REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0385.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: Agriculture; Copernicus,; Sentinel 1; Sentinel 2; Literature Review,; EO4Agri
Online: 23 December 2021 (11:45:41 CET)
Copernicus is Europe's space-based Earth monitoring asset, which consists of a complex set of systems that collect data from different sources: remote sensing satellites (RS) and in-situ sensors such as ground stations, airborne and marine sensors. This study was originally prepared for the needs of the Czech agricultural community, where we provided an in-depth analysis of articles related to Earth observation in precision agriculture. At a later stage, we extended this study by comparing the recommendations of the European EO4Agri project and scientific articles published in MDPI. We had two important objectives, one was to validate the results of the EO4Agri project and the other was to look for gaps in current research and community needs. To recognize the importance of using Sentinel 1 data, we also added a specific analysis of methods for data fusion of Sentinel 1 and Sentinel 2 data.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0233.v1
Online: 14 February 2023 (04:21:05 CET)
We describe an efficient approach to radiometrically flatten geocoded stacks of calibrated synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for terrain-related effects. We use simulation to demonstrate that, for the Sentinel-1 mission, one static radiometric terrain flattening factor derived from actual SAR imaging metadata per imaging geometry is sufficient for flattening interferometrically compliant stacks of SAR data. We quantify the loss of precision due to application of static flattening factors, and show that these are well below stated requirements of change detection algorithms. Finally, we discuss the implications of applying radiometric terrain flattening to geocoded SAR data instead of the traditional approach of flattening data provided in the original SAR image geometry. The proposed approach allows for efficient and consistent generation of five different Committee of Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Analysis Ready Dataset (ARD) families - Geocoded Single Look Complex (GSLC), Interferometric Radar (InSAR), Normalized Radar Backscatter (NRB), Polarimetric Radar (POL) and Ocean Radar Backscatter (ORB) from SAR missions in a common framework.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0252.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: SAR; InSAR; Sentinel-1; Big data
Online: 17 June 2022 (09:00:40 CEST)
We describe an efficient and cost effective data access mechanism for Sentinel-1 TOPS 1 mode bursts. Our data access mechanism enables burst-based data access and processing, thereby 2 eliminating ESA’s Sentinel-1 SLC data packaging conventions as a bottleneck to large scale processing. 3 Pipeline throughput is now determined by available compute resources and efficiency of the analysis 4 algorithms. For targeted infrastructure monitoring studies, we are able to generate coregistered, 5 geocoded stacks of SLCs for any AOI in the world in a few minutes. In addition, we describe our 6 global scale radar backscatter and interferometric products and associated pipeline design decisions 7 that ensure geolocation consistency across the suite of derived products from Sentinel-1 data. Finally, 8 we discuss the benefits and limitations of working with geocoded SAR SLC data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0410.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: plastic; tyres; waste; greenhouses; remote sensing; Copernicus; Sentinel-1; Sentinel-2
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:32:19 CEST)
The detection of waste plastics in the marine and terrestrial environment using satellite Earth Observation data offers the possibility of large-scale mapping, and reducing on-the-ground manual investigation. In addition, costs are kept to a minimum by utilizing free-to-access Copernicus data. A Machine Learning based classifier was developed to run on Sentinel-1 and -2 data. In support of the training and validation, a dataset was created with terrestrial and aquatic cases by manually digitizing varying landcover classes alongside plastics under the sub-categories of greenhouses, plastic, tyres and waste sites. The trained classifier, including an Artificial Neural Network and post-processing decision tree, was verified using five locations encompassing these different forms of plastic. Although exact matchups are challenging to digitize, the performance has generated high accuracy statistics, and the resulting land cover classifications have been used to map the occurrence of plastic waste in aquatic and terrestrial environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0341.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: SAR; Sentinel-1; snow avalanche; automatic detection
Online: 29 October 2019 (15:37:11 CET)
Knowledge of the spatio-temporal occurrence of avalanche activity is critical for avalanche forecasting and hazard mapping. We present a near-real time automatic avalanche monitoring system that outputs detected avalanche polygons within roughly 10 min after Sentinel- 1 SAR data download. Our avalanche detection algorithm has an average probability of detection of 67.2 % with a false alarm rate averaging 45.9, with maximum POD's over 85 % and minimum FAR's of 24.9 % compared to manual detection of avalanches. The high variability in performance stems from the dynamic nature of snow in the Sentinel-1 data. After tuning parameters of the detection algorithm, we processed five years of Sentinel-1 images acquired over a 150 x 100 km large area in Northern Norway, with the best setup. Compared to a dataset of field-observed avalanches, 77.3 % were manually detectable. Using these manual detections as benchmark, the avalanche detection algorithm achieved an accuracy of 79 % with high POD's in cases of medium to large wet snow avalanches. For the first time, we can present a dataset of spatiotemporal avalanche activity over several winters from a large region. This unique dataset allows for research into the relationship between avalanche activity and triggering meteorological factors, mapping of avalanche prone areas and near-real time avalanche activity monitoring to assist public avalanche forecasting. Currently, the Norwegian Avalanche Warning Service is using our processing system for pre-operational use in three regions in Norway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0244.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Image Fusion, Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, Wetlands, Object-Based Classification, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Online: 13 July 2018 (17:11:07 CEST)
Wetlands benefits can be summarized but are not limited to their ability to store floodwaters and improve water quality, providing habitats for wildlife and supporting biodiversity, as well as aesthetic values. Over the past few decades, remote sensing and geographical information technologies has proven to be a useful and frequent applications in monitoring and mapping wetlands. Combining both optical and microwave satellite data can give significant information about the biophysical characteristics of wetlands and wetlands` vegetation. Also, fusing data from different sensors, such as radar and optical remote sensing data, can increase the wetland classification accuracy. In this paper we investigate the ability of fusion two fine spatial resolution satellite data, Sentinel-2 and the Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellite, Sentinel-1, for mapping wetlands. As a study area in this paper, Balikdami wetland located in the Anatolian part of Turkey has been selected. Both Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 images require pre-processing before their use. After the pre-processing, several vegetation indices calculated from the Sentinel-2 bands were included in the data set. Furthermore, an object-based classification was performed. For the accuracy assessment of the obtained results, number of random points were added over the study area. In addition, the results were compared with data from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle collected on the same data of the overpass of the Sentinel-2, and three days before the overpass of Sentinel-1 satellite. The accuracy assessment showed that the results significant and satisfying in the wetland classification using both multispectral and microwave data. The statistical results of the fusion of the optical and radar data showed high wetland mapping accuracy, with an overall classification accuracy of approximately 90% in the object-based classification. Compared with the high resolution UAV data, the classification results give promising results for mapping and monitoring not just wetlands, but also the sub-classes of the study area. For future research, multi-temporal image use and terrain data collection are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0152.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: SAR; Sentinel-1; Amplitude; Beach environment; Weather conditions
Online: 8 September 2021 (13:11:46 CEST)
Environmental effects and climate change are lately representing an increasing strain of the coastal areas which topography strongly depends on these conditions. However, the processes by which weather and environmental phenomena influence the highly variable beach morphology are still unknown. A continuous monitoring of the beach environment is necessary to implement protection strategies. This paper presents the results of an innovative study performed on a coastal area using satellite remote sensing data with the aim of understanding how environmental phenomena affect beaches. Two-years of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) Sentinel-1 images are used over a test area in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. At the same time as the SAR acquisitions, information on tidal and weather conditions are collected and integrated from nearby meteorological stations. Dedicated codes are implemented in order to understand the relationship between the SAR amplitude and the considered phenomena: wind, precipitation, tidal conditions. Surface roughness is taken into account. The results indicate a strong correlation between the amplitude and the wind. No particular correlation or trend could be noticed in the relation with the precipitation. The analysis of the amplitude also shows a decreasing trend moving from the dry area of the beach towards the sea and the correlation coefficient between the amplitude and the tide level gets negative with the increase of the water content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0066.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Crop classification; SAR; Optical; time series; Sentinel-1; Sentinel-2; random forest; machine learning
Online: 3 August 2018 (12:01:50 CEST)
A timely inventory of agricultural areas and crop types is an essential requirement for ensuring global food security. Satellite remote sensing has proven to be an increasingly more reliable tool to identify crop types. With the Copernicus program and its Sentinel satellites, a growing source of satellite remote sensing data is publicly available at no charge. Here we use joint Sentinel-1 radar and Sentinel-2 optical imagery to create a crop map for Belgium. To ensure homogenous radar and optical input across the country, Sentinel-1 12-day backscatter composites were created after incidence angle normalization, and Sentinel-2 NDVI images were smoothed to yield dekadal cloud-free composites. An optimized random forest classifier predicted the 8 crop types with a maximum accuracy of 82% and a kappa coefficient of 0.77. We found that a combination of radar and optical imagery always outperformed a classification based on single-sensor inputs, and that classification performance increased throughout the season until July, when differences between crop types are largest. Furthermore we showed that the concept of classification confidence derived from the random forest classifier provided insight in the reliability of the predicted class for each pixel, clearly showing that parcel borders have a lower classification confidence. We concluded that the synergistic use of radar and optical data for crop classification led to richer information increasing classification accuracies compared to optical-only classification. Further work should focus on object-level classification and crop monitoring to exploit the rich potential of combined radar and optical observations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0202.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: crop detection; Sentinel 1; Sentinel 2; supervised classification; unsupervised classification; time series; agriculture; food security
Online: 14 January 2022 (11:18:59 CET)
Satellite Crop Detection technologies are focused on detection of different types of crops on the field in the early stage before harvesting. Crop detection is usually done on a time series of satellite data by classification of the desired fields. Currently, data obtained from Remote Sensing (RS) are used to solve tasks related to the identification of the type of agricultural crops, also modern technologies using AI methods are desired in the postprocessing part. In this challenge Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 time series data were used due to their periodic availability. Our focus was to develop methodology for classification of time series of Sentinel 2 and Sentinel 1 data and compare how accuracy of classification can be increased, but also how to guarantee availability of data. We analyse phenology of single crops and on the basis of this analysis we started to provide crop classification. Original crop classifications were made from Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) layers made from Sentinel-2 time-series data and then we added also . To increase accuracy we also integrate into the process parcel borders and provide classification of fields..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1375.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: flood; radar imagery; Sentinel-1; Google Earth Engine; Python
Online: 20 September 2023 (09:47:41 CEST)
This paper presents an operational approach for detecting floods and establishing flood extent using Sentinel-1 radar imagery with Google Earth Engine. Flooded areas are identified using a change-detection method based on the normalized difference. The HAND algorithm is used to delineate zones for processing. The approach was tested and calibrated at small scale to identify optimal parameters for flood detection. It was then applied to the whole of the island of Madagascar after the cyclone Batsirai in 2022. The proposed method is enabled by the computing power and data availability of Google Earth Engine and Google Colab. The results show satisfactory accuracy in delineating flooded areas. The advantages of this approach are its rapidity, online availability and ability to detect floods over a wide area. The approach relying on Google tools thus offers an effective solution for generating a large-scale synoptic picture to inform hazard management decision-making. However, one of the method’s drawbacks is that it depends to a large extent on frequent radar imagery being available at the time of flood events and on free access to the platform. These drawbacks will need to be taken into account in an operational scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0393.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Sentinel-1; PolSAR; synthetic aperture radar; earth observation; SNAP
Online: 30 November 2019 (11:39:51 CET)
Sentinel-1 SAR data preprocessing is essential for several earth observation applications, including land cover classification, change detection, vegetation monitoring, urban growth, natural hazards, etc. The information can be extracted from the 2x2 covariance matrix [C2] of Sentinel-1 dual-pol (VV-VH) acquisitions. To generate the covariance matrix from Sentinel-1 single look complex (SLC) data, several preprocessing steps are required. The ESA SNAP S-1 toolbox can be used to preprocess the data to generate a [C2] matrix. The polarimetric analysis in respective application fields often starts with the covariance matrix. However, due to limited availability of Sentinel-1 SLC data preprocessing workflow standards for polarimetric applications in contemporary research methods, downstream applications unable to comply with these workflows directly. In this paper, we propose a couple of generic practices to preprocess Sentinel-1 SLC data in SNAP S-1 toolbox, which would be beneficial for the radar remote sensing user community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0453.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Sentinel-1 backscatter; polarization; Terra MODIS; NDVI; soil moisture
Online: 19 October 2018 (13:28:18 CEST)
Soil moisture (SM) plays an essential role in environmental studies related to wetlands, an ecosystem sensitive to climate change. Hence, there is the need for its constant monitoring. SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) satellite imagery is the only mean to fulfill this objective regardless of the weather. The objective of the study was to develop the methodology for SM retrieval under wetland vegetation using Sentinel-1 (S-1) satellite data. The study was carried out during the years 2015–2017 in the Biebrza Wetlands, situated in northeastern Poland. At the Biebrza Wetlands, two Sentinel-1 validation sites were established, covering grassland and marshland biomes, where a network of 18 stations for soil moisture measurement was deployed. The sites were funded by the European Space Agency (ESA), and the collected measurements are available through the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN). The NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) was derived from the optical imagery of a MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor onboard the Terra satellite. The SAR data of the Sentinel-1 satellite with VH (vertical transmit and horizontal receive) and VV (vertical transmit and vertical receive) polarization were applied to soil moisture retrieval for a broad range of NDVI values and soil moisture conditions. The new methodology is based on research into the effect of vegetation on backscatter () changes under different soil moisture and vegetation (NDVI) conditions. It was found that the state of the vegetation may be described by the difference between VH and VV, or the ratio of VV/VH, as calculated from the Sentinel-1 images. The most significant correlation coefficient for soil moisture was found for data that was acquired from the ascending tracks of the Sentinel-1 satellite, characterized by the lowest incidence angle, and SM at a depth of 5 cm. The study demonstrated that the use of the inversion approach, which was applied to the new developed models and includes the derived indices based on S-1, allowed the estimation of SM for peatlands with reasonable accuracy (RMSE ~ 10 vol. %). Due to the temporal frequency of the two S-1 satellites’ (S-1A and S-1B) acquisitions, it is possible to monitor SM changes every six days. The conclusion drawn from the study emphasizes a demand for the derivation of specific soil moisture retrieval algorithms that are suited for wetland ecosystems, where soil moisture is several times higher than in agricultural areas.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: SAR Interferometry; Sentinel-1; deformation monitoring; tectonics; volcanism; automatic processing
Online: 3 June 2020 (04:51:11 CEST)
Space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry (InSAR) is now a key geophysical tool for surface deformation studies. The European Commission’s Sentinel-1 Constellation began acquiring data systematically in late 2014. The data, which are free and open access, have global coverage at moderate resolution with a 6 or 12-day revisit, enabling researchers to investigate large-scale surface deformation systematically through time. However, full exploitation of the potential of Sentinel-1 requires specific processing approaches as well as the efficient use of modern computing and data storage facilities. Here we present LiCSAR, an operational system built for large-scale interferometric processing of Sentinel-1 data. LiCSAR is designed to automatically produce geocoded wrapped and unwrapped interferograms and coherence estimates, for large regions, at 0.001° resolution (WGS-84 system). The products are continuously updated in a frequency depending on prioritised regions (monthly, weekly or live update strategy). The products are open and freely accessible and downloadable through an online portal. We describe the algorithms, processing, and storage solutions implemented in LiCSAR, and show several case studies that use LiCSAR products to measure tectonic and volcanic deformation. We aim to accelerate the uptake of InSAR data by researchers as well as non-expert users by mass producing interferograms and derived products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0340.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: dialectical generative adversarial network; image translation; Sentinel-1; TerraSAR-X
Online: 19 July 2018 (04:46:22 CEST)
Contrary to optical images, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images are in different electromagnetic spectrum where the human visual system is not accustomed to. Thus, with more and more SAR applications, the demand for enhanced high-quality SAR images has increased considerably. However, high-quality SAR images entail high costs due to the limitations of current SAR devices and their image processing resources. To improve the quality of SAR images and to reduce the costs of their generation, we propose a Dialectical Generative Adversarial Network (Dialectical GAN) to generate high-quality SAR images. This method is based on the analysis of hierarchical SAR information and the “dialectical” structure of GAN frameworks. As a demonstration, a typical example will be shown where a low-resolution SAR image (e.g., a Sentinel-1 image) with large ground coverage is translated into a high-resolution SAR image (e.g., a TerraSAR-X image). Three traditional algorithms are compared, and a new algorithm is proposed based on a network framework by combining conditional WGAN-GP (Wasserstein Generative Adversarial Network - Gradient Penalty) loss functions and Spatial Gram matrices under the rule of dialectics. Experimental results show that the SAR image translation works very well when we compare the results of our proposed method with the selected traditional methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0264.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: early-season detection; crop types; convolutional neural network; Dual-1DCNN; SAR; optical image; Sentinel-1; Sentinel-2
