ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0258.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: afamin; adropin; alcoholic liver cirrhosis
Online: 30 March 2018 (06:21:07 CEST)
Introduction: Liver cirrhosis develops in about 10% of alcohol abusers. To date, a number of cells and cytokines have been identified, which are involved in induction of liver fibrotic processes. Nevertheless, the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to determine serum concentrations of afamin and adropin in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and to define their correlation with the stage of disease. Materials and methods: The study included 99 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis from the region of Lublin, (Eastern Poland). Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed based on clinical features, history of heavy alcohol consumption, laboratory tests and abdominal ultrasonography. The control group consisted of 20 healthy individuals without liver disease who did not abuse alcohol. The serum afamin and adropin concentrations were determined using ELISA kits. Results: The concentration of afamin was found to be significantly lower in patients with compensated alcoholic liver cirrhosis, i.e. P-Ch B (85.1±40.6 μg/ml) and P-Ch C (56.4±32.3 μg/ml) individuals, as compared to the control group (135.9±43.6 μg/ml); p-value was <0.01 and <0.001, respectively. As far as adropin is concerned, a reverse relationship was demonstrated: the highest concentration was found in patients with P-Ch C (11.7±5.7 ng/ml) cirrhosis. Furthermore, the above concentration was significantly higher compared to patients with P-Ch A cirrhosis (7.2±2.8 ng/ml; p<0.05) and controls (7.5±2.6 ng/ml; p<0.05). Conclusions: The concentration of afamin decreases with the severity of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, which most likely results from impaired hepatic synthesis. Otherwise, the higher the stage of disease according to the Child-Pugh score, the higher the concentration of adropin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; hepatocellular carcinoma; cirrhosis; fibrosis; mouse model
Online: 2 May 2023 (09:00:10 CEST)
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is the most severe manifestation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), has been recognized as a major hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) catalyst. However, the molecular mechanism of NAFLD-NASH-HCC sequence remains unclear and a specific and effective treatment for NASH has not yet been established. The progress in this field depends on the availability of reliable preclinical models which show the steady progress to NASH, liver cirrhosis, and HCC. However, most of NASH mouse models that have been described to date develop NASH generally for more than 24 weeks and there is an uncertainty of HCC development. To overcome such shortcomings of experimental NASH studies, we established a novel NASH-HCC mouse model with very high reproducibility, generality, and convenience. We treated male C57BL/6J mice with a newly developed choline-deficient and methionine-restricted high-fat diet (CDMRHFD) for 60 weeks. Treatment of CDMRHFD for 3 weeks revealed marked steatosis, lobular inflammation, and fibrosis, histologically diagnosed as NASH. Liver cirrhosis was observed in all mice with 36-week treatment. Liver nodule emerged at 12 weeks of the treatment, and diameter >2 mm liver tumors developed in all mice at 24 weeks of the treatment. In conclusion, our rapidly progressive and highly reproducible NASH-liver cirrhosis-HCC model is helpful for preclinical development and research on the pathogenesis of human NAFLD-NASH-HCC. Our mouse model would be useful for the development of novel chemistry for NASH-HCC-targeted therapies or HCC prevention strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1682.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Atezolizumab; bevacizumab; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; non-alcoholic steato hepatitis; albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) score
Online: 26 October 2023 (09:01:45 CEST)
(1) Background: Although multiple studies have reported on the therapeutic effects of Atezo+Bev for the treatment of NASH-related liver cancer, few studies have focused on its effect on liver reserve. Here, we aimed to compare the changes in hepatic reserve during the Atezo+Bev treatment of NAFLD/NASH-related HCC and of non-NAFLD/non-NASH-related HCC. (2) Methods: We retrospectively compared the changes in ALBI score in 109 patients with NAFLD/NASH or non-NAFLD/non-NASH during 12 weeks of treatment with Atezo+Bev for advanced HCC between September 2019 and January 2022. PSM was performed, and the OS, PFS, and PPS of the two groups were compared. (3)Results: The ALBI after 12 weeks of Atezo+Bev treatment was significantly worse in the NAFLD/NASH group than in the non-NAFLD/non-NASH group. Analysis of the 24 propensity score-matched pairs of cases with NAFLD/NASH or non-NAFLD non-NASH yielded similar results. The prognoses of the two groups were similar with respect to OS and PFS, but the NAFLD/NASH group had a significantly shorter PPS. The 24 matched pairs had similar OS and PFS, but the PPS of the NAFLD/NASH group was shorter. (4)Conclusion: Atezo+Bev treatment may worsen hepatic reserve, and there-fore life expectancy, in patients with NAFLD/NASH-related liver cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0144.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: alcoholic fatty liver disease; PARP; PJ34; triglyceride
Online: 24 April 2017 (05:30:53 CEST)
The specific role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) were unclear. Poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) is a NAD-consuming enzyme and its specific role in the pathogenesis of AFLD is still elusive. In current investigation, we found that chronic alcohol exposure enhanced hepatic PARP expression and activity and lowered hepatic NAD+ level. PARP activity inhibitor PJ34 decreased the intracellular TG content in hepatocyte. Moreover, PJ34 suppressed the gene expression of DGAT1 and DGAT2 and elevated the intracellular NAD+ level in hepatocyte. These mechanistic observation was validated in alcohol-fed mice injected with PJ34 intraperitoneally. PJ34 injection attenuated hepatic TG accumulation in alcohol-fed mice. Further, the gene expression of hepatic SERBP-1c, DGAT1 and DGAT2 were lowered by PJ34 injection, while the hepatic NAD+ level was augmented by PJ34 injection in alcohol-fed mice. At last, the nicotinamide riboside supplementation alleviated hepatic TG accumulation in alcohol-fed mice. These data indicate that applying PARP specific inhibitor PJ34 by intraperitoneal injection attenuated hepatic NAD+ depletion and TG accumulation in alcohol-fed mice, which might be a potential candidate for AFLD therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: salidroside; inflammation; alcoholic liver injury; TLR4; TAK1
Online: 27 September 2016 (10:45:06 CEST)
The current study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of salidroside (SDS) and the underlying mechanism by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro and a mouse model of binge drinking induced liver injury in vivo. SDS downregulated protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14. SDS inhibited LPS-triggered phosphorylation of LPS-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), p38, c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB were effectively blocked by SDS. SDS concentration-dependently suppressed LPS mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels, as well as their downstream products, NO. SDS significantly inhibited protein secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β. Additionally C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated SDS for continuous 5 days, followed by three gavages of ethanol every 30 min. Alcohol binge drinking caused the increasing of hepatic lipid accumulation and serum transaminases levels. SDS pretreatment significantly alleviated liver inflammatory changes and serum transaminases levels. Further investigation indicated that SDS markedly decreased protein level of IL-1β in serum. Taken together, these data implied that SDS inhibits liver inflammation both in vitro and in vivo, and may be a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory liver injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0311.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: phytochemical; heavy metals; flavoured alcoholic beverages; herbal extract
Online: 23 May 2018 (05:15:55 CEST)
