibacillary infection (93.1%), diagnosed mainly by smear microscopy (75.5%) without other infection (79.4%), some of them with complications (28.4%) and individuals with non-O blood group showed changes in the blood count. Conclusion: Leprosy seems to be common in ORh+ individuals, it continues to affect especially those residing in areas of population agglomerations and with low education, presenting itself as a multibacillary infection, where changes in the blood count are greater in non-O individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0298.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: granulocytes; COVID-19; antioxidants; inflammation; eicosanoids; receptors-coupled G protein; SOD
Online: 20 September 2022 (09:24:19 CEST)
Abstract: It is assumed that upon SARS-CoV-2 infection granulocytes can undergo potentially destructive oxidative burst. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate some parameters of redox and inflammatory signaling in granulocytes of recovered and of deceased COVID-19 pa-tients. Granulocytes were isolated from the blood of 32 COVID-19 patients on admission to the hospital (16 survived and 16 died within a week). The levels of proteins (immunoassay), eico-sanoids (UPLC-MS) and antioxidants activity (spectrophotometry) were examined. Enhanced activation of Nrf2 and NFκB and the levels of heme oxygenase and proinflammatory cytokines where found in granulocytes of all COVID-19 patients, while Cu,Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities were decreased, especially in deceased patients. Moreover, in patients who died increased levels of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids (PGE2 and TXB2) and decreased of anti-inflammatory (15d-PGJ2 and 5-HETE) were observed. However TXB2 was decreased, and IL-2 and IL-10 levels were in-creased in survivors, if compared both to healthy subjects and deceased patients, who did not change their cytokine generation. Therefore, it seems that by triggering transcription factors granulocytes activate redox signaling, leading to the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, while reducing cellular antioxidant capacity via SOD, they express altered response to COVID-19, which might result in the onset of the vicious cycle of systemic oxidative stress in deceased patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0297.v1
Online: 20 September 2022 (07:15:52 CEST)
Abstract Despite the lightning-fast advances in the management of SARS-CoV after 2 years of pandemic, COVID-19 continues to pose a challenge for fragile patients, who could benefit from early administration of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to reduce the risk of severe disease progression. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate effectiveness of mAbs against SARS-CoV-2 among patients at risk for severe disease progression, namely elderly and those with comorbidities, before the omicron variant surge. Patients were treated with either casirivimab/imdevimab, sotrovimab, and bamlanivimab/etesevimab. The rates and risk factos for clinical worsening, hospitalization, ICU admission and death (unfavourable outcomes) were evaluated. A stratified analysis according to the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG was also performed. Among 185 included patients, we showed low rates of unfavorable outcomes (9.2%), which were more frequent in patients with chronic kidney disease (aOR: 10.44, 95CI: 1.73-63.03; p<0.05) and basal D-dimer serum concentrations >600 ng/ml (aOR 21.74, 95CI: 1.18-397.70; p<0.05). Patients with negative SARS-CoV-2 serology at baseline showed higher C-reactive protein values compared with patients with positive serology (p <0.05) and showed a trend toward a higher admission rate to SICU and ICU compared with patients with positive serology. Our results thus showed, in a real-life setting, the efficacy of mAbs against SARS-CoV-2 before Omicron surge when the available mabs become not effective.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer; performance status; cytotoxic chemotherapy; immune checkpoint inhibitor; cancer cachexia
Online: 20 September 2022 (05:53:12 CEST)
Most pivotal clinical trials in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have excluded patients with poor performance status (PS), and data on the efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy have not been fully accumulated. For NSCLC patients with PS 2 and without druggable genetic alterations, monotherapy with cytotoxic agents or carboplatin-based combination therapy is usually administered based on the results of several randomized trials. However, the evidence of cytotoxic chemotherapy for patients with PS 2 is insufficient, with limited efficacy and toxicity concerns. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a promising treatment for patients with PS 2 because of lower incidence of severe toxicity compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Meanwhile, several reports suggest that anti-PD-1 antibodies monotherapy is less effective for patients with PS 2, especially for those with PS 2 caused by disease burden. Although the combination therapy of nivolumab and ipilimumab is a promising treatment option, there is a divergence in efficacy data between clinical trials. The standard of care for advanced NSCLC with PS 2 has not been established, and future therapeutic strategies should take into account the heterogeneity of the PS 2 population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0295.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Authentication; Encryption; Blockchain
Online: 20 September 2022 (05:51:42 CEST)
In this work we present a new algorithm that achieves the perfect Shannon secret by means of the XOR function and a method that we call multiple key reuse. The algorithm has two execution modes: message authentication and data encryption. The XOR encryption scheme allows for batch encryption and exhibits Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS). Furthermore, based on our fundamental algorithm, we have developed a new strategy for blockchain implementation that does not require Proof of Work (PoW), but defines a fair mechanism for miner selection and secure addition of blocks to the chain. Since our method is mainly based on the Boolean XOR function, the strength of the cryptosystem can be directly established thanks to its mathematical properties. Due to the risk that quantum computers represent for current cryptosystems based on prime factorization or discrete logarithm, we postulate that our method represents a promising alternative in the quantum era for the security of communications between Internet of Things devices as well as Blockchain technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0294.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Financial Investment; Machine Learning; Artificial Intelligence.