Online: 12 April 2023 (08:49:04 CEST)
Early-season crop-type data are required for a variety of agricultural monitoring and decision-making applications. The early season in this study referred to the prophase and middle of a growth season. Early-season detection of crop types remains challenging because of limited discriminative features, especially for landscapes that are characterized by complex cropping patterns. In fact, different remote-sensing satellites can increase the frequency of data acquisition, which can provide more information in the early season. Moreover, optical and radar sensors have different degrees of sensitivity to crop parameters. Therefore, the integration and application of two types of multitemporal data are of great significance to improve the accuracy and timeliness of crop type detection.In deep learning (DL), convolutional neural network (CNN) and recurrent neural network (RNN) models have great potential for temporal feature extraction. Compared with RNNs, CNNs usually have fewer parameters and are more conducive to determining early-season detection dates of different crop types, which requires a lot of training because of the need to model on different dates. Nevertheless, revisit dates and temporal intervals of different satellites are usually different, resulting in different data acquisition time series; these data cannot be directly used as input for the same convolutional layer. To address this challenge, a Dual-1DCNN was bulit based on the CNN model in this study. Moreover, an incremental training method was used to attain the network on each data acquisition date and obtained the best detection date for each crop type in the early season. A case study for Hengshui City in China was conducted using time series of Sentinel-1A (S1A) and Sentinel-2 (S2). To verify this method, classical methods support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF) were implemented. The results demonstrated the following: (1) the Dual-1DCNN extracted discriminative features from S1A and S2 time series at the early season by producing the highest overall accuracy (OA: 87.23%); (2) for summer maize, cotton, and common yam rhizome, the Dual-1DCNN achieved F1 values of 92.39%, 87.71%, and 84.38%, respectively, at the early season (moreover, the early seasons were almost 40, 70, and 80 days before the end of the growth seasons, respectively). These findings suggested that the Dual-1DCNN is promising for the accurate and timely detection of crop types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0231.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: NDVI; SAR; change detection; Norway; Sentinel-1; Sentinel-2; deep learning; U-Net; CCDC; Google Earth Engine
Online: 13 January 2023 (02:00:25 CET)
Landslide risk mitigation is limited by data scarcity. This could be improved using continuous landslide detection systems. In order to investigate which image types and machine learning (ML) models are most useful for landslide detection in a Norwegian setting, we compared the performance of five different ML models, for the Jølster case study (30-July-2019), in Western Norway. These included three globally pre-trained models; i) the Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC) algorithm, ii) a combined k-means clustering and Random Forest classification model, and iii) a convolutional neural network (CNN), and two locally-trained models, including; iv) Classification and Regression Trees and v) a U-net CNN model. Images used included Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, digital elevation model (DEM) and slope. The globally-trained models performed poorly in shadowed areas, and were all outperformed by the locally-trained models. A maximum Matthew’s correlation coefficient (MCC) score of 89% was achieved with model v, using combined Sentinel-1 and -2 images as input. This is one of the first attempts to apply deep-learning to detect landslides with both Sentinel-1 and -2 images. Using Sentinel-1 images only, the locally-trained deep-learning model significantly outperformed the conventional ML model. These findings contribute towards developing a national continuous monitoring system for landslides.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Surface soil moisture; Sentinel-1 SAR; Sentinel-2; Vegetation water content; Water cloud model; Support vector regression
Online: 2 June 2021 (15:22:42 CEST)
Surface soil moisture (SSM) is a significant factor affecting crop growth. This paper presents a method for retrieving SSM over wheat-covered areas using synergy dual-polarization C-band Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar and Sentinel-2 optical data. Firstly, a modified water cloud model (WCM) was proposed to remove the influence of vegetation from the backscattering coefficient of the radar data. The vegetation fraction was then introduced in this WCM, and the vegetation water content (VWC) was calculated using multiple linear regression model. Subsequently, the support vector regression technique was used to retrieve the SSM. This approach was validated using in-situ measurements of the wheat field in Hebi, in the north of Henan Province. The key findings of this study are as follows: (1) Based on vegetation indices obtained from Sentinel-2; the proposed VWC estimation model can effectively eliminate the influence of vegetation; (2) compared with vertical transmit and horizontal receive polarization, vertical transmit and vertical receive polarization is better for detecting changes in SSM at different growth stages of wheat; and, (3) the validation results indicated that the proposed approach, based on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data, successfully retrieved SSM in the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0338.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Forests; biomass; ALOS-2 PALSAR-2; Sentinel-1 CSAR; Sentinel-2 MSI; Landsat 8 OLI; ensemble learning.
Online: 16 February 2021 (14:15:01 CET)
This paper presents ensemble learning of multi-source satellite sensors dataset to obtain better predictive performance of the forest biomass. Spectral, spectral-indices, and spectral-textural features were generated from two optical satellite sensors, Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Sentinel-2 Multispectral Instrument (MSI). In addition, two radar satellite sensors, Sentinel-1 C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (CSAR), and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS-2) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR-2) were utilized to generate backscattering and backscattering-textural features. The plot-wise above ground biomass data available from five forests in New England region were utilized. Ensemble learning of multi-source satellite sensors dataset was carried out by employing four machine learning regressors namely, Support Vector Machines (SVM), Random Forests (RF), Gradient Boosting (GB), and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP). A five-fold cross-validation method was used to evaluate predictive performance of the multi-source satellite sensors. The integration of multi-source satellite features, comprising of spectral, spectral-indices, backscattering, spectral-textural, and backscattering-textural information, through ensemble learning and cross-validation approach implemented in the research showed promising results (R2 = 0.81, RMSE = 46.2 Mg/ha) for the estimation of plots-level forest biomass in New England region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0435.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Machine Learning; remote sensing; Sentinel-1; Sentinel-2; SNAP; land cover classification; change detection; urban heritage; historic architecture clusters
Online: 27 February 2023 (03:24:59 CET)
In an era of rapid technological improvements, state-of-the-art methodologies and tools dedicated to protecting and promoting our cultural heritage should be developed and extensively employed in the contemporary built environment and lifestyle. At the same time, sustainability principles underline the importance of the continuous use of historic or vernacular buildings as part of the building stock of our society. Adopting a holistic, integrated, multi-disciplinary strategy can bridge technological innovation with conserving and restoring heritage buildings. The paper presents ongoing research and results of the application of Machine Learning methods for the remote monitoring of the built environment of the historic cluster in Cypriot cities. This study is part of an integrated, multi-scale, and multi-discipline study of heritage buildings towards the creation of an online HBIM platform for urban monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0661.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Soil Moisture; Bare agricultural areas; Neural Networks; Satellite Remote Sensing; Sentinel-1
Online: 9 June 2023 (03:57:30 CEST)
Soil moisture maps are essential for hydrological, agricultural and risk assessment applications. To best meet these requirements, it is essential to develop soil moisture products at high spatial resolution which is now made possible using the free Sentinel-1 (S1) SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data. Some soil moisture retrieval techniques using S1 data relied on the use of a priori weather information in order to increase the precision of soil moisture estimates, which required access to a weather forecasting framework. This paper presents an improved and fully automated solution for high-resolution soil moisture mapping in bare agricultural areas. The proposed solution derives a priori weather information directly from the original Sentinel images, thus bypassing the need for a weather forecasting framework. For soil moisture estimation, the neural network technique was implemented to ensure the optimum integration of radar information. The neural networks were trained using synthetic data generated by the modified Integral Equation Model (IEM) model and validated on real data from two study sites in France and Tunisia. Main findings showed that the use of radar signal averaged over grids of a few km2 in addition to radar signal at plot scale instead of a priori weather information, provides good soil moisture estimations. The accuracy is even slightly better comparatively to the accuracy obtained using a priori weather information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0289.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: soil moisture; remote sensing; SMAP; Sentinel-1; soil-water retention curve; validation; Thailand
Online: 6 September 2023 (03:46:43 CEST)
Soil moisture plays a crucial role in various hydrological processes and energy partitioning of the global surface. The Soil Moisture Active Passive-Sentinel (SMAP-Sentinel) remote sensing technology has demonstrated a great potential in monitoring soil moisture at a scale greater than 1 km. This capability can be applied to improve weather forecast accuracy, enhance water management for agriculture, and climate-related disasters. Despite the techniques increasing used worldwide, its accuracy still requires field validation in specific regions like Thailand. In this paper, we report on extensive in-situ monitoring of soil moisture (from surface up to 1 m depth) at 10 stations across Thailand spanning the years 2021 to 2023. The aim was to validate SMAP surface soil moisture (SSM) Level 2 product over a period of two years. Using one month averaging approach, the study revealed linear relationships between the two measurement types, with the coefficient of determination (R-squared) varying from 0.13 to 0.58. Notably, areas with more uniform land use and topography such as croplands tended to have a better coefficient of determination. We also conducted detailed soil core characterization, including soil-water retention curves, permeability, porosity, and other physics properties. These soil properties were then used for estimating the correlation constants between SMAP and in-situ soil moistures using multiple linear regression. The results demonstrated R-squared values between 0.933 and 0.847. An upscaling approach of SMAP was proposed which showed a promising results when using 3-month average of all measurements in cropland together. The finding also suggest that the SMAP-Sentinel remote sensing technology exhibits significant potential for accurate soil moisture monitoring in diverse applications. Further validation efforts and research, particularly in terms of root zone depths and area-based assessments, especially in the agricultural sector, can greatly improve the technology’s effectiveness and usefulness in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0368.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Sentinel-1; radar image processing; line-of-sight displacement; nuclear test; North Korea
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:12:50 CET)
Sentinel-1A/B radar remote sensing data were applied for the first time to determine the sixth nuclear test, its underground explosion h-bomb location and affected zone in North Korea, on September 3, 2017. Location of epicenters nuclear test were found according to line-of-sight displacement images via its maximum value. Line-of-sight displacement images were obtained by processing in the GMTSAR package in the VirtualBox virtual machine of the Linux Ubuntu 16.04 operation system. In this research, three scenes Sentinel-B data with descending orbits were considered, one after and two before the event (the nuclear test date) scene were used.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: SAR Interferometry; Accuracy; Big Data; Deformation Monitoring, Sentinel-1; Fading Signal; Signal Decorrelation
Online: 27 October 2020 (15:26:30 CET)
We scrutinize the reliability of multilooked interferograms for deformation analysis. Designing a simple approach in the evaluation of the accuracy of the estimated deformation signals, we reveal a prominent bias in the deformation velocity maps. The bias is the result of propagation of small phase error of multilooked interferograms through the time series and can sum up to 6.5 mm/yr in case of using the error prone short temporal baseline interferograms. We further discuss the role of the phase estimation algorithms in reduction of the bias and put recommend a unified intermediate InSAR product for achieving high-precision deformation monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0300.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: snow; synthetic aperture radar; Sentinel-1; spatial variability; spectral scaling; topography; wet snow
Online: 26 January 2020 (01:42:48 CET)
This study investigates the spatial signatures of seasonal snow in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) observations at different spatial scales and for different physiographic regions. Sentinel-1 C-band (SAR) backscattering coefficients (BSC) were analyzed in the Swiss Alps (SA), in high elevation forest and grasslands in Grand Mesa (GM), Colorado, and in North Dakota (ND) croplands. GM BSC exhibit 10dB sensitivity to wetness at small scales (~100 m) over homogeneous grassland. Sensitivity decreases to 5 dB in the presence of trees, and it is demonstrated that VH BSC sensitivity enables wet snow mapping below the tree-line. Area-variance scaling relationships show minima at ~100 m and 150-250 m respectively in barren and grasslands in SA and GM, increasing up to 1 km and longer in GM forests and ND agricultural fields. The spatial organization of BSC (as described by 1D-directional BSC wavelength spectra) exhibits multi-scaling behavior in the 100 -1,000 m range with a break at (180-360 m) that is also present in UAVSAR L-band measurements in GM. Spectral slopes in GM forested areas steepen during accumulation and flatten in the melting season with mirror behavior for grasslands reflecting changes in scattering mechanisms with snow depth and wetness, and vegetation mass and structure. Overall, this study reveals persistent patterns of SAR scattering variability spatially organized by land-cover, topography and regional winds with large inter-annual variability tied to precipitation. This dynamic scaling behavior emerges as an integral physical expression of snowpack variability that can be used to model sub-km scales and for downscaling applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0695.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Urban Remote Sensing; Sentinel-1; Landsat 8; Built-Up; Data Fusion; Texture; Africa
Online: 29 October 2018 (16:02:53 CET)
The rapid urbanization that takes place in developing regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa is associated with a large range of environmental and social issues. In this context, remote sensing is essential to provide accurate and up-to-date spatial information to support risk assessment and decision making. However, mapping urban areas remains a challenge because of their heterogeneity, especially in developing regions where the highest rates of misclassification are observed. Nevertheless, urban areas located in arid climates --- which are among the most vulnerables to anthropogenic impacts, suffer from the spectral confusion occurring between built-up and bare soil areas when using optical imagery. Today, the increasing availability of satellite imagery from multiple sensors allow to tackle the aforementioned issues by combining optical data with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). In this paper, we assess the complementarity of the Landsat 8 and Sentinel-1 sensors to map built-up areas in twelve Sub-Saharan African urban areas, using a pixel-level supervised classification based on the Random Forest classifier. We make use of textural information extracted from SAR backscattering data in order to reduce the speckle noise and to introduce contextual information at the pixel level. Results suggest that combining both optical and SAR features consistently improves classification performances, mainly by enhancing the differentiation between built-up and bare lands. However, the fusion was less beneficial in mountainous case studies, suggesting that including features derived from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) could improve the reliability of the proposed approach. As suggested by previous studies, combining features computed from both VV and VH polarizations consistently led to better classification performances. On the contrary, introducing textures computed from different spatial scales did not improve the classification performances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0390.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: change detection; time-series; landslide detection; land cover; Sentinel-1; backscatter; Google Earth Engine;
Online: 22 February 2023 (15:33:14 CET)
During disaster response, clouds or darkness can prevent the use of optical images for detecting consequences of natural disasters, including landslides. In these situations, radar images can be used to detect changes more rapidly. However, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) backscatter intensity images are underutilized for landslide detection. Unfortunately, there remains a lack of understanding about how to interpret landslide signatures in SAR imagery. In this study, we investigate how the morphometric features and material properties of landslides, and preexisting land cover, control their expression in SAR backscatter intensity change images. Trends in the spatial and temporal signatures of over 1000 landslides in 30 diverse case studies are investigated, using multi-temporal composites and dense time-series of Sentinel-1 C-band SAR backscatter intensity data. The results show that the orientation of landslide surfaces relative to the sensor, pre-existing land cover, and the roughness of the landslide surface, determine whether landslides will produce an increase or decrease in backscatter intensity values. In certain cases, we can identify morphometric features of landslides (e.g. scarps, transit zone, deposits, ponding) and material properties. Generally, we see that landslides appear most clearly with a strong increase in intensity when they occur in herbaceous vegetation or non-vegetated ground surfaces, due to an increase in surface roughness. While in forested or densely vegetated areas, landslides produce a more complex signature with both decreases due to radar shadow and vegetation removal, and an adjacent edge of increased intensity due to double bounce and direct return from vertical tree trunks and convex edges. In most cases, rough deposits produce an increase in intensity, while smooth deposits (e.g. from mudslides) exhibit specular reflection, and thus show decreased values. Landslides are less visible in cases with pre-event very rough ground, or mixed vegetation conditions. The conceptual model developed can aid interpretation of landslides in SAR imagery, and provide domain knowledge needed to train models for automatic landslide detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0408.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam; Main and Saddle Dams; Ground Displacement; Sentinel-1; Dam Filling; Geological Structures
Online: 23 September 2021 (12:32:03 CEST)
