ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0234.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: submerged arc; heat resistant steel; square waveform welding; aggregate quality index; bay area; melting efficiency; process; model; process map
Online: 14 December 2021 (12:46:10 CET)
The demand for efficient processes through a comprehensive understanding and optimization of welding conditions continues to grow in the manufacturing industry. This study involves heat-resistant 2.25 Cr-1 Mo V-groove steel welding using the square-waveform alternating cur-rent. Experiments were conducted to build the relationship between input variables—such as current, frequency, electrode negativity ratio, and welding speed—and process performance, such as penetration, bay area, deposition rate, melting efficiency, percentage dilution, flux–wire ratio, and heat input. The process was analyzed in light of the defect-free high-deposition weld groove weld, the sensitivity to process parameters, and the optimization and development of the process map. The study proposes an innovative approach to reducing the cost and time of optimizing the one-pass-each-layer V-groove welding process using bead-on-plate welds. Square waveform welding creates a metallurgical notch in the form of a bay at the fusion boundary that can be minimized by selecting appropriate welding conditions. The square waveform submerged arc welding is more sensitive towards changes in current and welding speed than the frequency and electrode negativity ratio; however, the electrode negativity ratio and frequency are minor but helpful parameters to achieve optimal results. The proximity of the planned and experimental results to within 3% confirms the validity of the proposed approach. The investigation shows that 90% of the maximum deposition rate is possible for one-pass-each-layer V-groove welds within heat input and weld width constraints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0249.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: resistance projection welding; nugget size; maximum failure load; welding parameter
Online: 22 October 2018 (11:32:18 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to at first evaluate the influence of three key parameters including weld current, weld time and electrode force on nugget diameter and tensile strength in resistance projection welding. Then, a 2-D axis-symmetric finite element model is developed to simulate the projection welding and predict the nugget diameter. Finally, the FEM results are compared to experimental data to verify the simulation model and simulated results. In the finite element model, the temperature-dependent material properties were taken into account.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0274.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: welding thin sheets; constricted nozzle; TIG welding; EBSD; blowhole; heat input
Online: 24 October 2019 (05:55:00 CEST)
A study about influence of heat input on welding defects in vertical upward welding position for dissimilar material and thickness using a new variation of TIG welding torch is done with support of advanced inspection methods SEM and EBSD. With vertical upward welding position, control heat input plays an important role to keep the weld stabilization without defects. On the other hand, TIG welding process using a conventional TIG torch (conventional TIG welding process) has low efficiency and it is difficult to control heat input with high accuracy. So, it is considered that using conventional TIG torch is still a challenge for welding thin plates. In this case, a new variation of TIG torch has been developed. This torch used a constricted nozzle to improve plasma arc characteristics. As a result, it can control efficiently the heat input to prevent the excessive or insufficiency for joining thin sheets. For evaluation of welding quality, advanced examination methods SEM and EBSD were applied to directly observe the welding defects. From the results, the formation mechanism of blowhole inside weld zone in case of welding dissimilar material and thickness was discussed. It is pointed out that when sufficient welding current, the change from weld zone to base metal is uniform, no welding defects such as blowhole was seen. However, in case of low welding current, the thinner base metal is insufficient fusion and the change between weld zone and base metal is not uniform. The blowhole was observed at SS400 material side.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0263.v1
Online: 28 January 2018 (16:54:46 CET)
An important surgical goal is to provide a first intention wound healing without trauma produced by sutures and for this aim in the past several methods have been tested. The aim of this preliminary ex vivo study is to demonstrate the capacity of a 1070 nm pulsed fiber laser to treat the dental fractures by dentine melting with the apposition of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles as filler. Only the specimens of the group b showed a real process of welding of the two parts, while specimens of groups a and c did not reach a complete welding process. Out of thirty freshly-extracted human third molars, decay-free, twenty-four cylinders of 5 mm thickness were obtained to perform the test. The device used was a 1070 nm Yb-doped pulsed fiber laser: this source has a maximum average output power of 20 W and a fixed pulse duration of 100 ns, while the repetition rate ranges from 20 kHz to 100 kHz. The samples were divided in three groups (a, b, c) of eight teeth and each specimen, with the two portions strictly placed side by side, was put inside the box and irradiated three times, the first and the second at 30 kW and the last at 10 kW power. The frequency was maintained at 20 kHz for all the tests as well as the speed of the beam at 10 mm/sec. The samples of the group a were irradiated without apposition, in the group b nanoparticles (<200 nm) of hydroxyapatite were put in the gap between the two portions while in the group c, a powder of hydroxyapatite was employed. Only the specimens of the group b showed a real process of welding of the two parts, while specimens of groups a and c did not reach a complete welding process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0129.v1