There is proliferation of alcoholic beverages flavoured with herbal-extracts perceived to have medicinal values. Information on the phytochemical and heavy metal contents of these products is scarce. This study assessed the phytochemical properties and heavy metal contents of herbal-extract flavoured alcoholic beverages in major motor parks in Ibadan, Nigeria. The phytochemical properties of the beverages were determined in triplicate using standard methods while the heavy metal contents were assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and means were compared using ANOVA at p<0.05. The pH range of the beverages was 3.28-6.57 and the alcohol content was 34.0-51.5%. Detected major phytochemicals and concentration ranges were phytic acid (0.72-2.37 mg/g), alkaloids (0.42-4.11 mg/g), flavonoids (0.22-3.64 mg rutin equivalents/g), total phenols (1.13-3.66 mg gallic acid equivalents/g), anthraquinones ((0.74-1.93 mg/g) and triterpenoids (0.74-1.93 mg/g). The phytochemical contents were within the acceptable limits while the heavy metals were: Pb (2.13-4.70 mg/L), Cd (0.06-0.07 mg/L), Co (0.12-0.23 mg/L), Zn (0.14-0.40 mg/L) and Fe (0.72-4.22 mg/L); all except Pb and Cd were within permissible limits. The herbal-extract flavoured alcoholic beverages contain beneficial phytochemicals and traces of heavy metals. Safety awareness of these products for improved consumers’ health would be of public health importance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; Vitamin D; VDR; CYP27B1; CYP2R1; CYP24A1; GC; DHCR7; Genetic variation; Polymorphism; Systematic review
Online: 11 July 2022 (04:57:43 CEST)
Background: Studies have demonstrated the link between vitamin D-related genetic variations and non-skeletal outcomes. We aimed to identify all available data on the association of vitamin D-related genetic variations with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: Potentially eligible studies were identified from Embase and Medline databases from inception to June 2022 using search strategy that comprised terms for “Vitamin D” and “NAFLD”. Eligible study must report the association between vitamin D-related genetic variations and presence, severity or response to treatment of NAFLD. Data were extracted from each eligible study. Results: A total of 3,495 articles were identified. After systematic review, twelve studies were in-cluded. A total of 26 genetic variations were identified. Presence of NAFLD was associated with variations of GC (rs222054, rs222020, rs10011000, rs7041), VDR (rs2228570, rs11168287, rs10783219, rs4752), CYP24A1 (rs3787557, rs6068816, rs2296241, rs2248359) and CYP27B1 (rs4646536). Severity of NAFLD was associated with variations of GC (rs4588), VDR (rs2228570, rs4334089), CYP2R1 (rs10741657), DHCR7 (rs1544410, rs3829251, rs12785878) and CYP24A1 (rs3787557, rs6068816, rs6097809, rs6127119, rs2248359, rs3787554, rs4809960, rs6022999). Response to calcitriol treatment was associated with variation of VDR (rs10735810). Conclusions: Multiple vitamin D-related genetic variations were associated with NAFLD, indi-cating the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1451.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver; Extracellular vesicles; Biomarkers; Surface proteins
Online: 21 July 2023 (10:05:15 CEST)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a liver disorder that has become a global health concern due to its increasing prevalence. Currently, there is a need for reliable biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of NAFLD. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are promising candidates in biomarker discovery, as they carry proteins that reflect the pathophysiological state of the liver. In this review, we developed a list of EV proteins that could be used as diagnostic biomarkers for NAFLD. We employed a multi-step strategy that involved reviewing and comparing various sources of information. Firstly, we reviewed papers that have studied EVs proteins as biomarkers in NAFLD, as well as papers that have studied circulating proteins as biomarkers in NAFLD. To further identify potential candidates, we utilized the EV database Vesiclepedia.org to qualify each protein. Finally, we consulted the Human Protein Atlas to search for candidates' localization, focusing on membrane proteins. By integrating these sources of information, we developed a comprehensive list of potential EVs membrane protein biomarkers that could aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of NAFLD. In conclusion, our multi-step strategy for identifying EV-based protein biomarkers for NAFLD provides a comprehensive approach that can also be applied for other diseases. The protein candidates identified through this approach could have significant implications for the development of non-invasive diagnostic tests for NAFLD and improve the management and treatment of this prevalent liver disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0087.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: alcoholic liver disease; cognitive function; calorie intake; nutrition; BMI
Online: 3 December 2020 (14:22:03 CET)
Malnutrition and cognitive dysfunction are typical features of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and are correlated with the development of complications. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of nutritional state and diet on cognitive function in ALD. A total of 43 patients with compensated alcoholic cirrhosis were enrolled, and neuropsychological test was assessed according to body mass index (BMI, <22 and ≥22). In the ALD animal study, mice were divided into 5 groups (n=9/group; normal liquid, 5% EtOH+regular liquid, 5% EtOH+high-carbohydrate liquid, 5% EtOH+high-fat liquid, and 5% EtOH+high-protein liquid diet) and fed the same calories for 8-week. To assess cognitive function, we performed T-maze studies weekly before/after alcohol binging. In cognitive function (BMI <22 /≥22), language score of Korea mini-mental state (7.4±1.4/7.9±0.4), Rey-complex figure (72.0±25.9/58.4±33.6), Boston naming (11.7±2.7/13.0±1.8), forward digit span (6.7±1.8/7.5±1.6), Korean Color Word Stroop (24.2±26.5/43.6±32.4), and interference score (33.9±31.9/52.3±33.9) revealed significant differences. In the T-maze test, alcohol significantly delayed the time to reach food, and binge drinking provided a temporary recovery in cognition. The alcohol-induced delay was significantly reduced in the high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet groups. Synaptic function exhibited no changes in all groups. Cognitive dysfunction is affected by nutritional status and diet in ALD.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0468.v1
Subject: Endocrinology And Metabolism, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: alcoholic ketoacidosis; sepsis; multiple organ dysfunction syndrome; thiamine; metabolic acidosis
Online: 7 December 2023 (06:35:52 CET)
We present the case of a 28-year-old male with a history of alcohol dependency and smoking, who presented with chest pain, shortness of breath, and altered sensorium. He exhibited severe metabolic acidosis, low platelet count, and acute kidney injury. Alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) was suspected due to ketonuria, metabolic acidosis, and ketonemia, compounded by electrolyte abnormalities and radiographic findings of pneumonia.Prompt intervention included electrolyte correction, thiamine supplementation, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and diuretics. Thiamine played a pivotal role in the patient's recovery, with significant improvement in consciousness observed within a day. After six days, the patient was discharged in stable condition, showing normal renal and hepatic function during follow-up.This case emphasizes the need for early recognition and comprehensive management in AKA, highlighting
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0727.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, lipophagy, chaperone-mediated autophagy, perilipins
Online: 11 October 2023 (12:53:31 CEST)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as the accumulation of lipids in the form of lipid droplets in more than 5% of hepatocytes. It is regarded as a range of diverse pathologies, including simple steatosis and steatohepatitis. The structural characteristics of lipid droplets have been implicated in the etiology of the disease, along with their protein composition, mainly perilipins. These proteins have garnered increasing attention as a pivotal regulator, since their levels and distinct expression appear to be associated with the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Perilipins are target proteins of chaperone-mediated autophagy, and their degradation is a prerequisite for lipolysis and lipophagy to access the lipid core. Both lipophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy have significant implications in the development of the disease, as evidenced by their upregulation during the initial phases of simple steatosis, and their subsequent downregulation once steatosis is established. On the contrary, during steatohepatitis, the process of chaperone-mediated autophagy is enhanced, although lipophagy remains suppressed. Evidently, the reduced levels of autophagic pathways observed in simple steatosis serve as a defensive mechanism against lipotoxicity. Conversely, in steatohepatitis chaperone mediated autophagy fails to compensate for the continuous generation of small lipid droplets and thus cannot protect hepatocytes from lipotoxicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0293.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: alcoholic liver disease,; cirrhosis diagnosis; cirrhosis prediction; genetics; HSD17B13; PNPLA3