The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD), formerly known as the Millennium Dam, is currently under construction and has been filling at a fast rate without sufficient known analysis on possible impacts on the body of the structure. The filling of GERD not only has an impact on the Blue Nile Basin hydrology, water storages and flow but also pose massive risks in case of collapse. Rosaries Dam located in Sudan at only 116 km downstream of GERD, along with the 20 million Sudanese benefiting from that dam, would be seriously threatened in case of the collapse of GERD. In this study, through the analysis of Sentinal-1 satellite imagery we show concerning deformation patterns associated with different sections of the GERD’s Main Dam (structure RCC Dam type) and the Saddle Dam (Embankment Dam type). We processed 109 descending mode scenes from Sentinel-1 SAR imagery, from December 2016 to July 2021, using the Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry technique to demonstrate the deformation trends of both - the GERD’s Main and Saddle Dams. The time-series generated from the analysis clearly indicates different displacement trends at various sections of the GERD as well as the Saddle Dam. Results of the multi temporal data analysis on and around the project area show inconsistent subsidence at the extremities of the GERD Main Dam, especially the west side of the dam where we recorded varying displacements in the range of 10 mm to 90 mm at the crest of the dam. We conducted the current analysis after masking the images with a coherence value of 0.9 and hence, the subsequent results are extremely reliable and accurate. Further decomposition of the subsiding rate has revealed higher vertical displacement over the west side of the GERD’s Main Dam as compared to the east side. The local geological structures consisting of weak zones under the GERD’s accompanying Saddle Dam adds further instability to its structure. We identified seven critical nodes on the Saddle Dam that match the tectonic faults lying underneath it, and which display a varying degree of vertical displacements. In fact, the nodes located next to each other displayed varying displacement trends: one or more nodes displayed subsidence since 2017 while the other node in the same section displayed uplift. The geological weak zones underneath and the weight of the Saddle Dam itself may somewhat explain this inconsistency and the non-uniform vertical displacements. For the most affected cells, we observed a total displacement value of ~90 mm during the whole study period (~20 mm/year) for the Main Dam while the value of the total displacement for the Saddle dam is ~380 mm during the same period (~85 mm/year). Analysis through CoastSat tool also suggested a non-uniformity in trends of surface water-edge at the two extremities of the Main Dam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1582.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Wet Snow; Sentinel-1; C-band; Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR); Mediterranean Mountains; Semi-Arid Regions; Streamflow Dynamics
Online: 25 September 2023 (04:55:58 CEST)
Monitoring snowmelt dynamics in mountains is crucial to understand water releases downstream. Sentinel-1 (S-1) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has become one of the most widely used techniques to achieve this aim due to its high frequency of acquisitions and all-weather capability. This work aims to understand the possibilities of S-1 SAR imagery to capture snowmelt dynamics and related changes in streamflow response in semiarid mountains. The results proved that S-1 SAR imagery was able not only to capture the final spring melting but also all melting cycles that commonly appear throughout the year in these types of environments. The general change detection approach to identify wet snow was adapted for these regions using as reference the average S-1 SAR image from the previous summer, and a threshold of -3.00 dB. In addition, four different type of melting runoff onsets depending on physical snow condition were identified. When translating that at the catchment scale, distributed melting runoff onset maps were defined to better understand the spatiotemporal evolution of melting dynamics. Finally, a linear connection between melting dynamics and streamflow was found for long-lasting melting cycles, with a determination coefficient (R2) ranging from 0.62 to 0.83 and an average delay between the melting onset and streamflow peak of about 21 days.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0382.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: supervised machine learning; flood inundation mapping; high-resolution; synthetic aperture radar; height above nearest drainage; sentinel-1; inundated vegetation
Online: 31 May 2019 (08:48:14 CEST)
Floods are one of the most wide-spread, frequent, and devastating natural disasters that continue to increase in frequency and intensity. Remote sensing, specifically synthetic aperture radar (SAR), has been widely used to detect surface water inundation to provide retrospective and near-real time (NRT) information due to its high-spatial resolution, self-illumination, and low atmospheric attenuation. However, the efficacy of flood inundation mapping with SAR is susceptible to reflections and scattering from a variety of factors including dense vegetation and urban areas. In this study, the topographic dataset height above nearest drainage (HAND) was investigated as a potential supplement to Sentinel-1A C-Band SAR along with supervised machine learning to improve the detection of inundation in heterogeneous areas. Three machine learning classifiers were trained on two sets of features SAR only (VV & VH) and VV, VH & HAND to map inundated areas. Three study sites along the Neuse River in North Carolina, USA during the record flood of Hurricane Matthew in October 2016 were selected. The binary classification analysis (inundated as positive vs. non-inundated as negative) revealed significant improvements when incorporating HAND in several metrics including classification accuracy (ACC) (+37.1%), true positive rate (TPR) (+51.2%), and negative predictive value (NPV) (+23.7%), A marginal improvement of +1.4% was seen for positive predictive value (PPV), but true negative rate (TNR) fell -15.1%. By incorporating HAND, a significant number of areas with high SAR backscatter but low HAND values were detected as inundated which increased true positives. This in turn also increased the false positives detected but to a lesser extent as evident in the metrics. This study demonstrates that HAND could be considered a valuable feature to enhance SAR flood inundation mapping especially in areas with heterogeneous land covers with dense vegetation that interfere with SAR.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0386.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: remote sensing; water quality; chlorophyll concentration; suspended sediment; sentinel-2; sentinel-3; open science
Online: 31 January 2020 (11:59:22 CET)
Easy to use satellite-based water quality visualizations are needed for monitoring and understanding coastal and inland waters, but to date, no publicly accessible real-time global visualization system was in place. Here we introduce the Ulyssys Water Quality Viewer (UWQV), a Sentinel Hub EO Browser Custom script designed for qualitative views of aquatic chlorophyll and suspended sediment concentrations. The viewer avoids unmixing of the chlorophyll and suspended sediment spectral signal by visualizing these parameters together, with high concentrations of suspended sediment obscuring chlorophyll if present. Cloud masking uses the Hollstein and Braaten algorithms (existing EO Browser custom script code), additionally water surfaces are masked using the Normalized Differential Water Index. Chlorophyll is estimated using reflectance line height-based indicators such as fluorescence line height and maximum chlorophyll index. Suspended sediment is visualized based on single-band reflectances at 620 or 700 nm. Data sources are Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 images, allowing either 20 m spatial resolution or up to daily imaging. This visualization system is easy to operate and interpret, and combined with the data service capacity of the Sentinel Hub, it is expected that UWQV will contribute to monitoring of remote water bodies and to our overall understanding of physical limnology and aquatic ecology.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Horizontal East-west velocity; LOS; vertical velocity; InSAR time series; Big Data; PSDS; TomoSAR platform; Sentinel-1; Ho Chi Minh City
Online: 10 September 2021 (11:04:39 CEST)
Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), the most crowded city and economic hub of Viet Nam, has been experiencing land subsidence over the past decades. This effort aims to contribute the spatial distribution of subsidence in HCMC in its horizontal and vertical components using synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) time series. To this purpose, an advanced Persistent Scatterers and Distributed Scatterers (PSDS) InSAR technique was applied to two European Space Agency (ESA) Sentinel-1 datasets consisting of 96 ascending and 202 descending images, acquired from 2014 to 2020 over the HCMC area. A time series of 33 COSMO-SkyMed ascending images was also used for comparison. The combination of ascending and descending satellite passes is used to decompose the light of sight velocities into horizontal east-west and vertical components. Taking into account the presence of east-west horizontal motion, our findings indicate that the accuracy of the decomposed vertical velocity can be improved by up to 3 mm/year for Sentinel-1 data. The obtained results revealed that subsidence is most pronounced in the areas along the Sai Gon River, in the northwest-southeast axis, and in the southwest of the city, with a maximum value of 80 mm/yr, which is in accordance with the findings of the literature. The amplitude of east-west horizontal velocities is relatively small and large-scale eastward movement can be observed in the west of the city at a rate of 3-5 mm/yr. This confirmed that the displacement in Ho Chi Minh City area is mainly vertical downward. Together, these results reinforced the remarkable suitability of ESA's SAR Sentinel-1 for subsidence applications, even for non-European countries such as Vietnam and Southeast Asia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0050.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: mapping cocoa agroforests; Congo Basin rainforest; sentinel-1; SAR; GLCM textures; grey level quantization; random forest algorithm; machine learning; classification uncertainty
Online: 7 January 2019 (09:56:10 CET)
Delineating the cropping area of cocoa agroforests is a major challenge for quantifying the contribution of the land use expansion to tropical deforestation. Discriminating cocoa agroforests from tropical transition forests using multi-spectral optical images is difficult due to a similarity in the spectral characteristics of their canopy; moreover, optical sensors are largely impeded by the frequent cloud cover in the tropics. This study explores multi-season Sentinel-1 C-band SAR image to discriminate cocoa agroforests from transition forests for a heterogeneous landscape in central Cameroon. We use an ensemble classifier, random forest, to average SAR image texture features of GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix) across seasons; next, we compare classification performance with results from RapidEye optical data. Moreover, we assess the performance of GLCM texture feature extraction at four different grey level quantization: 32bits, 8bits, 6bits, and 4bits. The classification overall accuracy (OA) of texture-based maps outperformed that from an optical image; the highest OA of 88.8% was recorded at 6bits grey level. This quantization level, in comparison to the initial 32bits in SAR images, reduced the class prediction error by 2.9%. Although this prediction gain may be large for the landscape area, the resultant thematic map reveals the decrease and fragmentation of forest cover by cocoa agroforests. According to our classification validation, the Shannon entropy (H) or uncertainty provides a reliable validation for class predictions and reveals detail inference for discriminating inherently heterogeneous vegetation categories. The texture-based classification achieved a reliable accuracy considering the heterogeneity of the landscape and vegetation classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0896.v1
Online: 14 September 2023 (02:49:00 CEST)
Accurate fuel mapping plays a crucial role in fire detection and management strategies. This paper presents a method for discriminating between wildfire fuel types by exploiting together remote sensing data and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). Specially, a CNN-based classification approach that leverages Sentinel-2 imagery is exploited to accurately classify fuel types into seven preliminary main classes (conifers, broadleaf, shrubs, grass, bare soil, urban areas, and water bodies) with an high accuracy of 0.99$\%$. To further refine the fuel mapping results, subclasses were generated from the seven principals by using biomass and bioclimatic maps. These additional maps provide complementary information about vegetation density and climatic conditions, respectively. By incorporating this information, we align our fuel type classification with the widely used Scott/Burgan fuel classification system. This refinement step allows for a more detailed and comprehensive assessment of fuel types, enhancing the accuracy and effectiveness of fire management efforts, which can be utilized by fire management agencies, policymakers, and researchers for improved fire behavior prediction and mitigation practices. The proposed approach presents a valuable tool for enhancing fire management, contributing to more effective wildfire prevention and mitigation efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1982.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: sedimentation; erosion; Sentinel 2; EOS-Aster
Online: 29 May 2023 (05:44:18 CEST)
The Mont-Saint-Michel is known worldwide for its unique combination of the natural site and the Medieval abbey at the top of the rocky islet. But the Mont is also located within an estuarine complex, which is considerably silting up. For two decades, large-scale works were planned to prevent the Mont from being surrounded by the expanding salt meadows. The construction of a new dam over the Couesnon River, the digging of two new channels, and the destruction of the causeway were the main operations carried out between 2007 and 2015. The remote sensing approach is fully suitable for evaluating the real impact of the engineering project in both time and space, particularly the expected large-scale hydrosedimentary effects, for reestablishing the maritime landscape around the Mont. Sentinel-2 satellite data have been used for the period from 2015 to 2023. Aster data were used for the previous period covering 2000 to 2017. Aerial photographs and an ALOS scene have been also used. The remote sensing approach is based on time-series images. It allows identifying local or regional consequences and temporary or permanent effects. The migration of the different channels (especially for the new west and east Couesnon river courses) and the erosion-progradation balance of the vegetation through space and time are the main features to study. Between 2007 and 2023, the erosion of the salt meadows is significant to the south-west of the Mont (− 150 ha) but more limited to the south-east (− 65 ha). The erosion effect is limited to the immediate environment because the vegetation fringe of the uppermost tidal flat along the main dike is slightly increasing (+ 35 ha) to the west and to the east (+ 40 ha). During the same period, the sedimentation considerably increased to the north-east of the Bay, between the Bec d’Andaine, the Grouin du Sud and Tombelaine islet, which seems now facing the same silting-up problem. At this stage, the remote-sensing survey indicates mixed results for the engineering project.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0250.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: regional sea level; satellite altimetry; tide gauge; validation; mission bias; North Sea; Sentinel-3A; Jason-1; Jason-2; Jason-3; Envisat; Saral
Online: 15 December 2021 (09:25:54 CET)
Consistent calibration and monitoring is a basic prerequisite for providing reliable time series of global and regional sea level variations from altimetry. The precision of sea level measurements and regional biases for six altimeter missions (Jason-1/2/3, Envisat, Saral, Sentinel-3A) is assessed at eleven GNSS-controlled tide gauge stations in the German Bight (SE North Sea) for the period 2002 to 2019. The gauges are partly located at the open water, partly at the coast close to mudflats. The altimetry is extracted at virtual stations with distances from 2 to 24 km from the gauges. The processing is optimized for the region and adjusted for the comparison with instantaneous tide gauges readings. An empirical correction is developed to account for mean height gradients and slight differences of the tidal dynamics between gauge and altimetry which improves the agreement between the two data sets by 15-75%. The precision of the altimeters is depending on location and mission and is shown to be at least 1.8 to 3.7 cm based on an assumed precision of 2 cm for the gauges. The accuracy of the regional mission biases is strongly dependent on the mean sea surface heights near the stations. The most consistent biases are obtained based on the CLS2011 model with mission dependent accuracies from 1.3 to 3.4 cm. Hence, the GNSS-controlled tide gauges operated operationally by WSV might complement the calibration and monitoring activities at dedicated CalVal stations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HIV-1; HIV-1 splicing; HIV-1 oversplicing; HIV-1 latency
Online: 6 January 2021 (11:49:59 CET)
HIV-1 transcribes only one kind of transcript – the full length genomic RNA. To make the mRNA transcripts for the accessory proteins Tat and Rev, the genomic RNA must completely splice. The mRNA transcripts for Vif, Vpr, and Env must splice but not completely. Genomic RNA (which also functions as mRNA for the Gag and Gag/Pro/Pol precursor polyproteins) must not splice at all. HIV-1 can tolerate a surprising range in the relative abundance of individual transcript types, and a surprising amount of aberrant and even odd splicing; however, it must not over-splice, which results in the loss of full length genomic RNA and has a dramatic fitness cost. Cells typically do not tolerate unspliced/incompletely spliced transcripts, so HIV-1 has to circumvent this cell policing mechanism to allow some splicing while suppressing most. Splicing is controlled by RNA secondary structure, cis-acting regulatory sequences which bind splicing factors, and the viral protein Rev. There is still much work to be done to clarify the combinatorial effects of these splicing regulators. These control mechanisms represent attractive targets to induce over-splicing as an antiviral strategy. Finally, splicing has been implicated in latency, but to date there is little supporting evidence for such a mechanism. In this review we apply what is known of cellular splicing to understand splicing in HIV-1, and also present data from our newer and more sensitive deep sequencing assays quantifying the different HIV-1 transcript types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1782.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Schistosomiasis; Mass Drug Distribution; Sentinel sites, Mali
Online: 26 September 2023 (10:12:34 CEST)
Background – Mali was one of the first countries in sub-Saharan Africa to initiate a National Schistosomiasis Control Programme (NSCP) in 1982. The WHO's 2021-30 roadmap sets out criteria for eliminating and controlling schistosomiasis as a public health problem. Our study aimed to assess the impact of annual Mass Drug Distribution (MDD) with praziquantel (PZQ) among school-age children in the sentinel sites (SS) of the NSCP. Methods –The study took place at twelve SS in Kayes and Koulikoro regions. Two-round observational cross-sectional studies were carried out in December 2014-2015 and in April 2018 after four to five years of annually MDD. Overall, 2442 schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 were successfully examined. The urine filtration and Kato-Katz method were used for determining Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni eggs, respectively. Results –Of the twelve SS treated from 2014-2015, one has achieved the criterion of elimination of S. haematobium as a public health problem (prevalence of heavy intensity infection PHI < 1%) (ie, ≥50 S. haematobium eggs per 10 mL of urine or ≥400 S. mansoni eggs per g of stool), four met the morbidity control criterion (PHI< 5%) while two sites remained confined below the morbidity control criterion (PHI>5%). Five SS had no heavy intensity infection. The prevalence of S. mansoni was less than 1%. Conclusion –The impact evaluation of MDD with praziquantel in the SS of NSCP highlights that MDD has significantly reduced the PHI of schistosomiasis. However, the high prevalence of schistosomiasis or its increase in some sites requires in-depth studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0556.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: super-resolution; generative adversarial network; Sentinel-2
Online: 21 April 2021 (08:25:54 CEST)
Sentinel-2 can provide multi-spectral optical remote sensing images in RGBN bands with a spatial resolution of 10m, but the spatial details provided are not enough for many applications. WorldView can provide HR multi-spectral images less than 2m, but it is a commercial paid resource with relatively high usage costs. In this paper, without any available reference images, Sentinel-2 images at 10m resolution are improved to a resolution of 2.5m through super-resolution (SR) based on deep learning technology. Our model, named DKN-SR-GAN, uses degradation kernel estimation and noise injection to construct a dataset of near-natural low-high-resolution (LHR) image pairs, with only low-resolution (LR) images and no high-resolution (HR) prior information. DKN-SR-GAN uses the Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) combined of ESRGAN-type generator, PatchGAN-type discriminator and the VGG-19-type feature extractor, using perceptual loss to optimize the network, so as to obtain SR images with clearer details and better perceptual effects. Experiments demonstrate that in the quantitative comparison of the non-reference image quality assessment (NR-IQA) metrics like NIQE, BRISQUE and PIQE, as well as the intuitive visual effects of the generated images, compared with state-of-the-art models such as EDSR8-RGB, RCAN and RS-ESRGAN, our proposed model has obvious advantages.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0529.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: snow; albedo; remote sensing; OLCI; Sentinel-3
Online: 23 September 2020 (03:45:37 CEST)
This document describes the theoretical basis of the algorithms used to determine properties of snow and ice from the measurements of the Ocean and Land Color Instrument (OLCI) onboard Sentinel-3 satellites within the Pre-operational Sentinel-3 snow and ice products (SICE) project: http://snow.geus.dk/. The code used for the SICE retrieval and its documentation can be found at https://github.com/GEUS-SICE/pySICE. The algorithms were developed after the work from Kokhanovsky et al. (2018, 2019, 2020).
