ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0178.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Self-Evolving, Recurrent Type-2 Fuzzy, Nonlinear Consequent Part, Convergence Analysis, Renewable Energy.
Online: 5 March 2021 (09:57:24 CET)
Not only does this paper present a novel type-2 fuzzy system for identification and behavior prognostication of an experimental solar cell set and a wind turbine, but also it brings forward an exquisite technique to acquire an optimal number of membership functions and the corresponding rules. It proposes a seven-layered NCPRT2FS. For fuzzification in the first two layers, Gaussian type-2 fuzzy membership functions with uncertainty in the mean, are exploited. The third layer comprises rule definition and the forth one embeds fulfillment of type reduction. The three last remained layers are the ones in which resultant left–right firing points, two end-points and output all get assessed correspondingly. It should not be neglected off the nutshell that recurrent feedback at the fifth layer exerts delayed outputs ameliorating efficiency of the suggested NCPRT2FS. Later in the paper, a modern structural learning, established on type-2 fuzzy clustering, is held forth. An adaptively rated learning back-propagation algorithm is extended to adjust the parameters ensuring the convergence as well. Eventually, solar cell photo-voltaic and wind turbine are deemed as case studies. The experimental data are exploited and the consequent yields emerge so persuasive.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0326.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Frontal Cortex; PFC; Self-enhancement; Self-deception; SE
Online: 21 July 2022 (10:55:56 CEST)
Self-enhancement (SE) is often overlooked as a fundamental cognitive ability mediated via the Pre-Frontal Cortex (PFC). Here we present research that establishes the relationship between the PFC, SE, and the potential evolved beneficial mechanisms. Specifically, we believe there is now enough evidence to speculate that SE exists to provide significant benefits and should be considered a normal aspect of the self. Whatever the metabolic or social cost, the upside of SE is great enough that it is a core and fundamental psychological construct. Furthermore, though entirely theoretical, we suggest that a critical reason the PFC has evolved so significantly in Homo sapien is to, in part, sustain SE. We therefore elaborate as to its proximate and ultimate mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0267.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: wind turbine system; hydroelectric plant simulator; model--based control; data–driven approach; self–tuning control; robustness and reliability
Online: 26 January 2019 (10:08:46 CET)
The interest on the use of renewable energy resources is increasing, especially towards wind and hydro powers, which should be efficiently converted into electric energy via suitable technology tools. To this aim, data--driven control techniques represent viable strategies that can be employed for this purpose, due to the features of these nonlinear dynamic processes working over a wide range of operating conditions, driven by stochastic inputs, excitations and disturbances. Some of the considered methods, such as fuzzy and adaptive self--tuning controllers, were already verified on wind turbine systems, and similar advantages may thus derive from their appropriate implementation and application to hydroelectric plants. These issues represent the key features of the work, which provides some guidelines on the design and the application of these control strategies to these energy conversion systems. The working conditions of these systems will be also taken into account in order to highlight the reliability and robustness characteristics of the developed control strategies, especially interesting for remote and relatively inaccessible location of many installations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0196.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: self-organization; synaptic plasticity; information transfer
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:06:22 CEST)
Our brains process information using a layered hierarchical network architecture, with abundant connections within each layer and sparse long-range connections between layers. As these long-range connections are mostly unchanged after development, each layer has to locally self-organize in response to new inputs to enable information routing between the sparse in- and output connections. Here we demonstrate that this can be achieved by a well-established model of cortical self-organization based on a well-orchestrated interplay between several plasticity processes. After this self-organization, stimuli conveyed by sparse inputs can be rapidly read out from a layer using only very few long-range connections. To achieve this information routing, the neurons that are stimulated form feed-forward projections into the unstimulated parts of the same layer and get more neurons to represent the stimulus. Hereby, the plasticity processes ensure that each neuron only receives projections from and responds to only one stimulus such that the network is partitioned into parts with different preferred stimuli. Along this line, we show that the relation between the network activity and connectivity self-organizes to a biologically plausible regime. Finally, we argue how the emerging connectivity may minimize the metabolic cost for maintaining a network structure under the above described constraints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0245.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle & Field Physics Keywords: Renormalization, Quantum Field Theory, Electron self energy, Vacuum polarization
