ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0168.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: GNSS-R; ice sheet; TDS-1; greenland; altimetry
Online: 17 July 2017 (17:00:23 CEST)
Radar altimetry provides valuable measurements to characterize the state and the evolution of the Antartica and Greenland ice sheet cover. Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R) has the potential capacity of complementing the dedicated radar altimeters incrementing the temporal and spatial resolution of the surface height measurements. In this work we perform an study of the Greenland ice sheet using data obtained by the GNSS-R instrument aboard the British TechDemoSat-1 (TDS-1) satellite mission, designed primarily to provide sea state information, like sea surface roughness or wind, but not altimetric products. The data has been analyzed with altimetric methodologies, already proved in aircraft based experiments, to extract signal delay observables to be used to infer the topography of the Greenland cover. The penetration depth of the GNSS signals into ice has also considered. The topographic signal obtained is consistent with those obtained with other passive or active microwave sensors. The main conclusion derived from this work is that GNSS-R also provides valuable measurements of the ice sheet cover and, as taken at a variety of geometries and at least two frequency bands, they prospect different depths into the ice. They have thus potential to complement our understanding of the ice firn and its evolution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0196.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: ablation zone; Greenland; ice sheet; surface mass balance; mass balance; altimetry; albedo; scatterometry; lidar; sea level rise
Online: 20 August 2019 (02:55:39 CEST)
The Greenland Ice Sheet is now the largest land ice contributor to global sea level rise, largely driven by increased surface meltwater runoff from the ablation zone, i.e. areas of the ice sheet where annual mass losses exceed gains. This small but critically important area of the ice sheet has expanded in size by ~50% since the early 1960s, and satellite remote sensing is a powerful tool for monitoring the physical processes that influence its surface mass balance. This review synthesizes key remote sensing methods and scientific findings from satellite remote sensing of the Greenland Ice Sheet ablation zone, covering progress in 1) radar altimetry, 2) laser (lidar) altimetry, 3) gravimetry, 4) multispectral optical imagery and, 5) microwave and thermal imagery. Physical characteristics and quantities examined include surface elevation change, gravimetric mass balance, reflectance, albedo, and mapping of surface melt extent and glaciological facies and zones. The review concludes that future progress will benefit most from methods that combine multi-sensor, multi-wavelength, and cross-platform datasets designed to discriminate the widely varying surface processes in the ablation zone. Specific examples include fusing laser altimetry, radar altimetry, and optical stereophotogrammetry to enhance spatial measurement density, cross-validate surface elevation change, and diagnose radar elevation bias; fusing optical imagery, radar imagery, and microwave scatterometry to discriminate between snow, liquid water, refrozen meltwater, and bare ice near the equilibrium line altitude; combining optical reflectance with laser altimetry to map supraglacial lake, stream, and crevasse bathymetry; and monitoring the inland migration of snowlines, surface melt extent, and supraglacial hydrologic features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0337.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: essential climate variables (ECV); climate change initiative (CCI); Greenland ice sheet; mass budget; cryosphere; sea level rise
Online: 16 October 2018 (07:53:22 CEST)
The Greenland ice sheet is a major contributor to sea level rise, adding an estimated 0.47 +/− 0.23 mm/yr to global mean sea level between 1991 and 2015 (van den Broeke et al., 2016). Making sea level rise projections for the future and understanding the processes controlling current observed rates of sea level rise are crucially dependent on understanding the present-day state of the ice sheet. Here, we provide an overview of the current state of the mass budget of Greenland based on satellite gravimetry and remote sensing observations of surface elevation change, ice sheet velocity and calving front positions. We also combine these essential climate variables with a regional climate model (RCM) output from an ice sheet model (ISM) to gain insight into poorly understood ice sheet dynamical and surface mass processes. On average from 1992 to 2017 the ice sheet in some locations has lost up −2.65 m/yr in elevation based on ESA Radar altimetry analysis. Calving fronts have retreated all around Greenland since the 1990s and in only two out of 28 study locations have they remained stable. The locations of grounding lines at 5 key glaciers with floating ice tongues have remained stable over the observation period. However a detailed case study at Petermann glacier with an ice fracture model shows the sensitivity of these floating ice shelves to future climate change. GRACE gravimetric mass balance (GMB) data allows us to tie together disparate lines of evidence showing that Greenland has lost about 265 +/− 25 Gt/yr of ice over the period 2002 to 2015. RCM and ISM simulations show that surface mass processes dominate the overall Greenland ice sheet mass budget except for areas of fast ice sheet flow but marked differences between models and between models and observations indicate that not all processes are captured accurately, indicating areas of greater uncertainty and directions of future research for future sea level rise projections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0137.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: ice-binding proteins; antifreeze proteins, cold finger, ice affinity purification.