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Brumadinho; Tailings dam; SBAS; PSI; Sentinel-1B
Online: 18 August 2020 (16:21:50 CEST)
Advanced-Differential Interferometric SAR (A-DInSAR) has been used to monitor surface deformations in open pit mines and tailings dams. In this paper, ground deformations have been detected on the area of the tailings Dam-I at the Córrego do Feijão Mine (Brumadinho, Brazil) before its catastrophic failure occurred on 25 January 2019. Two techniques optimized for different scattering models, SBAS (Small BAseline Subset) and PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry), were used to perform the analysis based on 26 Sentinel-1B images in IW mode, acquired on descending orbits from 03 March 2018 to 22 January 2019. A WorldDEM DSM product was used to remove the topographic phase component. The results provided by both techniques showed a synoptic and informative view of the deformation process affecting the study area, with a detection of persistent trend of deformations on the top, middle and bottom sectors of the dam face until its collapse, as well as the expected natural settlements on the tailings. It is worth noting the detection of an acceleration in the displacement time-series for a short period near the failure. The maximum accumulated displacements detected along the downstream slope face were -39 mm (SBAS) and -48 mm (PSI). It is reasonable to consider that Sentinel-1 would provide decision makers complementary motion information to the in-situ monitoring system for risk assessment and for a better understanding of on-going instability phenomena affecting the tailings dam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0986.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: drought; satellite data; Sentinel-2; grassland; mountain; insurance
Online: 14 June 2023 (04:53:50 CEST)
This work estimates yield losses due to drought events in mountain grasslands in north-eastern Italy, laying the groundwork for index-based insurance. Given the high correlation between Leaf Area Index (LAI) and grassland yield, we exploit LAI as a proxy for yield. We estimate LAI by the Sentinel-2 biophysical processor and we compare different gap-filling methods, including time-series interpolation and fusion with Sentinel-1 SAR data. We derive a Forage Production Index (FPI) as the growing season cumulate of the daily product between LAI and a meteorological water stress coefficient. Finally, we calculate the drought index as the anomaly of FPI. The validation of Sentinel-2 LAI with ground measurements showed RMSE of 0.92 [m2 m-2] and R2 of 0.81, on average over all the measurement sites. The comparison between FPI and yield showed R2 of 0.56 at the pixel scale and R2 of 0.74 at the parcel scale. The developed prototype FPI index was used at the end of the growing season of the year 2022 for calculating the payments of an experimental insurance scheme that was proposed to a group of farmers in Trentino-South Tyrol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0523.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: sand spit; morphological evolution; Sentinel; Phu Quoc; LSTR
Online: 18 April 2023 (11:18:53 CEST)
Tidal inlets with attached sand spits are a very common coastal morphology. Since the evolution of the sand spits along the coastline have greatly affected on the social-economic development of local coastal areas. However, previous studies mainly focused on the sand spits which are usually in the scales of hundred meters in width. Therefore, in this study, morphological change of a smaller and unexplored sand spit located in the west coast of Phu Quoc Island, will be investigated. It was found that there is a seasonal variation in the evolution of the sand spit at Song Tranh Inlet. The Longshore sediment transport rates (LSTR) along the spit are in the order from 104 to 105 m3/year. LSTRs of fourteen inlets in the literature were reviewed and the LSTRs at Song Tranh Inlet are higher than half of the LSTRs along the fourteen reviewed inlets. This study aims at contrib-uting to the growing literature on sand spit morphological changes as well as the sustainable coastal management for Phu Quoc Island which is well known as the Pearl Island of Vietnam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0401.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: SAR; Sentinel-1A; DSSAT CROPGRO; Peanut; Yield gap
Online: 23 January 2023 (08:15:49 CET)
Crop yield data is critical for managing sustainable agriculture and assessing national food security. Current study aims to increase Peanut productivity from current levels by analyzing the yield gap of production potential between theoretical yield and actual farmers’ yields. The spatial yield gap of Peanut for Thiruvannamalai district of Tamil Nadu is examined in this paper by integrating the products of microwave remote sensing (SAR Sentinel-1A) with DSSAT CROPGRO peanut simulation model. CROPGRO Peanut model was calibrated and validated by conducting field experiment at Oilseeds Research Station, Tindivanam during Rabi 2019 for predominant cultivars viz. TMV 7, TMV 13, VRI 2 and G 7. Actual attainable yield was recorded by organizing CCE with help of Department of Agriculture Economics and Statistics in the respective monitoring Villages. Regression analysis between maximum recorded DSSAT Leaf Area Index (LAI) at peak flowering stage of peanut and yield recorded by Crop Cutting Experiment (CCE) for spatial yield estimation of Peanut in Thiruvannamalai district of Tamil Nadu during Rabi 2021 was carried out using ArcGIS 10.6 software. The results showed that the simulated potential yield ranged from 3194 to 4843 kg/ha, whereas actual yield ranged from 1228 to 3106 kg/ha, with a considerable disparity between the actual and potential yield levels (1217 to 2346 kg/ha) of the monitored locations. The minimum, maximum and average yield gaps in Peanut for Thiruvannamalai district was assessed as 1890, 2324 and 2134 kg/ha, respectively. To reduce the production difference (Yield gap) of Peanut cultivation, farmers should focus more on management issues such as time of sowing, irrigation or water management, quantity and sources of nutrients, cultivar selection and availability of quality seeds tailored to each region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0250.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: soil salinity; EC; Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2A
Online: 27 April 2022 (05:40:14 CEST)
Soil salinity is a severe soil degradation problem mainly faced in arid and semi-arid regions. About 11 million ha of land in the arid, semi-arid, and desert parts of Ethiopia is salt-affected, especially in the Awash River basin, including Afambo irrigated area. Remote sensing approaches are significant tools for accurately predicting and modeling accurately predicting and modeling soil salinity in various world regions. This study aims to analyze and model soil salinity status in the case of Afambo irrigated areas using Landsat-8 and sentinel-2A, Afar region, Ethiopia, by applying remote sensing with field measurements. Thirty-two soil samples were collected from the topsoil (0-30 cm); out of these, 25 soil samples with various EC ranges were selected for modeling, and the remaining 7 samples were utilized to validate the model. Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A images acquired in the same month were used to extract soil salinity indices. Linear regression analyses correlated the EC data with corresponding soil salinity spectral index values derived from satellite images. The best-performing model was selected for salinity mapping. The soil salinity indices extracted from both Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A bands estimated soil salinity with high acceptable accuracy of R2 values of SI, 0.78 and 0.81, respectively. The model results in three salinity classes with varying degree of salinity, namely, highly saline, moderately saline, and slightly saline, which covers 15.1%, 39.8% and 45.1% of the total area for Landsat-8, respectively and 26.1%, 32%, and 41.9% for sentinel 2A, respectively. Generally, the results revealed that the expansion rate of salt-affected soils has been increasing. From this study, it is possible to infer that if the present irrigation practice continues, it is expected that total the cultivated lands will become sterile within a short period. Thus, it needs to be monitored regularly to secure up-to-date knowledge of their extent to improve management practices and take appropriate actions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0424.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: altimetry; retracking; Sentinel-3; synthetic aperture radar (SAR)
Online: 19 November 2018 (06:55:41 CET)
Satellite altimeters have been used to monitor river and reservoir water levels, from which water storage estimates can be derived. Inland water altimetry can therefore play an important role in continental water resource management. Traditionally, satellite altimeters were designed to monitor homogeneous surfaces such as oceans or ice sheets, resulting in a poor performance over small inland water bodies due to the contribution from land contamination in the returned waveforms. The advent of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) altimetry (with its improved along-track spatial resolution) has enabled the measurement of inland water levels with a better accuracy and an increased spatial resolution. This paper presents three specialized algorithms or retrackers to retrieve water levels from SAR altimeter data over inland water bodies dedicated to minimizing land contamination from the waveforms. The performances of the proposed waveform portion selection method with three retrackers, namely, the threshold retracker, Offset Centre of Gravity (OCOG) retracker and 2-step physical-based retracker, are compared. Time series of water levels are retrieved for water bodies in the Ebro River basin (Spain). The results show good agreement with in situ measurements from the Ebro Reservoir (width is approximately 1.8 km) and Ribarroja Reservoir (width is approximately 400 m) with un-biased root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) of approximately 0.28 m and 0.16 m, respectively. The performances of all three retrackers are also compared with the European Space Agency’s ocean retracker in the Sentinel-3 Level-2 product.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0003.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Sentinel-1A; TanDEM-X science phase; wetlands mapping
Online: 1 November 2017 (04:37:20 CET)
This research is related to the eco-hydrological problems of herbaceous wetland drying and biodiversity loss in the floodplain lakes of the Middle Basin of the Biebrza river (Poland). An experiment was set up, whose main goals were: (i) mapping the vegetation types and the temporarily or permanently flooded areas, and (ii) comparing the usefulness of C-band Sentinel-1A (S1A) and X-band TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X (TSX/TDX) for mapping purposes. The S1A imagery was acquired on a regular basis using the dual polarization VV/VH and the Interferometric Wide Swath Mode. The TSX/TDX data were acquired in quad-pol, a fully polarimetric mode, during the Science Phase. The paper addresses the following aspects: i) wetland mapping with S1A multi-temporal series; ii) wetland mapping with fully polarimetric TSX/TDX data; iii) comparing the wetland mapping using dual polarization TSX/TDX subsets, i.e. HH-HV, HH-VV and VV-VH; iv) comparing wetland mapping using S1A and TSX/TDX data based on the same polarization (VV-VH); v) studying the suitability of the Shannon Entropy for wetland mapping; and vi) assessing the contribution of interferometric coherence for wetland classification. The experimental results show main limitations of the S1A dataset, while they highlight the good accuracy that can be achieved using the TSX/TDX data, especially those taken in fully polarimetric mode.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0261.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: renalase; KIM-1; calbindin; MCP-1
Online: 15 June 2018 (14:53:54 CEST)
Diagnosis of kidney diseases has recently become more comprehensive and accurate by using new renal markers. Despite the fact that creatinine and cystatin c have been sufficient in determining kidney function, they did not indicate the exact site of the damage and they were often insufficient in predicting the course of the disease. Aim of the study was to evaluate the potential correlations and differences in levels of six factors related to kidney function and injury: kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), ncalbindin (CALB), glutathione S-transferase Pi (GST-Pi), calbindin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), between renal patients with diabetic nephropathy (DM), congenital defects (CD) of the kidney and glomerulonephritis (GN). Study involved 75 patients: 49 with diabetic nephropathy, 12 with congenital defects and 14 with glomerulonephritis. Levels of renalase was measured using immunoenzymatic tests. Levels of other markers: calbindin, glutathione-S-transferase (GST-pi), interleukin-18 (IL-18), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), were analyzed using Kidney Toxicity-1 Panel and BioPlex system, designed for analyses in urine and optimized by us for serum.From all analyzed markers, only levels of KIM-1 differed significantly between any subgroups, and that was for CD and DM. Renalase correlated significantly negatively with creatinine and positively with all other markers, apart from MCP-1. Obtained results indicate, that serum renalase, KIM-1, calbindin and GST-pi are related to kidney function, with KIM-1 being the most exact, while MCP-1 levels are unrelated to creatinine and glucose levels, does not differ between patients with diabetic nephropathy and other subgroups, and therefore seem to be independent of diabetes. Also, serum-optimized Kidney Toxicity Panel 1 kit for determination of selected markers gave results similar to previous ones and therefore the method can be valuable in determination of analyzed factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0017.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Wildfire; Burn severity; Vegetation recovery; Sentinel-2; Eastern Mongolia
Online: 1 September 2023 (07:17:49 CEST)
Due to the intensification of climate change in the world, the incidence of natural disasters is increasing year by year, and monitoring, forecasting, and detecting evolution using satellite imaging technology is an important guide for remote sensing. This study aims to monitor the occurrence of fire disasters using Sentinel-2 satellite imaging technology, to determine the burned severity area with its classification and the recovery process for determining the extraordinary natural phenomena. The study area was sampled in the southeastern part of Mongolia, where have most wildfires in each year, near the Shiliin Bogd mountain in the natural steppe zone and in Bayan-Uul soum in the forest-steppe natural zone. For the methods, the NBR was used to map the area of the fire site and the classification of the burned area into 5 categories: unburned, low, moderate-low, moderate-high, and high, which are process-defined works. NDVI index was used to determine the recovery process in a timely series in the summer from April to October. In result, the burned areas were mapped from the satellite images, and the total burned area of steppe natural zone was 1164.27 km2, of which 757.34 km2 (65.00 percent) was low, 404.57 km2 (34.70 percent) was moderate-low, and remaining 2.36 km2 (0.30 percent) was moderate-high, and the total burned area of forest-steppe natural zone was 588,35 km2, of which 158.75 km2 (26.90 percent) was low, 297.75 km2 (50.61 percent) was moderate-low, 131.25 km2 (22.31 percent) was moderate-high and the remaining 0.60 km2 (0.10 percent) was high-medium. Finally, we believe that this research is most important to helpful for emergency workers, researchers, and environmental specialists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0587.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: air travel; infectious disease; sentinel surveillance; wastewater surveillance; aircraft
Online: 9 May 2023 (07:49:15 CEST)
Modern commercial air travel connects disparate human populations with the global airline industry transporting up to 4.5 billion passengers annually in the years leading up to the COVID-19 pandemic. While such connections are convenient for commerce and tourism, air travel networks can also be efficient distributors of infectious diseases such as influenza, SARS-CoV-1, hemorrhagic fevers, and more recently SARS-CoV-2 and monkeypox. During the COVID-19 pandemic, public health agencies used multi-layered control strategies including pre-departure testing and vaccination requirements, masking, post-arrival testing, and quarantine to manage the risk of COVID-19 transmission associated with air travel. Simultaneously, the surveillance of aircraft wastewater emerged as a promising new data source to screen for SARS-CoV-2 infections, including newly emergent lineages, among international air travelers. Herein, we review the potential of aircraft wastewater for public health surveillance. The known contributing population and flight itinerary combined with the highly concentrated waste stream and convenient sampling during routine lavatory servicing make aircraft wastewater a strategic opportunity for unintrusive surveillance of the global fluxes of human pathogens. We estimate for the cases of fecal- or urine-shed pathogens, sampling from 3,500 and 1,250 flights per week, respectively, would be required to survey 10% of all global long-haul flight passengers. In the case of the United States, achieving 10% coverage of all international arrivals would require sampling from 925 and 322 flights per week, respectively. Aircraft wastewater surveillance could also be integrated with network and infectious disease models to better inform traditional public health control measures during emerging epidemics. Given the tremendous potential for public good and the massive economic costs of epidemics, governments should consider international collaboration to create a global aircraft wastewater surveillance system.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0230.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: Single Image Super-Resolution; Sentinel-2; VENµS; remote sening
Online: 17 May 2022 (11:13:47 CEST)
Boosted by the progress in deep learning, Single Image Super-Resolution (SISR) has gained a lot of interest in the Remote Sensing community, who sees it as an oportunity to compensate for satellite's ever-limited spatial resolution with respect to end users needs. While there has been a great amount of work on network architures in the latest years, deep learning based SISR in remote sensing is still limited by the availability of the large training sets it requires. The lack of publicly available large datasets with the required variability in terms of landscapes and seasons pushes researchers to simulate their own dataset by means of downsampling. This may impair the applicability of the trained model on real world data at the target input resolution. In this paper, we propose an open-data licenced dataset composed of 10m and 20m cloud-free surface reflectance patches from Sentinel-2, with their reference spatially-registered surface reflectance patches at 5 meter resolution acquired on the same day by the VENµS satellite. This dataset covers 29 locations on earth with a total of 132 955 patches of 256x256 pixels at 5 meters resolution, and can be used for the training of super-resolution algorithms to bring the spatial resolution of 8 of the Sentinel-2 bands down to 5 meters.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Ship detection; self-supervised learning; transfer learning; Sentinel 2
Online: 7 October 2021 (23:04:24 CEST)