Online: 5 July 2023 (11:54:29 CEST)
Liver cirrhosis development is a multifactorial process resulting by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. The aim of the study was to develop accurate non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic models for alcoholic cirrhosis. Consecutive subjects with at-risk alcohol intake were retrospectively enrolled (110 cirrhotic patients and 411 non-cirrhotics). At enrollment, the data about the lifetime drinking history were collected and all patients were tested for PNPLA3 rs738409, TM6SF2 rs58542926 and HSD17B13 rs72613567 variants. In cross-sectional analyses, models for the diagnosis of cirrhosis were developed using multivariate logistic regression. A predictive score for cirrhosis development over 24 years was built by evaluating time-dependent AUC curves. The best diagnostic accuracy was demonstrated by the model which also includes daily alcohol consumption, duration of hazardous alcohol use and genetic variants, with AUCs of 0.951 (95% CI 0.925-0.977) and 0.887 (95% CI 0.925-0.977) for cirrhosis and compensated cirrhosis, respectively. The predictive model for cirrhosis future development (AUC of 0.836 95% CI: 0.769 - 0.904) accounted for age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption and the number of PNPLA3 and HSD17B13 variant alleles. We have developed accurate genetic and alcohol consumption models for the diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis and the prediction of its future risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0558.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Non-alcoholic liver disease; fructose; glucose; steatosis; hepatocyte; hepatoma cells
Online: 30 November 2022 (03:28:19 CET)
Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) begins with lipid accumulation within hepatocytes, but the relative contributions of different macronutrients is still unclear. We inves-tigated the impact of fatty acids, glucose and fructose on lipid accumulation in primary human hepatocytes (PHH) and three different hepatoma cell lines: HepG2, Huh7 and McA-RH7777 (McA). Cells were treated for 48 hours with fatty acids (0 or 200μM), glucose (5mM or 11mM) and fructose (0mM, 2mM or 8mM). Lipid accumulation was measured via Nile Red staining. All cell types accumulated lipid in response to fatty acids (P<0.001). PHH and McA, but not HepG2 or Huh7 cells, accumulated more lipid with 11mM glucose plus fatty acids (P=0.004, fatty acid x glucose interaction, for both), but only PHH increased lipid accumulation in response to fructose (P<0.001). Considerable variation was observed between PHH cells from different individuals. Lipid accumulation in PHH was increased by insulin (P=0.003) with inter-individual variability. Similarly, insulin increased lipid accumulation in both HepG2 and McA cells, with a bigger response in McA in the presence of fatty acids (P<0.001 for fatty acid x insulin). McA were more insulin sensitive than either HepG2 or Huh7 cells in terms of AKT phosphorylation (P<0.001 insulin x cell type interaction). Hence glucose and fructose can contribute to the accumulation of lipid in PHH with considerable inter-individual variation, but hepatoma cell lines are not good models of PHH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0270.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; dynapenia
Online: 15 November 2022 (03:23:47 CET)
Background: Dynapenia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are common, especially in the middle and advanced-age diabetic male population. We aimed to examine the clinical features, NAFLD severity, and parameters associated with the presence of dynapenia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cases. Material and Methods: One hundred thirty-five male patients diagnosed with T2DM between 45 and 65 years of age were included. Patients were staged by ultrasonography according to NAFLD status. Results: There were significant differences in muscle strength, upper arm circumference, calf circumference, and up-and-go test scores between the NAFLD groups (p<0.001 for all). The frequency of dynapenia was lower, and arm and calf circumferences were higher in patients without NAFLD. The muscle strength, upper arm circumference, calf circumference, and up-and-go test scores were significantly lower in the dynapenic group compared to the non-dynapenic group (p<0.005 for all). The prevalence of dynapenia increased along with the increase in NAFLD stages (p<0.001). Conclusions: We detected a significant association between NAFLD and dynapenia in middle-aged men with T2DM. As muscle strength decreases, the amount of fat in the liver increases, and as the fat in the liver increases, muscle strength decreases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0731.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: alcoholic beverages; spirits; methanol; risk mitigation; legal limits; quality control.
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:58:06 CEST)
Methanol is a natural ingredient with major occurrence in fruit spirits, such as apple, pear, plum or cherry spirits, but also in spirits made from coffee pulp. The compound is formed during fermentation and the following mash storage by enzymatic hydrolysis of naturally present pectins. Methanol is toxic above certain threshold levels and legal limits have been set in most jurisdictions. Therefore, the methanol content needs to be mitigated and its level must be controlled. This article will review the several factors that influence the methanol content including the pH value of the mash, the addition of various yeast and enzyme preparations, fermentation temperature, mash storage, and most importantly the raw material quality and hygiene. From all these mitigation possibilities, lowering the pH value and the use of cultured yeasts when mashing fruit substances is already common as best practice today. Also a controlled yeast fermentation at acidic pH facilitates not only reduced methanol formation, but ultimately also leads to quality benefits of the distillate. Special care has to be observed in the case of spirits made from coffee by-products which are prone to spoilage with very high methanol contents reported in past studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0272.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: microbial interactions; cross-feeding; synthetic communities; volatolomic; biofilm; alcoholic fermentation
Online: 26 June 2019 (15:51:06 CEST)
used traditional microbial starters revealed that effective fermentation requires three microbial strains with complementary metabolic activities: filamentous fungi (Rhizopus oryzae), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum). Relative to natural communities, modulation of the ratio of these three microorganisms led to significant differences not only in terms of ethanol and organic acid production, but also with the profile of volatile compounds. However, inoculation of an equal ratio of spores/cells of the three aforementioned microbial strains led to a flavor profile and ethanol yield similar to that obtained with natural communities. Compartmentalization of metabolic tasks through the use of a biofilm cultivation device allowed further improvement of the entire fermentation process, notably by increasing the amount of key components of the aroma profile of the fermented beverage (i.e., mainly phenylethyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol, and 2-methyl-butanol) and reducing the amount of off-flavor compound. This study represents an initial step toward understanding interkingdom microbial interactions with a strong potential for application in the food biotechnology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0007.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: acetic fermentation; alcoholic fermentation; submerged process; volatile compounds; acetic bacteria
Online: 1 December 2016 (10:47:37 CET)
The alcoholic fermentation process with agitation/static, followed by the acetic fermentation submerged in banana was evaluated. Kinetics parameters of alcoholic fermentation for the maximum ethanol/glycerol metabolites in agitated process was 29 and 27 h, and in static 47 and 45 h, respectively. For acetic fermentation, the kinetics parameters were medium time of 39.9 h, acetic acid yield of 53.1% and acetic acid productivity of 0.216 g/Lh. Wines from agitated/static process presented 5.73 and 6.81% (v/v) of alcohol content, respectively. Wine obtained by the static process presented higher concentrations of volatile compounds. The vinegar showed 49.2 g/L of acetic acid and the esters concentrations were higher than in wine. The wine and vinegar minerals were consistent with amount observed in the pulp, with an increase in sulphur concentration after alcoholic fermentation and decrease after acetic fermentation. Products showed chemical and composition of sensory and nutritional interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Fructooligosaccharides (FOS); Hyperlipidic Diet; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); prebiotics.