Online: 16 January 2018 (07:56:40 CET)
Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) have several functions that permit their hosts to thrive in the presence of ice. The ability of IBPs to control ice growth makes them potential additives in various industries ranging from food storage and cryopreservation to anti-icing systems. For IBPs to be used in commercial applications, however, methods are needed to produce sufficient quantities of high-quality proteins. Here, we describe a new method for IBP purification, termed falling water ice purification (FWIP). The method is based on the affinity of IBPs for ice. A crude IBP solution is allowed to flow continuously over the large chilled vertical surface of a commercial ice machine. The temperature of the surface is lowered gradually until ice crystals are produced, to which the IBPs bind but other solutes do not. As in other ice affinity methods, FWIP does not require molecular tags and is suitable for purifying recombinant IBPs as well as IBPs from natural sources. The advantage of FWIP over other ice affinity methods is that it exploits an ice machine designed to produce large volumes of clear ice daily. This system can be easily scaled up and suits the purification of industrial quantities of IBPs. The FWIP method significantly advances the use of IBPs in research and industry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0129.v1
Online: 14 February 2019 (10:12:21 CET)
The lack of a uniform approach in Earth and planetary science is apparent in the current levels of inconsistency found within the research itself, the data analysis and the interpretation of results. Thus, data interpretation differ depending on whether the study refer to Earth conditions or from space. These differences are particularly pronounced for cryosphere studies, where geocentric approaches remain within ice research and its application in analogical studies. Here, the principle of spatial uniformitarianism is presented, to allow for a definitive departure from geocentrism and a proper understanding of the role of ice within both the Earth and celestial bodies. At the practical level, it may affect several geo-scientific disciplines currently inconsistent and bridging the gap among them. This rule is universal and complements the Hutton-Lyell 1795/1830 principle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0067.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: ice algae; brine channels; organic chemistry; Arctic sea ice; CICE model; mechanism development; biomacromolecules
Online: 12 April 2017 (05:12:28 CEST)
A numerical mechanism connecting ice algal ecodynamics with the buildup of organic macromolecules is tested within modeled pan-Arctic brine channels. The simulations take place offline in a reduced representation of sea ice geochemistry. Physical driver quantities derive from the global sea ice code CICE, including snow cover, thickness and internal temperature. The framework is averaged over ten boreal biogeographic zones. Computed nutrient-light-salt limited algal growth supports grazing, mortality and carbon flow. Vertical transport is diffusive but responds to pore structure. Simulated bottom layer chlorophyll maxima are reasonable, though delayed by about a month relative to observations due to uncertainties in snow variability. Upper level biota arise intermittently during flooding events. Macromolecular concentrations are tracked as proxy proteins, polysaccharides, lipids and refractory humics. The fresh biopolymers undergo succession and removal by bacteria. Baseline organics enter solely through cell disruption, so that the internal carbon content is initially biased low. By including exudation, agreement with dissolved organic or individual biopolymer data is achieved given strong release coupled to light intensity. Detrital carbon then reaches hundreds of micromolar, sufficient to support structural changes to the ice matrix.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0484.v1
Online: 22 October 2018 (09:50:48 CEST)
Sea ice surface roughness affects ice-atmosphere interactions, serves as an indicator of ice age, shows patterns of ice convergence and divergence, affects the spatial extent of summer melt ponds, and ice albedo. We have developed a method for mapping sea ice surface roughness using angular reflectance data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and lidar-derived roughness measurements from the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM). Using an empirical data modeling approach, we derived estimates of Arctic sea ice roughness ranging from centimeters to decimeters meters within the MISR 275-m pixel size. Using independent ATM data for validation, we find that histograms of lidar and multi-angular roughness values are nearly identical for areas with roughness <20 cm but that for rougher regions, the MISR-derived roughness has a narrower range of values than the ATM data. The algorithm is able to accurately identify areas that transition between smooth and rough ice. Because of its coarser spatial scale, MISR-derived roughness data have a variance of about half that ATM roughness data.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0506.v1
Online: 30 August 2022 (04:44:08 CEST)
Sea ice roughness can serve as a proxy for other sea ice characteristics such as ice thickness and ice age. Arctic-wide maps that represent spatial patterns of sea ice roughness can be used to better characterize spatial patterns of ice convergence and divergence processes. Sea ice surface roughness can also control and quantify turbulent exchange between sea ice surface and atmosphere and therefore influence surface energy balance at the basin scale. We have developed a data processing system that produces georeferenced sea ice roughness rasters that can be mosaicked to produce Arctic-wide maps of sea ice roughness. This approach starts with Top-of-Atmosphere radiance data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). We used red-band angular data from three MISR cameras (Ca, Cf, An). We created a training data set in which MISR pixels were matched with co-located and concurrent lidar-derived roughness measurements from the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM). We used a K-nearest neighbor algorithm with the training data to calibrate the multi-angle data to values of surface roughness and then applied the algorithm to Arctic-wide MISR data for two 16-day periods in April (spring) and July (summer). After georeferencing the roughness rasters, we then mosaicked each 16-day roughness dataset to produce Arctic-wide maps of sea ice roughness for spring and summer. Assessment of the results shows good agreement with independent ATM roughness data, not used in model development. A preliminary exploration of spatial and seasonal changes in sea ice roughness for two locations shows the ability to characterize the roughness of different ice types and the results align with previous studies. This processing system and its data products can help the sea ice research community to gain insights into the seasonal and interannual changes in sea ice roughness over the Arctic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0240.v2
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: graphene; dry ice; mechanical milling; magnesium oxide
Online: 13 January 2022 (13:44:03 CET)
Although the dry ice method used to synthesize exfoliated graphite/graphene is little known and used, it has significant advantages over others: it is low cost, simple, and a large quantity of material can be obtained using some inorganic and highly available acids (which can be reused). Despite the above advantages, the main reason for its incipient development is the resulting presence of magnesium oxide in the final product. In the present work, three different treat-ments were tested to remove this remnant using some acid chemical leaching processes, making use of hydrochloric acid, aqua regia, and piranha solution. Based on the experimental evidence, it was found that using aqua regia and combining the leaching process with mechanical milling was the most efficient way of removing such a remnant, the residue being only 0.9 wt.%. This value is low when compared to that obtained with the other acid leaching solutions and purifi-cation process (2.8 - 29.6 wt.%). A mandatory high-energy mechanical milling stage was neces-sary during this treatment, in order to expose and dissolve the highly insoluble oxide without secondary chemical reactions on the graphenes. High-energy mechanical milling is an effective route to exfoliate graphite/graphene, which allows the magnesium oxide to be more susceptible to acid treatment. The obtained surface area was 504 m2g-1; this high value resulting from the in-tense exfoliation can potentiate the use of this material for a wide variety of applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0019.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: glaciers; Little Ice Age; reconstruction; retreat; Altai
Online: 4 January 2022 (20:30:31 CET)
The recent glaciation of the southern part of the Altai is estimated (1256 glaciers with the total area of 559.15±31.13 km2), the area of the glaciers of the whole Altai mountains is evaluated by 1096.55 km2. In the southern part of Altai 2276 glaciers with the total area of 1348.43±56.16 km2 were reconstructed, the first estimate of the LIA glacial area for the whole Altai mountain system is given (2288.04 km2). Since the LIA the glaciers decrease by 59% in the southern part of Altai and by 47.9% for the whole Altai. The ELA in the southern part of Altai increased averagely by 106 m. The higher changes of ELA in relatively humid areas is probably caused by decrease of precipitation. Glaciers of Tavan Bogd glacial center degraded with higher rates after 1968 relative to the interval between 1850-1968. One of the intervals of the fastest shrinkage of the glaciers in 2000-2010 was caused by unfavorable for the glaciers dry and warm interval 1989-2004. However, the fast decrease of the glaciers in 2000-2010 was mainly caused by the shrinkage or disappearance of the smaller glaciers, large valley glaciers started fast retreat after 2010.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0336.v1