Automatic ship detection provides an essential function towards maritime domain awareness for security or economic monitoring purposes. This work presents an approach for training a deep learning ship detector in Sentinel-2 multispectral images with few labeled examples. We design a network architecture for detecting ships with a backbone that can be pre-trained separately. By using Self Supervised Learning, an emerging unsupervised training procedure, we learn good features on Sentinel-2 images, without requiring labeling, to initialize our network’s backbone. The full network is then fine-tuned to learn to detect ships in challenging settings. We evaluated this approach versus pre-training on ImageNet and versus a classical image processing pipeline. We examined the impact of variations in the self-supervised learning step and we show that in the few-shot learning setting self-supervised pre-training achieves better results than ImageNet pre-training. When enough training data is available, our self-supervised approach is as good as ImageNet pre-training. We conclude that a better design of the self-supervised task and bigger non-annotated dataset sizes can lead to surpassing ImageNet pre-training performance without any annotation costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0435.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: air pollution; NO2; Sentinel-5P; TROPOMI; GEM-AQ; Poland
Online: 5 July 2021 (09:56:26 CEST)
TRPOMI instrument aboard Sentinel-5P is a relatively new, high-resolution source of information about atmosphere composition. One of the primary atmospheric trace gases that we can observe through it is nitrogen dioxide. By now, we were using the chemical weather model (GEM-AQ) as a mean for estimating nitrogen dioxide concentration on a regional scale. Although well established in atmospheric science, the GEM-AQ simulations were always based on emission data, which in the case of the energy sector were reported by stack owners. In this paper, we attempted to compare the TROPOMI and GEM-AQ derived VCDs over Poland with a particular focus on large point emitters. We also checked how cloudy conditions influence TROPOMI results. Finally, we tried to link the NO2 column number densities with surface concentration using boundary layer height as an additional explanatory variable
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0594.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: transparency; suspended solids; wind effect; shallow lake; Sentinel-2
Online: 26 February 2021 (08:17:05 CET)
Wind is one of the factors that has a great influence on suspended matter in lakes, especially in shallow lagoons. In order to know how wind affects the water in Albufera of Valencia, a shallow coastal lagoon, the measured variables of turbidity and transparency have been correlated with the estimates by processing Sentinel-2 satellite images with the Sen2Cor processor. Data from four years of study show that most of them are light to gentle easterly breezes and moderate to fresh westerly breezes. The results obtained show significant correlations between the measured variables and those obtained from the satellite images for total suspended matter and water transparency and with the average daily wind speed. There is no significant correlation between wind and chlorophyll a. Moderate to fresh breezes resuspend the fine sediment reaching concentration values from 100 to 300 mg L-1 according to satellite data. However, it is necessary to obtain field data for the values of moderate and fresh winds, as for now there are no experimental data to verify the validity of the satellite estimates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0275.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Landsat; Sentinel 2; harmonization; crop monitoring; Google Earth Engine
Online: 24 October 2019 (06:02:04 CEST)
Proper satellite-based crop monitoring applications at the farm-level often require near-daily imagery at medium to high spatial resolution. The synthesizing of ongoing satellite missions by ESA (Sentinel 2) and NASA (Landsat7/8) provides this unprecedented opportunity at a global scale; nonetheless, this is rarely implemented because these procedures are data demanding and computationally intensive. This study developed a complete stream processing in the Google Earth Engine cloud platform to generate harmonized surface reflectance images of Landsat7,8 and Sentinel 2 missions. The harmonized images were generated for two agriculture schemes in Bekaa (Lebanon) and Ninh Thuan (Vietnam) during the period 2018-2019. We evaluated the performance of several pre-processing steps needed for the harmonization including image co-registration, brdf correction, topographic correction, and band adjustment. This study found that the miss-registration between Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 images, varied from 10 meters in Ninh Thuan, Vietnam to 32 meters in Bekaa, Lebanon, and if not treated, posed a great impact on the quality of the harmonized dataset. Analysis of a pair overlapped L8-S2 images over the Bekaa region showed that after the harmonization, all band-to-band spatial correlations were greatly improved from (0.57, 0.64, 0.67, 0.75, 0.76, 0.75, 0.79) to (0.87, 0.91, 0.92, 0.94, 0.97, 0.97, 0.96) in bands (blue, green, red, nir,swir1,swir2, ndvi) respectively. We demonstrated that dense observation of the harmonized dataset can be very helpful for characterizing cropland in highly dynamic areas. We detected unimodal, bimodal and trimodal shapes in the temporal NDVI patterns (likely cycles of paddy rice) in Ninh Thuan province only during the year 2018. We fitted the temporal signatures of the NDVI time series using harmonic (Fourier) analysis. Derived phase (angle from the starting point to the cycle's peak) and amplitude (the cycle's height) were combined with max-NDVI to generate an R-G-B image. This image highlighted croplands as colored pixels (high phase and amplitude) and other types of land as grey/dark pixels (low phase/amplitude). Generated harmonized datasets that contain surface reflectance images (bands blue, green, red, nir, swir1, swir2, and ndvi at 30 meters) over the two studied sites are provided for public usage and testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0270.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land cover mapping; Convolutional neural networks; UNET; Sentinel-2
Online: 9 August 2019 (11:54:37 CEST)
The Sentinel-2 satellite mission offers high resolution multispectral time series image data, enabling the production of detailed land cover maps globally. At this scale, the trade-off between processing time and result quality is a central design decision. Currently, this machine learning task is usually performed using pixelwise classification methods. The radical shift of the computer vision field away from hand engineered image features and towards more automation by representation learning comes with many promises, including higher quality results and less engineering effort. In this paper we assess fully convolutional neural networks architectures as replacements for a Random Forest classifier in an operational context for the production of high resolution land cover maps with Sentinel-2 time series at the country scale. Our contributions include a framework for working with Sentinel-2 L2A time series image data, an adaptation of the U-Net model for dealing with sparse annotation data while maintaining high resolution output, and an analysis of those results in the context of operational production of land cover maps.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0293.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Insulin-like growth factor-1; Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor; microgravity; osteoblasts; osteocytes; osteoclasts; IGF-1; IGF1R; rIGF-1
Online: 18 May 2020 (03:31:16 CEST)
Astronauts at are risk of losing 1.0 – 1.5% of their bone mass for every month they spend in space despite their adherence to high impact exercise training programs designed to preserve the musculoskeletal system. This article reviews the basics of bone formation and resorption and details how exposure to microgravity or simulated microgravity affects the structure and function of osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts, and their mesenchymal and hematologic stem cell precursors. It details the critical roles that insulin-like growth facor-1 and its receptor IGFR1 play in maintaining bone homeostasis and how exposure of bone cells to microgravity affects the function of these growth factors. Lastly, it discusses the potential of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, syncytin-A, and sclerostin inhibitors and recombinant IGF-1 as a bone-saving treatment for astronauts in space and during their colonization of the Moon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0648.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1); bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1); Krüppel–like factor 15 (KLF15); infected cell protein 0 (ICP0); BoHV-1 ICP0 (bICP0)
Online: 26 May 2021 (15:10:59 CEST)
Expression of Krüppel–like factor 15 (KLF15), a stress induced transcription factor, is induced during bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) reactivation from latency, and KLF15 stimulates BoHV-1 replication. Transient transfection studies revealed KLF15 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) cooperatively transactivate the BoHV-1 immediate early transcription unit 1 (IEtu1), herpes sim-plex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), and ICP4 promoter. The IEtu1 promoter drives expression of bICP0 and bICP4, two key BoHV-1 transcriptional regulatory proteins. Based on these studies, we hypothesized infection is a stressful stimulus that increases KLF15 ex-pression and enhances productive infection. New studies demonstrated that silencing KLF15 impaired HSV-1 productive infection and KLF15 steady state protein levels were increased at late stages of productive infection. KLF15 was primarily localized to the nucleus following in-fection of cultured cells with HSV-1, but not BoHV-1. When cells were transfected with a KLF15 promoter construct and then infected with HSV-1, promoter activity was significantly increased. The ICP0 gene and to a lesser extent bICP0 transactivated the KLF15 promoter in the absence of other viral proteins. In contrast, BoHV-1 or HSV-1 encoded VP16 had no effect on KLF15 pro-moter activity. Collectively, these studies revealed HSV-1 and BoHV-1 productive infection in-creased KLF15 steady state protein levels, which correlated with increased virus production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1); Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2); Angiopoietin-2/Angiopoietin-1 ratio (Ang-2/Ang-1); COVID-19; endothelial dysfunction
Online: 3 October 2023 (04:46:41 CEST)
The study aimed to explore the correlation among angiopoietin-1, (Ang-1) and Angiopoietin-2, (Ang-2) concentrations and the Angiopoietin-2/Angiopoietin-1 ratio, (Ang-2/Ang-1) with clinical outcomes, potentially serving as disease severity and survival biomarkers. A study at AHEPA University Hospital involved 90 COVID-19 adult patients, with 30 hospitalized in intensive care and 30 in ward units and 30 asymptomatic non-hospitalized individuals as controls. Estimated endothelial dysfunction markers related to angiogenesis were measured, and statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics software, version 29. There was a statistically significant difference only between outpatient and hospitalized patients (non-ICU -ICU groups) for the Ang-1 and Ang-2 indexes. The Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio has differed significantly among all individual patient groups. A ROC analysis was conducted to find an optimal threshold for distinguishing (outpatients – non-ICU) and (non-ICU – ICU) groups. It was based on Youden's Index and was 0.1122 or 0.1271 and 0.3825 or 0.4510, respectively. The Ang-1, Ang-2 levels, and Ang-2 / Ang-1 ratio were analysed as indicators for severity in COVID-19 patients. The Ang-2 / Ang-1 ratio demonstrated more excellent prognostic and diagnostic utility than individual biomarker levels. Monitoring the Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio can identify COVID-19 patients at risk and assist clinicians in tailoring treatment strategies for improved outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1785.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Sentinel-2; Semi-automatic classification; Random Forest; LULC; NDVI; Bhutan
Online: 28 November 2023 (10:22:30 CET)
Gelephu, located in the Himalayan region, has experienced one of the strongest development activities due to the suitable topography and geographic location, which has led to rapid urbanization. The main objective of the study is to perform land use land cover (LULC) mapping for Gelephu for 2016 and 2023 by a Random Forest (RF) classifier, using the Semi-automatic Classification Plugin (SCP) in QGIS and identify LULC changes. Furthermore, the study assessed the vegetation change dynamics within the study area by analysing the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for 2016 and 2023. Additionally, the study characterized the resulting LULC change for Gelephu Thromde, a sub-administrative municipal entity, as a result of the notable intensity of the infrastructure development activities. The current study used a framework to collect Sentiniel-2 satellite data, which was then used for pre- and post-processing to create LULC and NDVI maps. The classification model achieved high accuracy, with an area under the curve (AUC) of up to 0.89. The corresponding LULC and NDVI statistics were analysed to determine the current status of the LULC and vegetation indices, respectively. The LULC change analysis reveals urban growth of 5.65% and 15.05% for Gelephu and Gelephu Thromde, respectively. The NDVI assessment shows significant deterioration in vegetation health with a 75.11% loss of healthy vegetation in Gelephu between 2016 and 2023. This research provides the first version of LULC and NDVI maps of Gelephu. The analysis results indicate possible future implications on sustainable development management in Gelephu Bhutan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0191.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: forest types; forest mapping; Sentinel-2; SAR; LiDAR; canopy metrics
Online: 16 July 2019 (08:12:02 CEST)
Indigenous forests cover 24% of New Zealand and provide valuable ecosystem services. However, a national map of forest types, that is, physiognomic types, which would benefit conservation management, does not currently exist at an appropriate level of detail. While traditional forest classification approaches from remote sensing data are based on spectral information alone, the joint use of space-based optical imagery and structural information from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and canopy metrics from air-borne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) facilitates more detailed and accurate classifications of forest structure. We present a support vector machine (SVM) classification using data from ESA’s Sentinel-1 and 2 missions, ALOS PALSAR, and airborne LiDAR to produce a regional map of physiognomic types of indigenous forest in New Zealand. A five-fold cross-validation of ground data showed that the highest classification accuracy of 80.9% is achieved for bands 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 11, and 12 from Sentinel-2, the ratio of bands VH and VV from Sentinel-1, HH from PALSAR, and mean canopy height and 97th percentile canopy height from LiDAR. The classification based on the optical bands alone was 73.1% accurate and the addition of structural metrics from SAR and LiDAR increased accuracy by 7.8%. The classification accuracy is sufficient for many management applications for indigenous forest in New Zealand, including biodiversity management, carbon inventory, pest control, ungulate management, and disease management. National application of the method will be possible in several years, once national LiDAR coverage is achieved, and a national canopy height model is available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2017.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: antiviral compounds; peptidomimetics; MHV-1; HSV-1; envelope disruption
Online: 30 August 2023 (07:21:19 CEST)
The development of potent antiviral agents is of utmost importance to combat the global burden of viral infections. Traditional antiviral drug development involves targeting specific viral proteins, which may lead to the emergence of resistant strains. To explore alternative strategies, we investigated the antiviral potential of antimicrobial peptidomimetic compounds. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral potential of short anthranilamide-based peptidomimetic compounds 1-17 against two viruses: Murine Hepatitis Virus 1 (MHV-1-single stranded RNA virus) which is a surrogate of human coronaviruses and Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1-double stranded DNA virus). The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of these compounds were determined in vitro to assess their potency as antiviral agents. Compounds 11 and 14 displayed the most potent inhibitory effect with IC50 values of 2.38μM, and 6.3μM against MHV-1 while compounds 9 and 14 showed IC50 values of 14.8μM and 13μM, against HSV-1. Multiple antiviral assessments and microscopic images obtained through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) collectively demonstrated that these compounds exert a direct influence on the viral envelope. Based on this outcome, it can be concluded that peptidomimetic compounds could offer a new approach for the development of potent antiviral agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0002.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1; topoisomerase 1; HEK293A; transcriptome; TDP1 knockout
Online: 1 December 2023 (04:53:45 CET)
Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) is a human DNA repair protein. It is a member of the phospholipase D family based on the structure similarity. TDP1 is a key enzyme involved in repairing stalled topoisomerase 1 (TOP1)-DNA complexes. Previously we obtained with the CRISPR/Cas9 method HEK293A cells with the homozygous knockout of the Tdp1 gene and used knockout cells as a cellular model for studying the mechanisms of anticancer therapy. In this work we studied for the first time by transcriptomic analysis the effect of Tdp1 gene knockout on genes expression changes in human HEK293A cell line. We received original data that may indicate a role of TDP1 in other process besides repair of DNA-TOP1 complex. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis revealed that TDP1 could be involved in different processes such as cell adhesion and communication, spermatogenesis, mitochondrial function, neurodegeneration, cytokine response, and MAPK pathway signaling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1397.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Harmonization; Surface Reflectance; Landsat-7; Landsat-8; Sentinel-2; Mediterranean basin
Online: 20 July 2023 (10:49:30 CEST)
In the Mediterranean area, vegetation dynamics and phenology analyzed over a long time can have an important role in highlighting changes in land use and cover as well as the effect of climate change. Over the last 30 years, remote sensing has played an essential role in bringing about these changes thanks to many types of observations and techniques. Satellite images are to be considered an important tool to grasp these dynamics and evaluate them in an inexpensive and multidisciplinary way thanks to Landsat and Sentinel satellite constellations. The integration of these tools holds a dual potential: on one hand, allowing to obtain longer historical series of reflectance data, while on the other hand, making data available with a higher frequency even within a specific timeframe. The study aims to conduct a comprehensive cross-comparison analysis of long-time series pixel values in the Mediterranean regions. For this scope comparisons between Landsat-7 (ETM+), Landsat-8 (OLI), and Sentinel-2 (MSI) satellite sensors were conducted based on surface reflectance products. We evaluated these differences using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Major Axis linear regression (RMA) analysis on points extracted from over 15,000 images across the Mediterranean basin area from 2017 to 2020. Minor but consistent differences were noted, necessitating the formulation of suitable adjustment equations to better align Sentinel-2 reflectance values with those of Landsat-7 or Landsat-8. The results of the analysis are compared with the most used harmonization coefficients proposed in the literature, revealing significant differences. The root mean square deviation, the mean difference and the orthogonal distance regression (ODR) slope show an improvement of the parameters for both models used (OLS and RMA) in this study. The discrepancies in reflectance values lead to corresponding variations in the estimation of biophysical parameters, such as NDVI, showing an increase in the ODR slope of 0.3. Despite differences in spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics, we demonstrate that integration of these datasets is feasible through the application of band-wise regression corrections for a sensitive and heterogeneous area like those of the Mediterranean basin area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0841.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land cover; sentinel-2 images; random forest; boreal forest; alpine tundra
