ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1771.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: technology; technology maturity level; technology readiness level; technology transfer; gap fund; science and technology policy
Online: 29 November 2023 (04:51:41 CET)
Recently considered modifications to public policy and trends in technology transfer practices have underscored the need for validated instruments to assess the maturity of technologies. This paper details a study that aimed to develop and present a generalized technology readiness level (GTRL) scale that a variety of professionals and researchers could use to assess the maturity of technologies in a range of contexts. Of particular interest is developing and validating an instrument that technology transfer professionals in federal laboratories, universities, and the private sector in the United States of America can use to assess the maturity of technologies to facilitate their technology transfer efforts. The primary goal of the research study was to highlight the need for validated measurement instruments for assessing the maturity of technologies in these contexts, test methods for validating the GTRL scale and other readiness level scales, and fill the knowledge gap regarding methods for properly validating such instruments. This included producing insights to inform future efforts to validate the GTRL scale as well as efforts to develop and validate other instruments to measure technology maturity. The study provides specific recommendations relevant to determining the face validity, content validity, inter-rater reliability, and intra-rater reliability of the GTRL scale and other such instruments for assessing technology maturity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1449.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Seasonal variations; female athletes; jump; sprint; change of direction; strength
Online: 23 November 2023 (04:49:42 CET)
The aim of this study was to examine the seasonal variations in relevant indices of physical performance in female soccer players. Twenty-seven female soccer players were assessed at week 2 of the season (pre-season, PS), week 7 (end of pre-season, EP), week 24 (half-season, HS), and week 38 (end of season, ES). Testing sessions consisted of: 1) vertical countermovement jump (CMJ); 2) 20-m running sprint (T20); 3) 25-m side-step cutting maneuver test (V-CUT); and 4) progressive loading test in the full-squat exercise (V1-LOAD). Participants followed their normal soccer training, which consisted of three weekly training sessions and an official match, without any type of intervention. No significant time effects were observed for CMJ height (P = 0.29) and T20 (P = 0.11) along the season. Significant time effects were found for V-CUT (P = 0.004) and V1-LOAD (P = 0.001). V-CUT performance significantly improved from HS to ES (P = 0.001). Significant increases were observed for V1-LOAD throughout the season: PS-HS (P = 0.009), PS-ES (P < 0.001); EP-ES (P < 0.001); HS-ES (P = 0.009). In conclusion, female adapted soccer training may be effective for increasing muscle strength and change of direction ability. The high volume of endurance-type training typically accumulated throughout the season may prevent any sprint and jump improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1316.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Households; Energy sources; Statistics South Africa census 2022; South Africa
Online: 21 November 2023 (10:42:47 CET)
This paper examines patterns and drivers of energy choices for cooking and lighting in South Africa using the Statistics South African (StatSA, 2022) Census data at district municipality (districts) levels. Employing spatial and regression analysis, the findings show that electricity is the main source of energy for cooking across South Africa. However, there is a large swathe of the country covering districts, such as Vhembe and Mopani in Limpopo, eastern Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, and northern Eastern Cape provinces, where wood is the predominantly used energy type for cooking. There is almost uniform use of gas for cooking across the country. Electricity is the main energy source for lighting in South Africa. It is followed by candles, likely explained by loadshedding, and surprisingly solar energy a distant third. In terms of drivers, dwelling types play statistically significant role in what energy type to use for cooking and lighting, albeit differently. In terms of lighting, formal dwelling is positively related to the choice of electricity and informal dwelling is related to the choice of electricity (negatively) and candles (positively) for lighting. The level of higher education, household size, and the dependency ratio have varied statistically significant roles in the choice of either energy type for cooking or lighting by formal, informal, and traditional dwellers. Relevant policy prescriptions that are needed to engender the country towards sustainable energy use, diversification of energy types from electricity to other renewable energy sources, such as solar, and reduction in over-dependency on the biomass energy sources, such as paraffin and wood, especially in rural and poor districts, are proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: blockchain; public services; governance approach; technology
Online: 17 November 2023 (08:13:56 CET)
Blockchain is considered a technological trend with a unique and unprecedented foundation of ways of working, and has the potential to fundamentally change society in conducting activities related to the public or private sector. Although the academic literature on blockchain is generally focused on cryptocurrencies, in recent years, literature with different perspectives has begun to emerge regarding the use of blockchain in the context of the public sector. The unique characteristics of how blockchain technology works make it an innovation that is expected to change many activities, structures, and processes related to the implementation of public sector activities, especially in public services such as administrative processes, welfare provision, and regulatory practices. This article discusses through a systematic literature review about the potential use of blockchain in public services. This literature review identifies the types of public services most likely affected by the introduction of blockchain. In addition, this article highlights the benefits, potentials, and challenges and risks of blockchain for governments and citizens/society in general. Governments, in general, can optimize efficiency and tracking through the use of blockchain, but regulatory uncertainty and scalability capabilities being major challenges, which are still poorly researched in the literature, can benefit from reduced bureaucracy and improved coordination through blockchain adoption, despite the lack of blockchain knowledge and skills being significant barriers to its implementation. For citizens or the public, security and transparency are key benefits, while the main risk lies in data security concerns. The article closes by noting a number of limitations in the existing literature and providing suggestions and recommendations for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0882.v1
Online: 17 November 2023 (07:51:40 CET)
The purpose of this study was to determine the income, costs and revenue of the Gontor Putri 3 bakery. Want to know the efficiency of the bakery business in Karangbanyu Regency. The method used in this research is analytical descriptive by conducting a survey. The data used in this research is primary data. Data collection techniques use observation, interviews and documentation, while the process of analysis is quantitative descriptive. Using the R/C ratio, a value of 1.72 per month is obtained. This value indicates that the bakery factory in Karangbanyu is efficient because the value is more than one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0577.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: International immigrants; Rural Areas; Depopulated regions; Keeping people in Low density territories; Regional development
Online: 9 November 2023 (07:30:11 CET)
Rural areas, as a system, face multiple challenges. Among these are population decline and attendant economic and social maladies namely demographic issues considering a scarce population. Pull factors for immigrants to go to other countries are known, nevertheless, to comprehend factors for remaining in rural areas after arriving could support a strategic local policy, and for an informed practice. The purpose of the study is to explore motivations shaping immigrants’ intentions to stay in the Alentejo, a depopulated region in Portugal, using a qualitative approach. Research questions are: What motivates immigrants to remain living in depopulated regions in Portugal? Furthermore, what contributions can practitioners and immigrants give for local policy and practice? Eight practitioners and fifteen non-European Union immigrants living in this region were interviewed between 2020 and 2021. Empirical data were analysed, supported by MaxQDA software. Results point out that the intention to remain in rural areas arise from a progressive construction, it is a process that immigrants experience to become motivated to stay long-term. Factors influencing the process include four components: 1. instrumental and material motivations; 2. emotional and social motivations; 3. motivations based on quality of life; and 4. motivations based on political dimensions. Components are conditioned by the availability of : stable and suitable jobs, access to decent and affordable housing, as well as quality of education and health services for their children; additionally to socio-emotional satisfaction, as family reunification, migrants network, integration and real intercultural living in the host community, close relationships to practitioners from social services; and quality of life, such as lower rents, peaceful and secure living conditions, granted a better future for their children as in any another place in Europe, associated finally to the simplified policy enabling one to become a legal citizen. Conclusions highlight implications for policy and practice, suggesting more investment for rural regions to reverse depopulation reality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0051.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: women's health; domestic violence; acculturation; attitudes; perspectives; behaviors
Online: 1 November 2023 (23:54:55 CET)
Domestic violence (DV) has been reported high in minorities across the US. Among minorities, refugees and immigrants encounter several barriers that may influence their responses and actions regarding DV. This scoping review examined three decades of literature (1980-2022) on resettled Afghan and Arab refugee women's attitudes and behaviors toward DV in their host countries, and to summarize research, practice, and policy recommendations. Based on Arksey and O'Malley model, our scoping review conducted extensive searches in SCOPUS, PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Web of Science, the Directory of Open Access Journals, and Embase databases. Searches identified articles that examined resettled Afghan and/or Arab refugees’ responses to DV in Western countries. The search identified 439 unique citations; 17 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Major themes included acculturative changes in refugee attitudes and behaviors and in stakeholders’ perspectives and roles. Significant acculturative attitudinal changes (acknowledgment, silence, justification, or disapproval of DV) contrasted with minimal behavioral changes (help-seeking behaviors, action plans, or barriers to actions) and with a resistance to change in stakeholders (cultural norms and beliefs, community patriarchal normalization of violence, service providers unfamiliarity with client diversity and refugee cultures) in supporting women decision-making regarding DV. Not a single article made explicit policy recommendations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2084.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Climate-smart Agriculture; quantitative data; qualitative data; multi-stage sampling; Key informant interviews; Focus group discussions; Elgeyo Marakwet County; cross-sectional survey
Online: 1 November 2023 (03:13:03 CET)
Enhanced food and nutrition security remains a primary goal for every community. Several interventions have been promoted in dry areas to improve issues on food and nutrition security. However, studies on the level of knowledge, cultural norms, perceptions and attitudes that are key drivers in adoption and uptake to highlight gaps and provide evidence for improvement are limited. This study investigated variables influencing the adoption and implementation of an integrated crop-dairy goat farming system in Elgeyo Marakwet. A descriptive cross-sectional survey entailing qualitative and quantitative approaches among farmers practicing integrated farming was undertaken. A thematic questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data, while key informant interviews and focus groups discussions were used in qualitative research. This study utilized the multi-stage sampling procedure to sample the farmers and sample size was calculated based on Krejcie and Morgan table. Data analysis for quantitative data was done using SPSS software while qualitative data utilized N-vivo software The findings show that farmers have knowledge on the integrated farming system. Age, level of education, land size, gender, perceptions and attitudes influence adoption. Small animals like dairy goats are associated to women in this community hence increasing their participation in access, control and decision making of agricultural resources. The key findings of this study provide baseline data that can form evidence to help inform policy on the indicators contributing to adoption of integrated crop-dairy goat systems to enhance food and nutrition security
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1625.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: graded exercise test; gas exchange analysis; metabolic cart
Online: 31 October 2023 (08:21:46 CET)
Several factors, such as internal algorithm, sensor technology, and obsolescence might skew outcomes when comparing different gas analysers measurements during CPET. Besides aerosol borne infectious disease are a source of contamination during cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPET). Thus, the main aim of this study was to determine the agreement degree between the Quark RMR and the Jaeger Oxycon Pro, using an antibacterial filter with the latter. Forty-two participants (19-54 years old) performed two non-consecutive maximal graded exercise tests on a cycle-ergometer on two counterbalance and different days using the Oxycon Pro and the Quark RMR in a randomized order. Differences between devices were tested using a generalized linear model adjusted by Bonferroni, and correlation and agreement was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient (R), intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC), Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and Bland-Altman plots. No significant differences were found between devices in any of metabolic or ventilatory parameters for cardiorespiratory fitness assessment (VO2max: 3131.3±882.1 vs. 3189.8±894.8, p=0.071, VCO2max: 3436.3±936.0 vs. 3550.3±1043.2, p=0.071, for Quark RMR and Oxycon Pro, respectively). However, Bland-Altman plots showed a trivial tendency towards Oxycon Pro overestimation relative to Quark RMR as air flow volume increases. Both devices showed strong correlation and high level of agreement during maximal and submaximal exercise intensities (Pearson’s R: 0.974 & 0.977; ICC: 0.985 & 0.987; Lin’s CCC: 0.971 & 0.974, for VO2 and VCO2, respectively). Therefore, providing consistency to CPET data comparison between both devices, and insight into whether the use of these metabolic carts could be interchangeable or combined when a single device cannot be used for CPET assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1644.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Tax Compliance; Bangladesh Tax System; Taxpayer Behaviors; Tax Marketing