Online: 20 September 2022 (05:45:26 CEST)
To support the decision making process of new investors, this paper aims to implement Machine Learning algorithms to generate investment indications. Three artificial intelligence techniques were implemented, namely: Multilayer Perceptron, Logistic Regression and Decision Tree, which performed the classification of investments. The results of the different algorithms were compared to each other using the metrics: accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score. The Decision Tree was the algorithm that obtained the best classification metrics and an accuracy of 77%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0293.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: charged polymers; polymer solutions; electrostatic interactions; counterion; water-soluble polymers; theory
Online: 20 September 2022 (05:12:14 CEST)
The thermodynamic phase behavior of charged polymers is a crucial property underlying their role in biology and various industrial applications. A complete understanding of the phase behaviors of such polymer solutions remains challenging due to the multi-component nature of the system and the delicate interplay among various factors, including the translational entropy of each component, excluded volume interactions, chain connectivity, electrostatic interactions, and other specific interactions. In this work, the phase behavior of partially charged, ion-containing polymers in polar solvents is studied by further developing a liquid-state (LS) theory with local short-range interactions. This work is based on the LS theory developed for fully-charged polyelectrolyte solutions. Specific interactions between charged groups of the polymer and counterions, between neutral segments of the polymer, and between charged segments of the polymer are incorporated into the LS theory by an extra Helmholtz free energy from the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). The influence of the sequence structure of the partially charged polymer is modeled by the number of connections between bonded segments. The effects of chain length, charge fraction, counterion valency, and specific short-range interactions are explored. A computational App for salt-free polymer solutions is developed and presented, which allows easy computation of the binodal curve and critical point by specifying values for the relevant model parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0291.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; Multidimensional Analysis; HCA; Hierarchical cluster analysis; regression analysis; mild; moderate; severe; Age; Score index of the chest X-ray; percentage and quantity of neutrophils; Albumin; C reactive protein; ratio of Lymphocytes
Online: 20 September 2022 (04:50:36 CEST)
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to determine (a) the overall preclinical character; (b) the cumulative cutoff values and the risk ratio, and (c) the factors associated with severity by a unidimensional and multidimensional analysis on 2173 Sars-Cov2 patients. METHODS: The machine learning study population consisted of 2173 patients (1587 mild and non symptoms patients, 377 moderate patients, 209 severe patients). The status of the patients was recorded from September 2021 to March 2022. RESULTS: The Covid19 Severity directly links with a significant correlation to Age, Score index of the chest X-ray, percentage and quantity of neutrophils, Albumin, C reactive protein, and ratio of Lymphocytes. Their important cut off values (from regression analysis) respectively are: 77.56 years old (the mild-moderate group), 5.53 (the mild-moderate group) and 10.51 (the moderate-severe group), 84.80% (the mild-moderate group) and 87.74%(the moderate-severe group), 11.77G/L (the moderate-severe group), 29.73g/L (the moderate-severe group), 7.46mg/dL (the mild-moderate group), 6.32% (the moderate-severe group). Their significant (p<0.0001) R score correlation with the severity of Covid19, are: 0.44, 0.52 and 0.52, 0.33 and 0.44, 0.42, -0.43, 0.40, -0.41. Their significant risk ratio (p<0.00001) from the meta-analysis, respectively are: 4.19 [3.58-4.95], 3.29 [2.76-3.92] and 3.03 [2.4023;3.8314], 3.18 [2.73-3.70] and 3.32 [2.6480;4.1529], 3.15 [2.6153;3.8025], 3.4[2.91-3.97], 0.46 [0.3650;0.5752] (p<0.00001), 0.34 [0.2743;0.4210]. The pair ALT – Leucocytes and Transferrin – Anion Chloride get the most important correlation shift. ALT – Leucocytes show the important negative link (R=-1, p<0.00001) in the mild group to the significant positive correlation in the moderate group (R=1, p<0.00001). Transferrin–anion Chloride has an important positive association (R=1, p<0.00001) in the mild group with a significant negative correlation in the moderate group (R=-0.59, p<0.00001). The network map and HCA show that in the mild-moderate group, the closest neighbors with the Covid19 severity are ferritins, Age. Then there is C-reactive protein, SI of X-ray, Albumin, and Lactate dehydrogenase, which are the next close neighbors of these three factors. In the moderate-severe group, the closest neighbors with the Covid19 severity are Ferritin, Fibrinogen, Albumin, the quantity of Lymphocytes, SI of X-ray, white blood cells count, Lactate dehydrogenase, and quantity of neutrophils. CONCLUSIONS: Complete multidimensional study in 2173 Covid19 patients in Vietnam shows the whole picture of all the preclinical factors, which may become the clinical reference marker for surveillance and diagnostic management
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: caring behavior; Covid-19 pandemic; nurse; job satisfaction; job stress
Online: 20 September 2022 (04:50:08 CEST)
Abstract: Introduction: Nurses, at the forefront of the fight against the Covid-19 pandemic, have a significant responsibility. Thus, it is substantial to examine the factors behind the job stress, job satisfaction, and the care nurses provide in this process. To examine the correlation between nurses' job stress, satisfaction, and caring behavior perceptions during the Covid-19 pandemic. Method: A descriptive and correlational study. It was conducted with 261 nurses working in a hospital between 2020-2021. Introductory information form, Job Satisfaction Scale for Nurses, Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire (Job Stress Scale) and Caring Behaviors Inventory-24 were used as data collection tools. Factors behind the perception of caring behaviors were analyzed by linear regression analysis. Results: Caring behavior was found negatively correlated with job stress and positively correlates with job satisfaction. The regression analysis showed that the evaluation of the pre-pandemic work environment and the sub-dimensions of the scales, job control, support from superiors, and perceived significance in the workplace affected the caring behavior. Conclusion: The nurses have low job stress, high job satisfaction, and a high perception of caring behavior in the fight against Covid-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0274.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: rockfall impact; impact resistance; hollow thin-walled bridge pier; response surface model; dura-bility assessment