Online: 6 November 2023 (17:41:15 CET)
Carbohydrates such as fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are associated with improved gastrointestinal health and prevention of excess body fat. We evaluated the long-term effects of high amounts of FOS on metabolic parameters, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Sixty C57BL/6 mice received diets for four months: control (C), normolipid rich in fiber (F), normolipid supplemented with FOS (FOS), high fat (HL), high fat with high fiber (HLF) and high fat with FOS (HLFOS). We analyzed: animal weight; body composition; food intake; fasting blood glucose; serum and liver lipid profile; liver and intestinal histologies; malondialdehyde (MDA), hepatic retinol and α-tocopherol; SCFA in the feces. Supplementation with FOS in a high-fat diet promoted less body weight gain and reduced liver and retroperitoneal adipose tissue weights compared to HL and HF. FOS prevented NASH and decreased alanine aminotransferase and serum cholesterol levels in experimental animal models of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). There was found statistical differences in the dosages of the three main SCFAs in feces (acetic, isobutyric and isovaleric acids). Long-term supplementation with high doses of FOS was effective in reducing weight, adiposity, NAFLD and serum cholesterol in C57BL mice with obesity and MS induced by a high-fat diet.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1832.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; hepatocellular carcinoma; management; challenges and solutions
Online: 26 July 2023 (14:31:09 CEST)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has gained attention in the last few years due to its increasing prevalence worldwide becoming a global epidemic. This review aims to discuss the latest recommendations regarding diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD-associated HCC and the remaining challenges. Thus, there is a high amount of data derived from basic and clinical studies that revealed the molecular pathways which drive NAFLD-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Based on these findings, new prevention, surveillance and treatment strategies are emerging. However, current data on treatment modalities in NAFLD-associated HCC are still scarce, but based on subgroup analysis results from non-NAFLD HCC studies are promising and could provide a basis for future research agenda to address NAFLD/NASH patients. Conclusion: Due to the pandemic proportions that NAFLD gained in the last few years, there is a high amount of data derived from basic and clinical studies that revealed the molecular path-ways which drive NAFLD-associated HCC. Based on these findings, new prevention, surveillance and treatment strategies could be developed at an individual level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0537.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: metals oxides; surface hydrophilicity; alcoholic beverage; contaminants; quality control; mesoporous materials
Online: 31 March 2023 (03:13:00 CEST)
The presence of copper in distilled sugar cane spirits, especially cachaça produced in alembics, has impeded the marketing of this product. Red mud (RM) is a residue obtained from alumina production. It contains a high concentration of metal oxides and is very alkaline. The RM was dried at 100 oC and sifted through a 150-micron sieve. The sample was characterized by B.E.T. nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (A.A.S.). The textural parameters indicate that the total surface area (S.T.) was 21.9 m2g-1, and the total volume pore (V.T.) was 0.09 cm3g-1. The RM (1 g) was stirred for two hours with a 1.0 L cachaça sample containing 9.39 mg of copper L-1 and filtered under atmospheric pressure. The concentration of copper ions detected in the filtrate was 0.00 mg L-1. No copper ions were retained when the cachaça was filtered through the RM under high pressure without stirring prior to filtration.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: sarcopenia; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; obesity; skeletal muscle mass; inflammation
Online: 14 December 2020 (08:20:04 CET)
Although sarcopenia is known to be a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), whether NAFLD is a risk factor for the development of sarcopenia is not clear. We investigated bidirectional relationships between NAFLD and low skeletal muscle mass index (LSMI) using three different datasets. Participants were classified into LSMI and normal groups. LSMI was defined as a body mass index (BMI)-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass <0.789 in men and <0.512 in women or as the sex-specific lowest quintile of BMI-adjusted total skeletal muscle mass. NAFLD was determined according to NAFLD liver fat score or abdominal ultrasonography. The NAFLD groups showed a higher hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for LSMI than the normal groups (HRs=1.213, 95% CIs=1.050–1.402). The LSMI groups also showed a higher HRs with 95% CIs for NAFLD than normal groups (HRs=1.564, 95% CIs=1.378–1.775). Participants with NAFLD had consistently less skeletal muscle mass over 12 years of follow-up. In conclusion, LSMI and NAFLD showed a bidirectional relationship. Maintaining muscle mass should be emphasized in the management of NAFLD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0713.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: NMR; alcoholic beverages; ethanol; methanol; acetaldehyde; screening; validation; food control; PULCON
Online: 31 August 2020 (06:21:35 CEST)
Due to legal regulations, the rise of globalised (online) commerce and the need for public health protection, the analysis of spirits (alcoholic beverages > 15 % vol) is a task with growing importance for governmental and commercial laboratories. In this article a newly developed method using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for the simultaneous determination of 15 substances relevant for the quality and authenticity assessment of spirits is described. The new method starts with a simple and rapid sample preparation and does not need an internal standard. For each sample a group of 1H-NMR spectra is recorded, among them a 2D spectrum for analyte identification and 1D spectra with suppression of solvent signals for quantification. Using the Pulse Length Based Concentration Determination (PULCON) method, concentrations are calculated from curve fits of the characteristic signals for each analyte. The optimisation of the spectra, their evaluation and the transfer of the results are done fully automatically. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, acetic acid, citric acid, formic acid, ethyl acetate, ethyl lactate, acetaldehyde, ethanol, methanol, n-propanol, isobutanol, isopentanol, 2-phenylethanol and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) can be quantified with an overall accuracy better than 8 %. This new NMR-based targeted quantification method enables the simultaneous and efficient quantification of relevant spirits ingredients in their typical concentration ranges in one process with good accuracy. It has proven to be a reliable method for all kinds of spirits in routine food control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0109.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: insulin-resistance; hyperlipidemia; non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); OCTN1; OCTN2
Online: 8 April 2020 (03:22:50 CEST)
Hyperlipidemia and insulin-resistance are often associated with Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) thereby representing a true issue worldwide, due to increased risk of developing cardiovascular and systemic disorders. Although clear evidence suggests that circulating fatty acids contribute in pathophysiological mechanisms underlying NAFLD and hyperlipidemia, further studies are required for better identify potential beneficial approaches for counteracting such a disease state. Recently, several artichoke extracts have been used for both reducing hyperlipidemia, insulin-resistance and NAFLD, though the mechanism is unclear. Here we used a wild type of Cynara Cardunculus extract (CyC), rich in sesquiterpens and antioxidant active ingredients, in rats fed and High Fat Diet (HFD) compared to Normal Fat Diet (NFD). In particular, in rats fed HFD for four consecutive weeks, we found a significant increase of serum cholesterol, triglyceride and serum glucose. This effect was accompanied by increased body weight and by histopathological features of liver steatosis. The alterations of metabolic parameters found in HFD were antagonised dose-dependently by daily oral supplementation of rats with CyC 10 and 20 mg/Kg over 4 weeks, an effect associated to significant improvement of liver steatosis. The effect of CyC (20 mg/Kg) was also associated to enhanced expression of both OCTN1 and OCTN2 carnitine-linked transporters. Thus, present data suggest a contribution of carnitine system in the protective effect of CyC in diet-induced hyperlipidemia, insulin-resistance and NAFLD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0332.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: digital PID; PID controller; instability; stability; alcoholic fermentation; process start-up
Online: 29 July 2019 (03:42:20 CEST)
The art work of this present paper is to show properly conditions and aspects to reach stability in the process control, as also to avoid instability, by using digital PID controllers, with the intention of help the industrial community. The discussed control strategy used to reach stability is to manipulate variables that are directly proportional to their controlled variables. To validate and to put the exposed principles into practice, it was done two simulations of a continuous fermentation tank process start-up with the yeast strain S. Cerevisiae NRRL-Y-132, in which the substrate feed stream contains different types of sugar derived from cane bagasse hydrolysate. These tests were carried out through the resolution of conservation laws, more specifically mass and energy balances, in which the fluid temperature and level inside the tank were the controlled variables. The results showed the facility in stabilize the system by following the exposed proceedings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1133.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; magnetic resonance imaging; amino acids; metabolomics; inflammation
Online: 28 April 2023 (07:20:14 CEST)