Online: 5 September 2020 (07:57:44 CEST)
Welded structures are subjected to internal residual stress after manufacturing that may affect the structural strength and normally are associated with an increase on initial geometrical imperfections. This study presents a simplified method to generate an adequate representation of residual stresses on Finite Element models for structural analysis of thin-walled structures and other applications. The results obtained shown that the methodology proposed to introduce residual stresses is simple, accurate and efficient on the modulation of post-welding stresses and their pattern, thus it may be used for simulation of the thermal process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0701.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Plasma arc welding; thermodynamic; material flow; velocity distribution; welding current, Marangoni force; Shear force
Online: 30 July 2021 (12:34:53 CEST)
The material flow dynamic and velocity distribution on the melted domain surface play a crucial role on the joint quality and formation of welding defects. In this study, authors investigated the effects of the low and high currents of plasma arc welding on the material flow and thermodynamics of molten pool and its relationship to the welding defects. The high-speed video camera (HSVC) was used to observe the convection of the melted domain and welded-joint appearance. Furthermore, to consider the Marangoni force activation, the temperature on the melted domain was measured by a thermal HSVC. The results revealed that the velocity distribution on the weld surface was higher than that inside the molten weld pool due to the difference of the massive density between the air and the steel. Moreover, in the case of low welding current (80A) the convection speed of molten was faster than that of the high welding current case (160A) owing to the difference of main driving forces direction and strength, which leading to undercut and humping defects on the weld surface and excessive convex (burn-through) defect at the bottom weld side, respectively. The medium welding current (120A) had two convection patterns with the main flow in backward direction, which resulted in better welding quality without defect. The interaction between the shear force and Marangoni force played a solid state on the convection and heat transportation processes in the plasma arc welding process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0226.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: friction stir welding; TIG welding; friction stir processing; dissimilar alloys; aluminium alloys; mechanical properties; microstructure
Online: 25 October 2019 (12:08:31 CEST)
There is an increase towards reducing the weight of structures through the use of aluminium alloys in different industries like aerospace, automotive, etc. This growing interest would lead towards using dissimilar aluminium alloys which would require welding. TIG and friction stir welding are the well-known techniques that are currently suitable for joining dissimilar aluminium alloys. The welding of dissimilar alloys has its own dynamics which impact on the quality of the weld. This then suggests that there should be a process which can be used to improve the dissimilar alloys welds post their production. Friction stir processing is viewed as one of the techniques that could be used to improve the mechanical properties of the material. This paper reports on the status and the advancement of FSW, TIG and FSP technique. It further looks at the variation use of FSP on TIG and FSW welded joints with the purpose of identifying the knowledge gap.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0443.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Laser welding; Cu-Al welding; green laser; Micro-structure analysis; Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS))
Online: 23 August 2021 (13:28:28 CEST)
In laser joining of copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) sheets, the Al sheet is widely chosen as the top surface for laser irradiation because of increased absorption of laser beam and lower melting temperature of Al in contrast to Cu. This research focus on welding from Cu side to Al sheet. The main objective of irradiating the laser beam from the copper side (Cu on top) is to exploit higher solubility of Al in Cu. A significantly lower laser power can be used with 515 nm laser in comparison to 1030 nm. In addition to low laser power, a stable welding is obtained with 515 nm. Because of this advantage, 515 nm is selected for the current research. By fusion of Cu and Al the two sheet metals are welded, with presence of beneficial Cu solid solution phase and Al+Al2Cu in the joint with the brittle phases intermixed between the ductile phase. Therefore the mixed composition strengthens the joint. However excessive mixing leads to formation of more detrimental phases and less ductile phases. Therefore optimum mixing must be maintained. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis indicate that large amount of beneficial Cu solid solution and Al rich phases is formed in the strong joint. From the tensile shear test for a strong joint, fracture is obtained on the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of Al. Therefore the key for welding from copper side is to have optimum melt with beneficial phases like Cu and Al+ Al2Cu and the detrimental phases intermixed between the ductile phases