Online: 21 May 2020 (05:59:34 CEST)
In this paper, we focus on developing a novel method to extract sea ice cover (i.e., discrimination/classification of sea ice and open water) using Sentinel-1 (S1) cross-polarization (vertical-horizontal, VH or horizontal-vertical, HV) data in extra wide (EW) swath mode based on the machine learning algorithm support vector machine (SVM). The classification basis includes the S1 radar backscatter coefficients and texture features that are calculated from S1 data using the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). Different from previous methods where appropriate samples are manually selected to train the SVM to classify sea ice and open water, we proposed a method of unsupervised generation of the training samples based on two GLCM texture features, i.e. entropy and homogeneity, that have contrasting characteristics on sea ice and open water. We eliminate the most uncertainty of selecting training samples in machine learning and achieve automatic classification of sea ice and open water by using S1 EW data. The comparison shows good agreement between the SAR-derived sea ice cover using the proposed method and a visual inspection, of which the accuracy reaches approximately 90% - 95% based on a few cases. Besides this, compared with the analyzed sea ice cover data Ice Mapping System (IMS) based on 728 S1 EW images, the accuracy of extracted sea ice cover by using S1 data is more than 80%.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0057.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: porous fibers; activated carbon; ice-templating; ice segregation induced self-assembly; silk fibroin; wet spinning; solution blow spinning
Online: 5 February 2020 (10:38:29 CET)
Fabrics comprised of porous fibers could provide effective passive protection against chemical and biological (CB) threats whilst maintaining high air permeability (breathability). Here, we fabricate hierarchically porous fibers consisting of regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) and activated-carbon (AC) prepared through two fiber spinning techniques in combination with ice-templating – namely cryogenic solution blow spinning (Cryo-SBS) and cryogenic wet-spinning (Cryo-WS). The Cryo-WS RSF fibers had exceptionally small macropores (as low as 0.1 µm) and high specific surface areas (SSAs) of up to 79 m2 g-1. The incorporation of AC could further increase the SSA to 210 m2 g-1 (25 wt. % loading) whilst also increasing adsorption capacity for volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0414.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Heterogeneous Nucleation; Ice Polymorph; Stacking Disorder; Phase Selectivity
Online: 15 April 2021 (12:43:16 CEST)
Recently, ice with the stacking disorder structure, consisting of random sequences of cubic ice (Ic) and hexagonal ice (Ih) layers, is reported to be more stable than pure Ih/Ic. While, due to a much lower free energy barrier of heterogeneous nucleation, in practice, the freezing process of water is usually controlled by heterogeneous nucleation which is triggered by an external medium. Herein, molecular dynamic simulations were carried out to explore the polymorph dependence of ice on the lattice structure of substrates. It turns out that, during the nucleation stage, the polymorph of ice nuclei can be severely altered by the graphene substrate, on which the Ih was found to occupy an absolute majority in new-formed ice. This can be attributed to the structure similarity between graphene and basal face of Ih. Besides the nucleation stage, our results suggest that the substrate can not affect the polymorph of ice which is far from the graphene surface. The polymorph selectivity of graphene to Ih will diminish with the growth of ice layer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0547.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Remote sensing; Multisensor systems; Information theory; Sea Ice
Online: 27 October 2020 (11:27:40 CET)
Automatic ice charting can not be achieved using only SAR modalities. It is fundamental to combine information from other remote sensors with different characteristics for more reliable sea ice characterization. In this paper, we employ principal feature analysis (PFA) to select significant information from multimodal remote sensing data. PFA is a simple yet very effective approach that can be applied to several types of data without loss of physical interpretability. Considering that different homogeneous regions require different types of information, we perform the selection patch-wise. Accordingly, by exploiting the spatial information, we increase the robustness and accuracy of PFA.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: player detection; team detection; player tracking data; ice hockey
Online: 10 May 2020 (15:00:28 CEST)
Accurate detection of players and teams in ice hockey games is crucial to the tracking of individual players on court and team tactical decisions, which is therefore becoming an important task for coaches and other analysts. However, hockey is a fluid sport due to complex dynamics and frequent substitutions by both teams, resulting in various body positions of players. Few traditional player detection models from other team sports take these characteristics into account, especially for the detection of teams without prior annotations. Here, we design a two-phase cascaded Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model coupling between individual players position information and team uniform colors to hierarchically detect players in ice hockey games. Our model filters most of disturbing information, such as audience and sideline advertising bars, in Phase I, and refines the detection of targeted players in Phase II, which is efficient and accurate with a precision rate of 91.30% and a recall rate of 95.60% for individual players detection, and an average accuracy of 93.05% in team classification from a self-built dataset of collected images in the 2018 Winter Olympics. Meanwhile, we also present results based on the images and real-time detection from broadcasting videos of 2019-20 NHL regular games covering all 31 teams to show the robustness of our model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0030.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: synthetic aperture radar; automatic identification system; ice thickness; regression
Online: 4 June 2018 (10:28:38 CEST)
Ship speeds extracted from AIS data vary with ice conditions. We extrapolated this variation with SAR data to a chart of expected icegoing speed. The study is for the Gulf of Bothnia in March 2013 and for ships with ice class 1A Super that are able to navigate without icbreaker assistance. The speed was normalized to 0-10 for each ship. As the matching between AIS and SAR was complicated by ice drift during the time gap, from hours to two days, we calculated a set of local SAR statistics over several scales. We used random tree regression to estimate the speed. The accuracy was quantified by mean squared error (MSE), and the fraction of estimates close to the actual speeds. These depended strongly on the route and the day. MSE varied from 0.4 to 2.7 units2 for daily routes. 65 % of the estimates deviated less than one unit and 82 % less than 1.5 units from the AIS speeds. The estimated daily mean speeds were close to the observations. Largest speed decreases were provided by the estimator in a dampened form or not at all. This improved when ice chart thickness was included as one predictor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0004.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: sea ice; Cryosphere; Arctic Ocean; Arctic sea ice change; Arctic climate change; remote sensing retrieval; satellite remote sensing; APP; APP-x; trend study
Online: 28 March 2022 (04:13:23 CEST)
Arctic sea ice characteristics have been changing rapidly and significantly in the last few decades. Using a long-term time series of sea ice products from satellite observations - the extended AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP-x), trends in sea ice concentration, ice extent, ice thickness, and ice volume in the Arctic from 1982 to 2020 are investigated. Results show that the Arctic has become less ice-covered in all seasons, especially in summer and autumn. Arctic sea ice thickness has been decreasing at the rate of -3.24 cm per year, resulting in about a 52% reduction in thickness from 2.35 m in 1982 to 1.13 m in 2020. Arctic sea ice volume has been decreasing at the rate of -467.7 km3 per year, resulting in about a 63% reduction in volume, from 27590.4 km3 in 1982 to 10305.5 km3 in 2020. These trends are further examined from a new perspective, where the Arctic Ocean is classified into open water, perennial, and seasonal sea ice-covered areas based on the sea ice persistence. The loss of the perennial sea ice-covered area is the major factor in the total sea ice loss in all seasons. If the current rates of sea ice changes in extent, concentration, and thickness continue, the Arctic is expected to have ice-free summer by the early 2060s.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0147.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: equation of state; Helmholtz energy; phase transition; Ice VII; Ice X; NaCl; exoplanets; icy/ocean worlds; local basis function; b spline; Tikhonov Inverse