Background & Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have been linked to changes in amino acid (ΑΑ) levels. The current observational study sought to investigate the relationship between plasma AA concentrations in a NAFLD population and MRI parameters reflecting inflammation and fibrosis, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and disease-related anthropometric and biochemical indicators. Approach & Results: Plasma AA levels were quantified with liquid chromatography in 97 NAFLD patients from the MAST4HEALTH study. Medical, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics were collected and biochemical parameters, as well as inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured. In total, males and subjects with higher MRI-proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) exhibited higher plasma AA levels compared to females and subjects with lower PDFF respectively. Several associations of AAs with disease related markers were revealed, with the more prominent ones being those of aromatic amino acids with log-PDFF (beta: 1.190E-02, p-Value: 0.001) and log-ALT (beta: 7.55E-03, p-Value: 0.001), of branched amino acids with log-insulin (beta: 1.97E-03, p-Value: 1.16E-04) and of ethanolamine (beta: 0.036, p-Value: 3.65E-04) and L-ornithine (beta: 5.4E-04, p-Value: 0.021) with log-total antioxidant status (TAS). Conclusions: Plasma AA levels varied according to sex, BMI, and several MRI clinical factors. Furthermore, significant relationships were demonstrated between AA and several disease indicators, such as MRI parameters, biochemical and oxidative stress indices, showing the potential utility of AAs as diagnostic dis-ease-related indicators activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0822.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Sarcopenia; Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; Obesity, Insulin Resistance; Prevalence; Metabolic Diseases
Online: 31 December 2020 (15:34:29 CET)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) continues to rise and has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease among all ages and ethnicities. Metabolic disorders such as obesity and insulin resistance are closely associated with sarcopenia and NAFLD. Sarcopenic obesity is a clinical disorder characterized by the simultaneous loss of skeletal muscle and gain of adipose tissue. It is associated with worse outcomes in individuals with NAFLD. It is projected that NAFLD and sarcopenia will rise as the prevalence of obesity continues to increase at an unparallel rate. Recently, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity have gained considerable interest, but we still lack a well-defined definition and a management approach. Therefore, it is imperative to continue shining the light on this topic and better understand the underlying mechanism as well as treatment options. In this review article, we aimed to address the pathophysiology, impact, and outcomes of sarcopenic obesity on NAFLD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0120.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; type 2 diabetes mellitus; inflammatory process; biological markers
Online: 3 July 2023 (15:26:47 CEST)
Abstract: (1) Background: The relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is bidirectional: NAFLD increases the risk of T2DM, and T2DM promotes the progression of the disease to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). (2) Material and methods: We performed a retrospective, open study that included 59 patients with NAFLD and T2DM who were distributed into two groups: 44 (74.57%) patients were diagnosed with HS and 15 (25.42%) patients were diagnosed with NASH. (3) Results: Among the non-specific inflammatory biomarkers statistically significant (p=0.003 respectively p=0.03) higher mean values were recorded in patients with NASH and T2DM in the case of ferritin and the neutrophil percentage-to-albumin ratio (NPAR). (4) Conclusions: Consequently, it is essential to identify alternative "surrogate" markers for the inflammatory process, particularly in individuals with diabetes, as it is a key characteristic of NASH. This need arises from the desire to avoid the risks associated with liver biopsy procedures and to prevent the unpredictable and unfavorable progression of NAFLD in patients with T2DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0397.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: erythrocyte; non alcoholic steatohepatitis; immunometabolism; thrombospondin-1; arginase-1; phosphatidylethanolamine; metabolic inflammation
Online: 17 April 2023 (04:22:12 CEST)
Background: Hepatic erythrophagocytosis is augmented in NASH and amplifies inflammation and fibrosis. Although various pro-phagocytic signals have been identified on erythrocytes of NASH patients, the role of bound thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), which acts as an “eat-me” signal, arginase-1, which regulates the levels of nitric oxide in erythrocytes, and phosphatidylethano-lamine (PE) which can amplify erythrophagocytosis and hepatic inflammation have not been explored. Hence, we sought to investigate the levels of arginase-1 and TSP-1 in erythrocyte lysate and PE in erythrocyte membranes of NASH patients. Methods: Twenty-four patients and 14 healthy controls participated in our study. The levels of TSP-1 and arginase were quantified by ELISA in erythrocyte lysates, and the levels of PE in erythrocyte membranes by thin layer chro-matography. Results: Erythrocytes of NAFLD patients exhibit lower levels of arginase-1 and TSP-1 (p<0.01). Erythrocyte-bound TSP-1 levels correlated with the levels of erythrocyte surface CD47. Phosphatidylethanolamine was increased in erythrocytes of NASH patients and was accompanied by increased release, indicating exposure. Conclusion: Our results imply reduced TSP-1 binding by erythrocytes which could allow free TSP-1 molecules to act on macrophages, enhancing erythrophagocytosis. Increased PE which could amplify inflammation after efferocytosis, while downregulation of arginase-1 could lead to defective efferocytosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0240.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; NAFLD; omega-3 fatty acid; EPA; DHA; PUFA;
Online: 13 July 2018 (14:47:22 CEST)
Background & Aims: This RCT aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of MF4637, a medical food comprising highly concentrated, highly purified, long chain (LC) omega-3 fatty acids, (460 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 380 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) in correcting the omega-3 fatty acid nutritional deficiency present in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The potential for MF4637 to reduce liver fat was evaluated in a subset of patients. Methods: 176 subjects with NAFLD were randomised to receive 3 g/d of LC-omega-3 fatty acids (n=87) or placebo (olive oil; n=89) for 24 weeks, in addition to following standard-of-care dietary guidelines for these patients. Thus, interventions were given on top of the dietary advice. The omega-3 index, omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio (primary outcome) and quantitative measurements of red blood cell (RBC) EPA and DHA (secondary outcome) were determined at baseline and study completion. Magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) assessment of change in liver fat fraction was conducted in a subset of patients. Results: Of the 176 randomised subjects, 167 were analysed for the primary and secondary outcomes (n=81 in the MF4637 group; n=86 in the placebo group). Supplementation with MF4637 for 24 weeks significantly increased the omega-3 index and absolute values of RBC EPA and DHA, and decreased the omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio in NAFLD patients compared to placebo (p<0.0001). There was a statistically significant reduction in liver fat content within both groups with no difference between them. An inverse relationship between change in absolute RBC EPA+DHA and change in liver fat, AST and ALT levels was seen suggesting that a greater increase in omega-3 content was associated with a reduction for both liver fat content and improvement in liver enzyme levels. Additionally, a significant liver fat-lowering effect of MF4637 compared to placebo was demonstrated in a subset of patients with baseline fatty liver index (FLI) score ≥ 40. There were no serious adverse events related to study interventions. Conclusions: The study results demonstrate that the medical food MF4637, was able to correct the nutritional deficiency of omega-3 in NAFLD patients above and beyond that obtained with nutritional counselling. This demonstrates that MF4637 is beneficial in raising the low omega-3 index observed in these patients. A reduction in hepatic steatosis was demonstrated with both intervention groups although no distinction between groups was seen. Further analyses demonstrate the potential to identify omega-3 sensitive patients using an easily available clinical tool for steatosis prediction.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1496.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: pemafibrate; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); Alanine Aminotransferase; M2-BPGi; dyslipidemia; liver fibrosis
Online: 27 September 2023 (10:02:35 CEST)
AIM Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. Pemafibrate, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator (SPPARMα), has been reported to ameliorate liver function among patients with dyslipidemia. However, there are not many reports of the clinical effects of the pemafibrate. This study aims to summarize the experience of using pemafibrate and analyze the effects on liver function in patients with dyslipidemia. METHODS One hundred twelve cases of hyperlipidemia receiving pemafibrate 0.2 mg/day were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Age, gender, BMI, complications, concomitant medications, serum parameters (TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, AST, ALT, γGTP, ALP, platelets, M2BPGi, Cre, eGFR, HbA1c, blood glucose level at any time) were investigated and evaluated. RESULTS Pemafibrate administration significantly improved serum TG and HDL-C, but not in LDL-C. Serum AST, ALT, γGTP, and ALP were also significantly improved. The fib-4 index, a liver fibrosis score, did not change significantly, but M2-BPGi, an index of fibrosis, decreased significantly. No correlation was observed between each lipid parameter and ALT, and ALT decreased independently of the lipid parameters. Conclusions As we expected, pemafibrate demonstrated a lipid-improving effect without adversely affecting hepatic and renal functions. An unexpected finding was the decrease in ALT that was independent of lipid parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0608.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; Agrimonia pilosa; lipid metabolism; inflammation; oxidative stress; AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway