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0533.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: laser beam welding; welding with gap; keyhole dynamics; pore formation; multiphysical simulation; CFD; process optimization; mesh refinement
Online: 23 February 2021 (19:06:04 CET)
Keyhole laser beam welding (LBW) of stainless steel sheets with a gap in between is numerically simulated with a three-dimensional, transient multi-physical model for laser material processing. At first, the model’s ability to reproduce experimental results on a relatively coarse computational mesh within reasonable computing time, so as to serve as process optimization tool, is presented. An example of process optimization, where a given set of weld seam quality criteria is fulfilled by iteratively optimizing a secondary laser beam, is shown. The relatively coarse mesh, in combination with a good model calibration to the experimental conditions, allows for sufficiently fast simulations to use this approach for optimization tasks. Finally, using a finer spatial and temporal discretization, the dynamic processes in the vicinity of the keyhole leading to the formation of pores are investigated. The physical phenomena predicted by the simulation are coherent with experimental observations found in literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0220.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel; multi-strand composite welding wire; EBSD; welding thermal cycle; mechanical property; microstructure
Online: 21 August 2019 (03:34:18 CEST)
A multi-strand composite welding wire was applied to join high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel, and microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated. The electrical signals demonstrate that the welding process using a multi-strand composite welding wire is highly stable. The welded joints are composed of columnar austenite and dendritic ferrite and welded joints obtained under high heat input and cooling rate have a noticeable coarse-grained heat-affected zone and larger columnar austenite in weld seam. Compared with welded joints obtained under the high heat input and cooling rate, welded joints have the higher fractions of deformed grains, high angle grain boundaries, Schmid factor and the lower dislocation density under the low heat input and cooling rate, which indicate a lower tensile strength and higher yield strength. The rotated goss (GRD) orientation of a thin plate and the cube (C) orientation of a thick plate are obvious after welding, but the S orientation at 65° sections of Euler’s space is weak. The δ-ferrite was studied based on the primary ferrite solidification mode. It is observed that low heat input and high cooing rate result in the increasing of δ-ferrite and high dislocation density was obtained in grain boundaries of δ-ferrite. M23C6 precipitates due to low cooling rate and heat input in weld seam and deteriorates the elongation of welded joints. The engineering stress-strain curves also show the low elongation and tensile strength of welded joints under low heat input and cooling rate, which is mainly caused by the high fraction of δ-ferrite and the precipitation of M23C6.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0252.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Explosive welding; heat treatment; Inconel; steel; microstructure
Online: 20 December 2018 (13:04:18 CET)
In this investigation steel P355NH has been successfully cladded with Inconel 625 through the method of explosive welding. Explosively welded bimetal clad-plate was subjected to the two separated post weld heat treatment processes: stress relief annealing (at 620oC for 90 minutes) and normalizing (at 910oC for 30 minutes). In order to analyze the microstructure of the joint in the as-welded state and to investigate the influence of the post weld heat treatment on it, the light and scanning electron microscope observations and microhardness analysis have been performed. The examination of the diffusion zone microstructure has been performed by using the scanning transmission electron microscope. It was stated that obtained joint has characteristic wavy-shape geometry with the presence of the melted zones and severe deformed grains of both joined materials. Strain hardening of the materials in joint zone was established with microhardness analysis. In both of the heat treatments the changes in the grain structure have been observed. The normalizing heat treatment has the most significant impact on the microstructure of the joint as well as the concentration of the chemical elements in the joint zone. It was reported that due to normalizing the diffusion zone has been formed together with precipitates in the joint zone. The analysis of the diffusion zone images leads to the conclusion that the diffusion of alloying elements from Inconel 625 to steel P355NH takes place along the grain boundaries with additional formation of the voids in this area. The precipitates in Inconel 625 in the joint zone are two type of carbides – chromium-rich and molybdenum-rich. Scanning transmission electron microscope observation of the grain microstructure in the diffusion zone shows that this area consists of equiaxed grains (from the side of Inconel 625 alloy) and columnar grains (from the side of steel P355NH).