Online: 11 December 2019 (04:23:16 CET)
Helmholtz energy of ice VII-X is determined in a pressure regime extending to 450 GPa at 300 K using local basis functions in the form of b splines. The new representation for the equation of state is embedded in a physics-based inverse theory framework of parameter estimation. Selected pressures as a function of volume from 14 prior experimental studies and two theoretical studies constrain the behavior of Helmholtz energy. Separately measured bulk moduli, not used to construct the representation, are accurately replicated below about 20 GPa and above 60 GPa. In the intermediate range of pressure, the experimentally determined moduli are larger and have greater scatter than values predicted using the Helmholtz representation. Although systematic experimental error in the experimental elastic moduli is possible and likely, the alternative hypothesis is a slow relaxation time associated with changes in proton mobility or the ice VII to X transition. A correlation is observed between anomalies in the pressure derivative of the predicted bulk modulus and previously suggested higher-order phase transitions. Improved determinations of elastic properties at high pressure would allow refinement of the current equation of state. More generally, the current method of data assimilation is broadly applicable to other materials in high-pressure studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0387.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: ice cream; sheep's milk; probiotics; apple fiber; inulin; Bifidobacterium; Lactobacillus
Online: 17 February 2021 (12:19:50 CET)
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the addition of inulin and the replacement of part of inulin with apple fiber on the physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Moreover, the survival of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. Lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus was studied in sheep milk ice cream. There was no effect of apple fiber and the type of bacteria on the number of bacteria of the probiotics after fermentation. As a result of freezing, mixture containing Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. Lactis Bb-12, there was a significant reduction in the bacterial from 0.39 log cfu g −1 to 0.46 log cfu g −1. In all ice cream on the 21st day of storage, it exceeded 10 log cfu g –1, which means that the ice cream retained the status of probiotic products. The Lactobacillus rhamnosus ice cream showed a lower yellow colour compared to the Bifidobacterium Bb-12 ice cream. The overrun of sheep's milk ice cream was within a range from 78.50% to 80.41%. The appearance of sheep's milk ice cream is influenced considerably by the addition of fiber and the type of bacteria and the interaction between the type of bacteria and the addition of fiber and storage time and fiber.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0523.v1
Subject: Keywords: water ice; hydroxyl radicals; methanol; hydroxyl groups; spectral identity; confusion
Online: 31 May 2020 (21:58:06 CEST)
This literature review found that it is doubtful that there is water ice in the polar craters on the Moon. In the course of this review, the following findings were found: (1) The absorption strength of hydroxyl radicals and hydroxyl groups are all 2.9μm, so it is easy to confuse hydroxyl radicals and hydroxyl groups when interpreting M3 spectra data. I do not doubt the ability of LCROSS to detect OH from water, but only suspect that LCROSS is unable to distinguish between hydroxyl radicals from water ice and hydroxyl groups from Moon's methanol due to ignore their spectral identity; (2) The water brought by comets and asteroids and the one caused by solar wind has been exhausted by reacts with the widespread methanol on the Moon in the presence of Pt/α-MoC or Pt/C catalysts. These reacts form large amount of hydrogen, thus clarifying a question NASA raised that "Scientists have long speculated about the source of vast quantities of hydrogen that have been observed at the lunar poles"; (3) The vast quantities of hydrogen in lunar polar craters at extremely low temperatures might be in liquid or solid state now, easy to confuse with water ice. It seems that all our previous misconceptions about water ice in the lunar polar craters might be due to the neglect of the widespread chemical role of lunar methanol. It is necessary to conduct in-depth research in this field in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0069.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Antarctica; surface melt; ross ice shelf; Föhn Winds; remote sensing
Online: 7 November 2019 (04:02:22 CET)
On January 8, 2005, a surface melt event began on the interior portion of Ross Ice Shelf. While many surface melt events on Ross Ice Shelf are caused by the advection of warm air onto the shelf from the Ross Sea, surface winds during this event were directed offshore and the spatial pattern of surface melt was inconsistent with the Southern Ocean serving as a heat source. Rather, due to the interior location of the surface melt coupled with prevailing wind direction and surface temperature data it is thought that adiabatic warming of Föhn winds is the driving cause of this melt event. Passive Microwave (SSM/I) imagery was used to determine surface melt occurrence and the event’s extent. Spatial patterns of surface melt were then compared to NCEP/NCAR reanalysis output for several synoptic weather variables including surface temperatures, sea level pressure and surface vector winds. Synoptic-scale weather conditions were consistent with those that would produce downsloping wind (föhn) conditions in the interior of the Ross Ice Shelf where the anomalous surface melt was located.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0418.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: ice XIV; vibrational spectrum; hydrogen bond; CASTEP, first-principles; DFT
Online: 26 June 2018 (12:44:03 CEST)
It is always a difficult task to assign the peaks recorded from vibrational spectrum. Herein we explored a new pathway of density functional theory (DFT) simulation to present three kinds of spectra of ice XIV and can be referenced as inelastic neutron scattering (INS), IR, and Raman experimental spectrum. The INS spectrum is proportional to phonon density of states (PDOS) while the photon scattering signals reflect the normal vibration frequencies near the Brillouin zone (BZ) center. Based on good agreements with experimental data, we identified the relative frequency and made scientific assignments by normal vibration modes analysis. The debating two hydrogen bond (H-bond) peaks among ice phases from INS have been discussed and the dynamic process of H-bond vibrations were found to be classified into two basic modes. we deduce that two H-bond modes are a general rule among ice family and more works are ongoing to investigate this subject.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0042.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Wind wave; Ice cover; Vortex sheet; Negative energy wave; Modulation instability
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:53:15 CET)
An interesting physical phenomenon was recently observed when a fresh-water basin is covered by a thin ice film that has properties similar to that of a rubber membrane. Surface waves can be generated under the action of wind on the air-water interface that contains an ice film. The modulation property of hydro-elastic waves (HEWs) in deep water covered by thin ice film blown by the wind with a uniform vertical profile is studied here in terms of the air-flow velocity versus a wavenumber. The modulation instability of HEWs is studied through the analysis of coefficients of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with the help of the Lighthill criterion. The NLS equation is derived using the multiple scale method in the presence of airflow. It is demonstrated that the potentially unstable hydro-elastic waves with negative energy appear for relatively small wind speeds, whereas the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability arises when the wind speed becomes fairly strong. Estimates of parameters of modulated waves for the typical conditions are given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0261.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: sea ice; atmospheric circulation; Rossby waves; climate changes; Arctic; numerical modeling
Online: 11 August 2021 (13:17:14 CEST)
The amplified Arctic warming is one of several factors influencing atmospheric dynamics. In this work, we consider a series of numerical experiments to identify the direct role of the Arctic sea ice reduction process in forming climatic trends in the northern hemisphere. Aimed at this, we used two more or less independent mechanisms of ice reduction. The first is traditionally associated with increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from the historic level of 360 ppm to 450 ppm and 600 ppm. This growth increases air temperature and decreases the ice volume. The second mechanism is associated with a reduction in the reflectivity of ice and snow. We assume that comparing the results of these two experiments allows us to judge the direct role of ice reduction. The most prominent consequences of ice reduction, as a result, were the weakening of temperature gradient at the tropopause level in mid-latitudes, the slower zonal wind at 50-60∘N, intensification of wave activity in Europe, Western America, and Chukotka, and its weakening in the south of Siberia and Kazakhstan. We also consider how climate change may alter regimes such as blocking and stationary Rossby waves. The study used the INM-CM48 climate system model .