Online: 11 September 2023 (04:11:02 CEST)
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is diagnosed by the occurrence of fat buildup, inflammation, and fibrotic changes within the liver. NASH has the capacity to proceed to the advancement of decompensated cirrhosis and carcinoma by inflammation and oxidative stress. Although Agrimonia pilosa has traditionally been used medicinal purposes, its effects on the liver remains incompletely elucidated. In this research, we assessed the therapeutic outcomes of Agrimonia pilosa extract (APE) on free fatty acid (FFA)-treated HepG2 cellular hepatic steatosis and in a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet with 0.1% methionine (CDAHFD)-induced NASH mouse model. In FFA-treated cells, APE inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation, and regulated the mRNA and protein expressions of modulators of fatty acid (FA) synthesis as well as FA oxidation proteins, through down-regulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase/sirtuin 1 signaling pathway. In the CDAHFD-induced NASH mouse model, APE significantly enhanced liver histology and serum levels of liver damage. APE also significantly attenuated hepatic expression of mRNA and proteins related to FA synthesis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Furthermore, APE mitigated the expression levels of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Overall, these discoveries indicate that Agrimonia pilosa has the potential to treat NASH by regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, alleviating inflammation, and mitigating oxidative stress.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: periodontal disease; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; exercise; clinical trial; oral microbiota; saliva components
Online: 14 January 2021 (13:13:47 CET)
Exercise can be hypothesized to play an important role in NAFLD treatment by changing the oral bacterial flora and in the mechanism underlying periodontal disease. We performed salivary component analysis before and after an exercise regimen, and genome analysis of the oral bacterial flora to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Obese middle-aged men with NAFLD and periodontal disease were allocated to 12-week exercise (n=49) or dietary restriction (n=21) groups. We collected saliva to compare the oral microflora; performed predictive analysis of metagenomic functions; and measured the salivary immunoglobulin A, cytokine, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and lactoferrin concentrations. The exercise group showed improvements in clinical indices of oral environment. Salivary component analysis revealed significant reductions in LPS, and lactoferrin during the exercise regimen. Diversity analysis of oral bacterial flora revealed higher alpha- and beta-diversity after the exercise regimen. Analysis of the microbial composition revealed that the numbers of Campylobacter (+83.9%), Corynebacterium (+142.3%), Actinomyces (+75.9%), and Lautropia (+172.9%) were significantly higher and that of Prevotella (−28.3%) was significantly lower. The findings suggest that an exercise regimen improves the oral environment of NAFLD patients by increasing the diversity of the oral microflora and reducing the number of periodontal bacteria that produce LPS and its capability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0433.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: miRNAs; Obesity; Children; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Endothelial dysfunction
Online: 16 November 2020 (15:44:40 CET)
Rising child obesity rate creates a need for tools quantifying metabolic changes in obese children and adolescents for purposes of comorbidities early detection or prevention. A candidate for such role seem to be miRNAs – in vivo serving as the suppressing factors of the gene expression. The aim of this study was to review the recent discoveries in this field and to conclude directions of research or application of studied molecules. Repeated browsing of databases, followed by screening for eligibility of results, led to final approval of 9 articles. Filtered studies examined the differences in miRNA (miR) expression levels of obese subjects and children suffering from obesity comorbidities. Studies concerning the endothelial dysfunction (ED) identified miR-630 as a possible treatment option. Search for the alternative markers in diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) suggested value of miR-199a-5p and miR-122. MiR-486, miR-146b and miR-15b may serve as a panel of markers grading the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children, although further research raised doubts in that matter. Another panel of miRNA molecules was indicated as useful in early detection of alterations leading to metabolic syndrome (MetS). No valid link between studied miRNAs and atherosclerosis (AS) was found. MiRNAs seem to be promising prognostic markers for the diagnosis of NAFLD, T2DM and MetS in children. Further studies are required to support these findings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0166.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: FTO; liver; gluconeogenesis; lipogenesis; glucose; insulin; type 2 diabetes; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Online: 9 October 2018 (03:52:49 CEST)
Common genetic variants of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene are strongly associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. FTO is ubiquitously expressed, but appears to have tissue-specific roles. Earlier studies have focused on the role of hypothlamic FTO in the regulation of metabolism. However, it appears that FTO plays a role in the regulation of metabolism in a tissue-specific manner. Recent studies suggest that expression of hepatic FTO is regulated by metabolic signals such as nutrients and hormones and altered FTO levels in liver affects glucose and lipid metabolism. This review outlines recent findings on hepatic FTO in the regulation of metabolism, with particular focus on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. It is proposed that abnormal activity of hepatic signaling pathways involving FTO links metabolic impairments such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, a better understanding of these pathways may lead to therapeutic approaches to treat these metabolic diseases by targeting hepatic FTO. The overall goal of this review is to place FTO within the context of hepatic regulation of metabolism.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0193.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: hyperlipidic diet; overweight rats; non-alcoholic liver steatosis; arterial hypertension; increased renal sodium reabsorption; hepatocardiorenal syndrome
Online: 10 December 2021 (15:08:53 CET)
Overweight/obesity is a growing pandemic nowadays that affects many organs and tissues. We have investigated whether a high-lipid diet provokes an imbalance between type 1 and type 2 angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors signaling, leading to liver alterations associated with previously described cardiovascular and kidney disturbances. Chronic administration of a high-lipid diet can provoke an hepatocardiorenal syndrome as the result of activation of the Ang II→type 1 receptor axis, which is completely counteracted by Ang-(3–4) the allosteric enhancer of the Ang II→type 2 receptor pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0001.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; xylo-oligosaccharides; metabolites; gut microbiota; biclustering; high fat diet; microRNAs; rats
Online: 1 March 2021 (12:28:31 CET)
We have shown that prebiotic xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) increased beneficial gut microbiota (GM) and prevented high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis, but the mechanisms behind these effects are not clear. We studied whether XOS affects adipose tissue inflammation and insulin signaling, and whether the GM and fecal metabolome explain associated patterns. XOS was supplemented or not with high (HFD) or low (LFD) fat diet for 12-weeks in male Wistar rats (n = 10/group). Previously analyzed GM and fecal metabolites were biclustered to reduce data dimensionality and identify interpretable groups of co-occurring genera and metabolites. Based on our findings, biclustering provides a useful algorithmic method for capturing such joint signatures. On the HFD, XOS-supplemented rats showed lower number of adipose tissue crown-like structures, increased phosphorylation of AKT in liver and adipose tissue as well as lower expression of hepatic miRNAs. XOS-supplemented rats had more fecal glycine and less hypoxanthine, isovalerate, branched chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids. Several bacterial genera were associated with the metabolic signatures. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of XOS on hepatic steatosis involved decreased adipose tissue inflammation and likely improved insulin signaling, which were further associated with fecal metabolites and GM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0087.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; metabolic syndrome; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; inflammation; oxidative stress; microbiota
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:16:21 CET)
Metabolic disorders, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and depression are those of the most common and debilitating disorders worldwide that often coexist further increasing mortality risks. Although the exact mechanisms underlying this association are poorly known, several hypotheses have been proposed: antipsychotic medication and antidepressants use, diet and physical activity or any other lifestyle factors. However, the high co-occurrence rate of depression and metabolic disorders suggests a possible pathophysiological overlap. In this paper I review several raised mechanisms for this overlap which are the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation, immune alterations with chronic inflammation, as well as oxidative stress. In my view, there is one common thread running through all the aforementioned areas of pathophysiology which is microbiota alteration. So far, several possible interventions in our microbiota have been introduced into clinical practice - dietary and other lifestyle changes, supplementation with prebiotics or probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation – but with vague indications. A better characterization of the above associations may represent a critical step at phenotyping, and a more targeted approach to the treatment of both depressive and metabolic disorders. At the end of the paper, I give several practical applications for future studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0429.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Copper; fructose; Kupffer cell (KC); iron; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); metabolic syndrome; gut microbiota