Online: 20 September 2022 (04:04:48 CEST)
Continuous rigid frame bridges across valleys are often at the risk of rockfalls caused by heavy rainfalls, earthquakes and debris flows in a mountainous country. Hollow thin-walled bridge piers (HTWBP) in valleys are exposed to the threat of the impact of accidental rockfalls. In the current research, ANSYS/LS-DYNA is used to establish a high-precision rockfall-HTWBP model. The rockfall-HTWBP model is verified against a scaled impact test of a previous research. A mesh independence test is also performed to obtained an appropriate mesh size. Based on the rockfall-HTWBP model, the impact force, damage and dynamic response characteristics of HTWBP under the rockfall impact are studied. In addition, a damage assessment criteria is proposed based on the response surface model combined with Central Composite Design method and Box-Behnken Design method. The main conclusions are as follows: 1）The impact force of rockfall has a substantial impulse characteristic, and the duration of the impulse load is approximately 0.01s. 2）The impacted surface of the pier is dominated by the final elliptic damage with the conical and strip damage areas as the symmetry axis. The cross-sectional damage mode is compression failure in the impact area and shear failure at the corner. 3）The maximum displacement occurs in the middle height of the pier. The maximum displacement increases with impact height, impact velocity and rockfall diameter and decreases with the uniaxial compressive strength of the concrete. 4) The initial impact velocity and diameter of the rockfall are the most significant parameters affecting the damage indices. In addition, a damage assessment method with a damage zoning diagram based on the response surface method is established for the fast assessment of the damage level of impacted HTWBP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0290.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Sulfatide; cerebroside sulfotransferase; ventricular enlargement; Alzheimer’s disease; brain MRI; aquaporins
Online: 20 September 2022 (03:56:30 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive memory loss and a decline in activities of daily life. Ventricular enlargement has been associated with worse performance on global cognitive tests and AD. Our previous studies demonstrated that brain sulfatides, myelin-enriched lipids, are dramatically reduced in subjects at the earliest clinically recognizable AD stages via an apolipoprotein E (APOE)-dependent and isoform-specific process. Herein, we provided pre-clinical evidence that sulfatide deficiency is causally associated with brain ventricular enlargement. Specifically, taking advantage of genetic mouse models of global and adult-onset sulfatide deficiency, we demonstrated that sulfatide losses cause ventricular enlargement without significantly affecting hippocampal or whole brain volumes using histological and magnetic resonance imaging approaches. Mild decreases in sulfatide content and mild increases in ventricular areas were also observed in human APOE4 compared to APOE2 knock-in mice. Finally, we provided Western blot and immunofluorescence evidence that aquaporin-4, the most prevalent aquaporin channel in the central nervous system (CNS) that provides fast water transportation and regulates cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles, is significantly increased under sulfatide-deficient conditions, while other major brain aquaporins (e.g., aquaporin-1) are not altered. In short, we unraveled a novel molecular mechanism that may contribute to ventricular enlargement in AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome; post-COVID syndrome; postural orthostatic tachycardia; microcirculation; immune system
Online: 20 September 2022 (03:37:00 CEST)
A Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating chronic disease of unknown aetiology under growing interest now in view of the increasingly recognized post-COVID syndrome as a new entity with similar clinical presentation. We performed the first cross-sectional study of ME/CFS in community population in Russia and then described and compared some clinical and pathophysiological characteristics of ME/CFS and post-COVID syndrome as neuroimmune disorders. Of the cohort of 76 individuals who suggested themselves suffering from ME/CFS 56 subsequently were confirmed as having CFS/ME according to ≥1 of the 4 most commonly used case definition. Of the cohort of 14 individuals with post-COVID-19 syndrome 14 met diagnostic criteria for ME/CFS. The prevalence of clinically expressed and subclinical anxiety and depression in ME / CFS and post-COVID ME/CFS did not differ significantly from that in healthy individuals. Severity of anxiety / depressive symptoms did not correlate with the severity of fatigue neigther in ME / CFS nor in post-COVID ME/CFS, but the positive correlation was found between the severity of fatigue and 20 other symptoms of ME / CFS related to the domains of “post-exertional exhaustion”, “immune dysfunction”, “sleep disturbances”, "dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system", "neurological sensory / motor disorders" and "pain syndromes". Immunological abnormalities were identified in 12/12 patients with ME / CFS according to the results of laboratory testing. The prevalence of postural orthostatic tachycardia assessed by the active standing test was 37.5% in ME / CFS and 75.0% in post-COVID ME/CFS (the latter was higher than in healthy controls, p = 0.02) There was a more pronounced increase in heart rate starting from the 6th minute of the test in post-COVID ME/CFS compared with the control group. Assessment of the functional characteristics of microcirculation by laser doppler flowmetry revealed obvious and very similar changes in ME/CFS and post-COVID ME/CFS compared to the healthy controls. The identified pattern corresponded to the hyperemic form of microcirculation disorders, usually observed in acute inflammatory processes or in deficiency of systemic vasoconstriction influences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0288.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; Therapeutics; Drug Repurposing; 3D Tissue Models
Online: 20 September 2022 (03:24:22 CEST)
The repurposing of licenced drugs for use against COVID-19 is one of the most rapid ways to develop new and alternative therapeutic options to manage the ongoing pandemic. Given the approximately 8,000 licenced compounds available from Compounds Australia that can be screened, this paper demonstrates the utility of commercially-available ex vivo/3D airway and alveolar tissue models. These models are a closer representation of in vivo studies compared to in vitro models, but retain the benefits of rapid in vitro screening for drug efficacy. We demonstrate that several existing drugs appear to show anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity against both Delta and Omicron Variants of Concern in the airway model. In particular, fluvoxamine, as well as aprepitant, everolimus, and sirolimus have virus reduction efficacy comparable to the current standard of care (remdesivir, molnupiravir, nirmatrelvir). Whilst these results are encouraging, further testing and efficacy studies are required before clinical use can be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0287.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Coffea arabica; antioxidant; acetylcholinesterase inhibition; catalepsy; unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion; caffeine