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0018.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: glacial isostatic adjustment; sea level change; fingerprints of past ice melting
Online: 2 August 2019 (08:45:05 CEST)
Along with density and mass variations of the oceans driven by global warming, Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) in response to the last deglaciation still contributes significantly to present-day sea-level change. Indeed, in order to reveal the impacts of climate change, long term observations at tide gauges and recent absolute altimetry data need to be decontaminated from the effects of GIA. This is now realized by means of global models constrained by the observed evolution of the paleo-shorelines since the Last Glacial Maximum, which account for the complex interactions between the solid Earth, the cryosphere and the oceans. In the recent literature, past and present-day effects of GIA are often expressed in terms of fingerprints describing the spatial variations of several geodetic quantities like crustal deformation, the harmonic components of the Earth's gravity field, relative and absolute sea level. However, since it is driven by the sluggish readjustment occurring within the viscous mantle, GIA shall taint the pattern of sea-level variability also during the forthcoming centuries. The shapes of the GIA fingerprints reflect inextricable deformational, gravitational, and rotational interactions occurring within the Earth system. Using up-to-date numerical modeling tools, our purpose is to revisit and to explore some of the physical and geometrical features of the fingerprints, their symmetries and intercorrelations, also illustrating how they stem from the fundamental equation that governs GIA, i.e., the Sea Level Equation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0547.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: ice X; vibrational spectrum; first-principles DFT; Raman scattering; IR absorption
Online: 27 September 2018 (13:25:06 CEST)
A typical vibrational spectrum in the ice phase has four separate bands: translation, libration, bending and stretching. Ice X, the final ice phase under high pressure, shows an exotic vibrational spectrum. Theoretically, an ideal crystal of ice X only has one peak at 998 cm-1 for Raman scattering and two peaks at 450 cm-1 and 1507 cm-1 for infrared absorption in this work. These three characteristic peaks are indicators of the phase transition between ice VII/VIII and ice X. Despite much experimental and theoretical work on ice X, only this study has clearly indicated these characteristic peaks in the region of the IR band. The phonon density of states shows quite different features than ice VIII, which could be verified by inelastic neutron scattering in the future. The dynamic processes of 15 vibrational normal modes are discussed and the typical hydrogen bonds are missing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0269.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: L.pneumophila, well water, tap water, ice cubes, hospital water, hotel water
Online: 14 September 2018 (14:24:40 CEST)
Background Legionella pneumophila is one of the causes of legionellosis. Water environments serve as the natural habitat and the main sources of Legionella pneumophila. Objectives The aims of this study was to understand the differences of Legionella pneumophila serogroups distribution in well water, tap water, ice cubes, hospital and hotel water in East Java-Indonesia. Methods a total of 60 water samples in east java-Indonesia; from well water (n=25), tap water (n=5), ice cubes (n=5), water from the hospital (n=16), and hotel water (n=9) were detected using polymerase chain reaction with mip gene spesific primers and then it was analyzed by phylogenetic tree. Results For the 60 water samples collected in East Java, 12% of the samples (7/60) were positively contaminated by L. pneumophila. In details, there was 8% of the well water samples (2/25), 2% of the tap water samples (1/5), 2% of the ice cubes samples (1/5), 0% of the hospital water samples (0/16) and 33.33% of the hotel water samples (3/9). The phylogenetic tree showed that Legionella pneumophila contaminating well water isolate 1 from Surabaya and tap water isolate from Sidoarjo was closer to L.pneumophila serogroup 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, isolates from Brazil, China, Spain and Australia. L.pneumophila contaminating the ice cubes from Sidoarjo was closer to serogroup 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, while the bacteria contaminating well water isolate 2 from Sidoarjo as well as water in hotel of Surabaya (hotel water isolate 1, 2 and 3) classified into their own group. Conclusion There is a difference in the distribution of L. pneumophila serogroups between well water, tap water, ice cubes, and hotels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0164.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: CNT; homogeneous freezing; crystallization of ice; surface tension; thermodynamics of undercooled water
Online: 16 September 2019 (11:10:55 CEST)
A recently developed thermodynamic theory for the determination of the driving force of crystallization and the crystal–melt surface tension is applied to the ice–water system employing the new Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater TEOS-10. The deviations of approximative formulations of the driving force and the surface tension from the exact reference properties are quantified, showing that the proposed simplifications are applicable for low to moderate undercooling and pressure differences to the respective equilibrium state of water. The TEOS-10 based predictions of the ice crystallization rate revealed pressure-induced deceleration of ice nucleation with an increasing pressure, and acceleration of ice nucleation by pressure decrease. This result is in, at least, qualitative agreement with laboratory experiments and computer simulations. Both the temperature and pressure dependencies of the ice–water surface tension were found to be in line with the le Chatelier–Braun principle, in that the surface tension decreases upon increasing degree of metastability of water (by decreasing temperature and pressure), which favors nucleation to move the system back to a stable state. The reason for this behavior is discussed. Finally, the Kauzmann temperature of the ice–water system was found to amount TK=116K, which is far below the temperature of homogeneous freezing. The Kauzmann pressure was found to amount pK=-212MPa, suggesting favor of homogeneous freezing upon exerting a negative pressure on the liquid. In terms of thermodynamic properties entering the theory, the reason for the negative Kauzmann pressure is the higher mass density of water in comparison to ice at the melting point.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transient heat conduction; cooling; theoretical models; analytical solutions; ice rinks; energy efficiency
Online: 7 May 2019 (10:23:36 CEST)