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: friction stir welding; aluminum alloy; preheating; mechanical properties; microstructure
Online: 14 February 2020 (03:02:51 CET)
In this paper, the effect of preheating on the mechanical properties and micro structure of similar friction stir welded AA6061 aluminum alloys sheets was investigated. Aluminum alloy 6061 sheets with a thickness of 5 mm and threaded cylindrical pins were used. Rotation and traverse speeds were 1200 rpm and 75 mm/min, respectively. The results of tensile tests performed on the welded samples showed that compared to the non-preheated samples, preheating had increased the strength and elongation of the joints by 58% and 46%, respectively. In the present study, during the welding process preheating cause emerged heat with lower slope from stir zone. This phenomenon may result in Increase the deformation resistance of material and consequently decrease of grain size. This grain refinement can improve the mechanical properties of welds. Accordingly, hardness and strength of the material will be increased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1020052
Online: 4 September 2019 (00:00:00 CEST)
When a railway vehicle moves on a curved rail, sliding contact occurs between the rail head side and wheel flange, which wears the wheel flange down. The thinned flange needs to be restored above the required minimum thickness for structural safety. In this study, a new process and welding wire for restoring worn-out railway wheels by submerged arc welding was developed. To characterize the properties of the restored wheel, dilatometric analysis of phase transformation, SEM/EDX analyses, hardness measurement, and residual stress measurement using the X-ray diffraction method were performed. Finally, wear tests with full-size wheel/rail specimens were carried out. It was confirmed that the weld metal was composed of bainitic microstructures as intended, and welding defects were not observed. The wear amount of the restored wheel was greater than that of the base material, but it was less than half of the wear depth of the weld-repaired wheel with ferritic–pearlitic microstructures. The developed process seems applicable to industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0411.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Automotive; Resistance Spot Welding; Quality Assurance; Quality Monitoring; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 27 October 2021 (13:27:03 CEST)
Resistance spot welding is an established joining process in the production of safety-relevant components in the automotive industry. Therefore, a consecutive process monitoring is essential to meet the high-quality requirements. Artificial neural networks can be used to evaluate the process parameters and signals to ensure the individual spot weld quality. The predictive accuracy of such algorithms depends on the provided training data set and the prediction of untrained data is challenging. The aim of this paper is to investigate the extrapolation capability of the multi-layer perceptron model. That means, that the predictive performance of the model will be tested with data that clearly differs from the training data in terms of material and coating composition. Therefore, three multi-layer perceptron regression models were implemented to predict the nugget diameter from process data. The three models were able to predict the trained datasets very well. The models, which were provided with features from the dynamic resistance curve predicted the new dataset better than the model with only process parameters. This study shows the beneficial influence of the process signals on the predictive accuracy and robustness of artificial neural network algorithms. Especially, when predicting a data set from outside of the training space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0047.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: horn design; ultrasonic welding; nonwoven fabric; micro-structure; tensile strength
Online: 5 June 2020 (14:01:01 CEST)
Nonwoven fabrics have been widely used in textile manufacturing industry as a sheet or web structure because of soft, water-repellent, recycle, ecological and resilient functions. Ultrasonic welding method has been applied for bonding nonwoven fabrics due to clean, fast and reliable approach. In this work, the ultrasonic stepped horn is designed to generate uniform amplitudes on the working surface by using finite element analysis (FEA) simulation. Chromium carbon steels are utilized to produce ultrasonic horns due to high wear resistant and hardness. Isotactic polypropylene nonwoven fabrics fabricated by spunbond process were bonded by continuous ultrasonic sewing machine. Ultrasonic horn with 70 mm in diameter working at 20 kHz, polypropylene (PP) nonwoven density of 80 gsm and various design of welding joints were applied. A typical image in the case of number one was investigated by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of inter-facial micro-structure. However, welding joints of totally eight roller patterns was test the tensile strength of the ultrasonic welding joints on PP nonwoven fabrics. The tensile strength of the welding joints is proportional to the area ratio between the welding area and cycling area. The results showed that the melted zone without welding defects such as crack or blowhole can be seen. Furthermore, the tensile strength of welding joints in eight cases of roller patterns (No.1-No.8) was described in details. The ultrasonic welding joints with brick structures give higher tensile strength while the solid line in the pattern gave less strength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0108.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Pin geometry; friction stir spot welding; mechanical properties; aluminum alloy
Online: 20 December 2016 (11:15:04 CET)
Aluminum alloy Al 2024-T3 were successfully joined using friction stir spot jwelding joining (FSSW). Satisfactory joint strengths were obtained at different welding parameters (tool rotational speed, tool plunge depth, dwell time) and tool pin profile (straight cylindrical, triangular and tapered cylindrical). Resulting joints were welded with welded zone. The different tools significantly influenced the evolution on the stir zone in the welds. Lap-shear tests were carried out to find the weld strength. Weld cross section appearance observations were also done. The macrostructure shows that the welding parameters have a determinant effect on the weld strength (x: the nugget thickness, y: the thickness of the upper sheet and SZ: stir zone). The main fracture mode was pull out fracture modes in the tensile shear test of joints. The results of tensile shear tests showed that the tensile-shear load increased with increasing rotational speed in the shoulder penetration depth of 0.2 mm. Failure joints were obrerved in the weld high shoulder penetration depth and insufficient tool rotation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0100.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Process monitoring; Welding; Additive manufacturing; Digitization; Sensors; Industry 4.0; Digital twin.