Online: 20 September 2022 (03:22:27 CEST)
Epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse correlation between coffee consumption and the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases, but the role of caffeine and roasting degree are still matter of debate. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of caffeinated (light, medium, and dark roast) and decaffeinated instant coffee samples in acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant assays, as well as in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. Caffeinated coffees inhibited the acetylcholinesterase in much smaller concentrations than decaffeinated coffee. All coffee samples showed antioxidant capacity without relation with the caffeine content. Dopaminergic-like activity in the haloperidol-induced catalepsy test was observed with caffeinated coffee, but not in the decaffeinated sample. The medium roast coffee reduced the number of rotations of rats after methamphetamine administration on the 6-hydroxydopamine unilateral lesion of the medial forebrain bundle. However, the coffee treatment did not avoid the loss of dopaminergic neurons on substantia nigra pars compact and only the smallest dose of coffee was able to avoid the decrease of dopamine levels in the lesioned side of the striatum. Altogether, these results suggest that coffee exerts moderate pro-cholinergic and pro-dopaminergic effects and caffeine seems to be the main responsible for these effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0286.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: intrusion detection; vulnerability exploit; machine learning; code-reuse attack; malware detection
Online: 20 September 2022 (03:10:37 CEST)
Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth of code-reuse attacks in advance persistent threats and cyberspace crimes. Carefully crafted code-reuse exploits circumvent modern protection mechanisms and hijack the execution flow of a program to perform expected functionalities by chaining together existing codes. The sophistication and intrication of code-reuse exploits hinder the scrutinization and dissection on them. Although the previous literature has introduced some feasible approaches, effectiveness and reliability in practical applications remain severe challenges. To address this issue, we propose Horus, a data-driven framework for effective and reliable detection on code-reuse exploits. In order to raise the effectiveness against underlying noises, we comprehensively leverage the strengths of time-series and frequency-domain analysis, and propose a learning-based detector that synthesizes the contemporary twofold features. Then we employ a lightweight interpreter to speculatively and tentatively translate the suspicious bytes to open the black box and enhance the reliability and interpretability. Additionally, a functionality-preserving data augmentation is adopted to increase the diversity of limited training data and raise the generality for real-world deployment. Comparative experiments and ablation studies are conducted on a dataset composed of real-world instances to verify and prove the prevalence of Horus. The experimental results illustrate that Horus outperform existing methods on the identification of code-reuse exploits from data stream with an acceptable overhead. Horus does not rely on any dynamic executions and can be easily integrated into existing defense systems. Moreover, Horus is able to provide tentative interpretations about attack semantics irrespective of target program, which further improve system's effectiveness and reliability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0285.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: mesothelioma; chick embryo; CAM; xenograft; bioluminescence; fluorescence; histology; MRI; preclinical; 3Rs
Online: 20 September 2022 (02:48:17 CEST)
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has limited treatment options and poor prognosis. Frequent inactivation of the tumour suppressors BAP1, NF2 and P16 may differentially sensitise tumours to treatments. We have established chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) xenograft models of low-passage MPM cell lines and protocols for evaluating drug responses. Ten cell lines, representing the spectrum of histological subtypes and tumour suppressor status, were dual labelled for fluorescence/bioluminescence imaging and implanted on the CAM at E7. Bioluminescence was used to assess viability of primary tumours, which were excised at E14 for immunohistological staining or real-time PCR. All MPM cell lines engrafted efficiently forming vascularised nodules, however their size, morphology and interaction with chick cells varied. MPM phenotypes including local invasion, fibroblast recruitment, tumour angiogenesis and vascular remodelling were evident. Bioluminescence imaging could be used to reliably estimate tumour burden pre- and post-treatment, correlating with tumour weight and Ki-67 staining. In conclusion, MPM-CAM models recapitulate important features of the disease and are suitable to assess therapies using a broad range of MPM cell lines that allow histological or genetic stratification. They are amenable to multi-modal imaging, offering a time and cost-efficient, 3Rs-compliant alternative to rodent xenograft models to prioritise candidate compounds from in vitro studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0284.v1
Online: 20 September 2022 (02:44:31 CEST)
The change of tire groove depth will have a huge impact on tire performance, and the use of excessively worn tires is not conducive to the driving safety of automobiles. Tire groove depth detection has become one of the annual inspection items of automobiles, but the research on its related detection technology is still relatively backward. Based on the principle of monocular vision ranging (MVR), image processing technology and cloud platform technology, this paper develops a tire groove depth detection system, which realizes non-destructive detection of tire groove depth. In addition, the system uses the cloud platform to store the test results, and builds a multi-level data management system, allowing car owners to keep track of the tire wear status and historical changes, which is of great significance to ensuring driving safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Wolinella; Virulence genes; Helicobacter pylori; genomic homology
Online: 20 September 2022 (02:06:43 CEST)