Online: 12 July 2023 (13:39:19 CEST)
A land cover map of two arctic catchments, nearby the Abisko Scientific Research Station, was obtained from a classification of a Sentinel-2 satellite image and a ground survey performed in July 2022. The two contiguous catchments, Miellajokka and Stordalen, are covered by various ecotypes, from boreal forest to alpine tundra and peatland. The random forests algorithm correctly identified 88% of polygon pixels reserved for testing. The developed workflow relied solely on open source software and acquired ground observations. Space organization was directed by the altitude as demonstrated by the intersection of the land cover with the topography. Comparison between this new land cover map and previous ones based on data acquired between 2008 and 2011 shows some trends of vegetation cover evolution in response to climate change in the considered area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2125.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Sentinel-2; remote sensing; Google Earth Engine; large-scale; water resource
Online: 30 May 2023 (11:24:44 CEST)
Evaluating the performance of water indices and mapping the spatial distribution of water-related ecosystems are important for monitoring surface water resources. This is particularly the case for Ethiopia since there is limited information available on water resources development over time despite its relevance for the people and ecosystems. To address this problem, this paper evaluates the performance of seven water indices for country-scale surface water detection based on high spatial and multi-temporal resolution Sentinel-2 data, processed using the Google Earth Engine cloud computing system. Results show that the water index (WI) and automatic water extraction index with shadow (AWEIsh) are the most accurate ones to extract surface water. Comparisons are based on qualitative visual inspections and quantitative accuracy indicators. For the latter, WI and AWEIsh obtained kappa coefficients of 0.96 and 0.95, respectively, and an overall accuracy of 0.98 each. Both indices accounted for similar spatial coverages of surface waters with 82,650 km2 (WI) and 86,530 km2 (AWEIsh) for the whole of Ethiopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0653.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land cover; sentinel-2 images; random forest; boreal forest; alpine tundra
Online: 20 April 2023 (10:51:55 CEST)
A land cover map of two arctic catchments, nearby the Abisko Scientific Research Station, was obtained from a classification of a Sentinel-2 satellite image and a ground survey performed in July 2022. The two contiguous catchments, Miellajokka and Stordalen, are covered by various ecotypes, from boreal forest to alpine tundra and peatland. The Random Forest algorithm correctly identified 83% of polygon pixels reserved for testing. The developed workflow relied solely on open source software and acquired ground observations. Space organization was directed by the altitude as shown by the intersection of the land cover with the topography. Comparison between this new land cover map and previous ones based on data acquired between 2008 and 2011 demonstrates some trends of vegetation cover evolution in response to climate change in the considered area. The potential applications in terms of permafrost modeling (hiperborea.omp.eu) are finally discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0316.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Precision farming; Early crop-type mapping; Sentinel-2; Random Forest; SVM
Online: 17 January 2022 (10:54:10 CET)
Crop-type mapping is an important intermediate step for cost-effective crop management at the field level, as an overview of all fields with a particular crop type can be used for monitoring or yield forecasting, for instance. Our study used a data set with 2400 fields and corresponding satellite observations from the federal state of Bavaria, Germany. The study classified corn, winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, potato, and winter rapeseed as the main crops grown in Upper Bavaria. We additionally experimented with a rejection class "Other", which summarised further crop types. Corresponding Sentinel-2 data included the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and raw bands from 2016 to 2018 for each selected field. The influence of raw bands compared to NDVI was analysed and the classification algorithms, i.e. support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF), were compared. The study showed that the use of an index should be critically questioned and that raw bands provided a wider spectral bandwidth, which significantly improved the mapping of crop types. The results underline the use of RF with raw bands and achieved overall accuracies (OA) of up to 92%. We also predicted crop types in an unknown year with significantly different weather conditions and several months before the end of the growing season. Thus, the influence of climate anomalies and the accuracy depending on the time of prediction were assessed. The crop types of a test site and year without labels could be determined with an OA of up to 86%. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the proof-of-concept and its readiness for use in real applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0625.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Turgor; Sentinel-2; Vegetation spectral indices; Kiwi; SWIR/NIR; time-series
Online: 26 September 2020 (12:07:40 CEST)
For more than ten years, Central Chile faces drought conditions, which impact crop production and quality, increasing food security risk. Under this scenario, implementing management practices that allow increasing water use efficiency is urgent. The study was carried out in kiwifruit trees, located in the O’Higgins region, Chile; for season 2018-2019 and 2019-2020. We evaluate nine vegetation indices in the VNIR and SWIR regions derived from Sentinel-2 (A/B) satellites to know how much variability in the canopy water status could explain. Over the study's site were installed sensors that continuously measure the leaf's turgor pressure (Yara Water-Sensor). A strong correlation between turgor pressure and vegetation indices was obtained with the Spearman's rho coefficient ($\rho$). However, the NIR range's indices were influenced by the vegetative development of the crop rather than its water status. Red-edge showed better performance as the vegetative growth did not affect it. It is necessary to expand the study to consider higher variability in kiwifruit's water conditions and incorporate the sensitivity of different wavelengths.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0499.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: greenspace; NDVI; environmental justice; greenness; Sentinel; satellite; urban green; health equity
Online: 24 August 2020 (03:07:41 CEST)
This paper discusses the potential and limitations of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in environmental justice, health and inequality studies in urban areas. Very often the NDVI is correlated with socioeconomic and/or sociodemographic data to demonstrate the inequality in environmental settings that themselves influence individual health and questions of environmental justice. This paper addresses the limits of the NDVI for such applications and as well its potential, if applied properly. The overall goal is to make people of disciplines other than those that are geo-related aware of the characteristics, limits and potentials of satellite image-based information layers such as NDVI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0229.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: OLCI Sentinel-3; Barents; Kara seas; absorption coefficient; uncertainties; field data
Online: 9 August 2020 (22:31:34 CEST)
The main goal of our work is the revealing of problematic issues related to estimates of the absorption coefficient of colored organic matter in the northern seas from data of the Ocean and Land Color Instrument (OLCI) on the Sentinel-3 satellites. In particular, a comparison of the OLCI standard error estimates ADG443_NN_err., relating to the measurement and retrieval of the geophysical products, with the uncertainties in the real situation of the northern seas, where the natural conditions are extremely unfavorable (first of all, frequent cloudiness, low Sun heights). We conducted a comprehensive multi-sensor study of the uncertainties using various approaches, first at all, directly comparing the data from satellite (OLCI Sentinel-3 and four other ocean color sensors) and field measurements in five sea expeditions 2016-2019, by using the different processing algorithms. Our analysis has shown that the real uncertainties of the final product are significantly higher than the calculated errors of the ADG443_NN_err., which is 100% and ~10%. The main reason for that is the unsatisfactory atmospheric correction. We present the results of the analysis of the different effecting factors (satellite sensors, processing algorithms, use of the other parameters), and formulate the tasks of future work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0316.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Quercus suber; cork oak decline; sentinel-2; time series; vegetation indices
Online: 28 September 2019 (15:01:45 CEST)
In Portugal, cork oak (Quercus suber L.) stands cover 737 Mha, being the most predominant species of the montado agroforestry system, contributing for the economic, social and environmental development of the country. Cork oak decline is a known problem since the late years of the 19th century that has recently worsen. The causes of oak decline seem to be a result of slow and cumulative processes, although the role of each environmental factor is not yet established. The availability of Sentinel-2 high spatial and temporal resolution dense time series enables gradual processes monitoring. These processes can be monitored using spectral vegetation indices (VI) once their temporal dynamics are expected to be related with green biomass and photosynthetic efficiency. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is sensitive to structural canopy changes, however it tends to saturate at moderate-to-dense canopies. Modified VI have been proposed to incorporate the reflectance in the red-edge spectral region, which is highly sensitive to chlorophyll content while largely unaffected by structural properties. In this research, in-situ data on the location and vitality status of cork oak trees are used to assess the correlation between chlorophyll indices (CI) and NDVI time series trends and cork oak vitality at the tree level. Preliminary results seem to be promising since differences between healthy and unhealthy (diseased/dead) trees were observed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION); prostate cancer; sentinel node; magnetometer; lymphadenectomy
Online: 7 November 2017 (02:50:25 CET)
Sentinel lymph node dissection (sLND) using a magnetometer and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a tracer was successfully applied in prostate cancer (PCa). Radioisotope-guided sLND combined with extended pelvic LND (ePLND) achieved better node removal, increasing the number of affected nodes or the detection of sentinel lymph nodes outside the established ePLND template. We determined the diagnostic value of additional magnetometer-guided sLND after intraprostatic SPION-injection in high-risk PCa. This retrospective study included 104 high-risk PCa patients (PSA >20 ng/ml and/or Gleason score ≥8 and/or cT2c) from a prospective cohort who underwent radical prostatectomy with magnetometer-guided sLND and ePLND. The diagnostic accuracy of sLND was assessed using ePLND as a reference standard. Lymph node metastases were found in 61 of 104 patients (58.7%). sLND had a 100% diagnostic rate, 96.6% sensitivity, 95.6% specificity, 96.6% positive predictive value, 95.6% negative predictive value, 3.4% false negative rate, and 4.4% false positive rate (detecting lymph node metastases outside the ePLND template). These findings demonstrate the high sensitivity and additional diagnostic value of magnetometer-guided sLND, exceeding that of ePLND through the individualized extension of PLND or the detection of sentinel lymph nodes / lymph node metastases outside the established node template in high-risk PCa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0363.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: herpes simplex virus 1; HSV-1; virus-host interaction; miRNA; FoxO
Online: 26 May 2022 (10:34:09 CEST)
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) expresses a large number of miRNAs, and their function is still not completely understood. In addition, HSV-1 has been found to deregulate host miRNAs, which adds to the complexity of regulation of efficient virus replication. In this study, we comprehen-sively addressed the deregulation of host miRNAs by massive-parallel sequencing. We found that only miRNAs expressed from a single cluster, miR-183/96/182 are reproducibly deregulated dur-ing productive infection. These miRNAs are predicted to regulate a great number of potential tar-gets involved in different cellular processes and have only 33 shared targets. Among these, mem-bers of the FoxO family of proteins were identified as potential targets for all three miRNAs. However, our study shows that the upregulated miRNAs do not affect the expression of FoxO proteins, moreover these proteins were upregulated in HSV-1 infection. Furthermore, we show that the individual FoxO proteins are not required for efficient HSV-1 replication. Taken together, our results indicate a complex and redundant response of infected cells to the virus infection that is efficiently inhibited by the virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0565.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV-1 transcription; HIV-1 Tat; TAR RNA; small molecule inhibitors
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:04:21 CEST)
HIV-1 Tat protein interacts with TAR RNA and recruits CDK9/cyclin T1 and other host factors to induce HIV-1 transcription. Thus Tat-TAR RNA interaction, which is unique for HIV-1, represents an attractive target for anti-HIV-1 therapeutics. To target Tat-TAR RNA interaction, we used a crystal structure of TAR RNA with acetylpromazine bound to the bulge of TAR RNA, to dock compounds from Enamine database containing 1.6 million individual compounds. Docking identified 173 compounds that were analyzed for the inhibition of HIV-1 infection. Top ten inhibitory compounds with IC50 ≤ 6 µM were selected and the three least toxic compounds, T6780107 (IC50=2.97 μM), T0516-4834 (IC50=0.2 μM) and T5628834 (IC50=3.46 μM), were further tested for HIV-1 transcription inhibition. Only T0516-4834 compound showed selective inhibition of Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription, whereas T6780107 compound inhibited equally basal and Tat-induced transcription and T5628834 compound only inhibited basal HIV-1 transcription. The T0516-4834 compound also showed strongest inhibition of HIV-1 gag RNA expression and p24 production in CEM T cells infected with HIV-1 IIIB. Of the three compounds, only the T0516-4834 compound disrupted Tat-TAR RNA interaction indicating that it might target TAR RNA. Also, of the three tested compounds, T5628834 but not T6780107 or T0516-4834 disrupted Tat-CDK9/cyclin T1 interaction. Taken together, our study identified novel compound T0516-4834 that disrupted Tat-TAR RNA interaction and inhibited Tat-induced transcription and HIV-1 infection suggesting that this compound might serve as a new lead for anti-HIV-1 therapeutics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0138.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Energy consumption; BRICS; GM (1, 1); Fractional-order; GREY; Forecasting accuracy
Online: 5 April 2021 (13:51:38 CEST)
Brazil, Russia, China, India, and the Republic of South Africa (BRICS) represent developing economies facing different energy and economic development challenges. The current study aims to forecast energy consumption in BRICS at aggregate and disaggregate levels using the annual time series data set from 1992 to 2019 and to compare results obtained from a set of models. The time-series data are from the British Petroleum (BP-2019) Statistical Review of World Energy. The forecasting methodology bases on a novel Fractional-order Grey Model (FGM) with different order parameters. This study contributes to the literature by comparing the forecasting accuracy and the forecasting ability of the FGM(1,1) with traditional ones, like standard GM(1,1) and ARIMA(1,1,1) models. Also, it illustrates the view of BRICS's nexus of energy consumption at aggregate and disaggregates levels using the latest available data set, which will provide a reliable and broader perspective. The Diebold-Mariano test results confirmed the equal predictive ability of FGM(1,1) for a specific range of order parameters and the ARIMA(1,1,1) model and the usefulness of both approaches for energy consumption efficient forecasting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0796.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HIV-1; HSV-1/2; CD4; CD8; Vaccines; Infection; Immunity; Keratitis
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:18:00 CET)
Tissue resident memory T cells (TRM) were first described in 2009. While initially the major focus was on CD8 TRM, there has been recently an increased interest in defining the phenotype and the role of CD4 TRM in diseases. Circulating CD4 T cells seed tissue CD4 TRM, but there also appears to be an equilibrium between CD4 TRM and blood CD4 T cells. CD4 TRM are more mobile than CD8 TRM, usually localized deeper within the dermis/lamina propria and yet may exhibit synergy with CD8 TRM in disease control. This has been demonstrated in herpes simplex infections in mice. In human recurrent herpes infections, both CD4 and CD8 TRM persisting between lesions may control asymptomatic shedding through interferon gamma secretion, although this has been more clearly shown for CD8 T cells. The exact role of the CD4/CD8 TRM axis in the trigeminal ganglia and/or cornea in controlling recurrent herpetic keratitis is unknown. In HIV, CD4 TRM have now been shown to be a major target for productive and latent infection in cervix. In HSV and HIV co-infections, CD4 TRM persisting in the dermis support HIV replication. Further understanding of the role of CD4 TRM and their induction by vaccines may help control sexual transmission by both viruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0273.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: irrigation; remote sensing; Sentinel-2; grasslands; leaf area index; land use classification
Online: 20 May 2022 (09:14:55 CEST)