Online: 25 October 2023 (11:46:26 CEST)
Tax compliance is a problem in Bangladesh, despite the tax system’s importance to economic growth. This research aims to identify the causes of tax compliance behav- ior issues and design customer-centric marketing techniques to increase compliance. The two-fold research strategy began with exploratory and descriptive analysis of primary survey data. The findings revealed a knowledge gap, particularly among younger populations, and showed that public acknowledgment and gamification can improve compliance. Next, experimental and causal research was used. Direct com- munication with 1,000 people and Phase 1 outcomes-based treatments were imple- mented. The results were promising: 95.74% had never experienced tax-related edu- cational programs, and 87% lacked tax calculation knowledge. When offered incen- tives like a 2% tax decrease, 73% were willing to pay taxes immediately. This study shows customer-focused marketing methods can solve Bangladesh’s tax compliance problem. Bridging the information gap and implementing motivating mechanisms can make our nation more obedient and financially stable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1565.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: young person; young carer; adolescents; younger onset dementia; dementia; carer; admiral nurse; schools
Online: 25 October 2023 (08:42:58 CEST)
Young dementia carers (YDCs) rarely receive appropriate training and support. Their visibility and identification remain dangerously low and as a consequence, support initiatives being developed are failing to reach them. This study explored the success (or failure) of YDCs identification pathways as well as the barriers and enablers to their implementation. An explorative qualitative approach was followed drawing on the experiences of parents of YDCs, dementia researchers, professionals in the field of dementia/young carers and young adult carers. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews (n=17) and a participatory 2-hour workshop to discuss and critique preliminary themes as well as explore strategies to increase the visibility and identification of YDCs. Five themes were identified: A ‘whole family approach’ (as a pathway to identification); ‘Not a carer’ (self/family identification); A postcode lottery (high variability of support services); Tailored support that is ‘fit for purpose’ and the ‘power’ of peer support. Recommendations on potential initiatives and actions that can help raise awareness and increase identification success of YDCs are proposed. Our findings support the need for a broad and holistic approach to the identification of YDCs that runs alongside the development of support initiatives that are accessible and relatable. The support itself will play a role in improving subsequent identification or hindering it if not ‘fit for purpose’.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1574.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Keywords; Early childhood; ecological systems theory; prevalent; risk factors; protective factors
Online: 25 October 2023 (07:35:58 CEST)
It is essential to consider the factors that affect early childhood development because doing so can help identify potential risks and window of opportunity for intervention to improve outcomes for children. However, identifying risk and protective factors in early childhood requires careful consideration of several challenges and an integrated approach that recognises the complex and dynamic nature of development. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the prevalent psychosocial risk and protective factors in the early childhood development phase, using an ecological perspective. The study employed a quantitative cross-sectional study using a random sampling technique. The final sample consisted of 505 caregivers of children aged 5 years old and younger. This study revealed that the most prevalent protective factors include child self-regulation, parent-child warmth, family management and collective efficacy but more importantly social support. While risk factors may exist this is mitigated by social support as it moderates and buffers against the effects of risk factors, as indicated by the various research studies cited.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0568.v1
Online: 10 October 2023 (12:27:01 CEST)
The average working person can spend between 35-60 hours a week in the workplace, making it an influential place for mental well-being while also being a place for socio-economic contribution. Workplace incivility can diminish positive mental health outcomes and negatively impact work engagement through increased social anxiety. To investigate this, 118 working adults aged between 19 to 67 years old in Singapore were recruited for a survey comprising of demographics questions, the Workplace Incivility Scale, Brief DSM-5 Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-9 over the period of November 2022 to April 2023. Correlational, regression and mediation analysis showed workplace incivility scale scores to significantly pre-dict social anxiety after controlling for covariates, supporting our hypothesis that employees exposed to work-place incivility would have higher levels of social anxiety that mediated work engagement after controlling for age and gender. The findings here show workplace incivility to be a possible intervention target for social anx-iety to reduce negative impacts on work engagement in order to improve employee experience and retention for organizations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0359.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: aspirations; aspirations of farmers; the role identity theory; farming-related aspirations; non-farming related
Online: 9 October 2023 (04:20:10 CEST)
This study aims to understand Filipino rice farmers’ aspirations, both farming and non-farming-related. Understanding aspirations can help the government and interested third-party entities to provide impactful initiatives to farmers. The Role Identity Theory guided our analysis in this study. This study is predominantly qualitative, with focus group discussion as the main method of collecting data. The research sites were in Kalinga, Nueva Ecija, Laguna, Quezon, Northern Samar, Zamboanga del Sur, Sultan Kudarat, and Agusan del Norte. Among the farming-related aspirations noted in this study relate to property, fair price, infrastructure, government support, and good governance. The non-farming related aspirations relate to infrastructure development; progress; government support and governance; love, passion, peace, and unity; wellness and long life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0028.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Scheduled Castes; Caste system; reservation; social injustice; untouchability
Online: 2 October 2023 (03:55:40 CEST)
This paper examines the condition of the Scheduled Castes in India and recognizes the factors that are causing dismal performance of the Scheduled Castes despite reservation policies. The paper first discusses the condition of Scheduled Castes based on the parameters of social, economic, education, and political representation. It then provides a brief overview of the current reservation percentages allocated to Scheduled Castes in various sectors. Moreover, the paper explores the causes for the dismal performance of Scheduled Castes despite the existence of reservation policies. In order to improve the condition of Scheduled Castes, the paper proposes a multifaceted approach, including the consideration of socio-economic criteria for recognizing castes in the list of Scheduled Castes, dis reservation of affluent Scheduled Caste families, preferential appointment of Scheduled Castes in administrative positions within Scheduled Areas, and reforms within the National Commission for Scheduled Castes. The paper also emphasizes the importance of periodic evaluations of socioeconomic conditions, talent identification, and grassroots awareness campaigns as strategies to uplift the Scheduled Castes.Keywords
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2067.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Climate communication; storytelling; public engagement; climate action; sustainability
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:19:00 CEST)
For achieving climate targets, public engagement is key. Climate communication can play an important role here. Telling regional stories of successful climate action seems a promising form of climate communication: It may convey a feeling of ‘So this is what climate action looks like – and it is people like you and me who are starting to take action.’ This transformative research project (1) formulates hypotheses on what could make such local climate stories effective, (2) then identifies, produces and disseminates stories in the region of Konstanz, Germany, following a rapid prototyping approach, and (3) analyzes the effect of the stories by using focus groups. So far, two prototyping series of filmic story production have been completed in 2022/2023 and some initial insights were derived: Potential protagonists seem willing to tell their stories, and the stories have a potential to inspire people. Technical film quality is relevant. The stories must be selected and told carefully (who is portrayed, which actions are interpreted as success, through which channels are the stories shared), in order to create resonance with different target groups. Next steps are continuation of film production prototyping, a broader sharing of stories, and thorough impact research by focus groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1633.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: radon, radon action plan, indicators, review, radiation, assessment
Online: 25 September 2023 (12:54:41 CEST)
Radon, a carcinogenic radioactive gas, is a leading cause of lung cancer according to the World Health Organization. European Member States are required to develop and implement National Radon Action Plans (RAPs) to address its dangerous health effects. However, assessing the effectiveness of these RAPs presents challenges for authorities. This study aims to explore the possibility for a systematic and standardised assessment method to evaluate the effectiveness of RAPs strategies and its implementation. The method involved analysing the strategies of 27 EU Member States and the UK, conducting legal document analysis and group interviews with responsible authorities. Additionally, four regional workshops and one final European workshop were held. The research took place from March 2021 to May 2023. Findings indicate that evaluating RAP effectiveness is challenging due to limited existing common criteria or indicators. To address this, the study proposes guiding questions for each element required by the EU Directive, as well as additional questions related to education and training. This contribution benefits RAP owners and European regulatory authorities, supporting the development of effectiveness indicators for RAPs. BY improving assessment methods, we can enhance the effectiveness of strategies in mitigating the risks associated with radon exposure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1499.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Financial inclusion; Financial access; Unbanked; Motivational Workshop; Village Defense Party; Randomized Controlled Trial.
Online: 22 September 2023 (06:39:12 CEST)
Despite the expansion of financial institutions and proliferation of mobile financial services, reaching the unbanked and bringing them under formal financial services has become a policy concern in many developing countries. Due to the lack of financial accounts, unbanked people prefer informal, risky, and inconvenient mechanisms for receiving, sending and transferring money. Previous studies rely much on common intervention like no account maintenance and opening fees, easy documentation processes and money subsidies for opening financial accounts. This study aims to examine the impact of the motivational workshop on opening savings accounts through causality among the unbanked people in a setting where the respondents are unbanked despite having all the requirements and many institutional offers for opening savings accounts. We encouraged the unbanked people through a one-hour-long motivational workshop to open saving account. Based on our cross-sectional data and randomized controlled trial experiment among 505 unbanked Village Defense Party (VDP) members at Dhubil Union under Sirajganj in Bangladesh, we have the evidence that motivational workshop positively impacts opening ac-counts by 32.33 percent. However, the account opening rate differs in terms of respondent’s pref-erence for financial institutions. Our study also finds that unbanked people have the highest pref-erence for mobile financial services for opening accounts resulting in 15.33 percent. The result of the study has some policy implications for adopting effective strategies of financial access in many developing countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0999.v1
Online: 14 September 2023 (13:56:43 CEST)
The debate surrounding the scientific interpretation of Yijing has been ongoing, yet thus far, a systematic, comprehensive, and objective explanation of its scientization remains elusive. The intricate nature of Yijing' scientific content makes it challenging to gain universal acceptance. The emergence of ChatGPT presents a new opportunity to delve into the scientific aspects of Yijing. Leveraging the support of ChatGPT, this paper explores the potential for scientization of Yijing and the possibility of establishing a new scientific research paradigm through in-depth dialogue with ChatGPT. It examines various aspects including the evolution of scientific paradigms, perspectives from detractors and opponents of Yijing, as well as existing challenges and approaches to its scientization. The ideas presented in this paper may offer enlightening insights for further exploration of Yijing.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0887.v1
Online: 13 September 2023 (11:15:16 CEST)
This single case study aims to address a gap in literature regarding the establishment of microenterprises for people with physical disability in Vietnam. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven people with physical disability including the Director of a non-government organisation supporting six entrepreneurs with physical disability who were engaged in teaching English to school aged children after school. Data was analysed utilising Lingelbach, De La Vina and Asel’s (2005) three characteristics that improve probability of entrepreneurial success in developing countries. This framework aided in examining the approach of establishing microenterprises by the non-government organisation. The entrepreneurs with physical disability reported earnings above average wages and feeling empowered by participating in the microenterprises. These feelings of empowerment were reportedly associated with greater independence, increased self-efficacy and a confidence in planning for their futures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1935.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: sustainable development goal 11, sustainable cities, urban sustainability, good practices.