Wolinella spp. and Helicobacter spp. have been repeatedly reported in the oral cavity of dogs and are associated with periodontal disease. Wolinella strains predominate in the oral cavity of dogs. The only known species of this genus, Wolinella succinogenes, was considered non-pathogenic until sequence analysis of its genome revealed homologous genes resembling virulence factors in Helicobacter pylori. This has led researchers to question the nonpathogenic status of W. succinogenes. The cagA and babA genes are examples of crucial virulence factors in H. pylori pathogenesis; thus, the present study evaluated the prevalence of these genera and assessed the Wolinella strain genome in terms of the presence of these virulence factors. Multiple specific PCR tests were performed on oral secretion samples collected from 62 dogs by sterile cytobrush to evaluate the genera, species, and presence of virulence genes. The species-specific 16s rRNA genes from the Helicobacter and Wolinella genera were detected in 58.06% and 83.87% of the oral samples, respectively. H. pylori were not detected in the specimens. No cagA and babA genes were detected in the Wolinella spp. or non-pylori Helicobacter genomes. Our results confirmed that Wolinella spp. is the predominant population compared to Helicobacter in the oral cavity of dogs. Apparently, the incidence of Helicobacter infections is generally associated with non-pylori Helicobacter organisms. Despite the hypothesis of genomic homology between W. succinogenes and H. pylori, cagA and babA virulence genes were not identified in any of the oral samples from the dogs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0282.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Zinc homeostasis; cancer; therapy; prognostic; diagnostic; nanoparticles; biomarkers
Online: 19 September 2022 (14:05:29 CEST)
Zinc (Zn) is a trace element crucial for oxidative stress, apoptosis, the immune response, and more globally for various processes involved in cellular homeostasis. In some cancers, Zn homeostasis is dysregulated. In this review, the role of Zn in cancer and all the components associated to Zn, the use of Zn and Zn -related proteins as biomarkers and Zn-based strategies for the treatment of tumors will be described. ZIP and ZnT are proteins related to Zn metabolism in normal conditions. In cancer, the level of expression of Zn related proteins is abnormal. These Zn proteins may act as prognostic or diagnostic biomarkers, and may be helpful for detecting early-stage cancers or monitoring the course of the disease. Additionally, Zn and its pathways may also be targeted to treat cancers. Indeed, the use of metals for binding Zn cations allows to regulate the biodistribution of Zn within cells, and will control several downstream signaling pathways. Zinc may also be directly used as a therapeutic substance to improve the prognosis of cancer patients, especially with the supplementation of zinc or the use of Zn oxide nanoparticles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0281.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Drive tourism; Routes; Sustainable; Systematic Literature Review; PRISMA.
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:37:29 CEST)
Drive tourism (DT) have become an attractive way of tourist destination for an increasing number of visitors along driving routes. This flow of visitors has made sustainability a major issue that is, the way by which tourism development ensure economic benefits for local communities and preserves local identity, along the route, without compromising the environmental resources. Many studies focused the topic of DT, mainly the analysis of a particular angle, either be economic sustainability, e.g., advantages of the ones related to economic and environment sustainability [e.g., 2,4,5,10], such as the impact of tourists along the route environment. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the social consequences of DT in the local entrepreneurial environment and ensuing over enhancing of their cultural representativeness in terms of authenticity. Our aim is to summon these points of view and achieve, through a systematic literature review, a clear and integrative picture of the driving tourism impacts in terms of sustainability along the routes throughout local communities. A systematic literature review was performed using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) methodology. This systematic literature review sought to consolidate knowledge on the subject. In order to illustrate the link between major categories and their corresponding trends, authors used VOSviewer scientific software. The gathering of existing knowledge around the three components of sustainability highlighted the importance of community involvement and collaboration among DT stakeholders to ensure a trade-off between the protection and promotion of DT routes. Opportunities for future studies are suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0280.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Geometrical optics; Risley prism; inverse solution; rotational wedges
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:35:40 CEST)
Today, mechanical tracking systems have been downsized to allow them to be used in the field of airborne laser communications and in the military domain. Risley systems are used for this purpose, which work by directing a beam of light to a given target point, this procedure is commonly known as the inverse problem. In this paper, an analytical method, the geometric method, has been designed and developed to determine the beam steering in a Risley system and solve the inverse problem. The method focuses on different geometric shapes, like circumference or ellipse, that are described when the beam passes through the second prism. The accuracy and efficiency of the geometric method has been analysed and found to be faster than the two-step method. Furthermore, the geometric method has been implemented in an iterative process and an accuracy of up to 1 pm has been achieved. This high accuracy would allow the geometric method to be applied in fields such as lithography, stereolithography or 3D printers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0279.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Hubble-Hawking model; Light speed expansion; Black hole universe; Power law super gravity of baryonic mass; 200 million solar masses
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:34:18 CEST)