The energy efficiency of ice hockey arenas is a central concern for the administrations, as these buildings are well known to consume a large amount of energy. Since they are composite, complex systems, solutions to such a problem can be approached from many different areas, from managerial to technological to more strictly physical. In this paper we consider heat transfer processes in an ice hockey hall, during operating conditions, with a bottom-up approach based upon on-site measurements. Detailed heat flux, relative humidity and temperature data for the ice pad and the indoor air are used for a heat balance calculation in the steady-state regime, which quantifies the impact of each single heat source. We then solve the heat conduction equation for the ice pad in transient regime, and obtain a generic analytical formula for the temperature profile that can be used in practical applications. We then apply this formula to the resurfacing process for validation, and find good agreement with an analogous numerical solution. Since it is given with implicit initial condition and boundary conditions, it can be used not only in ice hockey halls, but in a large variety of engineering applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0525.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Ice Complex; Yedoma; organic carbon; inorganic carbon; total carbon; Batagay megaslump; North Yakutia
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:28:37 CEST)
The most massive and fast-eroding thaw slump of the Northern Hemisphere located in the Yana uplands of northern Yakutia was investigated to assess in detail the cryogenic inventory and carbon pools of two distinctive Ice Complex stratigraphic units and the uppermost cover deposits. Differentiating into modern and Holocene near-surface layers (active layer and shielding layer), highest total carbon contents were found in the active layer (18.7 kg m-2), while the shielding layer yielded much lower carbon content of 1.8 kg m-2. The late Pleistocene upper Ice Complex contained 10.4 kg m-2 total carbon, and the mid-Pleistocene lower Ice Complex 17.7 kg m-2. The proportion of organic carbon from total carbon content is well above 70% in all studied units with 94 % in the active layer, 73% in the shielding layer, 83% in the upper Ice Complex and 79% in the lower Ice Complex. Inorganic carbon is low in the overall structure of the deposits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0405.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Authigenic varves; Autumn precipitation; Climate warming; Little Ice Age; Transfer function model; Water resources
Online: 22 November 2021 (14:21:49 CET)
The Mediterranean is one of the regions of the world where human-induced climate warming is expected to have large impacts on water and environmental resources. To predict shifts in the current climate system, more regional climate records, including seasonal-to-century scale variability spanning longer than the instrumental periods, are needed. To help fill this gap, we provide a reconstruction of autumn precipitation variations for the Central Pyrenees range since 1500 Common Era (CE) using the varved sediments of Lake Montcortès. To assess the suitability of the calcite sublayer width of the sediments of this lake as a proxy for precipitation anomalies, we performed an analysis and smoothing of the temporal structure of the width series, calibration of the new series with the available instrumental climate records, calculation of a transfer function and testing and comparison of the reconstructed series against available empirical data.The prediction model was statistically robust and showed that the climatic signal was captured in the calcite sublayers. The reconstruction provides the first estimations of regional autumn precipitation shifts in the Central Pyrenees at annual resolution, since 1500 CE. Pronounced interdecadal shifts in precipitation were noticeable; no increasing nor decreasing linear trends or periods of extreme precipitation events were identified. The reconstructed precipitation anomalies suggest a decrease in rainfall during the coldest phase within the coldest period of the Little Ice Age and also during the 20th century, probably associated to current Global Warming. Correlations between autumn precipitation and the North Atlantic Oscillation, Western Mediterranean Oscillation and Southern Oscillation indices were weak to moderate. A potential relationship with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation pattern is suggested. The reconstructed autumn precipitation trends are coherent with other palaeohydrological reconstructions in similar Mediterranean settings, and consistent at a regional level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0120.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: IMERG; Stage IV; Infrared; Passive microwave; Snow; Ice; Precipitation; GPM; Wet-bulb temperature; AMSR-2
Online: 3 June 2021 (14:59:21 CEST)
Various products of the Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) and passive mi-crowave (PMW) sensors are assessed with respect to near-surface wet-bulb temperature (Tw), precipitation intensity, and surface type (i.e., with and without snow and ice on the surface) over the CONUS and using Stage-IV product as reference precipitation. IMERG products include precipitation estimates from infrared (IR), combined PMW, and their combination. PMW products generally have higher skills than IR over snow- and ice-free surfaces. Over snow- and ice-covered surfaces (1) PMW products (except AMSR-2) show a higher correlation coefficient than IR, (2) IR and PMW precipitation products tend to overestimate precipitation, but at colder temperatures (e.g., Tw<-10oC) PMW products tend to underestimate and IR product continues to show large overestimations, and (3) PMW sensors show higher overall skill in detecting precipitation oc-currence, but not necessarily at very cold Tw. The results suggest that the current approach of IMERG (i.e., replacing PMW with IR precipitation estimates over snow- and ice-surfaces) may need to be revised.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0056.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Novaya Zemlya; Altimetry; Gravity; Russian High Arctic; Glaciers and Ice Caps; Remote Sensing; Climate Change;
Online: 3 October 2018 (14:37:48 CEST)
We examine the mass balance of the glaciers in the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago, located in the Russian High Arctic using time series of time-variable gravity from the NASA/DLR Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, laser altimetry data from the NASA Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission, and radar altimetry data from the ESA CryoSat-2 mission. We present a new algorithm for detecting changes in glacier elevation from these satellite altimetry data and evaluate its performance in the case Novaya Zemlya by comparing the results with GRACE. We find that the mass loss of Novaya Zemlya increased from 10±5 Gt/yr over 2003-2009 to 14±4 Gt/yr over 2010-2016, with a brief period of near mass balance between 2009 and 2011. The results are consistent across the gravimetric and altimetric methods. Furthermore, the analysis of elevation change from CryoSat-2 indicates that 60\% of the mass loss occurs at low elevation, where thinning rates are highest. We also find that marine-terminating glaciers in Novaya Zemlya are thinning significantly faster than land-terminating glaciers, which indicates an important role of ice dynamics of marine-terminating glaciers. We posit that the glacier changes have been caused by changes in atmospheric and ocean temperatures. We find that the increase in mass loss after 2010 is associated with a warming in air temperatures, which increased the surface melt rates. There is no enough information on the ocean temperature at the front of the glaciers to conclude on the role of the ocean, but we posit that the temperature of subsurface ocean waters must have increased during the observation period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0333.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: converter; ice-melting; modular multilevel converter (MMC); optimization design; transmission line; static var generator (SVG)