Online: 29 August 2023 (09:46:38 CEST)
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) represent a central framework to guide sustainable urban development (2030 Agenda). However, it is not clear how and where SDG 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities) is being implemented, and how such implementation might be improved. We investigated this subject by analyzing United Nations (UN) SDG Good Practices data from 2018 to 2021. We applied five criteria to the 336 SDG 11 responses: (1) geography; (2) actors; (3) progress toward targets; (4) areas of implementation; and (5) scale of action. Overall, 86 of the 193 countries that adopted the 2030 Agenda submitted at least one SDG 11 good practice. 33 countries contributed 73.8% of the total, and most developing countries did not make submissions. A very small number of responses (between 2.6 and 9.1%) addressed equity-related targets. Good practices from developed countries were usually more technology-based and system-forming; developing countries typically focused on issues of day-to-day concern. Overall, this analysis points to the need for better and more systematic reporting on SDG 11 implementation, a more active public sector role in SDG implementation and reporting, more focus on dimensions related to social equity, and better formulation of urban sustainability targets and indicators in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1642.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; economic risks; psychosocial risks; quarantine; institutional quarantine; Uganda
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:59:15 CEST)
Institutional quarantine was one of the key public health measures used to control the spread of the COVID-19. Institutional quarantine has been associated with several psychosocial and economic risks to affected individuals. However, little is known about the psychosocial and economic risks it poses to affected persons in low-resource countries, since it is a relatively new strategy for controlling disease spread in these settings. This article provides insights into the economic and psychosocial risks encountered by affected persons in a low-resource context. We conducted narrative interviews with 20 adults placed under institutional quarantine to contain the COVID-19 pandemic in Uganda. Institutional quarantine exposed affected persons to an intricate range of economic and psychosocial risks including loss of livelihoods and/or income, financial distress, fear, worry, anger, loneliness and stigma. The experience of specific risks was shaped by an intersection of individual and contextual factors. However, disregard for economic and social issues and shortcomings in the implementation of institutional quarantine contributed profoundly to the occurrence of risks. Integration of measures for identification and continuous management of the broad range of potential risks to individuals and bridging gaps in the implementation of institutional quarantine, may help to minimise associated economic and psychosocial risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1249.v1
Online: 17 August 2023 (08:44:48 CEST)
Despite providing some critical financial services to support the operation of Emissions Trading Systems (ETS), such as increasing market liquidity and price visibility and allowing operators to hedge against future fluctuations, there is growing concern about the potential threat of financial actors' speculation behaviour to the ETS's effectiveness. To confirm or alleviate the fear associated with such concern, we employ both ex-post and ex-ante approaches to determine the role of speculation in the emission reduction effect of the ETS and its forecasting power in predicting climate change. In addition to confirming carbon prices and the speculation behaviour of the emissions non-compliance actors in the ETS as accurate predictors of climate change, we also show that they both matter in the emission reduction effect of the ETS. We use several verifiable econometric approaches to select the Feasible Quasi Generalised Least Squares (FQGLS) as the best estimator for addressing some of the biases in climate change predictability. We demonstrate that a predictive model combining the complementing dynamics of the EST emissions compliance and emissions non-compliance features forecasts climate change more accurately. We demonstrate the robustness of our findings for both in-sample and out-of-sample forecasts and across different forecast horizons by using alternative approaches to evaluate forecast performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0909.v1
Online: 11 August 2023 (08:23:17 CEST)
Floods are the most frequent and devastating disasters in Bangladesh. The riverine islands, known as char-lands, are particularly vulnerable to flooding. As flooding poses a significant threat to the lives and livelihoods of residents, especially farmers, it is crucial to understand how they perceive flood risk and assess their adaptation strategies in this geographically susceptible context. However, the existing literature has not adequately addressed these issues. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the factors influencing farmers' perceived flood risk and their assessments of flood adaptation. In a survey of 359 farmers in Bangladesh's char-land region, located in the Chowhali sub-district of Sirajganj district, we used the protection motivation theory (PMT) to measure farmers' perceived flood risk and adaptation assessments. Multiple regression analysis was employed to identify factors influencing them. Farmers prioritized the risk to livelihoods (production and income) over psychological aspects (health and diseases). Larger farms, more flood experience, and greater risk awareness are associated with higher overall flood risk perception; and better flood adaptation, indicating higher self-efficacy, response efficacy, and response cost among farmers. Farmers perceived lower flood risk in exchange for greater house distance from the river and more trust in government actions. Hence, strengthening campaigns and programs is crucial to understanding flood risk in char-lands for improved adaptation to floods. The study highlights the application of PMT to assess farmers' perceptions of flood risk and their attitudes towards adaptation, suggesting further research opportunities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0550.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Participatory Design, Co-operative Inquiry, Design partners, Co-design
Online: 7 August 2023 (12:10:41 CEST)
The framework proposed by Alison Druin about 20 years ago, which defined the roles children play in technology design, has been widely adopted by the Child-Computer Interaction (CCI) community. While some studies have adopted relevant roles as presented in the framework, others have argued for extending the framework to include newly identified roles. Still, other studies argue that Druin's framework failed to account for roles children may take up as they interact with peers or with tools. Consequently, this systematic literature review examines children’s emerging and changing roles in the codesign of new technologies. Specifically, we answered the research question: What new roles emerge in research as children co-design new technologies? Our effort aims at providing evidence of new roles children have adopted in literature, which may help researchers in the CCI community make more informed decisions about participatory design approaches with children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0349.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Body dissatisfaction, Body image, Female students, Perfection
Online: 3 August 2023 (14:07:43 CEST)
Many university female students are concerned about their bodies. Body image perception has become a public health issue globally. This study aimed to explore factors contributing to body image dissatisfaction among female students at the University of Venda. The study was qualitative in nature and employed exploratory research design. A sample of 10 female students enrolled at the University of Venda were identified using convenience sampling method. A pre-tested, semi-structured interview guide was used to collect data and thematic content analysis technique was used to analyse the collected data. The findings of the study showed that body comparison, societal beauty standards, social media, and body shaming by family and friends were the main factors contributing to student’s body image dissatisfaction. The findings further revealed that lack of self-confidence, stress, avoidance, anxiety and depressive symptoms were the challenges faced by students with body image dissatisfaction. Acceptance. Self-care, and healthy diet were identified as coping strategies to help deal with the challenges of student’s body image dissatisfaction. Conclusively, students should be encouraged to seek professional help timeously, to help navigate their body image concerns to avoid decline in their daily functioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0252.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: RMG; Bangladesh; fire; structural; developing; industry; safety; social technology; critical juncture; global, disasters
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:48:53 CEST)
Findings primarily drawn from literature review and interviews with professional resource persons suggest that although the RMG industry of Bangladesh has made substantial progress in correcting structural risks within factory buildings, fire still remains an unresolved issue posing unceasing threat to safety. These findings are significant for all stakeholders within the global supply chain network of Bangladesh, concerned with improving sustainability of the RMG industry and seeking to outline the responsibilities for each group of actors towards preventing building disasters. Both Tazreen Fashion fire incident and the Rana Plaza building collapse served as ‘critical junctures’ in rapid transfer of physical technology to enhance structural safety and streamline production planning within the RMG manufacturing factories within Bangladesh. However, the transfer of social technology within the supply chain network of a developing nation in areas such as development of organisational safety culture or promoting workplace ethics, requires long-term planning and prolonged practices. The paper thus concludes that in developing countries, transfer of physical technology is more readily achievable than the adoption of social technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0099.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Humanitarian Supply Chain; Supply Chain Resilience Evaluation; Flood Disaster; MCDM; ANP-PFs-VIKOR
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:19:38 CEST)
The sudden onset of natural hazards such as a flash flood events can be devastating to a country or region, often affecting numerous communities, and humanitarian supply chains play a major role in enabling the timely recovery of economic and social activities. However, the uncertainty and suddenness of natural disasters such as flash floods, as well as the potential for aftershocks, require humanitarian supply chains to be resilient during the relief process. This research first adopts the Delphi and literature review methods to identify the key indicators in the humanitarian supply chain to form an evaluation index system. Then, taking the 2021 mega-flash flood event which affected four cities in the mountainous region under the jurisdiction of the Zhengzhou municipal government, the ANP method is used to calculate the weights of each indicator and combines the weighted results with the Multi-styling and stereotyping method under Pythagorean fuzzy (PFs-VIKOR) to make an evaluation of the resilience of the humanitarian supply chain in the relief process. The findings suggest that policy makers and decision makers should pay close attention to the coordination of the parties involved in the humanitarian supply chain and improve the level of resilience of the entire supply chain by enhancing the resource scheduling capacity and responsiveness. At the same time, the VIKOR evaluation of the 4 cities highlighted the humanitarian supply chain in Dengfeng City to be most effective in this event due to the close cooperation and positive response of all parties involved in the humanitarian supply chain. The findings of this research provide some useful suggestions and guidance to the various practitioners involved in the humanitarian supply chain. Furthermore, the evaluation of the performance of the four cities in this mega-flash flood event provides some helpful indication of the importance of the various emergency measures which can help to inform policy recommendations for the Zhengzhou municipal government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2109.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Biomass; Energy model; TIMES-CZ; EU ETS; Spruce beetle calamity
Online: 1 August 2023 (02:22:21 CEST)
Forest biomass is one of the most significant renewable energy sources in the Czech Republic. Recently, Czech forests have been under attack by spruce bark beetles, threatening the stability of biomass supply also for energy purposes. The goal of this paper is to uncover the impact of four different biomass development scenarios and three policies on the energy system and to evaluate the contribution of biomass to decarbonization efforts. We use the TIMES-CZ energy system optimization model to perform the analyses. We provide a crucial extension of this model by regionalizing it into NUTS3 +1 regions. Our main findings are that under the expected price of various types of biomass and their transportation cost, energy system would still exploit available biomass almost entirely throughout the period under review; subsidizing the production cost of the most expensive type of biomass for households would help utilize the full potential of biomass; and power and heat sector and industry would compete for biomass consumption against the residential sector.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: social work; global issues; trends; challenges; practice; education; research
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:46:43 CEST)
This scholarly article provides an overview of the present and future issues and trends in social work on a global scale. Drawing upon recent bibliographic references and a review of the literature, this article explores the challenges faced by social workers in various regions and highlights emerging trends that are reshaping the field. The analysis incorporates insights from renowned authors and researchers to provide a comprehensive understanding of the current state and anticipated future of social work practice, education, and research worldwide.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0533.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: 5G and Beyond; Smart Grids; Technological Innovation Systems; Energy Efficiency; Fogging Vehicular.
