Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Ice-Crystal Nucleation in Water: Thermodynamic Driving Force and Surface Tension

Version 1 : Received: 15 September 2019 / Approved: 16 September 2019 / Online: 16 September 2019 (11:10:55 CEST)

How to cite: Hellmuth, O.; Schmelzer, J.W.P.; Feistel, R. Ice-Crystal Nucleation in Water: Thermodynamic Driving Force and Surface Tension. Preprints 2019, 2019090164 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201909.0164.v1). Hellmuth, O.; Schmelzer, J.W.P.; Feistel, R. Ice-Crystal Nucleation in Water: Thermodynamic Driving Force and Surface Tension. Preprints 2019, 2019090164 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201909.0164.v1).

Abstract

A recently developed thermodynamic theory for the determination of the driving force of crystallization and the crystal–melt surface tension is applied to the ice–water system employing the new Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater TEOS-10. The deviations of approximative formulations of the driving force and the surface tension from the exact reference properties are quantified, showing that the proposed simplifications are applicable for low to moderate undercooling and pressure differences to the respective equilibrium state of water. The TEOS-10 based predictions of the ice crystallization rate revealed pressure-induced deceleration of ice nucleation with an increasing pressure, and acceleration of ice nucleation by pressure decrease. This result is in, at least, qualitative agreement with laboratory experiments and computer simulations. Both the temperature and pressure dependencies of the ice–water surface tension were found to be in line with the le Chatelier–Braun principle, in that the surface tension decreases upon increasing degree of metastability of water (by decreasing temperature and pressure), which favors nucleation to move the system back to a stable state. The reason for this behavior is discussed. Finally, the Kauzmann temperature of the ice–water system was found to amount TK=116K, which is far below the temperature of homogeneous freezing. The Kauzmann pressure was found to amount pK=-212MPa, suggesting favor of homogeneous freezing upon exerting a negative pressure on the liquid. In terms of thermodynamic properties entering the theory, the reason for the negative Kauzmann pressure is the higher mass density of water in comparison to ice at the melting point.

Subject Areas

CNT; homogeneous freezing; crystallization of ice; surface tension; thermodynamics of undercooled water

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