Online: 6 October 2021 (10:23:59 CEST)
Welding processes offer a unique capability with a wide range of applications in industries. In recent times, welding has established itself as a tool for large scale additive manufacturing. In general, the quality and repeatability assurance for welding and specifically for additive manufacturing necessitates integrating process monitoring techniques with existing welding and additive manufacturing processes. The process-specific signals such as welding current fluctuations, temperature, and acoustic, generated during the welding operations, make them a suitable candidate for digitization. This chapter comprehensively describes the process monitoring techniques relevant to welding and additive manufacturing. Firstly, various sensors used during welding are described for their construction and working. Subsequently, specific applications of the sensors in digitizing the welding processes are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0382.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: stainless steel; metal inert gas welding; dissimilar welds; microstructure; mechanical properties
Online: 22 September 2021 (11:56:45 CEST)
The present study utilizes a metal inert gas welding (MIG) to make a dissimilar weld joint of different stainless steel grades AISI 304, 314, 316L, 420 and a standard structural steel S355MC to estimate the correlation of a microstructure and the mechanical properties. The microstructure of the base metals (BM), the heat affected zone (HAZ), the fusion zone (FZ) and the weld seam were analyzed using optical microscopy. Optical microscopy did not reveal any presence of weld defects such as porosity or cracks. The analysis of microstructure showed that both the austenitic and martensitic stainless steel weld structures contain some retained delta ferrite and coarse Me23C6 carbides in the HAZ, while the FZ exhibits delta ferrite and some retained austenite. The hardness profiles revealed difference between austenitic and martensitic steel welds that the later showed extremely high values in the HAZ (~500 HV/0.1) which causes fracture in this zone. The welds of all austenitic steel grades withstood tensile test, showing the average tensile strength of 472 MPa with fracture observed in the base metal zone. It made clear that the use of a filler rod 308LSI is suitable only for the austenitic stainless and structural steel dissimilar welds, and not appropriate for martensitic-structural steel welds. The achieved results revealed that the higher hardness of the martensitic phase in the HAZ of AISI 420 is closely related with the formation of untempered coarse martensitic structure and higher carbon content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0738.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Wire-filling laser welding; Quenching; Process parameters; Grain diameter; Retained austenite
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:44:24 CEST)
With the aim to investigate the effect of parameter and quenching process on the joint of hot stamping steel by laser welding, the BR1500HS boron steel was welded by filling-wire laser welding with ER70-G welding wire under different parameters. The welded specimens were heated to 900℃ and held for 5min before water quenching. The universal material test machine, Optical micro-scope, Vickers hardness tester, scanning electron microscope and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) were used to characterize. The results showed that the macroscopic morphology of fusion zone (FZ) becomes from funnelform to hyperbolic curve shape when heat input increases and from hyperbolic curve shape to funnelform when wire-feed speed increases. The strength after quenching is more than 1557Mpa at heat input of 1040J/cm, wire feeding speed of 1.6m/min~1.8m/min and welding speed of 1.5m/min. EBSD test showed that the FZ and fine grain zone (FGZ) have more retained austenite (RA) than coarse grain zone (CGZ) before quenching and RA in FZ and heat affect zone (HAZ) decreased and distributed uniformed after quenching. The grain diameter in FZ distribute unevenly, with the maximum grain diameter larger than 40μm before quenching. After quenching, the grain diameter of FZ, HAZ and BM is more even and coarse grains in the FZ was refined. Before quenching, the microhardness of FZ and HAZ is of 450HV~500HV at different heat input and wire-feed speed and all region of joint keeps at 450HV~550HV after quenching. Most dimple and little river pattern in the joint fracture mor-phology before quenching indicates a well plasticity and most cleavage facet is observed after quenching due to the joint combine with martensite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0156.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: tensile strength; flexural strength; friction stir welding; microstructure; dissimilar aluminium alloys
Online: 12 December 2019 (01:58:14 CET)
Welding of dissimilar aluminium alloys has been a challenge for a long period until the discovery of the solid state welding technique called friction stir welding (FSW). The discovery of this technique encouraged different research interests revolving around the optimization of this technique. This involves the welding parameters optimization and this optimization is categorized into two classes i.e. similar alloys and dissimilar alloys. This paper reports about the mechanical properties of the friction stir welded dissimilar AA1050-H14 and AA5083-H111 joint. The main focus is to compare the mechanical properties of specimens extracted from different locations of the welds i.e. the beginning, middle and the end of the weld. The specimen extracted at the beginning of the weld showed low tensile properties compared to specimens extracted from different locations of the weld. There was no certain trend noted through the bending results. All three specimens showed dimpled fracture which is the characterization of the ductile fracture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0311.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: laser; welding; LBW; model; microstructure; bead seam; wobble strategy; Inconel 718