Online: 10 July 2023 (04:12:37 CEST)
This article provides a comprehensive review of the intersection of 5G technology and Beyond, and Smart Grids, focusing on the potential of Vehicle-to-Fog as an industrial alternative for addressing energy efficiency challenges in data processing. This study aims to investigate relevant articles and patents to understand the collaborative potential between 5G and Smart Grids. It explores how to establish new regulatory standards within the architectural framework of 5G to facilitate decentralized data processing and remodel energy consumption patterns. The hypothesis suggests that decentralized 5G architecture and Smart Grids can be most effectively applied through vehicular fogging powered by solar energy. A combined quantitative and qualitative methodology guides the exploration of articles and patents. The study concludes by advocating for new standards that embrace decentralized 5G data processing, emphasizing the potential of Vehicle-to-Fog and the future deployment of 6G technology in Smart Grids. These advancements can significantly enhance energy efficiency in the context of 5G and pave the way for future innovations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0017.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: blue-collared migrants; climate resilience; adaptation; new climates; poverty alleviation; employment challenges; sustainable livelihoods; climate shocks; cultural nuances; social dynamic; support measures; pre-departure training; retraining opportunities; poverty reduction; inclusive development
Online: 3 July 2023 (08:27:51 CEST)
This paper explores the challenges faced by blue-collared international migrants in adapting to new and unfamiliar climates while pursuing job opportunities, with a focus on poverty alleviation. Drawing on existing research and empirical evidence, the study investigates the trials encountered by these migrants as they navigate climate shocks and assesses the potential impacts on poverty reduction efforts. The findings underscore the significant difficulties blue-collared migrants experience when confronted with abrupt changes in climate conditions, adversely affecting their physical and mental well-being, as well as their employment prospects. The process of adjustment involves not only acclimating to new climate patterns but also navigating cultural nuances and social dynamics, exacerbating stress and feelings of isolation. Consequently, these challenges can perpetuate poverty by disrupting employment stability and limiting opportunities for career advancement. To address these issues, the paper proposes comprehensive support measures, including targeted pre-departure training programs, access to retraining opportunities, and assistance in securing sustainable livelihoods. By prioritizing climate resilience and empowering blue-collared migrants to adapt effectively to new climates, it becomes possible to enhance their livelihood prospects, reduce poverty levels, and foster sustainable development. The paper concludes by highlighting the significance of integrating climate adaptation strategies with poverty alleviation efforts to create a more inclusive and resilient future for blue-collared migrants in their pursuit of sustainable livelihoods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1968.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: agricultural production trusteeship; agricultural carbon emission reduction; propensity score matching (PSM)
Online: 28 June 2023 (08:34:12 CEST)
Abstract: Based on the survey data of 5 large grain-producing provinces in China, this paper studies the effect of agricultural production trusteeship on agricultural carbon emission reduction by using a propensity score matching method. The empirical results show that the carbon emission of wheat reduces by 7.107kg/mu, with a decrease rate of 15.5% after participating in agricultural production trusteeship. Among them, chemical fertilizers, manpower input, agricultural chemicals and diesel oil respectively reduces with rates of 14.2%, 27.7%, 14.1%, and 6%. However, there are differences in the facilitation effects of different trusteeship services, with the best promotion effect of field management services, followed by cultivation, planting and harvest services, and then agricultural material supply services, the ATT is -6.160, -5.732 and -5.530, respectively. Meanwhile, there are differences in the promotion effects for farm households with different factor endowments. The promotion effect is better for small farm households with 1 type of agricultural machinery or less, and an operation scale of 7 mus or less. Therefore, in order to better play the role of agricultural production trusteeship on agricultural carbon emission reduction, the government should vigorously support its development and guide more smallholders to choose agricultural production trusteeship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1512.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Bollworm; Cotton crops; Uzbekistan; Integrated pest management; Sustainable pest management.
Online: 21 June 2023 (09:36:15 CEST)
Bollworm poses a significant threat to cotton crops worldwide, including in the Fergana province of Uzbekistan. This study aims to explore innovative approaches to bollworm control and contribute to the global understanding of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Using an extensive literature review and field observations, the study evaluates the effectiveness of an integrated protection system in reducing reliance on chemical inputs while increasing overall efficiency. The results highlight the multigenerational life cycle of bollworm, its impact on various crops, and the need for artificial biological control methods and targeted insecticide applications. In addition, the study highlights the need to adopt globally accepted IPM practices to ensure sustainable pest management. The findings underscore the importance of collaboration among researchers, farmers, policymakers, and industry representatives in developing and implementing advanced control measures. Through integrated approaches and the incorporation of scientific advances, bollworm infestations can be contained while safeguarding agricultural productivity and minimizing environmental risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0542.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus Disease; SARS-CoV-2; Humidity; Rainfall; Coastal regions; Pandemic plans; Health Policy
Online: 7 June 2023 (11:03:07 CEST)
The objective of the present study is to analyze COVID-19 transmission in specific dampest regions with excess rainfall and recurring fogs. The working hypothesis is that widespread transmission of SARS CoV 2 (leading to COVID-19) and similar viral agents can be explained by specific climate factors having high air humidity. The main case study of the Turkish Black Sea region is investigated. Results reveal that the provinces in region under study have some climate factors and geographical features that foster the accelerated transmission of viral agents, such as SARS-CoV-2, and consequential negative impact on society. In particular, Spearman's Correlation Coefficient shows a statistically significant positive association between the average atmospheric pressure and the spread of the COVID-19 confirmed cases in Samsun province (Spearman’s correlation coefficient rs =0.86, p-value 0.05). A statistically significant positive association between the average precipitation and the spread of COVID-19 confirmed cases in Sinop province (Spearman’s correlation coefficient rs =0.79, p-value 0.05), and finally, a statistically significant negative association between the average sun hour and the spread of the COVID-19 confirmed cases in Samsun province (Spearman’s correlation coefficient rs = 0.89, p-value 0.01). These findings suggest that regions' geographical characteristics, demographic structure, climate and environmental parameters must be considered in the national scale epidemic management plans to design effective anti-pandemic health policies to cope with future waves of the COVID-19 and new airborne diseases and to reduce negative effects on health, social and economic systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0440.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: livelihood diversification; entropy index; capital; rice farming households; Partial Least Squares
Online: 6 June 2023 (10:39:11 CEST)
Rice farming households having limited capital do various combinations of the capital to get diversified livelihoods in continuing their lives. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the household capital of rice farmers on livelihood diversification in Indramayu District. Survey method with data sources from 214 rice farming households taken by proportional simple random sampling technique. Data analysis used the partial least square method. The results found that the household capital of rice farmers has a positive and significant effect on the livelihood diversification. Government policy recommendations were determined in order of priority are physical capital with the help of agricultural tools and machinery, natural capital by anticipating climate change, financial capital by increasing support for capital sources, social capital by social networks, and human capital by improving farming skills.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0415.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Eugenics Technologies; Race; Freemasonry; Interwar Transylvania; Romania
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:21:10 CEST)
This analysis takes into account a significant chapter of the history of elites and eugenics from Transylvania during the interwar period. In his famous „Black Notebook”, Alexandru Vaida-Voevod, one of the most important personalities of the Romanian Great Union generation, wrote some surprising reflections about eugenics, race, and Romanian national superiority. In different ways, his reflections underline an invitation to analyze Romanian elites from the interwar period, as well as their way of thinking and feeling. Vaida's "Black Notebook" can therefore be considered "a torn page" from an important chapter in the history of the Romanian eugenics movement. It also represents an important key for understanding the history of Romanian freemasonry in Transylvania from the first two decades of the 20th century.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0382.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: water and sanitation services; water governance; universal access; financial-economic capacity; sustainability; regionalization.