Based on three major cosmological and astrophysical coincidences, it seems possible to develop a new model of Hubble-Hawking Universe having light speed expansion. First Coincidence is - distance travelled by light in 14 billion years seems to equal to the currently believed cosmic Hubble radius. Second Coincidence is - Product of currently believed cosmic critical density and cosmic Hubble volume seems to be equal to the black hole mass of the current Hubble universe. Third Coincidence is - Currently believed cosmic temperature seems to be equal to the geometric mean of Hawking temperature of Planck mass and Hawking temperature of current Hubble mass. Considering the analysis of 740 super novae data, it is possible to consider a constant rate of cosmic expansion. As there is no physical reasoning for the observed speed of light and all the cosmological observations are completely based on speed of light-by considering ‘light speed expansion’ concept as a characteristic nature of the universe, big bang, inflation, dark energy, quintessence and lambda term like ideal and unidentified concepts can be reviewed and relinquished at fundamental level and a practical model of expanding universe can be developed with ease and clarity. In this context, we encourage the reader to see Figure 1 pertaining to light travel distances prepared with [z/(1+z)](c/H0). For a comparison, readers are encouraged to visit https://cosmocalc.icrar.org/ and http://www.atlasoftheuniverse.com/cosmodis.c. It may be noted that, considering 200 million solar masses as a cut off for ordinary gravity, dark matter can be considered as an effect of power law based super gravity of galactic baryonic mass. It is well believed that, Hawking’s findings about black holes are the most important contributions to physics in recent decades. Hence, we appeal the science community to recommend our Hubble-Hawking model for further research and study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Suicide attempt; behaviour; prevention; Facebook
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:33:36 CEST)
Background: Facebook represents a new dimension for global information sharing. Suicidal behaviours and attempts are growingly reported on Facebook. This scoping review explores the various aspects of suicidal behaviours associated with Facebook, discussing the challenges and preventive measures. Methods: PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus were searched for related articles published in English up to October 2021, using different combinations of "Facebook" and "suicide". A group of consultant psychiatrists screened the records and read the full-text articles to extract relevant data. Results: Facebook impacts suicidal behaviours in different aspects. Announcing suicides through sharing notes or personal information, which can be helpful in prediction of suicide, and harmful since negatively affects audience. Live-streaming videos of suicide is another aspect, which questions the ability of Facebook to monitor shared contents that can negatively affect the audience. Helping bereaved families to share feelings and seek support online, commemorating the lost person by sharing their photos is another positive impact. Moreover, it can provide real-world details of everyday user behaviours, which are helpful to predict suicide risk, primarily through novel machine-learning techniques, and provide early warning and valuable help to prevent it. It can also provide a timeline of the user's activities and state of mind before suicide. Conclusions: Social media can detect suicidal tendencies, provide support for those seeking help, comfort family and friends with their grief, and provide insights via timelining the users' activities leading to their suicide. The lack of quantitative studies on evaluating preventative efforts on Facebook was one of the limitations. The creators' commitment and the users' social responsibility will be required to create a mentally healthy Facebook environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0277.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: link prediction; AUC-ROC; Early retrieval evaluation
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:31:53 CEST)
Link prediction is an unbalanced early retrieval problem, whose goal is to prioritize a small cohort of positive links on top of a list largely populated by unlabelled links. Differently from binary classification, here the evaluation focuses on how the predictor prioritizes the positive class because, in practice, a negative class does not exist. Previous studies explained that AUC-ROC is not apt for unbalanced class problems and is misleading for early retrieval problems, therefore standard AUC-ROC is not appropriate for evaluation of link prediction. However, some scholars argue that an AUC-ROC like evaluation accounting for the relative positioning of the few positive links among the vastness of unlabelled links remains a valid concept to pursue. Here we propose the area under the magnified ROC (AUC-mROC), a new measure that adjusts the standard AUC-ROC to work also for unbalanced early retrieval problems such as link prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0181.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: the absoluteness of simultaneity; the relative independence of space; special relativity; the problem of measuring; the action at a distance; cosmic inflation
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:30:00 CEST)
This paper is mainly based on a stricter premise of the twin paradox and the assumption of inertial frame, discusses the properties of time and space under the premise of complete symmetry, and draws an interesting conclusion: the simultaneity of different reference frames is possible realized, and the space is relatively independent. And based on this, the twin paradox, cosmic inflation, ultra-distance action of quantum entanglement, microscopic space motion of particles, measurement problems and other phenomena are tentatively explained from a new angle. This interpretation is exploratory and new. At the same time, the author also proposes an experimental way to test the relative independence of space.At the same time, this paper attempts to strictly prove that Einstein's definition of simultaneity and spatial absoluteness in special relativity may be problematic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0276.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Sensor fusion; Camera and LiDAR fusion; Odometry; Explainable AI
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:27:42 CEST)
Recent deep learning frameworks draw a strong research interest in the application of ego-motion estimation as they demonstrate a superior result compared to geometric approaches. However, due to the lack of multimodal datasets, most of these studies primarily focused on a single sensor-based estimation. To overcome this challenge, we collect a unique multimodal dataset named LboroAV2, using multiple sensors including camera, Light Detecting And Ranging (LiDAR), ultrasound, e-compass and rotary encoder. We also propose an end-to-end deep learning architecture for fusion of RGB images and LiDAR laser scan data for odometry application. The proposed method contains a convolutional encoder, a compressed representation and a recurrent neural network. Besides feature extraction and outlier rejection, the convolutional encoder produces a compressed representation which is used to visualise the network's learning process and to pass useful sequential information. The recurrent neural network uses this compressed sequential data to learn the relation between consecutive time steps. We use the LboroAV2 and KITTI VO datasets to experiment and evaluate our results. In addition to visualising the network's learning process, our approach gives superior results compared to other similar methods. The code for the proposed architecture is released in GitHub and accessible publicly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0275.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Bicycle Behavior; Naturalistic Cycling Data; Car/Bike Interactions; Computer Vision; Object Detection