Online: 20 June 2018 (05:12:19 CEST)
A numerical model was developed for predicting the bead geometry and microstructure in Laser Beam Welding of 2 mm thickness Inconel 718 sheets. The experiments were carried out with a 1 kW maximum power fiber laser coupled with a galvanometric scanner. Wobble strategy was employed for sweeping 1 mm wide circular areas for creating the weld seams and a specific tooling was manufactured for supplying protective Argon gas during the welding process. The numerical model takes into account both the laser beam absorption and the melt-pool fluid movement along the bead section, resulting in a weld geometry that depends on the process input parameters, such as feed rate and laser power. The microstructure of the beads was also estimated based on the cooling rate of the material. Features as bead upper and bottom final shapes, weld penetration and dendritic arm spacing were numerically and experimentally analyzed and discussed. The results given by the numerical analysis agree with the tests, making the model a robust predictive tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0222.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: aluminum alloy; electromagnetic forming; friction stir welding; heat treatment; secondary phase
Online: 27 March 2018 (11:11:35 CEST)
Among all the processing technologies of heat-treatable aluminum alloys like 2219 aluminum alloy, using friction stir welding (FSW) as the joining technology and using electromagnetic forming (EMF) for plastic forming technology both have obvious advantages and successful applications. Therefore, there is a broad prospect for the compound technologies which can be used on the 2219 aluminum alloy to manufacture the large-scale thin-wall parts in the astronautic industry. The microstructure and mechanical properties of 2219 aluminum alloy under the process compounded of FSW, heat treatment, and EMF were investigated by means of tensile test, optical microscope (OM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that the reduction of strength, which was caused during the FSW process, can be recovered effectively by the post-welding heat treatment composed of solid solution and aging, while the ductility was still reduced after heat treatment. Under the compound technology of FSW, heat treatment, and EMF, the forming limit of 2219 aluminum alloy decreased distinctly due to the poor ductility of the welding joint. A ribbon-pattern, which was formed due to the banded structure caused by FSW process, was found on the fracture surface of welded 2219 aluminum alloy after EMF treatment. During the EMF process, because of the effects of induced eddy current, a unique structure, which was manifested as a molted-surface appearance under the SEM observation, was formed as the material fractured.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0317.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Plasma keyhole arc welding; X-ray observation; Heat transportation; Eddy; Convective pattern
Online: 20 March 2020 (13:03:13 CET)
This investigation aims to discuss the formation process of eddies and the heat transportation in plasma keyhole arc welding. In order to clarify this issue, the measurement of the convection inside the weld pool, the convection on the weld pool surface, also the temperature distribution on the weld pool surface were carried out. The results showed that two eddies were found in the weld pool, which is controlled mainly through the shear force by the plasma flow acting on the weld pool surface. The magnitude, extent and direction of the shear force are thought to be determined primarily by the variation of keyhole profile. The relative shape and strength of each eddy is largely changed depending on the change of the keyhole profile when nozzle diameter changed. These relative strengths of each eddy are considered to decisively govern the heat transport in the weld pool coinciding with the direction of eddies. A larger eddy near the lower part of the keyhole inside the weld pool was found out in the case of 1.6 mm, meanwhile a upward larger eddy was found out near the upper part of the keyhole inside the weld pool in the case of 2.4 mm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0039.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: friction stir-welding; aluminum-copper; SKP; corrosion test; electrochemical; tool travel speed
Online: 4 December 2018 (02:57:09 CET)