Online: 6 June 2023 (05:32:30 CEST)
Achieving universal access to water and sanitation services in developing countries requires a coherent legal, political, and institutional environment, along with a clear financial strategy. Regionalizing utilities may be crucial for addressing disparities, economic inequalities, and governance challenges. Regionalization offers economies of scale, resource efficiency, knowledge sharing, and collaboration. The cornerstone will be ensuring the financial-economic viability of regional utilities, considering their social impacts in terms of affordability. The State of Santa Catarina case study is assessed. In the case of Santa Catarina, only four regional utilities currently generate sufficient revenue, without factoring in necessary investments, indicating the need to review design parameters to improve operational efficiency and increase revenues. Additional financial support may be required to ensure universal access. Tariff adjustments must strike a balance between cost-effectiveness and affordability for families.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0154.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: environmental risk; attractiveness of the destination; tourist behavior; lifestyle; psychographic orientation
Online: 2 June 2023 (08:20:03 CEST)
In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the behavior of tourists and their intention to travel after certain natural disasters or social unrest. The aim of the research was to establish the influence of psychological profiles of tourists on their decision to choose a tourist destination, using three psychographic techniques BFI-10 (Big Five Inventory), AIO (Activities, Interests, Opinions), and VALS 2 (Values and lifestyle), and a freely determined six-level scale of risk and tourist attractiveness of the imagined destinations. By analyzing the results through structural modeling-path analysis, it was determined that almost all psychographic orientations derived from lifestyles negatively perceive destinations with a high degree of risk and attractiveness, while with the VALS 2 technique, only members of the action orientation tend to accept the risk and challenge of visiting high-risk destinations. The results of the research have a degree of innovation in the application of the combination of the mentioned models, as well as in the theoretical and applied aspects in supplementing the building and strategic planning of the future business.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0084.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: sustainability balanced scorecard; supply chain; sport tourism
Online: 1 June 2023 (11:54:10 CEST)
An integration between the principles in supply change management in sport tourism and sustainability balanced scorecard leads to development of guidance and assessment criteria for a city to be a sustainable sport tourist destination. This paper aims to present a sport tourism sustainability management model (STSM), consisting of 5 perspectives, namely financial perspective, customer perspective, internal process perspective, learning and growth perspective and sustainability perspective. By using Delphi technique to obtain a consensus from experts, university lecturers, independent organization/association and business entities in relation to sport tourism management, the researcher defines elements to assess complex perspective for sustainable development of sport tourism. The result shows that there are 5 perspectives and 18 elements in relation to sustainable development of sport tourism. All perspectives and elements have high consensus as measured by Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance (W) of .488. To validate the model, the researcher examines correlation among the five perspectives with structural equation model and finds that the absolute fit is satisfactory, with the value of CMIN/DF at 1.830, RMSEA at .046, GFI at .951, AGFI at .919 and RMR at .038. In addition, the incremental fit also demonstrates positive result with the value of NFI at .962, CFI at .982, TLI at .973 and IFI at .982. As the model aligns and explains empirical data, it can support decision making for management team, effective and efficient strategy drafting for sustainable development in sport tourism and improving livelihoods of residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2130.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Companion animal; dog; cat; human-animal bond; Social Return on Investment; animal shelter; animal welfare
Online: 30 May 2023 (11:34:44 CEST)
Companion animals play a central role in many families and are especially valued by those who are socially isolated. Crisis situations such as acute hospitalizations, homelessness and natural disasters can make it difficult to preserve the human-animal bond and can result in animals being surrendered or euthanized. Social support programs like the RSPCA NSW Emergency Boarding and Homelessness program support people experiencing crisis situations with emergency pet boarding, access veterinary treatment and individualized case management. This study aimed to estimate the social return on investment (SROI) for this program using standard SROI methodology. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 program stakeholders and questionnaire responses were received from 29 program clients. Outcomes were quantified for four stakeholder groups: program clients, client’s animals, RSPCA Inspectors, animal pounds and shelters. Clients and their animals experienced the bulk of the benefit from the program, estimated to have a combined value of over $5 million AUD for the 2020-21 financial year. The estimated social return on investment was $8.21 for each $1 invested. The study demonstrates that keeping people together with their companion animals, or ensuring they are reunited as soon as possible, can reduce stressors, and improve outcomes for people and animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2129.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: clean energy innovation; corporate carbon footprint; corporate profits; high CO₂e emissions; longitudinal model panel; latent growth curve (LGC)
Online: 30 May 2023 (11:33:10 CEST)
The purpose of this research was to analyze the moderating effect of clean energy innovation on the relationship between corporate carbon footprint and corporate profits in those industrial sectors associated with high demand for fossil fuels in which it is "hard to abate" CO₂e emissions. It used a longitudinal research design, in particular a panel study under a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach, based on partial least squares. For the longitudinal moderation analysis, this research employed the Bayesian method by defining a multiple-indicator latent growth curve model (B-LGC model). A global sample was used consisting of 7,827 firm-year observations between 2015 and 2021 corresponding to 167 international firms. The results revealed a very significant impact of the corporate carbon footprint on corporate profits. Likewise, the results showed that innovations in clean energy, when measured as the consumption of renewable energy, positively moderates the relationship between the greenhouse gas emissions from the value chain associated with Scope 3 of the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol, and the gross profit margin obtained. Besides the academic contribution represented by the moderating effect of clean energy innovation, these findings imply that a more detailed understanding of the emissions of the entire value chain (Scope 3 CO₂e) by executives and managers of high emitting CO₂e companies represents an effective mechanism to obtain higher profits, create competitive advantages and, at the same time, achieve a net zero emissions strategy. More importantly, public policy makers will be able to use these results to revise CO₂e-related policies paying more attention to the Scope 3 CO₂e emissions produced by these companies, to formulate regulatory and control mechanisms that stimulate clean energy innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1688.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Grain for green project; Livelihood assets; Livelihood diversity; Well-being of farm households; the mountainous areas of northern Hebei Province
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:28:57 CEST)
There are close dynamic relationships among the livelihood, well-being, and ecological environment of farm households. It is of great significance to scientifically clarify the impact of the grain for green policy on the livelihoods and well-being of farm households in mountainous areas. Based on data from a survey of 392 farm households in Zhangbei County, a system of indicators for farm household livelihood assets and farm household well-being was constructed, drawing on a sustainable livelihood framework (SLF). The livelihood assets and well-being levels of different types of farm households were measured, and a multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the impact of the grain for green policy implementation on the well-being levels of farm households. The three main results are as follows: (1) The level of natural assets among the total average livelihood assets of farm households in Zhangbei County is the highest at 0.374, while the level of physical assets is the lowest at 0.018. The level of livelihood assets of returned farmland households (0.948) is lower than that of nonreturned farmland households (1.117). (2) The level of well-being of all farm households in Zhangbei County is 0.517, with the level of wealth contributing the most to the well-being of farm households at 40.20% and the quality of the ecological environment contributing the least at 11.99%. The level of well-being of returned farmland households (0.518) was slightly higher than that of nonreturned farmland households (0.514). (3) The degree of influence of each influence factor on the level of well-being of farm households varies significantly. Household size was the strongest driver, at 0.366, while educational attainment of household members, household labor capacity, annual household expenditure, livelihood diversity, number of large production tools, and total value of livestock were also important drivers of household well-being, and area of arable land is negatively associated with household well-being. There are also differences in the factors influencing the level of well-being of different types of farming households.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1540.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: ChatGPT; algorithm bias; political bias; large language model
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:13:04 CEST)
Although ChatGPT promises wide-ranging applications, there is a concern that it is politically biased; in particular, it has a left-libertarian orientation. Nevertheless, in light of recent trends in attempts to reduce such biases, this study re-evaluated the political biases of ChatGPT using political orientation tests and the application programming interface. Moreover, the effects of the languages used in the system as well as gender and race settings were evaluated. The results indicated that ChatGPT had less political bias than previously thought; however, they did not entirely discount the political bias. The languages used in the system and the gender and race settings may induce political biases. These findings enhance our understanding of the political biases of ChatGPT and may be useful for bias evaluation and designing ChatGPT’s operational strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Sustainability; continuity; cultural heritage; architectural identity; typomorphology; perception survey
Online: 16 May 2023 (11:10:03 CEST)
Architecture plays a crucial role in expressing identities. This study aims to create a model of sustainable continuity of cultural heritage as an approach to study architectural identity in Erbil City. The study combined visual analysis using graphical representation, analysis of previous studies, field surveys, and questionnaire surveys as methods of data collection. The rationale behind selecting Erbil City is related to its unique sustainable developments related to its cultural heritage through the ages, as the oldest continiously inhabited city in the world. The proposed model revealed a strong correlation between independent variables that represent cultural heritage frameworks of (typo-morphology of house layouts and façade, sociocultural factors, sustainable development factors) and the (continuity of architectural identity in houses situated in Erbil city) as a dependent factors. The regression analysis demonstrated that the most effective factor contributing to the continuity of the architectural identity of houses in Erbil city is the physical characteristics related to the typo morphology of the house's plan layout. The study revealed a comprehensive model that includes the relation between inherited and created sustainable elelments related to cultural heritage that effects on the continuity of architectural identity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0937.v1
Online: 12 May 2023 (11:15:15 CEST)
Risk protection and precaution are noticeable present, especially in times of a pandemic like Covid 19. However, it is not only in times of abruptly upcoming and unexpected situations like Corona that companies and economic entities are exposed to opportunities and threats. Internal and external developments that could influence the organization’s aims are defined as risks. Hence, it is important to emphasize that every operational activity is associated with risks and is consequently a challenge for companies. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the identification and classification of individual risks. In this regard, the objectives and relevance of risk management are highlighted. Through the accomplishment of a classic literature review and the application of a comparative methodology the procedure of how hedging instruments are applied, is elaborated. The analysis indicates that various business concerns have a high awareness of risks inherent in business transactions, although they are still very hesitant to insert hedging instruments. Their uncertainties consist in defining and classifying the relevant risks plus identifying the appropriate hedging methods for them. Thus, this research can add new dimensions to hedging transactions and, particularly, express the benefits and opportunities of hedge accounting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0871.v1
Online: 11 May 2023 (14:55:42 CEST)
(1) Background: Our paper aimed to examine the ways in which the care centers for the elderly acted and adapted during the pandemic period, by taking into account the opinions of the beneficiaries, of the employees and of the managers of those centers. (2) Methods: in order to conduct the research we used a mixed-method approach. Considering the quantitative research, we applied a questionnaire to 430 institutionalized elderly from Timis county, Romania. Considering the qualitative analysis, we conducted interviews with 31 institutionalized elderly, with 7 employees and 4 managers. (3) Results: most institutionalized elderly were mainly satisfied with their life in the care centers, the main difficulties they had were: the impossibility of being close to loved ones, and the difficulty of adapting to the living conditions within the center, and the elderly were satisfied with the interactions they had with the staff of the care centers. (4) Conclusions: the research conducted provides a view on the lifestyle of the elderly from care centers during the pandemic, it highlights the struggles of the elderly and it can be used as a point of reference for the further improvement of the lifestyle of the elderly within the care centers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0827.v1