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:22:00 CEST)
As machine learning and computer vision techniques and methods continue to advance, the collection of naturalistic traffic data from video feeds is becoming more and more feasible. That is especially true for the case of bicycles, for which the collection of naturalistic data is not achievable in the traditional vehicle approach. This study describes a research effort that aims to extract naturalistic cycling data from a video dataset for use in safety and mobility applications. The used videos come from a dataset collected in a previous Virginia Tech Transportation Institute study in collaboration with SPIN in which continuous video data at a non-signalized intersection on the Virginia Tech campus was recorded. The research team applied computer vision and machine learning techniques to develop a comprehensive framework for the extraction of naturalistic cycling trajectories. In total, this study resulted in the collection and classification of 619 bicycle trajectories based on their type of interactions with other road users. The results confirm the success of the proposed methodology in relation to extracting the locations, speeds, and accelerations of the bicycles at a high level of precision. Furthermore, preliminary insights into the acceleration and speed behavior of bicyclists around motorists are determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0089.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Geometry & Topology Keywords: regular basic convex polytopes; negative dimensions; fractal dimensions; complex dimensions; circumscribed and inscribed polytopes
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:21:05 CEST)
This paper extends the findings of the prior research concerning n-balls, regular n-simplices, and n-orthoplices in real dimensions using recurrence relations that removed the indefiniteness present in known formulas. The main result of this paper is the proof that these recurrence relations are continuous for complex n, whereas in the indefinite points their values are given in the sense of a limit of a function. It is shown that the volume of an n-simplex is a bivalued function for n < 0, and thus the surfaces of n-simplices and n-orthoplices are also bivalued functions for n < 1. Applications of these formulas to these omnidimensional polytopes inscribed in and circumscribed about n-balls reveal previously unknown properties of these geometric objects in negative, real dimensions. In particular for 0 < n < 1 the volumes of the omnidimensional polytopes are larger than volumes of circumscribing n-balls, while their volumes and surfaces are smaller than volumes of inscribed n-balls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0273.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: net ecosystem exchange; eddy-covariance; regression; upscaling; data augmentation; feature selection
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:17:33 CEST)
Despite a rapid rise in NBS development in recent years, the methods for evaluating NBS still have certain gaps. We propose an approach based on a combination of remote sensing data and meteorological variables to reconstruct the spatio-temporal variation of net ecosystem exchange from eddy-covariance stations. Lagrangian particle dispersion model was used for upscaling of satellite images and flux towers. We trained data-driven models based on kernel methods separately for each selected land cover class. The results suggest that the proposed approach to quantifying carbon exchange on a medium-to-large scale by blending eddy covariance flux data with moderate resolution satellite and weather data provides a set of key advantages over previously deployed methods: (1) scalability, achieved via the validation design based on a separate set of eddy covariance stations; (2) high spatial and temporal resolution due to use of the Landsat imagery; (3) robust and accurate predictions due to improved data quality control, advanced machine learning techniques, and rigorous validation. The machine learning models yielded high cross-validation results. Overall we present here globally scaled technology for the land sector based on high resolution remote sensing imagery, meteorological variables, and direct carbon flux measurements of eddy covariance flux stations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0272.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Pruning frequency; Sesbania sesban; 15N Natural abundance; N2 fixation; Ndfa
Online: 19 September 2022 (09:34:48 CEST)
Tree pruning is a management tool in agroforestry systems for reducing shade, enhancing nutrient cycling or providing fodder. However, little information is available on the effect of pruning management on plant growth, non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels in the roots and N2 fixation of Sesbania sesban. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to assess the effect of pruning frequency on biomass production, NSC levels and N2 fixation of Sesbania sesban. Treatments included pruning at (i) 3 months only, (ii) 3 and 6 months, and (iii) 3, 6 and 9 months, with each pruning removing shoot biomass above 50% of the initial height. Increased pruning frequency decreased above- and belowground dry matter (DM), and root NSC levels. The decrease in aboveground DM correlated with reduced levels of starch, sugar and total non-structural carbohydrates. Pruning more frequently significantly decreased nodulation, the percentage N derived from the atmosphere and N2 fixed. It could be concluded that more frequent prunings decreases biomass and NSC levels which could reduce the regeneration capacity of trees since they rely on NSCs to regrow. The suppressive effects of increased pruning frequency on N2 fixation could decrease the desirable benefits of legume trees on soil N fertility improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0271.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: COVID-19; human mobility; spatial autocorrelation; temporal autocorrelation; Facebook mobility data
Online: 19 September 2022 (09:33:10 CEST)