Online: 18 August 2018 (08:56:04 CEST)
Ice covering on overhead transmission lines would cause damage to transmission system and long-term power outage. Among various de-icing devices, modular multilevel converter (MMC) based DC de-icer (MMC-DDI) is recognized as a promising solution due to its excellent technical performance. Its principle feasibility has been well studied, but few literature discuss its economy or hardware optimization, thus the designed MMC-DDI for high voltage transmission lines is usually too large and too expensive for engineering applications. To fill this gap, this paper presents a quantitative analysis on the converter characteristics of MMC-DDI, and calculates the minimal converter rating and its influencing factors. It reals that, for a given de-icing requirement, the converter rating varies greatly with its AC-side voltage. Then an optimization configuration is proposed to reduce the converter rating and improve its economy. The proposed configuration is verified in a MMC-DDI for a 500kV transmission line as a case study. The result shows, in the case of outputting same de-icing characteristics, the optimized converter rating is reduced from 151 MVA to 68 MVA, and total cost of MMC-DDI is reduced by 48%. This analysis and conclusion are conductive to the optimized design of multilevel DC de-icer, then to its engineering application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0107.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: climate change; cryosphere; Arctic; permafrost; sea ice; tipping elements; climate impacts; climate policy; Paris agreement
Online: 15 December 2017 (12:51:43 CET)
Arctic feedbacks will accelerate climate change and could jeopardise mitigation efforts. The permafrost carbon feedback releases carbon to the atmosphere from thawing permafrost and the sea ice albedo feedback increases solar absorption in the Arctic Ocean. A constant positive albedo feedback and zero permafrost feedback have been used in nearly all climate policy studies to date, while observations and models show that the permafrost feedback is significant and that both feedbacks are nonlinear. Using novel dynamic emulators in the integrated assessment model PAGE-ICE, we investigate nonlinear interactions of the two feedbacks with the climate and economy under a range of climate scenarios consistent with the Paris Agreement. The permafrost feedback interacts with the land and ocean carbon uptake processes, and the albedo feedback evolves through a sequence of nonlinear transitions associated with the loss of Arctic sea ice in different months of the year. The US’s withdrawal from the current national pledges could increase the total discounted economic impact of the two Arctic feedbacks until 2300 by $25 trillion, reaching nearly $120 trillion, while meeting the 1.5 °C and 2 °C targets will reduce the impact by an order of magnitude.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0086.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: atmosphere; high-level clouds; ice particles; polarization lidar; interpretation of lidar data; radiosonde observations; ERA5 reanalysis.
Online: 7 May 2022 (03:12:44 CEST)
This article presents results of the polarization laser studies of the optical and microphysical characteristics of the high-level clouds (HLC). The high-altitude matrix polarization lidar (HAMPL; Tomsk, Russia) is described. HAMPL measures vertical profiles of all elements of the backscattering phase matrix (BSPM) of the HLC. Based on the joint analysis of lidar and radiosonde observations it is shown that the spatial structure of the HLC containing oriented ice crystals is inhomogeneous in the horizontal wind direction. It includes local areas with oriented particles; the sizes of such areas are estimated together with the most probable meteorological conditions of their formation. The shortcomings of the radiosonde observations performed closest to the location of the HAMPL are described. The applicability of the ERA5 reanalysis data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts for use as an alternative source of information on the vertical profiles of meteorological quantities for the interpretation of HLC lidar sensing data in Western Siberia was checked.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Ideal fluid; deep water; ice cover; moving cylinder; hydrodynamic load; added mass; wave resistance; damping coefficient
Online: 21 January 2021 (15:21:49 CET)
We calculate the hydrodynamic forces exerted on an oscillating circular cylinder when it moves translationally perpendicular to its axis in the infinitely deep water covered by compressed ice. The cylinder can oscillate both horizontally and vertically. In the linear approximation, we find a solution for the steady wave motion generated by the cylinder within the hydrodynamic set of equations for the incompressible ideal fluid. We show that depending on the rate of ice compression, the normal and anomalous dispersion can occur in the system. In the latter case, the group velocity can be opposite to the phase velocity in a certain range of wavenumbers. We investigate the dependences of the hydrodynamic loads (added mass, damping coefficients, wave resistance, and lift force) exerting on the cylinder on the translational velocity and frequency of oscillation. It is shown that there is a possibility of the appearance of negative values for the damping coefficients at the relatively big cylinder velocity; then the wave resistance decreases with increasing of cylinder velocity. The theoretical results are underpinned by the numerical calculations for the real parameters of ice and cylinder motion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0320.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Thunderstorm electrification; Ice crystal-graupel collision; Relative growth rate theory; Temperature gradient; Non-thermal equilibrium; Tripole charge structure; Thunderclouds hydrometeors
Online: 13 November 2018 (15:14:58 CET)
Thunderstorm electrification has been studied for hundreds of years. Several mechanisms have been proposed to elucidate the electrification, including convective charging, inductive precipitation charging, and ice crystal-graupel collision charging. Field observations and model studies have demonstrated the vital roles that graupel and ice crystals play in the electrification, but the mechanism of the collision charging is still unclear. The fundamental essence of relative growth rate theory used for explaining the tripole charge structure in thunderclouds also needs a further exploration. We analyze the processes of ice crystal-graupel collision charging from charge migration inside hydrometeors to charge separation between two hydrometeors. The driving effects of temperature gradient and chemical potential gradient in charge migration are clarified, as well as the applicability of the relative growth rate theory, thermoelectric effect and surface tension gradient in different humidities. Based on the understanding from these electrification mechanisms, we propose that the essence of charge separation is driven by non-thermal equilibrium, and future studies on thunderstorm electrification should focus on the dynamical non-thermal equilibrium of cloud particles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0555.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: UAS, debris-covered glacier, trans-Himalaya, aerial photogrammetry, structure from motion, DSM differencing, point cloud differencing, glacial mass balance, ice-cliffs