The aim of this work is to assess the influence of Friction Stir Welding (FSW), process parameters, optimized tool traveling speed, and corrosion resistance of the 0.95 Mg-Al-alloy and pure copper weldment. Samples of aluminum-copper with and without deformation were characterized to investigate the metallurgical effects created during the welding deformation process. Effect of process parameters on microstructure and corrosion rate have been investigated for all the samples. All the electrochemical and polarization tests were done in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) was done to detect the localized corrosion on the surface. Optical micrography observation indicated that the primary α-Al phase, which was formed during solidification can effectively limit the growth of Cu9Al4 phase. Finer acicular α-Al precipitates were observed in CuAl matrix during joining process that tends to coarser with the increase in tools travel speed. The electrochemical and polarization results showed that among all the tool travelling speed the specimen joined at tool travelling speed of 40 mm/min shows the best non-corrosive property.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Laser welding; Dual phase steel; Similar/dissimilar welded joints; Microhardness; Tensile properties; Fatigue
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:49:00 CET)
The aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure and the mechanical properties of la-ser-welded joints combined of DP800 and DP1000 high strength thin steel sheets. The welded joints (WJ) comprised of similar/dissimilar steels with similar/dissimilar thickness were consisted of different zones and exhibited similar microstructural characteristics. The trend of microhard-ness for all WJs was consistent, characterized of the highest value at hardening zone (HZ) and lowest at softening zone (SZ). The degree of softening was more severe and the size of SZ was wider in the WJ combinations of DP1000 than DP800. The tensile test fractures were located at the base material (BM) for all DP800 weldments, while the fractures occurred at the fusion zone (FZ) for the weldments with DP1000 and those with dissimilar sheet thicknesses. The DP800-DP1000 weldment presented similar yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) values but lower elongation (EI) in comparison with the DP800-DP800 weldment, which showed similar strength properties as the BM of DP800. However, the EI of DP1000-DP1000 weldment was much lower in comparison with the BM of DP1000. The DP800-DP1000 weldment with dissimilar thicknesses showed the highest YS and UTS values compared with the other weldments, but with the lowest EI. The fatigue fractures occurred at the WJ for all types of weldments. The DP800-DP800 weldment had the highest fatigue limit and DP800-DP1000 with dissimilar thick-nesses had the lowest fatigue limit. The fatigue crack initiated from the weld surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0457.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: diffusion welding; diffusion bonding; cross section width; aspect ratio; material thickness; thermocouple aging
Online: 29 February 2020 (09:01:14 CET)
Diffusion bonding is often used on pre-machined parts to generate internal cavities, e.g. for cooling injection molding tools close to the mold cavity. Only then, the workpieces are finished to their final dimensions. In the case of micro-process devices, however, it is essential to precisely control the deformation, as otherwise uncontrollable pressure losses will occur with channel cross-sections in the sub-millimeter range. Post-processing is not possible. The most important process parameters for diffusion bonding are temperature, dwell time and contact pressure, with the bonding temperature and contact pressure acting in opposite directions and showing a strong non-linear dependence on deformation. In addition, the deformation is influenced by a number of other factors such as the absolute size of the cross-section and the aspect ratio of the parts, the dimensions and distribution of the internal cross sections and the overall percentage of the cross-section to be bonded. In micro process engineering, small material cross-sections in the range of the materials microstructure can facilitate additional deformation mechanisms such as grain boundary sliding, which are not relevant at all for larger structures. For parts consisting of multiple layers, tolerances in thickness and roughness of multiple surfaces must be levelled, contributing to the percentaged deformation. This makes it difficult, especially in micro process engineering and in single or small series production, to determine suitable joining parameters in advance, which on the one hand do not cause unforeseen large deformations, but on the other hand reliably produce highly vacuum-tight components. Hence, a definition of a fixed percentaged deformation does not work for all kinds of components. This makes it difficult to specify parameters for surely obtain high-vacuum tight parts. For successful diffusion bonding, atoms must diffuse over the bonding planes, forming a monolithic part in which the original layers are no longer visible. Only then, mechanical properties identical to those of the base material, which has been subjected to identical heat treatment, can be achieved. In this paper, the impacts of different material cross section widths as well as of the aspect ratio on deformation were investigated. By accident, it was found that also accuracy of the temperature measurement may have a serious impact in terms of deformation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0371.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: non-destructive testing; weld seam contour; microfocus computed tomography; laser beam welding; Deep Learning
Online: 25 October 2021 (15:54:02 CEST)