Online: 26 March 2019 (14:07:37 CET)
In quantum field theory (QFT), it is well known that when Feynman diagrams containing loops are evaluated to account for self interactions, probability amplitude comes out to be infinite which is physically not admissible. So, to make the QFT convergent, various renormalization methods are conventionally followed in which an additional (infinite) counter term is postulated which neutralizes the original infinity generated by diagram. The resulting finite values of amplitudes have agreed with experiments with surprising accuracy. However, proponents of renormalization methods acknowledged that this ad-hoc procedure of subtraction of infinity from infinity to reach at a finite value is not at all satisfactory and there is no physical basis for bringing in the counter term. So, it is desirable to establish a method in QFT which does not generate any infinite term (thus not requiring renormalization), but which predicts same results as conventional methods do. In this paper, we describe such a technique taking self interaction quantum electrodynamics diagram representing electron or photon self energy. In our method, no problem of infinity arises and hence renormalization is not necessary. Still, the dependence of calculated probability amplitude on physical variables in our technique comes out to be same as conventional methods. Using similar procedure, we hope, the problem of non-renormalizability of quantum gravity may be solved in future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0449.v2
Subject: Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Covid-19; pandemic; primer; India; mortality rate; evolution; updated primer; evolving pandemic
Online: 1 June 2020 (11:08:03 CEST)
In this paper we first provide a primer on SARS-CoV-2 and Covid-19 delineating the etiopathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical manifestations and the natural history of the disease. We then trace the evolution of the Covid-19 pandemic highlighting the characteristics of the epidemic in China where the pandemic originated, select countries of Europe which peaked during April, and Brazil, US and India where the pandemic has taken serious turns recently. We also project some possible trajectories for the mega cities of India based on the demographic characteristics of these cities in comparison to New York city. This is an updated version of the article from mid-April published online.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0415.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Radial solutions; singular boundary value problems; non-self-adjoint operator; Green’s function; lower solution; upper solution; iterative numerical approximations.
Online: 16 March 2021 (11:50:07 CET)
In this work the existence and nonexistence of stationary radial solutions to the elliptic partial differential equation arising in the molecular beam epitaxy are studied. Since we are interested in radial solutions we arrive at the following fourth-order differential equation
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0243.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccines; Adverse Events; Self-reporting; Pandemic
Online: 18 May 2022 (11:06:19 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has put a lot of pressure on health systems worldwide. Mass vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has reduced morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite their safety profiles, vaccines like any other medical product can cause adverse events. Yet, in countries with poor epidemiological surveillance and monitoring systems, reporting vaccine-related adverse events is scarce. The objective of this study was to describe self-reported vaccine adverse events after receiving one of the available COVID-19 vaccine schemes in Ecuador. A cross-sectional analysis based on an online self-reporting 32-questionnaire was conducted in Ecuador from April 1st to July 15th, 2021. Participants were invited by social media, radio, and TV to voluntarily participate in our study. A total of 6,654 participants were included in this study. A 38.2% of the participants reported having at least one comorbidity. Patients received AstraZeneca, Pfizer, and Sinovac vaccines, and these were distributed 38.4%, 31.1%, and 30.5%, respectively. Pain, inflammation at the injection site (20,01%), and headache (16,91%) were the most reported adverse events. Women addressed ESAVIs (64%), more often than men (36%). After receiving the first dose of any available COVID-19 vaccine, a total of 19,481 self-reported ESAVIs were informed (86.9% were mild, 11.6% moderate and 1.5% severe). In terms of vaccine type and brand, the most reactogenic vaccine was AstraZeneca with 57.8%, followed by Pfizer (24.9%) and Sinovac (17, 3 %). After the second dose, 6,757 self-reported ESAVIs were reported (87.0% mild, 10.9% moderate, and 2.1% severe). AstraZeneca vaccine users reported a higher proportion of ESAVIs (72.2%) in comparison to Pfizer/BioNTech (15.9%) and Sinovac Vaccine (11.9%). Swelling at the injection site, headache, muscle pain, and fatigue were the most common ESAVIs for the first as well as second dose. In conclusion, most ESAVIs were mild. AstraZeneca users were more likely to report adverse events. Participants without a history of COVID-19 infection, as well as those who receive the first dose, were more prone to report ESAVIs.