Online: 11 May 2023 (08:46:22 CEST)
Using SNA techniques, the study examined H2020 forestry projects. An adjacency matrix was created using the CORDIS data collection, and it was then utilized to depict the network of project members. Then, different network indicators were computed. Several statistical techniques (maximum likelihood, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, moments, bootstrapping) were employed to do a goodness-of-fit analysis on the frequencies of the degrees to confirm scale-freedom or randomness in the search for significant distributions in network research. Additionally, the small-world aspect was investigated. The findings demonstrate that while the number of project participations by project participants follows a power distribution, the distribution of project participants’ degrees reflects various effects. As a result, the scale-freedom that has been emphasized in many scientific investigations is not evident. The network indicators demonstrate that the network is not clearly small-world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0478.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Green Climate Funds; Readiness Grants; Adaptation; SIDS; mainstreaming; adaptive capacity
Online: 8 May 2023 (08:44:10 CEST)
The impacts of climate change are already felt across the globe, and (SIDS) are at the forefront. Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) are extremely vulnerable to climate change and adaptation is crucial, however they often lack funding or the fiscal capacity to make the necessary invest-ments and require support from climate finance instruments. The Green Climate Fund (GCF) was designed with the objective of achieving a “paradigm shift” towards low-carbon and climate resilient country-driven development pathway. Despite the amounts invested, assessing the impacts of climate finance on adaptation and adaptive capacity, particularly at the institutional level remains a challenge. Researchers identified two key components for more efficient adapta-tion policies at the national level: the degree of adaptation mainstreaming and institutional adaptive capacity. In SIDS, institutional capacity at the national level is seen as a key component to achieve the objectives of climate change strategies, and is supported by several programmes, including the Green Climate Fund Readiness Preparatory Support Programmes. However, to date few studies have analysed the linkages between climate finance, adaptation mainstreaming and adaptive institutional capacity. Through the review of the Readiness Grants and semi-structured interviews in three Caribbean SIDS, this research assess how climate finance may promote in-stitutional change through the mainstreaming of adaptation policies at the national level and contribute to more institutional adaptive capacity. It shows that the grants had a positive impact, which can be limited to by the strength of the institutions in place. These results demonstrate that access to climate finance can create a window of opportunity for countries to accelerate institu-tional change and allow to make recommendations on how to maximise the impacts adaptation funds. More in-depth studies would be needed to examine the complementary influence of the different climate finance flows (multilateral or bilateral) and their interplay with national institu-tional mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1132.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: disability; children, extra costs; standard of living; Philippines
Online: 28 April 2023 (07:18:27 CEST)
The assessment of disability related costs among children remains a largely under-researched subject with related questions rarely included in surveys. This paper addresses this issue through a unique mixed methods study conducted in the Philippines combining a nationally representative survey and in-depth interviews with families and health professionals. To quantify the extra costs associated with disability the research used the standard of living approach, whereby expenditure levels of families with children with and without disabilities are compared in relation to different measures of living standards. The results find consistent evidence of high extra costs among households that have children with disabilities and point to health expenses as the leading source. Using an asset index as the indicator of living standards, a child with disability is estimated to require between 40 and 80% extra expenditure to reach the same living standard of other children. However, the size of extra costs is substantially higher when the measure of standard of living relies on a broader set of deprivations. In such cases, higher estimates of extra costs are likely to be the result of the lack of an inclusive environment. Critically, this points to the need not only to provide financial support, but also inclusive services, especially in health and education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0876.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Planetary Health; Muslim Religious Leaders; Islam; Anthropocene; Ecological crises
Online: 25 April 2023 (03:50:32 CEST)
The Anthropocene epoch marks a critical phase in the history of humanity, where anthropogenic activities have significantly impacted our planet. Along the unpreceedendent ecological crises, the Anthropocene worldview has raised existential questions with a cultural and ethical discourse that recognises intrinsic value and calls for more responsible sustainable living. To address these challenges collectively, a broader perspective is required, guided by a unified sense of purpose towards personal and planetary health. In this context, the role of religious leaders in shaping the social and environmental worldviews of their followers cannot be underestimated. Religious teachings provide a moral framework for promoting climate action, global ethics, indigenous people, peace, and justice, and many other aspects of planetary health. By assessing the global ecological crises through the lens of Islam; Religion of Nature, or Din al-Fitra, and its environmental teachings across all realms, we can gain insights into humanity’s connection to the fabric of creation and its interaction with this world. These value-leden principles are integrated with accountability; thus, the role of Muslim religious leaders considering the planetary-scale threats warrant further elucidation; recognizing that many other faiths and faith leaders can similarly contribute together for common good.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0740.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Poverty: Non-Cash Food Assistance; Stunting; Economic Growth; Public Private Partnership
Online: 23 April 2023 (03:27:09 CEST)
Poverty alleviation must be carried out in a planned and sustainable manner by the central government and regional governments, the private sector, and the entire community to achieve a prosperous society by getting special attention from the government. This study aims to analyze the impact of the non-cash food assistance program on poverty alleviation, stunting and economic problems using a public private partnership (PPP) approach that involves the role of the government, the private sector and the community. This study uses a qualitative-explorative research method to examine Indonesia's non-cash food assistance program as a national initiative to fight poverty in the form of food. Data were collected from interviews, field observations, and relevant literature, then Nvivo 12 Pro was used to analyze the results. The location of this research is in Indonesia, namely Takalar Regency. The results of the study show that the implementation of the non-cash basic food assistance program has been effective. The involvement of the government, the private sector, and the community shows this. The success factors for the basic food assistance program are alleviating poverty in Indonesia, reducing stunting rates, and increasing economic growth because people are given a place to be part of small businesses. From the results of this analysis it was concluded that the non-cash basic food assistance program is a special program that can overcome various social problems in society. So that poverty alleviation programs are expected to be sustainable and improved to provide benefits for people's welfare. The implementation of the food aid program also involved several cross-sectoral efforts to channel government assistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0683.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Agricultural Censuses; Common Agriculture Policy; Direct Payments; Farming Systems; Logit; Portugal; Small Farmers
Online: 21 April 2023 (08:16:05 CEST)
One of the stated goals of the Common Agricultural Policy reforms has been to provide a fairer distribution of payments across and within Member States, but little progress has been accomplished, with about 20% of farmers receiving 80% of the total amount of Direct Payments. The structural factors that underlie this inequity, notably the preponderance of specific types of farming systems, are investigated in this research. A logit model was developed using Agricultural Census data at the Commune level, using the evolution of the percentage of farmers receiving Direct Payments in Portugal as the dependent variable. The findings reveal that the local importance of arable crops (cereals) and cattle farming systems, as well as the existence of larger farms and younger farmers, all contributed to farmers' increasing access to DP between 2009 and 2019. In traditional Mediterranean farming systems, however, access to DP has been restricted to a smaller proportion of farmers. However, there appears to have been some redistribution in the previous two CAP programming cycles, from bigger to smaller farmers, older to younger farmers, and from olives, cereals, and cattle to other types of production, notably vineyards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0631.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: caffeine; New Zealand blackcurrant; anthocyanins; ergogenic; supplement; performance; endurance; sports
Online: 20 April 2023 (08:25:40 CEST)
The use of isolated supplements to enhance performance is widespread among athletes. The aim of this study was to increase knowledge about the combined effects of caffeine and New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) dietary supplements. In this study, two subjects each underwent four phases of four sessions in a double-blind and randomized alternating treatment single-case design. After a 3-week pre-test phase, the supplement combinations of placebo/placebo, caffeine/placebo (5 mg/kg), NZBC/placebo (600 mg), and caffeine/NZBC (5 mg/kg + 600 mg) were taken and weekly performance tests were conducted to examine their effects on relative power (W/kg) during a 20-minute time trial on a bicycle. Data were analyzed descriptively and using the Tau-U calculator from Single Case Research. The ergogenic effect of caffeine was confirmed in both subjects, with increases of 3.3% and 6.5%, while the positive effect of NZBC on performance was only seen in one subject (13.4%). The combination of caffeine and NZBC again increased performance in both subjects (2.2% and 19.2%), but the data only showed an additive effect of the supplements in one subject. Further studies are required to confirm or refute this evidence of the synergistic effects of these supplements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0380.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: polarization of climatic phenomena; GPCC data; NOAA data; monthly precipitation; average temperature; climate trends; Mann Kendall test; Pettitt test
Online: 17 April 2023 (03:16:45 CEST)
The article presents an analysis of monthly precipitation totals based on the GPCC database, and monthly mean temperatures (NOAA data) for 377 catchments distributed across the globe. The analysis included 110-year data sequences from 1901 to 2010 calculated from grid data with a spatial resolution of 0.5°x 0.5° longitude and latitude. Long-term sequences of precipitation and temperature were used to assess the polarization of climatic phenomena. The noticeable impact of polarization in the area of extreme changes in temperature and precipitation is related to anthropogenic factors such as greenhouse gas emissions, deforestation and pollution, which affect ecosystem functioning, biodiversity, water resources and economies. The paper demonstrates the existence of trends related to the polarization of temperature and precipitation phenomena. The measures of polarization used in science are discussed. A simple measure of polarization was proposed and applied to both long-term sequences of monthly precipitation totals and monthly mean temperature. Due to the nature of the proposed polarization measure, other characteristics of the precipitation and temperature sequences are also presented as background for the discussion of the polarization index. The paper presents, for a selection of several hundred catchments from around the world, analyses of the assessment of precipitation and temperature trends using non-parametric tests. The trend analyses use Mann -Kendall tests at the 5% significance level. A Pettitt test was used to determine the trend change point for precipitation and temperature data. The whole is supported by rich graphical analyses and the results are presented tabularly.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0351.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: uncertainty principle; limits of mathematics; validation models; holistic approach
Online: 20 December 2022 (03:33:52 CET)
Science evolves over a gentle arc spanning centuries, with scientists building upon and extending the hypotheses and discoveries of their forebears when nurturing their own work from ideation to crystallization and finally implementation. However, evidence suggests several limitations of our modern academic pursuits including major inertia and epistemological biases to implement even major advancements. For instance, the transformative uncertainty principles of quantum mechanics are yet to be satisfactorily integrated in modern analyses and publications, even almost a century after Heisenberg received the Nobel prize for these. Another example is ever expanding reliance on mathematics to validate the hypotheses of Physics, and undermine the opinions to the contrary. In addition, modern science limits itself to the era post fifteenth century and hastily rejects premodern achievements despite glaring examples. This reluctance and inertia to capitalize on existing knowledge is a challenge that imperils our intellectual pursuits. A salient facet of science is "the willingness to admit ignorance". Only on this foundational principle can science meaningfully evolve. It is time we take a step back to evaluate widely accepted and foundational premises of modern science and institute structured processes to implement the treasure trove of knowledge amassed by our predecessors. This essay highlights some of the opportunities that can and should be availed capitalizing upon the recent developments of computational and analytical capabilities along with artificial intelligence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: household food waste; diets; food choices; dietary patterns
Online: 28 October 2022 (08:53:01 CEST)