Conventional methods of crop mapping need ground truth information to train the classifier. Thanks to the frequent acquisition allowed by recent satellite missions (Sentinel 2), we can identify temporal patterns that depend on both phenology and crop management. Some of these patterns are specific to a given crop and thus can be used to map it. Thus, we can substitute ground truth information used in conventional methods with agronomic knowledge. This approach was applied to identify irrigated permanent grasslands (IPG) in the Crau area (Southern France) which play a crucial role in groundwater recharge. The grassland is managed by making three mows during the May-October period which leads to a specific temporal pattern of leaf area index (LAI). The mowing detection algorithm was designed using the temporal LAI signal derived from Sentinel 2 observations. The algorithm includes some filtering to remove noise in the signal that might lead to false mowing detection. A pixel is considered a grassland if the number of detected mows is greater than 1. A data set covering five years (2016-2020) was used. The detection mowing number was done at the pixel level and then results are aggregated at the plot level. A validation data set including 780 plots was used to assess the performances of the classification. We obtained a Kappa index ranging between 0.94-0.99 according to the year. These results were better than other supervised classification methods that include training data sets. The analysis of land-use changes shows that misclassified plots concern grasslands managed less intensively with strong intra-parcel heterogeneity due to irrigation defects or year-round grazing. Time series analysis, therefore, allows us to understand different management practices. Real land-use change in use can be observed, but long time series are needed to confirm the change and remove ambiguities with heterogeneous grasslands.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0111.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water quality retrieval; illegal discharges identify; small waterbodies; Sentinel-2; machine learning
Online: 8 April 2020 (03:51:33 CEST)
Water quality retrieval for small urban waterbodies by remote sensing get used to be difficult due to coarse spatial resolution of the remote sensing imagery. The recently launched Sentinel-2 produces imagery with a spatial resolution of 10 m. It provides an opportunity to solve the problem of retrieving water quality for small waterbodies. Additionally, many water management issues also require fine resolution of imagery, e.g. illegal discharge to an urban waterbody. Since illegal discharges are an important issue for urban water management, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorous (TP), and total nitrogen (TN) were chosen as the target parameters for water quality retrieval in this study. COD, TP and TN, however, are non-optically active parameters. There were limited studies in the past to retrieve these parameters in comparison with optically active parameters, e.g. Chlorophyll-A etc. This study compared three machine learning models, namely Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Regression (SVR), and Neural Networks (NN), to investigate the opportunity to retrieve the above non-optically active parameters. Results showed that R2 of TP, TN, and COD by NN, RF and SVR were 0.94, 0.88, and 0.86, respectively. The performances of water quality retrieval for these non-optically active parameters were significantly improved by the optimized machine learning models. These models hence solved the problem to use remote sensing data to retrieve these non-optically active water quality parameters and provided a new monitoring strategy for small waterbodies. Water quality mapping obtained by Sentinel-2 imagery provided a full spatial coverage of the water quality characterization for the entire water surface. Compared with water samples collecting and testing, it greatly reduced labor cost, reagents cost, and waste treatment cost. It also may help identify illegal discharges to urban waterbodies. The method developed in this research provides a new practical and efficient water quality monitoring strategy in managing water with consideration of environmental sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0484.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: metformin; Natural Killer cells; Cytotoxic T lymphocytes; intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1); Natural Killer G2-D (NKG2D) ligands (NKG2DL); lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1)
Online: 21 July 2021 (10:54:14 CEST)
Solid tumor cells have an altered metabolism that can protect them from cytotoxic lymphocytes. The antidiabetic drug metformin modifies tumor cell metabolism and several clinical trials are testing its effectiveness for the treatment of solid cancers. The use of metformin in hematologic cancers has received much less attention, although allogeneic cytotoxic lymphocytes are very effective against these tumors. We show here that metformin induces expression of Natural Killer G2-D (NKG2D) ligands (NKG2DL) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a ligand of the lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1). This leads to enhance sensitivity to cytotoxic lymphocytes. Overexpression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members decrease both metformin effects. The sensitization to activated cytotoxic lymphocytes is mainly mediated by the increase on ICAM-1 levels, which favors cytotoxic lymphocytes binding to tumor cells. Finally, metformin decreases the growth of human hematological tumor cells in xenograft models, mainly in presence of monoclonal antibodies that recognize tumor antigens. Our results suggest that metformin could improve cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1501.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: plant triterpenoid; structure modifier; antiviral activity; HIV-1; HSV-1; maturation inhibitor
Online: 24 October 2023 (07:33:45 CEST)
The results of the most recent investigation of triterpenoid-based antiviral agents effective namely in the HIV-1 and HSV-1 treatment were reviewed and summarized. Several key historical achievements are included to stress consequences and continuity in this research. Most of the agents studied belong into a series of compound derived from betulin or betulinic acid, and their synthetic derivative called bevirimat. A termination of clinical trials of bevirimat in the Phase IIb initiated a search for more successful compounds partly derived from bevirimat or designed independently of bevirimat structure. Surprisingly, a majority of bevirimat mimics are derivatives of betulinic acid, while other plant triterpenoids, such as ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid or other miscellaneous triterpenoids, are relatively rarely involved in a search for novel antiviral agent. Therefore, this review article is divided into three parts based on the leading triterpenoid core structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0547.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: mecA; blaTEM-1; blaOXA-181; blaCTX-M-1; environmental-DNA; antibiotic-resistance
Online: 29 December 2022 (02:05:52 CET)
Background: Multidrug-resistant bacteria present resistance mechanisms against β-lactam antibiotics, such as Extended-Spectrum Beta-lactamases (ESBL) and Metallo-β-lactamases enzymes (MBLs) operon encoded in Gram-negative species. Likewise, Gram-positive bacteria have evolved other mechanisms through mec genes, which encode modified penicillin-binding proteins (PBP2). This study aimed to determine the presence and spread of β-lactam antibiotic resistance genes and the microbiome circulating in Quito’s Public Transport (QTP). Methods: A total of 29 station turnstiles were swabbed to extract the surface environmental DNA. PCRs were performed to detect the presence of 13 antibiotic resistance genes and to identify 16S rDNA barcoding, followed by clone analysis, Sanger sequencing and BLAST search. Results: ESBL genes blaTEM-1 and blaCTX-M-1 and MBL genes blaOXA-181 and mecA were detected along QPT stations. Two subvariants were found for blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-1, and blaOXA-181. Almost half of the circulating bacteria found at QPT stations were common human microbiota species including those classified by the WHO as pathogens of critical and high-priority surveillance. Conclusions: β-lactam antibiotic resistance genes are widely spread throughout QPT. This is the first report of blaOXA-181 in environmental samples in Ecuador. Moreover, we detected a new putative variant of this gene. Some commensal coagulase-negative bacteria may have a role as mecA resistance reservoirs
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: human antibody; invasion; lung cancer; therapeutic target; VCAM-1; VCAM-1-D6
Online: 15 February 2017 (10:45:16 CET)
Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is closely associated with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the relevance and role of VCAM-1 in lung cancer have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we found that VCAM-1 was highly overexpressed in lung cancer tissue compared with that of normal lung, and high VCAM-1 expression correlated with poor survival of lung cancer patients. VCAM-1 knockdown reduced invasion in A549 human lung cancer cells, and competitive blocking experiments targeting the Ig-like domain 6 of VCAM-1 (VCAM-1-D6) demonstrated that the VCAM-1-D6 domain was critical for VCAM-1-mediated A549 cell invasion. Next, we developed a human monoclonal antibody specific to human and mouse VCAM-1-D6 (VCAM-1-D6 huMab), which was isolated from a human synthetic antibody library using phage display technology. Finally, we showed that VCAM-1-D6 huMab had a nanomolar affinity for VCAM-1-D6 and that it potently suppressed invasion in A549 and NCI-H1299 lung cancer cell lines. Taken together, these results suggest that VCAM-1-D6 is a novel therapeutic target in VCAM-1-mediated lung cancer invasion and that our newly developed VCAM-1-D6 huMab will be a useful tool for inhibiting VCAM-1-expressing lung cancer cell invasion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0541.v9
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Signal Processing Keywords: Collatz conjecture; (*3+1)/2^k odd sequence; (*3+2^m-1)/2^k odd sequence; (*3+2^m-1)/2^k odd tree; weight function
Online: 21 July 2023 (08:53:32 CEST)
Build a special identical equation, use its calculation characters to prove and search for solution of any odd converging to 1 equation through (*3+1)/2^k operation, change the operation to (*3+2^m-1)/2^k, and get a solution for this equation, give a specific example to verify. Thus prove the Collatz Conjecture is true. Furthermore, analysis the sequences produced by iteration calculation during the procedure of searching for solution, build a weight function model, prove it decrease progressively to 0, build a complement weight function model, prove it increase to its convergence state. Build a (*3+2^m-1)/2^k odd tree, prove if odd in (*3+2^m-1)/2^k long huge odd sequence can not converge, the sequence must outstep the boundary of the tree after infinite steps of (*3+2^m-1)/2^k operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0123.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Sentinel-2 multispectral data; Maize lodging; Random Forest classification; Predictive variables; Model generalizability
Online: 2 June 2023 (04:08:42 CEST)
Lodging is a common problem in maize production that seriously impacts yield, quality, and the capacity for mechanical harvesting. Evaluation of site-specific lodging risks requires establishment of a method for multi-year monitoring. In this study, spectral images collected by the Sentinel-2 satellite were processed to obtain three types of data: gray-level co-occurrence matrix texture (GLCM), vegetation indices (VIs), and spectral reflectance (SR). Lodging classification models were then established with Random Forest (RF) using each of the three data types separately (the GLCM, VI, and SR models) and in combination (SR+VI model, SR+GLCM model, VI+GLCM mod-el, and SR+VI+GLCM model). By gradually removing features with low importance scores from the SR+VI+GLCM model and analyzing the changes in the overall accuracy (OA), the optimal set of predictive variables was identified and used to construct the optimal model. A model built us-ing data from a single timepoint in 2021 was tested on data collected at a similar timepoint in 2019 and vice versa to assess interannual model generalizability. The results of this study demon-strate that for monitoring maize lodging, models constructed with a single feature type, the GLCM model had significantly lower accuracy compared to the VI and SR models. During certain growth stages, the model constructed with combined features had significantly higher accuracy in monitoring maize lodging compared to models constructed with a single feature. During the pro-cess of selecting the optimal predictive variables, it was found that the accuracy of the model did not increase as the number of predictive variables increased. The results show that the positive and negative validation models had an accuracy of 96.55% and 95.18%, with kappa values of 0.93 and 0.83, respectively. This indicates that the model has strong generality for the same repro-ductive stage between years. This study provides a detailed method for large-scale maize lodging monitoring, allowing for identification of optimal planting practices to reduce the probability of lodging and ultimately improving regional maize yield and quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0045.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Surface Urban heat island; Northeastern region; Sentinel 3; Eco-environmental spaces; Thermal comfort
Online: 4 April 2023 (12:37:09 CEST)
The Surface Urban Heat Island (UHI) is caused by the difference in temperature between the urban and its surrounding areas. However, in the scientific literature, there is no solid methodology defining urban and non-urban areas, which is essential to estimate the SUHI with greater accuracy. This study uses the official national urban areas limit, to obtain the SUHI more accurately on the nine northeastern Brazilian capitals. The land surface temperature was obtained using the Sentinel 3 satellite data for the years 2019 and 2020. Afterward, the maximum and average SUHI, and the complementary indexes were calculated, such as the Urban Thermal Field Variation Index (UTFVI) and the Thermal Discomfort Index (TDI) for the urban areas and their surrounding areas. The Maximum and Average SUHI, obtained values between 1.85 and 8.25 and -4.92 and 2.59 degree difference, respectively, proving the SUHI existence in the study areas. The UTFVI, with values between 0.010 and 0.040, expresses how bad the eco-environmental spaces of urban are. The TDI, with values between 24.61 and 28.89 ºC, expresses the population’s thermal comfort. Therefore, this study provides a better understanding of the surface UHI pioneeringly for the Brazilian Northeast Region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0487.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: woody crop classification; Sentinel-2; random forest; crop phenology; olive; orchard; vineyards; Mediterranean
Online: 28 March 2023 (11:19:29 CEST)
The characteristics of the Sentinel-2 mission with a decametric resolution and frequent acquisitions allow to improve the identification of crops. The majority of the studies on crop classification using RS were targeted at herbaceous and gramineous crop classes while fewer results were obtained on woody crops which present a strong variability in management practices that make their identification difficult. Thus, this study aimed to propose a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective analytical approach for the delineation of fruit orchards (OC), vineyards (VY), and olive groves (OL) in the Mediterranean (Southern France) considering two locations. A classification based on phenology metrics (PM) de-rived from temporal Sentinel-2 time series was developed to perform the classification. The PM were computed by fitting a double logistic model on temporal profiles of vegeta-tion indices to delineate OC, VY, and a DC class gathering all remaining surfaces. The generated PM were introduced in a random forest (RF) algorithm to identify woody crops across the two sites. The method was tested on different vegetation indices, the best results being obtained with the leaf area index (LAI). To delineate OL in the DC class, the tem-poral features of the green chlorophyll vegetation index (GCVI) were found to be the most appropriated with a typical drop of the signal during the mid-season (DOY 150-250). As a final result, we obtained an overall accuracy ranging from 89-96% and Kappa of 0.86-0.95 by considering each study site and year (2016-2021), separately. This accuracy is much better than applying the RF algorithm on the LAI times series, which led to a Kappa rang-ing between 0.3 and 0.52 and demonstrates the interest of using phenological traits rather than the raw time series of the RS data. The method can be well reproduced from one year to another. Moreover, it is possible to apply the classification model of a given year to an-other, keeping good accuracy. This is an interesting feature to reduce the burden of col-lecting ground truth information. On the contrary, the use of a classification model cali-brated in one site and applied to another led to a strong degradation of the classification accuracy. Woody crop phenology is dependent on site climatic conditions as well as the cultivar and management practices that can differ from one site to another.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0331.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: n/a; airborne hyperspectral images, Sentinel-2, k-means, random forest, crop recognition
Online: 20 February 2023 (08:31:21 CET)
This study aimed to investigate the possibility of using one-shot hyperspectral airborne images to recognize crops for an area with many small plots. The results showed that unsupervised clustering methods could classify crops with an accuracy of 80%, which improved to 90% when restricted to only grain crops, using a single airborne hyperspectral recording. However, additional layers such as NDVI, DTM, slope, and aspect did not improve classification accuracy. For comparison, the accuracy of clustering time series Sentinel-2 images with NDVI layers and DTM-derived data yielded an accuracy of: 74% ,Sentinel-2 time series 68% and single one registration before harvest - 39%. The results of the random forest classification were slightly less accurate due to a lack of sufficient reference data. However, it is challenging to verify the reported accuracy of crop recognition in the literature above 90% due to differences in analysis methodologies, reference data selection, pixel/object approaches, metric choice, and calculation formulas used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0169.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Rader (SAR); Optical image (Sentinel 2); Random Forest (RF); CART; GEE
Online: 13 September 2022 (10:06:14 CEST)
Observing cultivated crops and other forms of land use is an important environmental and economic concern for agricultural land management and crop classification. Crop categorization offers significant crop management data, ensuring food security, and developing agricultural policies. Remote sensing data, especially publicly available Sentinel 1 and 2 data, has effectively been used in crop mapping and classification in cloudy places because of their high spatial and temporal resolution. This study aimed to improve crop type classification by combining Sentinel-1 (Synthetic Aperture Rader (SAR)) data and the Sentinel-2 Multispectral Instrument (MSI) data. In the study, Random Forest (RF) and Classification and Regression Trees (CART) classier were used to classify grain crops (Barley and Wheat). The classification results based on the combination of Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-1 data indicated an overall accuracy (OA) of 93 % and a kappa coefficient (K) of 0.896 for RF and (89.15%, 0.84) for the CART classifier. It is suggested to employ a mix of radar and optical data to attain the highest level of classification accuracy since doing so improves the likelihood that the details will be observed in comparison to the single-sensor classification technique and yields more accurate results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0147.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Sentinel-3; SAIL; PROSPECT; TARTES; PROSAIL; LAI; fAPAR; fPAR; leaf pigments; Automatic Differentiation