Online: 18 October 2018 (16:57:06 CEST)
Compelling epidemiologic data support the critical role of dietary fructose in the epidemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The metabolic effects of fructose on the development of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD are not completely understood. High fructose intake impairs copper status, and copper-fructose interactions have been well documented in rats. Altered copper-fructose metabolism leads to exacerbated experimental metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that copper levels are low in NAFLD patients. Moreover, hepatic and serum copper levels are inversely correlated with the severity of NAFLD. Thus, high fructose consumption and low copper availability are considered two important risk factors in NAFLD. However, the causal effect of copper-fructose interactions as well as the effects of fructose intake on copper status remain to be evaluated in humans. The aim of this review is to summarize the role of copper-fructose interactions in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and discuss the potential underlying mechanisms. This review will shed light on the role of copper homeostasis and high fructose intake and point to copper-fructose interactions as novel mechanisms in the fructose induced NAFLD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0164.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: coffee; dietary supplements; metabolic syndrome X; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; adiponectin; hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Online: 27 October 2017 (02:32:43 CEST)
Since coffee has been shown to influence positively the metabolism of subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS), we aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of a coffee-based supplement on different features of diet-induced MetS. 24 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control or nutraceuticals groups to receive a high-fat/high fructose diet with or without a mixture of caffeic acid (30 mg/day), trigonelline (20 mg/day), and cafestol (1 mg/day) for 12 weeks. An additional 11 rats were assigned to an acute crossover study. In the chronic experiment, nutraceuticals did not alter body weight or glycemic control but improved fed hyperinsulinemia and HOMA-IR, and plasma adiponectin levels. The impact of nutraceuticals on post-prandial glycemia tended to be more pronounced after acute administration than at the end of the chronic study. Circulating and intrahepatocellular alanine transaminase activity, assessed by hyperpolarized-13C NMR spectroscopy, were reduced by coffee nutraceuticals at endpoint. There was also a tendency towards lower liver triglyceride content and histological steatosis score in the intervention group. In conclusion, a mixture of coffee nutraceuticals improved insulin sensitivity and exhibited hepatoprotective effects in a rat model of MetS. Higher dosages with or without caffeine deserve to be studied in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0810.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: IMM−H014; extended–release tablet; hydrophilic polymers; in vitro−in vivo correlation; non–alcoholic fatty liver disease
Online: 12 July 2023 (21:28:22 CEST)
This study aimed to develop extended–release tablets containing 25 mg IMM−H014, an original drug formulated by a direct powder pressing method based on pharmaceutical–grade hydrophilic matrix polymers, such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, to establish an in vitro−in vivo corre-lation (IVIVC) to predict bioavailability. The tablets’ mechanical properties and in vitro and in vivo performance were studied. The formulation was optimized using a single factor experiment and the reproducibility was confirmed. The in vitro dissolution profiles of the tablet were de-termined in five dissolution media, in which the drug released from the hydrophilic tablets fol-lowed Ritger–Peppas model kinetics in 0.01 N HCl medium for the first 2 h, and in phosphate buffer saline medium (pH 7.5) for further 24 h. Accelerated stability studies (40°C, 75% relative humidity) proved that the optimal formulation was stable for 6 months. The in vivo pharmaco-kinetics study in beagle dogs showed that compared to the IMM−H014 immediate release prep-aration, the maximum plasma concentration of the extended release (ER) preparation was sig-nificantly decreased, while the maximum time to peak and mean residence time were significantly prolonged. The relative bioavailability was 97.9% based on an area under curve, indicating that the optimal formulation has an obvious ER profile. And a good IVIVC was established, which could be used to predict in vivo pharmacokinetics from the formulation composition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0365.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: coffee; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome X; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy; phytotherapy
Online: 21 August 2018 (04:38:00 CEST)
Literature is inconsistent as to how coffee affects the features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), and which bioactive compounds are responsible for its metabolic effects. We aimed to compare the in-vivo effects of unfiltered coffee with a selected mixture of its compounds on diet-induced MetS. 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat (35% W/W) food plus 20% W/W fructose in drinking water for 14 weeks, and were randomized into three groups: control, coffee, or nutraceuticals (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, and trigonelline). Coffee or nutraceuticals were provided in drinking water in a dosage equal to 4 cups/day in a human. Compared to the controls, only coffee supplementation decreased total food intake, weight gain, and estimated average plasma glucose. Surrogate measures of insulin resistance (fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and oral glucose tolerance) were improved at endpoint in the coffee group. Circulating triglyceride levels were also reduced by coffee. Histopathological and quantitative measurements indicated lower grades of liver steatosis after long-term coffee consumption. In conclusion, a combination of phenolic acids and trigonelline was not as effective as coffee per se in improving the components of the MetS. This points to the role of other coffee chemicals and a potential synergism between compounds.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0322.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; nutraceuticals; Sirt1; AMPK; Nrf2; cAMP; cGMP; fibroblast growth factor 21; adiponectin; vegan diet.
Online: 5 July 2023 (13:49:12 CEST)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a frequent complication of metabolic syndrome and visceral obesity, is characterized by marked accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes, accompanied by oxidant stress. In a substantial minority of cases, this progresses to steatohepatitis, which in turn can lead to life-threatening hepatic fibrosis and/or hepatocarcinogenesis. This essay analyzes the molecular biology underlying fat accumulation and oxidant stress in NAFLD, and identifies targets that can be addressed by nutraceutical or dietary measures. Nutraceuticals with potential for prevention or control of NAFLD – as suggested on theoretical grounds, and borne out by experience in rodent studies and/or clinical trials - include ferulic acid, melatonin, methylnicotinamide, tetrahydrocurcumin, nicotinamide riboside, carnosic acid, urolithin A, quercetin, high-dose biotin, citrulline, astaxanthin, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, berberine, lipoic acid, silibinin, N-acetylcysteine, taurine, capsaicin, spermidine, spirulina, and carnitine. Some of these agents can also address the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and transforming growth factor-β signaling that play a role in driving the transition to steatohepatitis and fibrosis. In addition, soy isoflavones, via estrogen receptor-beta agonism, have anti-fibrotic potential, and supplemental glycine may blunt the contribution of Kupffer cells to the progression of NAFLD. Whole-food plant-based diets of modest protein content, owing to their impact on hormones such as fibroblast growth factor 21 and adiponectin, as well as on the obesity and metabolic syndrome underlying NAFLD, may also be protective in this syndrome. There is considerable potential for complex medical foods or nutraceutical supplementation regimens of rational design to aid prevention and control of NAFLD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1654.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Cytokeratin 18; Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; Fatty liver index; Framingham risk score; Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation 2
Online: 23 June 2023 (10:36:14 CEST)
Background and aim: To explore the discriminant accuracy of Cytokeratin 18 (CK18, including M65 and M30 forms) for an elevated fatty liver index (FLI) as a validated proxy of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the general population. Methods: Both serum CK18 forms were measured using a commercial immunoassay in randomly selected samples from 312 participants of the PREVEND general population cohort. FLI ≥60 was used to indicate NAFLD. Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and the SCORE2 were used to estimate the 10-year risk of CVD. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, linear/logistic regression models and Spearman's correlations were used. Results: Intricate associations were found between CK18, FLI and CVD risk scores. While M30 was the only independent predictor of FLI≥60, M65 discriminated best NAFLD individuals at very-high 10-years CVD risk according to SCORE2 (AUC:0.71; p=0.001). Values above the predefined manufacturer cut-off (400 U/l), were associated with an independent 5-fold increased risk (adjusted odds ratio: 5.44, p=0.01), with negative predictive value of 93%. Conclusions: Confirming that NAFLD is associated with an increased CVD risk, our results point to CK18 M65 as a candidate biomarker to identify NAFLD individuals at low CVD risk in European general population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: extracellular vesicles (EVs); urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs); exosomes; biomarkers; liquid biopsy; cirrhosis; fibrosis; hepatocarcinoma (HCC); alcoholic liver disease (ALD).