Starting from an original survey conducted in eight countries in 2021 (Canada, China, Germany, Italy, Russia, Spain, UK, and USA), this research explores the relationship between household food waste and dietary habits in a cross-country comparative perspective. 8,000 questionnaires were recorded from samples representative of adult population of each country through an online survey conducted between the 13th and the 24th of August. The questionnaires were built on the work of Waste Watcher International Observatory on Food and Sustainability, an international observatory of social, behavioral and lifestyles dynamics behind household food waste. Relationship between per capita self-reported amount of food waste (expressed in kilocalories) and self-declared dietary habits (Traditional, Healthy and Sustainable, Vegetarian, Smart, Confused) was estimated using multiple linear regression models. Results show that Smart diets are associated with higher values of food waste in Canada, Spain, UK and USA. Vegetarian diets are associated to lower food waste values in China, Germany, UK and USA but not in Italy, Russia and Spain. Since the share of population adopting a Smart diet is on average 2.7% of the sample, interventions for food waste reduction should focus on this specific type of consumers, often associated to larger amounts of food waste.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0175.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: sexually transmitted infection (STI); HIV; viral hepatitis; transgender persons; in-depth interviews (IDIs); formative research
Online: 13 September 2022 (10:44:54 CEST)
Sexualized substance use (SSU) is the practice of psychotropic substance usage, before or during sexual intercourse in order to increase sexual pleasure and arousal. It has a strong association with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The present study aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the community health mobilizers about SSU through qualitative approach. Methodology: In-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with a total of nineteen community health mobilizers engaged in counselling of sexualized substance users. A semi-structured open-ended questionnaire with socio-demographic information and probes related to SSU was administered. Informed consent was taken from each participant prior to data collection. Results: Gender-wise distribution indicated that 47% of the community mobilizers are men, followed by transgender persons (32%), and women (21%). Responses of participants highlighted that alcohol consumption was the most observed form of SSU. The findings indicated that drug administration through injection was most common, followed by sniffing and swallowing. Sources of drug procurement enlisted by participants included peddlers, peer groups, sexual parties, medical and liquor stores. Only 63% of participants had fair knowledge about STIs such as HIV, viral hepatitis, syphilis, and gonorrhoea. All were familiar with the administration of naloxone injections and the locations of nearby hospitals where patients could be transported in the event of an overdose. Conclusions: This formative research demonstrated a knowledge gap in the community mobilizers regarding the latest substances of abuse, such as designer drugs, drug procurement sources, and various health issues associated with SSU. However, they were well aware of the drug overdose-related complications and basic first-aid procedures. The findings of the current study should be validated through multi-centric community-based research across the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0423.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Cross-border travel; Immunity certificate; Regional collaboration; Vaccination certificate; Vaccination passport; Asia
Online: 24 August 2022 (13:54:00 CEST)
COVID-19 vaccination certificates (CVCs) have played a key role in safe reopening of borders for international travel and trade, so understanding key stakeholder perceptions of enablers and barriers for their effective use is critical. The COVID-19 Vaccination Policy Research and Deci-sion-Support Initiative in Asia (CORESIA) was established to address policy questions related to CVCs. We conducted two online surveys, i.e., one for the public and one for health and non-health sector experts, from June to October 2021 in nine Asian countries. Descriptive analysis identified participants, enablers, and barriers. Most participants (78% public, 89% experts) accepted the use of CVCs, primarily to resume international travel (76%). Most respondents in both surveys wanted the minimum vaccination coverage to be 60% before CVCs were implemented nation-wide. Most of the public (82%) agreed to maintain existing non-pharmaceutical interventions, while most experts wanted risk-based testing and quarantine policy for incoming travellers (51%) and both digital and paper format CVCs (64%). Support for CVCs for international travel remains high in Asia. Recognising key enablers and barriers for effective use of CVCs from COVID-19 pandemic may help policymakers draft effective border policies for future epidemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0286.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Assistive Technology; Accessible Technology; Consumer Technologies; Provision, Policy; Funding
Online: 16 August 2022 (09:57:38 CEST)
Estimates by the World Health Authority suggest that 1 billion people do not have access to the assistive technologies they require. Over the past decade, the design of products that empower people with a disability has shifted from specialised and dedicated products designed only for those with a disability to features and functions integrated into cost-effective consumer technologies for the benefit of all. The opportunity for expansion of the availability of such technologies is at risk of being ignored as a result of models of delivery that are founded in medical devices and which have failed to reflect trends in our understanding of technology and the choices and preferences expressed by persons with a disability. This research undertaken suggests that the opportunities of such expansion offer significant benefits to people with a disability and better both economic and social return on investment for authorities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0223.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Behavioral nudges; water conservation; technology; water efficiency
Online: 11 August 2022 (13:37:12 CEST)
Growing water shortages for large regions of the arid regions of the world, are likely to become more recurrent as climate change impacts grow. Countries across the world are facing water security difficulties that stem from population growth, urbanization, and rapid industrialization. The use of behavioral nudges methods implemented to encourage a socially desired behavior at a low to zero cost, has been an effective method at reducing water consumption in places where they have been deployed. For example, studies in California USA, Barcelona Spain, and Australia indicate that adoption of nudges give significant positive results in water consumption reduction. We describe some of the barriers that make it difficult to implement behavioral nudges to address the water crises in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We investigate the literature available in Sub-Saharan Africa and discover that the application of behavioral nudges has been sparingly used for reasons that are not obvious at first glance. Second, we find that the potential impediments to the use of behavioral nudges in SSA to be awareness, inadequate access to science and technology, political systems that are poorly suited for implementing nudging, abundance of multiple ethnic groups that speak different languages, along with other barriers that could challenge implementation of behavioral nudges. In light of those barriers, we present a conceptual model with a potential to address these barriers to behavioral nudging a workable solution in SSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0375.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Community Engagement; Needs Assessment; Digital Tools; Indigenous Health; Data Sovereignty; Evaluation Framework.
Online: 22 December 2021 (16:25:57 CET)
In community-based participatory projects, needs assessments are one of the first steps to identify priority areas. Access-related issues often pose significant barriers to participation for rural and remote communities, particularly Indigenous communities which have a complicated relationship with academia due to a history of exploitation and trauma. In order to bridge this gap, work with Indigenous communities requires consistent and meaningful engagement. The prominence of digital devices (i.e., smartphones) offers an unparalleled opportunity to ethically and equitably engage citizens across jurisdictions, particularly in remote communities. We propose a framework to guide needs assessments which embed digital tools in partnership with Indigenous communities. Guided by this framework, a needs assessment was conducted with a subarctic Métis community in Saskatchewan, Canada. This project is governed by a Citizen Scientist Advisory Council which includes Traditional Knowledge Keepers, Elders, and youth. An environmental scan of relevant programs, key informant interviews, and focus groups were conducted to systematically identify community priority areas. Given the timing of the needs assessment, the community identified the Coronavirus pandemic as a key priority area requiring digital initiatives. Recommendations for community-based needs assessments to conceptualize and implement digital infrastructure are put forward, with an emphasis on self-governance and data sovereignty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0153.v1
Online: 9 December 2021 (13:12:10 CET)
This study evaluated the ranking of comprehensibility of the pictograms for judo, taekwondo, boxing, and wrestling used in the six games from the 27th Sydney Olympics in 2000 to the 32nd Tokyo Olympics in 2021. The evaluation was done using the Fuzzy TOPSIS method, one of the multi-criteria decision-making methodologies commonly used in economics and others fields. The results are as follows. The first, pictograms from the 2008 Beijing Olympics ranked first in three sports: taekwondo, boxing, and wrestling, but there were no pictograms that consistently ranked first or sixth in all sports. Second, the result of the sensitivity analysis shows a possibility that the ranking will be reversed if the weight of the evaluation factors changes, but in the 1000-time repetitive prediction, the better the evaluation ranking, the closer the value of the priority ranking to the ideal solution on average even if the weight changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: crowdfunding, COVID-19, GoFundMe, topic model, counterfactual
Online: 6 July 2021 (11:35:44 CEST)
While the long-term effects of COVID-19 are yet to be determined, its immediate impact on crowdfunding is nonetheless significant. This study takes a computational approach to more deeply comprehend this change. Using a unique data set of all the campaigns published over the past two years on GoFundMe, we explore the factors that have led to the successful funding of a crowdfunding project. In particular, we study a corpus of crowdfunded projects, analyzing cover images and other variables commonly present on crowdfunding sites. Furthermore, we construct a classifier and a regression model to assess the significance of features based on XGBoost. In addition, we employ counterfactual analysis to investigate the causality between features and the success of crowdfunding. More importantly, sentiment analysis and the paired sample t-test are performed to examine the differences in crowdfunding campaigns before and after the COVID-19 outbreak that started in March 2020. First, we note that there is significant racial disparity in crowdfunding success. Second, we find that sad emotion expressed through the campaign's description became significant after the COVID-19 outbreak. Considering all these factors, our findings shed light on the impact of COVID-19 on crowdfunding campaigns.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: mentorship; citations; bias; sexism; racism; equity; diversity; inclusion; wellbeing
Online: 22 February 2021 (16:17:45 CET)
Success and impact metrics in science are based on a system that perpetuates sexist and racist ‘rewards’ through prioritizing citations and impact factors. These metrics are flawed and biased against already marginalized groups and fail to accurately capture the breadth of individuals’ meaningful scientific impacts. We advocate shifting this outdated value system to advance science through principles of justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion. We outline pathways for a paradigm shift in academic values based on multidimensional mentorship and promoting mentee wellbeing. These actions will require collective efforts supported by academic leaders and administrators to drive essential systemic change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0147.v2
Online: 17 December 2020 (11:39:14 CET)
Postdocs who land faculty jobs at research-intensive institutions need to juggle several new large-scale tasks: identifying space and equipment needs for their lab, negotiating the hiring package, outfitting the lab with supplies, building a team, and learning to manage time in ways that can promote productivity and happiness. Here we share tips to help new hires think clearly about each of these tasks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0738.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: animal representation; animal-based foods; marketing; eggs; hen welfare
Online: 31 July 2020 (08:19:40 CEST)
How a species is represented by marketers of animal-based products both reflects and shapes how consumers think about that animal. By examining the explicit statements, and implicit messages encoded in the imagery on supermarket egg boxes, this paper explores how hens are represented by whole egg retailers. Content analysis reveals two prominent messages purveyed through eggbox graphics, namely those pertaining to hen welfare and human health. The later disenfranchises hens from their products by focusing on the nutritional value of eggs, whereas the former reflects a public concern for the welfare of egg-laying hens. Although claims of improvements in welfare practices are undoubtedly exploited as marketing tools, they serve to raise awareness and drive competitors to adopt similar practices. Welfare claims are a direct response to public concerns about the plight of hens, and may positively influence industry welfare standards. However, idyllic depictions displayed on eggboxes also lull consumers into the belief that those eggs are an ethically sound food choice, regardless of the actual standard of living experienced by the hens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0129.v1
Online: 7 July 2020 (16:26:57 CEST)
The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic in a developing country like Bangladesh is enormous. A research conducted by South Asian network of Economic Modelling predicted that the pandemic could double the poverty. But it is not that only the socioeconomic condition is dropping in Bangladesh, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic is manifold. The poor condition of Bangladesh's health sector has also been exposed due to the pandemic. People are not getting proper treatment due to lack of isolation beds, oxygen, ICU etc. The health sector of Bangladesh is not much developed and now with this pandemic it has become impossible to provide treatment facility for all the patients. Education sector, which is the backbone of a country,has also been greatly affected by the pandemic. We know that different types of cultural occasions are an inherited tradition of Bangladesh, COVID-19 have not even spared these traditions, all the cultural programes and festivals have been cancelled due to this pandemic.In this paper, our aim is to present the present status of all these sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0332.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: social context; food value chains; impact assessment; Zimbabwe