Online: 8 September 2021 (11:59:24 CEST)
Multi- and hyper-spectral, multi-angular top-of-canopy reflectance data call for an efficient retrieval system which can improve the retrieval of standard canopy parameters (as albedo, LAI, fAPAR), and exploit the information to retrieve additional parameters (e.g. leaf pigments). Furthermore consistency between the retrieved parameters and quantification of uncertainties are required for many applications. % (2) methods We present a retrieval system for canopy and sub-canopy parameters (OptiSAIL), which is based on a model comprising SAIL, PROSPECT-D (leaf properties), TARTES (snow properties), a soil model (BRDF, moisture), and a cloud contamination model. The inversion is gradient based and uses codes % created by Automatic Differentiation. The full per pixel covariance-matrix of the retrieved parameters is computed. For this demonstration, single observation data from the Sentinel-3 SY_2_SYN (synergy) product is used. The results are compared with the MODIS 4-day LAI/fPAR product and PhenoCam site photography. OptiSAIL produces generally consistent and credible results, at least matching the quality of the technically quite different MODIS product. For most of the sites, the PhenoCam images support the OptiSAIL retrievals. The system is computationally efficient with a rate of 150 pixel per second (7 millisecond per pixel) for a single thread on a current desktop CPU using observations on 26 bands. Not all of the model parameters are well determined in all situations. Significant correlations between the parameters are found, which can change sign and magnitude over time. OptiSAIL appears to meet the design goals, puts real-time processing with this kind of system into reach, seamlessly extends to hyper-spectral and multi-sensor retrievals, and promises to be a good platform for sensitivity studies. The incorporated cloud and snow detection adds to the robustness of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0017.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: lymphadenectomy; magnetometer; prostate cancer; sentinel lymph node dissection; spion; superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles
Online: 3 November 2019 (15:38:28 CET)
Targeted radioisotope-guided sentinel lymph node dissection (sLND) has shown high diagnostic accuracy in prostate cancer (PCa). To overcome the downsides of the radioactive tracers, magnetometer-guided sLND using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) was successfully applied in PCa. This prospective study (SentiMag Pro II, DRKS00007671) determined the diagnostic accuracy of magnetometer-guided sLND in intermediate- and high-risk PCa. Fifty intermediate- or high-risk PCa patients (PSA≥10 ng/ml and/or Gleason score ≥7; median PSA 10.8 ng/ml, IQR 7.4–19.2 ng/ml) were enrolled. After intraprostatic SPIONs injection a day earlier, patients underwent magnetometer-guided sLND and eLND, followed by radical prostatectomy. SLNs were detected in vivo and in ex vivo samples. Diagnostic accuracy of sLND was assessed using eLND as the reference. SLNs were detected in all patients (detection rate 100%), with 447 SLNs (median 9, IQR 6–12) being identified and 966 LNs (median 18, IQR 15-23) being removed. Thirty-six percent (18/50) of patients had LN metastases (median 2, IQR 1–3). Magnetometer-guided sLND had 100% sensitivity, 97.0% specificity, 94.4% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value, 0.0% false negative rate, and 3.0% additional diagnostic value (LN metastases only in SLNs outside the eLND template). In vivo, one positive SLN/LN-positive patient was missed, resulting in a sensitivity of 94.4%. In conclusion, this new magnetic sentinel procedure has high accuracy for nodal staging in intermediate- and high-risk PCa. The reliability of intraoperative SLN detection using this magnetometer system requires verification in further multicentric studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0397.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: erythrocyte; non alcoholic steatohepatitis; immunometabolism; thrombospondin-1; arginase-1; phosphatidylethanolamine; metabolic inflammation
Online: 17 April 2023 (04:22:12 CEST)
Background: Hepatic erythrophagocytosis is augmented in NASH and amplifies inflammation and fibrosis. Although various pro-phagocytic signals have been identified on erythrocytes of NASH patients, the role of bound thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), which acts as an “eat-me” signal, arginase-1, which regulates the levels of nitric oxide in erythrocytes, and phosphatidylethano-lamine (PE) which can amplify erythrophagocytosis and hepatic inflammation have not been explored. Hence, we sought to investigate the levels of arginase-1 and TSP-1 in erythrocyte lysate and PE in erythrocyte membranes of NASH patients. Methods: Twenty-four patients and 14 healthy controls participated in our study. The levels of TSP-1 and arginase were quantified by ELISA in erythrocyte lysates, and the levels of PE in erythrocyte membranes by thin layer chro-matography. Results: Erythrocytes of NAFLD patients exhibit lower levels of arginase-1 and TSP-1 (p<0.01). Erythrocyte-bound TSP-1 levels correlated with the levels of erythrocyte surface CD47. Phosphatidylethanolamine was increased in erythrocytes of NASH patients and was accompanied by increased release, indicating exposure. Conclusion: Our results imply reduced TSP-1 binding by erythrocytes which could allow free TSP-1 molecules to act on macrophages, enhancing erythrophagocytosis. Increased PE which could amplify inflammation after efferocytosis, while downregulation of arginase-1 could lead to defective efferocytosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0120.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: HER2; PD-1/PD-L1; Mathematical model; HER2/PD-1 Interaction; Breast cancer
Online: 9 May 2022 (14:06:20 CEST)
Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB)-based therapy is revolutionizing cancer treatment by fostering successful immune surveillance and effector cell responses against various types of cancers. However, patients with HER2+ cancers are yet to benefit from this therapeutic strategy. Precisely, several questions regarding the right combination of drugs, drug modality, and effective dose recommendations pertaining to the use of ICB-based therapy for HER2+ patients remain unanswered. In this study, we use a mathematical modeling-based approach to quantify the growth inhibition of HER2+ breast cancer (BC) cell colonies (ZR75) when treated with anti-HER2; trastuzumab (TZ) and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 (BMS-202) agents. Our data show that a combination therapy of TZ and BMS-202 can significantly reduce the viability of ZR75 cells and trigger several morphological changes. The combination decreased the cell’s invasiveness along with altering several key pathways, such as Akt/mTor and ErbB2 compared to monotherapy. In addition, BMS-202 causes dose-dependent growth inhibition of HER2+ BC cell colonies alone, while this effect is significantly improved when used in combination with TZ. Based on the in-vitro monoculture experiments conducted, we argue that BMS-202 can cause tumor growth suppression not only by mediating immune response but also by interfering with the growth signaling pathways of HER2+ BC. Nevertheless, further studies are imperative to substantiate this argument and to uncover the potential crosstalk between PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors and HER2 growth signaling pathways in breast cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0684.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: GIP; GLP-1; incretins; T2DM
Online: 27 November 2020 (11:24:40 CET)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are secreted from the gut upon nutrient stimulation and regulate postprandial metabolism. These hormones are known as classical incretin hormones and are responsible for a major part of postprandial insulin release. The incretin effect is severely reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes, but it was discovered that administration of GLP-1 agonists was capable of normalizing glucose control in these patients. Over the last decades, much research has been focused on the development of incretin-based therapies for type 2 diabetes. These therapies include incretin receptor agonists and inhibitors of the incretin-degrading enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4. Especially the development of diverse GLP-1 receptor agonists has shown immense success, whereas studies of GIP monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes have consistently been disappointing. Interestingly, both GIP-GLP-1 co-agonists and GIP receptor antagonists administered in combination with GLP-1R agonists appear to be efficient with respect to both weight loss and control of diabetes, although the molecular mechanisms behind these effects remain unknown. This review describes our current knowledge of the two incretin hormones and the development of incretin-based therapies for treatment of type 2 diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0136.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: apoptosis; cardiotrophin-1; colon; inflammation
Online: 12 October 2019 (03:38:00 CEST)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relatively frequent, chronic disease that impacts significantly the patient’s quality of life. Although many therapeutic options are available, additional approaches are needed because many patients either do not respond to current therapies or show significant side effects. Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a cytokine with potent cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. The purpose of this study was to assess if the administration of CT-1 could reduce colon damage in mice with experimental UC. UC was induced with 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water. Some mice received i.v. dose of CT-1 (200 µg/kg) 2 hours before and 2 and 4 days after DSS administration. Animals were followed during 7 days after DSS. The severity of UC was measured by standard scores. Colon damage was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Inflammatory mediators were measured by Western blot and PCR. CT-1 administration to DSS-treated mice ameliorated both the clinical course (disease activity index), histological damage, inflammation (colon expression of TNF-α, IL-17, IL-10, INF-γ, and iNOS), and apoptosis. Our results suggest that CT-1 administration before UC induction improves the clinical course, tissue damage and inflammation degree in DSS-induced UC in mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0389.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB-1); portal vein thrombosis (PVT); hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
Online: 7 November 2023 (10:36:58 CET)
Background High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB-1) is implicated in the pathogenesis of thrombosis and cancer. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate its potential role as a diagnostic biomarker of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods The study population included N=100 prospectively recruited patients with a novel diagnosis of HCC. We compared circulating HMGB-1 levels between 34 healthy controls, HCC patients with PVT (N=22), and HCC patients without PVT (N=78). Results HCC patients without PVT showed significantly higher median HMGB-1 serum levels (8.2 [5.5-13.1] ng/ml) than those observed in the case of HCC with PVT (5.5 [4.4-8.5] ng/ml; p=0.012) and in healthy controls (4.1 [3.1-8.2] ng/ml; p<0.001). Among HCC patients, at univariate analysis, the presence of PVT was associated with higher median age (p=0.036), larger major cancer node diameter (p<0.001), and lower HMGB-1 serum level (p=0.012). At multivariate analysis, the presence of PVT maintained a positive association with major node diameter p=0.001) and an inverse association with serum HMGB-1 levels (p=0.003). Conclusions These findings indicate that serum HMGB-1 bears an inverse association with PVT complicating HCC at the time of diagnosis and suggest that serum HMGB-1 depletion may mark PVT development in cirrhotic patients with HCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0876.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; P.1 variant; B.1 strain; cytokines; COVID-19; macrophages; neutrophils
Online: 13 July 2023 (04:34:23 CEST)
Since the first description of SARS-CoV-2 in China in 2019, thousands of variants have emerged worldwide. For some of them, the constellation of mutations caused changes in virus biology, pathogenicity, infectivityity and transmissibility resulting in dissemination throughout the world. Gamma variant (P.1) differs from SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan strain (B.1) by 12 amino acids in the Spike (S) protein, and presented mutations related to greater affinity for the receptor angioten-sin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) and/or immune escape. The Gamma variant and subvariants were responsible for the second wave of COVID-19 in the Brazilian city of Manaus, characterized by high mortality and rapid transmission. The ability of variants to induce cytokine production may be closely related to their pathogenicity. Herein we observed that there was no significant difference in the quantity of cytokines among macrophages or neutrophils infected with P.1 and B.1 strains. Also, no significant difference was observed in the absolute number of macrophages and neutrophils infected with these variants. Furthermore, no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 replication was observed in macrophages when infected by the two analyzed variants. Our findings suggest that the difference in the epidemiological outcome observed during the P.1 variant spread when compared to B.1, it is not explained by differences in the quantity of cytokines and absolute number of macrophages or neutrophils. Through bioinformatics analysis of the S protein, we observed that the physicochemical differences between the variants and subvariants of P.1, probably refer to the degree of infectivity, due to the impact caused in the recognition of antibodies and receptor af-finity
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0141.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; XDR; IMP-1; VIM-2; NDM-1; VAP; ICU; Hospital-acquired infections
Online: 9 June 2022 (10:58:13 CEST)
A 2-year prospective study carried out on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) patients in the intensive care unit at King Khalid hospital, Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), revealed a high prevalence of extremely drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii. About a 9% increase in the incidence rate of A. baumannii has occurred in the VAP patients between 2019 and 2020 (21.4% to 30.7%). In 2019 the isolates were positive for IMP-1 and VIM-2 (31.1% and 25.7%, respectively) as detected by PCR. In comparison, a higher proportion of isolates produced NDM-1 in 2020. Here, we observed a high resistant proportion of ICU isolates towards the most common antibiotics in use. Colistin sensitivity dropped to 91.4% in the year 2020 as compared to 2019 (100%). Thus, the finding of this study has a highly significant clinical implementation in the clinical management strategies for VAP patients. Furthermore, strict implementation of antibiotic stewardship policies, regular surveillance programs for antimicrobial resistance monitoring, and screening for genes encoding drug resistance phenotypes have become imperative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0038.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: NF-κB; IL-1β; IL-6; VEGF; TNF-α; FN; ICAM-1; VCAM-1
Online: 2 September 2020 (09:46:10 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a metabolic disorder characterized by inappropriate insulin function. Despite wide progress in genome studies, defects in gene expression for diabetes prognosis still incompletely identified. Prolonged hyperglycemia activates NF-κB, which is a main player in vascular dysfunctions of diabetes. Activated NF-κB, triggers expression of various genes that promote inflammation and cell adhesion process. Alteration of pro-inflammatory and profibrotic gene expression contribute to the irreversible functional and structural changes in the kidney resulting in diabetic nephropathy (DN). To identify the effect of some important NF-κB related genes on mediation of DN progression, we divided our candidate genes on the basis of their function exerted in bloodstream into three categories (Proinflammatory; NF-κB, IL-1B, IL-6, TNF-α and VEGF); (Profibrotic; FN, ICAM-1, VCAM-1) and (Proliferative; MAPK-1 and EGF). We analyzed their expression profile in leukocytes of patients and explored their correlation to diabetic kidney injury features. Our data revealed the overexpression of both proinflammatory and profibrotic genes in DN group when compared to T2D group and were associated positively with each other in DN group indicating their possible role in DN progression. In DN patients, increased expression of proinflammatory genes correlated positively with glycemic control and inflammatory markers indicating their role in DN progression. Our data revealed that the persistent activation NF-κB and its related genes observed in hyperglycemia might contribute to DN progression and might be a good diagnostic and therapeutic target for DN progression. Large-scale studies are needed to evaluate the potential of these molecules to serve as disease biomarkers.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: stress granules; G3BP1; G3BP2; Caprin-1; USP10; TIA1; TIAR; cancer prognosis; biomarker; metastasis; resistance; cell death; pro-survival properties
Online: 7 April 2020 (01:56:12 CEST)
Stress Granules formation is a pro-survival mechanism helping cells to cope with environmental challenges. Stress Granules have been studied for two decades in fundamental research, and are now being examined in the context of human pathogenesis. Here, we review studies highlighting stress granules’ involvement in cancer development through translational pattern modification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0122.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cervical adenocarcinoma; immune-checkpoint inhibitor; programmed cell death-1(PD-1); programmed cell death-ligand 1(PD-L1); CD8 expression; lymphocyte; survival analysis
Online: 12 January 2020 (15:01:23 CET)
The effectiveness of immunotherapy for cervical adenocarcinoma (CA) has not been demonstrated yet. It may be possible for us to use programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and CD8 as biomarkers of response to immune therapy in CA patients. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether the expression levels of PD-1, PD-L1, and CD8 can predict the prognosis of CA patients and their response to ICI therapy. The levels of the PD-1, PD-L1, and CD8 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemical analysis from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples. The correlation between the expression levels and patient prognosis was analyzed by the Kaplan–Meier method and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model. We observed a significant inverse-correlation between the PD-1 and CD8 expression (p=0.001, chi square test). We also found a significant inverse-correlation between the PD-L1 and CD8 expression (p=0.027). The overall survival was significantly worse in patients with positive PD-1 expression (p=0.027). Similarly, the progression-free survival was also worse (p=0.087). Our results demonstrate that a high level of PD-1 expression is associated with a poor prognosis in CA patients. Further research is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that mediate this association.