Online: 1 February 2021 (18:15:22 CET)
(1) Background: Alcohol abuse has a high impact on the mortality and morbidity related to a great number of diseases and is responsible for the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). It remains challenging to detect and evaluate its severity, which is crucial for prognosis. In this work, we studied if urinary EVs (uEVs) could serve in diagnose and evaluate cirrhosis in ALD. (2) Methods: uEVs characterization by cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM), Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) and Western blotting (WB) was performed in a cohort of 21 controls and 21 cirrhotic patients. Then, proteomics of urinary EVs (uEVs) was carried out in a second cohort of 6 controls and 8 patients in order to identify new putative biomarkers for cirrhosis in ALD. (3) Results: uEVs concentration, size and composition were altered in cirrhotic patients. A total of 1304 proteins were identified in uEVs, and 90 of them were found to be altered in cirrhotic patients. (4) Conclusions: uEVs could be considered as a tool and a supplier of new biomarkers for ALD, whose application would be especially relevant in chronic patients. Yet, further research is necessary to obtain more relevant result in clinical terms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-19; Hepatitis B and C; Cirrhosis; Chronic Kidney Disease; Alcohol-related Liver Disease; Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis; Necrosis
Online: 25 April 2020 (16:46:06 CEST)
Background: The mortality and severity in COVID-19 is increased in patients with comorbidities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the unknown risk of severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients with underlying kidney and liver diseases. Method: We retrieved data on the clinical features and primary composite end point of COVID-19 patients released from inception till 16th of April 2020 from Medline and Embase. The data on two comorbidities, liver diseases and chronic kidney disease, present in COVID-19 were pooled and statistically analysed to explain the associated severity and mortality rate. Results: 142 abstracts were screened, and 41 full articles were then read. In total, 22 studies including 5595 COVID-19 patients were included in this study with case fatality rate of 16%. The prevalence of liver diseases and CKD were 3% (95%CI; 2%-3%) and 1% (95%CI; 1%-2%) respectively. In patients with COVID-19 and underlying liver diseases, 57.33% (43/75) cases were severe with 17.65% mortality. While in CKD patients with COVID-19, 83.93% (47/56) severity and 53.33% (8/15) mortality were reported. Conclusion: This study found an increased risk of severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients with liver diseases and CKD. This will allow for better clinical management and inform more stringent preventative measures for this group of patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0606.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: alcoholic fatty liver; adenosine monophosphate activated kinase; sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor , oxidative stress; cytochrome P450 2E1
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:38:13 CEST)
Alcohol effects on hepatic lipid metabolism through various mechanisms, leading synergistically to an accumulation of fatty acids (FA) and triglycerides. Obesity, as well as, the dietary fat [saturated fatty acids (FA) versus poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)] may modulate the hepatic fat. Alcohol inhibits adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK). AMPK activates peroxisome proliferators activated receptor a (PPARα) and leads to a decreased activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SRABP1c). The inhibition of AMPK, and thus of PPARα results in an inhibition of FAs oxidation. This ß-oxidation is further reduced due to mitochondrial damage induced through cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) driven oxidative stress. Furthermore, the synthesis of FAs is stimulated through an activation of SHREP1. In addition, alcohol consumption leads to a reduced production of adiponectin in adipocytes due to oxidative stress and to an increased mobilization of FAs from adipose tissue and from the gut as chylomicrons. On the other side, the secretion of FAs via very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) from the liver is inhibited by alcohol. Alcohol also affects signal pathways such as early growth response 1 (Egr-1) associated with the expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF), and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) a key regulator of autophagy. Both have influence the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver. Alcohol-induced gut dysbiosis is contributing to the severity of ALD by increasing metabolism of ethanol in the gut and promoting intestinal dysfunction. Moreover, pathogen associated molecular paterns (PAMPS) via specific Toll-like receptors (TLR) bacterial overgrowth is leading to the translocation of bacteria. Endotoxins, and toxic ethanol metabolites enter the enterohepatic circulation reaching the liver, inducing the activation of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NFB) pathway. Pro-inflammatory cytokines released in the process contribute to inflammation and fibrosis. In addition, cellular apoptosis is inhibited in the favor of necrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0310.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; steatosis; NASH; gene set enrichment analysis; green tea; methionine-choline deficient diet; γ-linolenate biosynthesis_Homo sapiens_PWY-6000
Online: 29 September 2018 (07:53:35 CEST)
The most common liver disorder nowadays is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) and it is a progressive disease that rises in severity from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis to increase risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is a cause of great concern as there is an estimated seventy million Americans who are currently affected by NAFLD, and this is expected to only increase because of its association with obesity and diabetes and also a lack of therapies to keep its development and progression in check. In this particular study we performed a gene set enrichment analysis(GSEA) of differentially expressed genes in a green tea against methionine-choline deficient diet in high-fat patients in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD). The downregulated genes were used to perform an enrichment analysis and in the ARCHS4 TFs Coexpression database the most significant gene was found to be KLF5_human_tf_ARCHS4_coexpression. In the ARCHS4 Kinases Coexpression pathway database STYK1_human_kinase_ARCHS4 Coexpression was found to be the most significant gene. And finally for the upregulated genes a similar enrichment analysis was performed and in the humancy database γ-linolenate biosynthesis_Homo sapiens_PWY-6000 gene was discovered to be the most significant one. This study has used bioinformatics tools and the Enrichr software to perform a comparative analysis of differentially expressed gene sets for high-fat patients having a diet consisting of green tea against a methionine-choline deficient diet. Green tea is known to contain several antioxidants and polyphenols which provide protection against many liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD). The present study simply tries to build awareness of this to the general public and allow them to learn more about certain diets which have protective effects against liver diseases. Hopefully by implementing these in their daily lifestyles the public can gain some form of protection against these types of liver disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0548.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; hepatocellular carcinoma; farnesyltransferase inhibitor; hypoxia-inducible factor-1α; anti-inflammatory response; nuclear factor-κB; transforming growth factor-β; Warburg effect; reactive oxygen species; interleukin-6
Online: 7 June 2023 (12:05:28 CEST)
Inflammatory processes play major roles in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) derived from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). But there are no therapies for NASH related HCC, especially focusing on these critical steps. Previous studies reported that farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. However, the influence of FTIs on NASH-related HCC has not been elucidated. In HCC cell lines, HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh-7, we confirmed expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, an accelerator of tumor aggressiveness and the inflammatory response. We established NASH-related HCC models under inflammation and free fatty acid burden and confirmed that HIF-1α expression was increased under both conditions. Tipifarnib, which is an FTI, strongly suppressed increased HIF-1α, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis. Simultaneously, intracellular interleukin-6 as an inflammation marker was increased under both conditions and significantly suppressed by tipifarnib. Additionally, tipifarnib suppressed expression of phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB and transforming growth factor-β. Finally, in a NASH-related HCC mouse model burdened with diethylnitrosamine and a high fat diet, tipifarnib significantly reduced tumor nodule formation in association with decreased serum interleukin-6. In conclusion, tipifarnib has anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory effects in a NASH-related HCC model and may be a promising new agent to treat this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1729.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: quantiative ultrasound; attenuation coefficient; backscatter-distribution coefficient; liver stiffness; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; metabolic-associated fatty liver disease; hepatic steatosis; ultrasound-estimated fat fraction; proton density fat fraction
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:36:41 CEST)
We aimed to develop a non-linear regression model that could predict the fat fraction of the liver (USFF), similar to magnetic resonance imaging proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF), based on quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters. We measured and retrospectively collected the ultrasound attenuation coefficient (AC), backscatter-distribution coefficient (BSC-D), and liver stiffness (LS) using shear wave elastography (SWE) in 90 patients with clinically suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and 51 patients with clinically suspected metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). The MRI-PDFF was also measured in all patients within a month of the ultrasound scan. In the linear regression analysis, only AC and BSC-D showed a significant association with MRI-PDFF. Therefore, we developed prediction models using non-linear least-squares analysis to estimate MRI-PDFF based on the AC and BSC-D parameters. We fitted the models on the NAFLD dataset and evaluated their performance in 3-fold cross-validation repeated five times. We decided to use the model based on both parameters to estimate the ultrasound fat fraction (USFF). The correlation between USFF and MRI-PDFF was strong in NAFLD and very strong in MAFLD. According to a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, USFF could differentiate between <5% vs. ≥ 5% and < 10% vs. ≥ 10% MRI-PDFF steatosis with excellent, 0.97 and 0.91 area under the curve (AUC) accuracy in the NAFLD and with AUCs of 0.99 and 0.96 in the MAFLD groups. In conclusion, USFF calculated from QUS parameters is an accurate method to quantify liver fat fraction and to diagnose ≥ 5% and ≥ 10% steatosis in both NAFLD and MAFLD. Therefore, USFF can be an ideal non-invasive screening tool for patients with NAFLD and MAFLD risk factors.