Online: 28 June 2020 (09:34:50 CEST)
Investments in digital infrastructure in marginalised communities are set to increase in the next decade. These are premised on the potential of digital technologies to contribute towards solving societal problems, including the fragility of food value chains in rural areas. Although there are mixed empirical findings on the impact of these digital infrastructure investments, huge investments are continuing amid changing ICT policies in most developing countries. This paper, using a case study of a local livestock value chain in a rural community in Zimbabwe, argues for the application of non-conventional approaches towards digital infrastructure transformation impact assessment. Using selected theories and frameworks (socio-ecological systems framework, choice framework and technology affordances theory) as well as empirical data from a project in a rural community, the paper shows that real-time impact assessment using context-specific metrics may reveal hidden digital infrastructure transformation impacts, positive and negative, that are often overlooked when traditional impact assessment approaches are employed. The findings of this study contribute towards improving approaches towards ICT impact assessment. Practitioners engaging in impact assessment are challenged to move beyond dependence on traditional metrics (e.g. access) to the adoption of participatory processes to decipher context-appropriate metrics.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: spatial village planning; coastal areas; local community; indicators of village planning; GIS application; GIS layers; territorial development
Online: 12 January 2020 (13:38:08 CET)
Spatial planning processes generally consider three levels of planning, which are applied to three types of territory: state, county and city. As the coastal areas are of a significant natural, cultural, economic and social value, as well as are characterized by a diverse range of involved society with specific interests and needs, there is a necessity for an innovative and new approach to sustainable development planning in accordance with the modern age of growth, as well as to work with local communities in specific areas. Planning of a small populated area like village territory is more diverse and subject to the wishes and needs of the population. Small territory planning involves a very narrow circle of individuals or communities that identify spatial development needs for the future, including socio-economic, cultural, and environmental and climate change scenarios. In order to assess the development opportunities and needs of the area, it is necessary to monitor the area by regularly updating data. As it is well known, methodically derived data (facts) provide objectivity and transparency. Nowadays, when information about the present and the past is circulating very fast, it is possible to analyze the current situation, to forecast the future using databases, and to show several constructed realities (scenarios) using the geographic information system (GIS). Therefore, it is crucial to explore and find out the local needs-based planning approach to the development of village in coastal areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0101.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: academic-procrastination; anxiety; gender; perfectionism; statistics
Online: 6 August 2018 (08:44:19 CEST)
This study contended that learning statistics and its rudiments were perceived as complicated compared to some other courses offered at the university level. Further, this investigation contested the existence of statistics anxiety among postgraduate students in an in-site university setting. Relationships and differences were determined in this study utilizing the constructs of antecedents of statistics anxiety namely academic procrastination, perfectionism, and gender. The objectives were (1) to establish the relationship between academic procrastination and statistics anxiety; (2) to find out the relationship between perfectionism and statistics anxiety; and (3) to investigate the differences between gender and statistics anxiety. The data from randomly selected 136 postgrad students (Kampala International University, Uganda) referring to dispositional (procrastination and perfectionism) and environmental antecedents (gender) and statistics anxiety were scientifically elicited, processed and analyzed utilizing the quantitative- post positivist’s research paradigm model. The findings revealed a positive but insignificant relationship between academic procrastination and statistics anxiety; a significant adverse correlation between perfectionism and statistics anxiety; an insignificant positive correlation existed between gender and statistics anxiety, and differences in statistics anxiety between the female and male students existed. Notably from the results then, academic procrastination did not significantly affect the students’ statistics anxiety; the students with higher levels of perfectionism tended to have lower levels of statistics anxiety while the levels of statistics anxiety among the female students were slightly greater than that of the male students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0594.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: cheating behavior, cheating during exam, 2nd medical laboratory
Online: 30 July 2018 (15:30:30 CEST)
Cheating during examination is now day serious problem spatially in Ethiopia where many students sit in one class to exam. When cheating occurs in medical schools, it has serious consequences for human life, social values, and the economy. Even though, cheating on exams has existed in any department, with unknown reason, prevalence of cheater among 2nd year laboratory students were high. So that assessing factors and improving cheating behavior of the students are mandatory to create competitive graduated students. To identify factors and to improve cheating behavior action research study design was conducted among 2nd year medical laboratory student. Criterion sampling technique was used to selects sixteen cheater students among 2nd year laboratory students. To gather necessary data, we used focus group discussions, individual interview and observation and collected information by using hand writing notes. During exam different cheating methods used by students like using a system of signals, writing on hands, desks and copy the other students answer. While the compelling reasons for cheating were like hard courses, hard exams, time pressure and fear of failure. To improve cheating behavior of the student’s different action strategies were taken like prepared exam by using code, arrangement sitting style during exam and sit with brainy students during class, reading and discussion. Most students were trying to done exam by themselves but their results are not good as previously. So that, we need more future action plan to avoid cheating behavior of the students. During, the next action plan we will be taken the remaining main action strategies and action evaluation we will be expected 50% of participants will be avoided their cheater behavior and done exam independently without forced by the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0104.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: ethics; community; refusal; consent; peer review; community peer review
Online: 7 June 2018 (07:35:48 CEST)
Community peer review is a method that extends the ethics of consent into scientific practices. It gives communities affected by scientific research the ability to determine whether research may cause them harm and be part of determining how knowledge should best circulate to reduce or eliminate that harm. This paper introduces the method of community peer review by first looking at the concepts of consent and refusal, then outlining the steps to community peer review, using a case study of community meetings on a study of plastic ingestion by fish to elucidate the details of each step. Steps include: hiring a community member to the team; researching the social, cultural, and economic contexts of the community; identify the community; ensure skills for community conversation are in place; call the community meeting; conduct the community meeting; and analyze feedback for consent and refusal. Community peer review is premised on the idea that research is not inherently good and can cause harm, and that the best people to know whether and what kinds of harms are likely to occur are community members rather than researchers. The second premise is that the researcher’s “right” to research never supersedes a community’s right to not be harmed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0135.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: visually handicapped; visually handicapped sportsman; rosenberg self- esteem
Online: 9 May 2018 (04:50:46 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to examine the self-esteem levels of visually handicapped individuals who do sports and do’t do sports. There were 106 sportsmen and 94 persons with visual handicapped (200 in total) who participated in the research clubs in the province of Izmir. As the sub-problems, the relationship between the genders of participant who visually handicapped and not visually handicapped was investigated. The study consists of two parts. In the first part, the demographic characteristics of the participants were determined; in the second part Rosenberg Self Value scale consisting of 10 questions was used. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18.00 package program. T test, correlation analysis, descriptive statistics were applied to test hypotheses of the study. The research found that there is a significant difference between the self-esteem levels of individuals with and without visually handicapped sports (P <0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between the self-esteem levels of the sportsmen and the sportswomen (P> 0,05). There was no significant difference in the self-esteem levels of visually handicapped individuals who played individual sports and team sports (P> 0,05). As a result, it has been seen that sports have a positive effect on self-esteem in visually handicapped individuals and they contribute and hold to life more meaningful.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0168.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: stakeholders; community college; value; perspectives and recommendations
Online: 26 November 2017 (13:20:28 CET)
In 2002, the Higher Learning Commission, a regional accrediting agency in the US, placed the community college in this study on academic probation for several criteria and many residents of the community believed that closing doors was the best option for addressing these concerns. This study is designed to ascertain data from external stakeholders of the community college regarding their current perceived value of the community college and suggestions about moving from the present to the future. The main question of the study is: What are external stakeholders’ perceptions of the value of the college to the service area? This qualitative approach is used consisting of interviews, focus groups, surveys, and document review to triangulate stakeholder perspectives. Participants included 176 high school seniors from different counties, four counselors, and four focus groups. The findings from the data are presented in this study are planned to be used by community college officials to incorporate into their strategic plans. They showed that the college needs to consider the value that it brings to the service area including economic benefits, specifically community support; accessibility; and cost of tuition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0198.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Sustainability; energy sources; renewable sources; energy efficiency; energy demand
Online: 31 October 2017 (16:12:05 CET)
Sustainability of current energy policies and known mid-term policies are analised in their multiple facets. First an overview is given about the trend of global energy demand and energy production, analysing the share of energy sources and the geographic distribution of demand, on the basis of statistics and projections published by major agencies. The issue of sustainability of the energy cycle is finally addressed, with specific reference to systems with high share of renewable energy and storage capability, highlighting some promising energy sources and storage approaches.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0148.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: MERS; Emergency Risk Communication; Communication and Coordination; Qatar; media monitoring; epidemic
Online: 29 September 2017 (04:13:27 CEST)
This case study is the first to be developed in the Middle East region to describe the timeline of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) epidemic events in Qatar along with the features of the implemented Emergency Risk Communication (ERC) activities. It sought to describe how the performed ERC strategy particularly during the first days (then over the course of the following phases) of the outbreak might have contributed to the authorities’ credibility, public trust, and outbreak control measures despite the overwhelming uncertainty. All of the relevant news stories during the period 24 Sep 2012 to 17 Mar 2014 were retrieved from a local daily, then were analyzed and interpreted before they were compiled and matched with the issued press releases, records of response activities and the public reactions along the course of the epidemic timeline. Despite the prevailing uncertainty, the health authorities’ early preparedness to the epidemic and its commitment to a proactive and open ERC strategy since the first days of the outbreak favored the authorities’ credibility and allowed for the quick initiation of the national response efforts during the course of the outbreak. However, there was some pitfalls as the print media reported some conflicting messages and paternalist approach during the early phases of the epidemic. Reliance solely on the print media is an acknowledged limitation to this study. Yet, it might be useful for emergency planners regarding what communication challenges to expect during the first days of a novel virus or similar threats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0116.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: gaelic football; Australian rules football; performance analysis; player recruitment
Online: 11 August 2016 (10:32:35 CEST)
It has often been said that Gaelic football (GF) and Australian Rules Football (ARF) are similar sports, and amateur Gaelic footballers have been recruited to play in the professional Australian Football League. Using Wilcoxons’s test, the significant (p < 0.05) factors differentiating winning and losing performance in ARF were indirectly compared to the differentiating factors between winning and losing in GF. Of the 15 key performance indicators (KPIs) that were seen to be significant between ARF teams, six (40 %) were also seen to be significant in discriminating between winning and losing GF teams. A Mann-Whitney U test was then completed to directly compare ARF and GF, twenty-six of the 30 KPIs were seen to be significantly different to each other (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that recruiting a Gaelic footballer based on the belief that their Gaelic background will aid their transition to ARF is not an appropriate decision. Instead, staying with more traditional methods of talent identification – for example anthropometric measurements – is advocated until further research is undertaken in this area.