In an industrial environment, the quality assurance of weld seams requires extensive efforts. The most commonly used methods for that are expensive and time-consuming destructive tests, since quality assurance procedures are difficult to integrate into production processes. Beyond that, available test methods allow only the assessment of a very limited set of characteristics. They are either suitable for determining selected geometric features or for locating and evaluating internal seam defects. The presented work describes an evaluation methodology based on microfocus X-ray computed tomography scans (µCT scans) which enable the 3D characterization of weld seams, including internal defects such as cracks and pores. A 3D representation of the weld contour, i.e., the complete geometry of the joint area in the component with all quality-relevant geometric criteria, is an unprecedented novelty. Both the dimensions of the weld seam and internal defects can be revealed, quantified with a resolution down to a few micrometers and precisely assigned to the welded component. On the basis of the methodology developed within the framework of this study, the results of the scans performed on the alloy AA 2219 can be transferred to other aluminum alloys. In this way, the data evaluation framework can be used to obtain extensive reference data for the calibration and validation of inline process monitoring systems employing Deep Learning-based data processing.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0158.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Samsung Note 7 Li-ion, Thermal runaway, Ceramic coating, battery, Tomographic image, Welding characterisation
Online: 21 December 2017 (17:32:42 CET)
Li-ion cell designs, component integrity and manufacturing processes all have critical influence on the safety of Li-ion batteries. Any internal defective features that induce a short circuit, can trigger a thermal runaway: a cascade of reactions, leading to a device fire. As consumer device manufacturers push aggressively for increased battery energy, instances of field failure are increasingly reported. Notably Samsung made a press release in 2017 following a total product recall of their Galaxy Note 7 mobile phone, confirming speculation that the events were attributable to the battery and its mode of manufacture. Recent incidences of battery swelling on the new iPhone 8 have been reported in the media, and the techniques and lessons reported herein may have future relevance. Here we look deeper into the key components of one of these cells and confirm evidence of cracking of electrode material in tightly folded areas, combined with a delamination of surface coating on the separator, which itself is an unusually thin monolayer. We report microstructural information about the electrodes, battery welding attributes and thermal mapping of the battery whilst operational. The findings point to the most likely combination of events and highlights the impact of design features, whilst providing structural considerations most likely to have led to the reported incidences relating to this phone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0207.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: press bending; orbital auto welding; steel-tube correction; STKN540B; high-strength steel tube; manufacturing process
Online: 16 December 2019 (06:20:58 CET)
The purpose of this study is to propose a consecutive manufacturing process system to secure the productivity of excellent STKN540B steel tube in the respect of economy and safety as the supporting material for mega structures such as building, bridge and ship. The components of consecutive manufacturing are press-bending, orbital auto welding and steel tube correction. By using STKN540B a high-strength steel material with low yield point that requires a special manufacturing process unlike other steel materials, an actual tube manufacturing is carried out at each stage in this experimental study. With this, the quality of steel tube and the efficiency of the manufacturing process are analyzed to draw out some points to improve in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Stainless Steel ASTM A312 Grade 304L, Under Salt Vapor; Corrosion Rate, Welding Procedure Specification, CFD Modeling
Online: 12 December 2018 (12:17:36 CET)
This work studied the corrosion of welded pipes and how welding destroyed surface film of pipes. Surface reaction of a welded pipe is key to understanding phenomena and important factors during the corrosion. This paper presents experiment and CFD modeling approaches of a welded pipe corrosion under salt vapor condition. The pipes were welded at currents of 60 A,70 A and 80 A to observe the effect of welding current on corrosion. A welded pipe is a stainless-steel ASTM A312 grade 304L and period of experiment about 0-600 hours that they are tested in vertical and horizontal alignments. In CFD software, there is not direct model of corrosion but it can use surface reaction and create add-on species and chemical reaction technique for imitating the corrosion mechanism. The modeling approaches of corrosion have presented in 3-dimensional transient times in CFD simulation. Surface reactions were performed by Species Model which involve site species. Site species in Species Model took place at gas-solid interfaces and in this case are salt vapor and surface pipe. Chemical reaction rate on the surface controls lost weight of a welded pipe and the model can be validated with experiment. In conclusion, in period 0-600 hours error between CFD modeling and experiment have error trend decreased. The error at 600 hours is 6% both of vertical pipe and horizontal pipe test. The modeling approaches closely with the performed experiment and can be accepted. Moreover, the model is able to predict corrosion of a welded pipe of different sizes and their lost weight after 600 hours without experiment. Also the model can predict lifetime of pipe.