Online: 23 July 2020 (12:00:27 CEST)
Debris-covered glaciers are a notable feature in the greater Himalaya, and their ongoing mass loss under changing climate will affect the water resources of over a billion people. The current knowledge of the mass balance of Himalayan glaciers is restricted by the paucity of in-situ measurements of glaciers in both space and time, as well as the resolution of satellite remote sensing imageries. Recently, the use of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) imagery has shown the potential to bridge this gap by enabling very detailed monitoring of inaccessible glacial areas. UAS imagery-based monitoring of Himalayan glaciers has so far been limited to a single glacier in the entire Himalaya, providing a limited understanding of spatial variability in glacier mass balance and driving factors. In the first UAS based glacial mass change estimation in the trans-Himalaya, we conducted two Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) surveys (May and November 2019) over the debris-covered Annapurna III glacier in the Himalaya. We performed Structure-from-Motion (SfM) analysis and utilized differential GPS field observations to derive geometrically accurate point clouds, ortho-mosaics and digital surface models (DSMs). The glacial volumetric loss was estimated from DSM differencing, and the magnitude and spatial variability of glacier surface change was derived from 3-D differencing of point clouds. Results revealed a heterogeneous glacial melt pattern, with an average elevation loss of 0.89 m during the monitored time period. The majority of the glacial tongue exhibited surface lowering except the area above and around the glacial snout that surprisingly exhibited significant elevation gain. Both the highest magnitude of mass loss and the highest spatial variability in mass change was observed in areas with exposed ice-cliffs and supraglacial ponds. Glacial surface velocity derived from manual feature tracking showed velocity ranging from 0-4.1 m. A detailed evaluation of specific areas allowed an improved understanding of the complex interplay of factors leading to observed surface change. Our findings expand the extent of UAS based monitoring of debris-covered glaciers in the Himalaya and conclude that UAS derived 3D topographic products will become increasingly important for monitoring of thinning debris-covered glaciers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0122.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: ICESat-2; Laser Altimetry; Kinematic GPS Experiments; Glaciology; Surge Glaciers; Svalbard; Density Dimension Algorithm for Ice Surfaces; Airborne Validation of Satellite Data
Online: 13 October 2021 (10:45:21 CEST)
The topic of this paper is the airborne evaluation of ICESat-2 Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) measurement capabilities and surface-height-determination over crevassed glacial terrain, with a focus on the geodetical accuracy of geophysical data collected from a helicopter. To obtain surface heights over crevassed and otherwise complex ice surface, ICESat-2 data are analyzed using the density-dimension algorithm for ice surfaces (DDA-ice), which yields surface heights at the nominal 0.7~m along-track spacing of ATLAS data. As the result of an ongoing surge, Negribreen, Svalbard, provided an ideal situation for the validation objectives in 2018 and 2019, because many different crevasse types and morphologically complex ice surfaces existed in close proximity. Airborne geophysical data, including laser altimeter data (profilometer data at 905~nm frequency), differential Global Positioning System (GPS), Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data, on-board-time-lapse imagery and photographs, were collected during two campaigns in summers of 2018 and 2019. Airborne experiment setup, geodetical correction and data processing steps are described here. To date, there is relatively little knowledge of the geodetical accuracy that can be obtained from kinematic data collection from a helicopter. Our study finds that (1)~Kinematic GPS data collection with correction in post-processing yields higher accuracies than Real-Time-Kinematic (RTK) data collection. (2)~Processing of only the rover data using the Natural Resources Canada Spatial Reference System Precise Point Positioning (CSRS-PPP) software is sufficiently accurate for the sub-satellite validation purpose. (3)~Distances between ICESat-2 ground tracks and airborne ground tracks were generally better than 25~m, while distance between predicted and actual ICESat-2 ground track was on the order of 9~m, which allows direct comparison of ice-surface heights and spatial statistical characteristics of crevasses from the satellite and airborne measurements. (4)~The Lasertech Universal Laser System (ULS), operated at up to 300~m above ground level, yields full return frequency (400~Hz) and 0.06-0.08~m on-ice along-track spacing of height measurements. (5)~Cross-over differences of airborne laser altimeter data are 0.1918 $\pm$ 2.385~m along straight paths over generally crevassed terrain, which implies a precision of approximately 2.4~m for ICESat-2 validation experiments. (6)~In summary, the comparatively light-weight experiment setup of a suite of small survey equipment mounted on a Eurocopter (Helicopter AS-350) and kinematic GPS data analyzed in post-processing using CSRS-PPP leads to high accuracy repeats of the ICESat-2 tracks. The technical results (1)-(6) indicate that direct comparison of ice-surface heights and crevasse depths from the ICESat-2 and airborne laser altimeter data is warranted. The final result of the validation is that ICESat-2 ATLAS data, analyzed with the DDA-ice, facilitate surface-height determination over crevassed terrain, in good agreement with airborne data, including spatial characteristics, such as surface roughness, crevasse spacing and depth, which are key informants on the deformation and dynamics of a glacier during surge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0189.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Arctic conditions; Ice-Induced Vibrations; Offshore Wind Turbine Support Structures; Stress-Time Sequence; Damage Model; Rainflow counting; Markov chain method; Omission Level; Low-Temperature Fatigue
Online: 10 December 2021 (14:16:30 CET)
Fixed offshore wind turbines continue to be developed for high latitude areas where not only wind and wave loads need to be considered, but also moving sea ice. Current rules and regulations for the design of fixed offshore structures in ice-covered waters do not adequately consider effects of ice loading and its stochastic nature on fatigue life of the structure. Ice crushing on such structures results in ice-induced vibrations, which can be represented by loading the structure using a variable-amplitude loading (VAL) sequence. Typical offshore load spectra are developed for wave and wind loading. Thus, a combined VAL spectrum is developed for wind, wave, and ice action. To this goal, numerical models are used to simulate the dynamic ice-, wind-, and wave-structure interaction. The stress time-history at an exemplarily selected critical point in an offshore wind energy monopile support structure is extracted from the model and translated into a VAL sequence, which can then be used as a loading sequence for the fatigue assessment or fatigue testing of welded joints of offshore wind turbine support structures. This study presents the approach to determine combined load spectra and standardized time series for wind, wave, and ice action.