COVID-19 is the most severe health crisis of the 21st century. COVID-19 presents a threat to almost all countries world-wide. The restriction of human mobility is one of the strategies used to control the transmission of COVID-19. However, it has yet to be determined how effective this restriction is in controlling the rise in COVID-19 cases, particularly in major capital cities such as Jakarta, Indonesia. Using Facebook's mobility data, our study explores the impact of restricting human mobility on COVID-19 case control in Jakarta. Our main contribution is showing how the restriction of human mobility data can give important information about how COVID-19 spreads in different places. We proposed modifying a global regression model into a local regression model by accounting for the spatial and temporal interdependence of COVID-19 transmission across space and time. We applied Bayesian hierarchical Poisson spatiotemporal models with spatially varying regression coefficients. We estimated the regression parameters using an Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation. We found that the local regression model with spatially varying regression coefficients outperforms the global regression model based on DIC, WAIC, MPL, and R2 criteria for model selection. In Jakarta's 44 districts, the impact of human mobility varies significantly. The impacts of human mobility on the log relative risk of COVID-19 range from –4.445 to 2.353. The prevention strategy involving the restriction of human mobility may be beneficial in some districts but ineffective in others. Therefore, a cost-effective strategy had to be adopted.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0270.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: TiB2/Cr; Multilayer; Mechanical properties; Coherent interface
Online: 19 September 2022 (08:37:16 CEST)
Alternating TiB2-dcMS and Cr-HiPIMS layers are used to fabricate TiB2/Cr multilayer films. In-troducing a 5-nm-thick Cr interlayer deposited under a substrate bias of -60 V produces slight increases of both film hardness and elastic modulus. The TEM observation indicates that the Cr grains favor epitaxially growth on TiB2 interlayer, forming a coherent TiB2/Cr interface. This produces the hardness increasement. Mechanic measurement by using AFM illustrates that the coherent interface increases the elastic modulus of the Cr up to ~280 GPa, which is significantly higher than bulk material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0269.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: ANN controller; Fuzzy logic controller; Lighting control; Smart lighting control; Green buildings; Building automation; Daylight harvesting
Online: 19 September 2022 (07:53:32 CEST)
This article is a continuity of prevouse two reserch in daylight harvastion control that were deigned using classical control apoproach and then fuzzy logic technique, In this article ANN controller is designed and its response is compared with the performance of the other two controllers. Detailed compression for the different error type is illustrated, however, the results show that the three controller operate with satisfactory accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0268.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19 outbreak; lockdown protocols; individual and social activities; mental health challenges; older people; Indonesia
Online: 19 September 2022 (07:51:50 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused detrimental impacts on different population groups throughout the world. This study aimed to explore the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic’s mandatory lockdown protocols on activities and mental health conditions of community-dwelling older people in Jakarta, Indonesia. A qualitative design using one-on-one in-depth interviews was employed to collect data from the participants (n=24) who were recruited using the snowball sampling technique. Data analysis was guided by a qualitative data analysis framework. The findings showed that before the COVID-19 outbreak participants engaged in different kinds of regular individual and social activities. However, the COVID-19 outbreak and its mandatory lockdown protocols significantly influenced both their activities and social life, which led to social disconnection and financial difficulties for them. COVID-19 outbreak, mandatory lockdown protocols, and disruption of individual and social activities of the participants also caused mental health challenges to them, including feelings of loneliness, loss, sadness, stress, and anger. The findings suggest that there is a need for intervention programs addressing the socio-economic and mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on older populations to help them cope with these challenges. Future studies involving large-scale older populations to comprehensively understand COVID-19 impacts on them are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0267.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: spore trap; qPCR; Moniliasis; Theobroma cacao; Frosty pod rot
Online: 19 September 2022 (07:33:31 CEST)
Frosty pod rot, caused by Moniliophthora roreri, is the most damaging disease of cacao in Latin America. However, to better comprehend its epidemiology, we must understand its dissemination and proliferation. Still, we ignore how loads of M. roreri spores fluctuate across growing seasons since we lack a reliable technique to quantify M. roreri spores in the fields. Therefore, we developed a method that uses a spore trap to capture M. roreri spores and qPCR to quantify them. This study demonstrated that this technique could quantify 3.9 x104 M. roreri spores with a 95 % confidence level. However, it could not differentiate between M. roreri and its close relative, M. perniciosa. Despite this limitation, we could detect and quantify Moniliophthora spores from environmental samples taken from a cacao field. This technique can help the phytopathologist address studies more accurately in disseminating cacao pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0266.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: trust fund; sustainable finance; climate finance; sustainability; Papua; Indonesia
Online: 19 September 2022 (07:27:03 CEST)
At the global level, trust funds (TF) have emerged from a portfolio of options as an alternative financing mechanism to help countries finance their sustainability agendas. Indonesia recently enacted wide-ranging legal arrangements on TF, including a law that encourages all sub-national governments to implement their own TF endowment model and a government regulation pertaining to special autonomy for sub-national jurisdictions in Papua for the implementation of TF – both of which enable TF to finance intended sustainability outcomes. Sustainability is of high-priority concern as the provinces of Papua and West Papua are responsible for stewardship of one of the world’s largest remaining rainforests, which is especially rich in biodiversity. These provinces operate under special autonomy, with special funds allocated from the central government and a decentralized arrangement that differs substantially to the unitary state arrangement applied nationwide; this poses challenges to implementing TF for sustainability in Indonesian Papua. In this paper, we examine TF challenges related to legality, finance, and capacity; moreover, in the context of these challenges, we assess three focus areas related to sources of funding, management, and distribution of earnings. We also discuss the implications these challenges have for operationalizing TF in Papua. This paper contributes to discussions on TF for sustainability by interlinking legal, financial, and capacity-related issues, demonstrated by a context-specific and globally relevant case study in Papua.