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0160.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: societal transformation; systems change; sustainability; complex systems; societal cognition; climate change; biodiversity loss; active inference; free energy principle; self-organized criticality; SAILS)
Online: 6 August 2020 (10:48:10 CEST)
Humanity faces serious social and environmental problems, including climate change and biodiversity loss. Risks are increasing and conditions deteriorating. Increasingly, scientists, global policy experts, and the general public conclude that incremental approaches are insufficient and transformative change is needed across all sectors of society. However, the meaning of transformation is still unsettled in the literature, as is the proper role of science in fostering it. This paper is the first in a three-part series that adds to the discussion by proposing a novel science-driven research-and-development program aimed at societal transformation. More than a proposal, it offers a perspective and conceptual framework from which societal transformation might be approached and understood. While acknowledging the necessity of reform to existing societal systems (e.g., governance, economic, and financial systems), the focus of the series is on transformation understood as systems change or systems migration—the de novo development of and migration to new societal systems. The series provides definitions, aims, reasoning, worldview, and a theory of change, and discusses fitness metrics and design principles for new systems. This first paper proposes a worldview built using ideas from evolutionary biology, complex systems science, cognitive sciences, and information theory that is intended to serve as the foundation for the R&D program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0338.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Self-management, type 2 diabetes, immigrants, health systems, chronic diseases, qualitative study, lifestyle change, thematic analysis, socioeconomically disadvantaged, Stockholm
Online: 19 July 2018 (00:44:34 CEST)
Studies comparing provider and patient views and experiences of self-management within primary healthcare are particularly scarce in disadvantaged settings. In this qualitative study, patient and provider perceptions of self-management were investigated in five socio-economically disadvantaged communities in Stockholm. Twelve individual interviews and three group interviews were conducted. Semi-structured interview guides included questions on perceptions of diabetes diagnosis, diabetes care services available at primary health care centers, patient and provider interactions, and self-management support. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Two overarching themes were identified. These were characterized by inherent dilemmas representing confusions and conflicts that patients and providers experienced in their daily life or practice respectively: adopting and maintaining new routines through practical and appropriate lifestyle choices (patients); and balancing expectations and pre-conceptions of self-management (providers). Patients found it difficult to tailor information and lifestyle advice to fit their daily life. Healthcare providers recognized that patients were in need of support to change behavior, but saw themselves as inadequately equipped to deal with the different cultural and social aspects of self-management. This study highlights patient and provider dilemmas that influence the interaction and collaboration between patients and providers with respect to communication and uptake of self-management advice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0386.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: self-healing; polymers; batteries; silicon anodes
Online: 25 January 2022 (15:37:52 CET)
Self-healing is the capability of materials to repair themselves after damage has occurred, usually by interaction between molecules or chains. Physical and chemical processes are applied for the preparation of self-healing systems. There are different approaches for these systems such as heterogeneous systems, shape memory effects, hydrogen bonding or covalent-bond interaction, diffusion and flow dynamics. Self-healing mechanisms can occur in particular by heat and light exposure or by reconnection without direct effect. The applications of these systems display an increasing trend in both R&D and industry sectors. Moreover, self-healing systems and their energy storage applications are currently getting great importance. This review aims to provide general information on recent developments in self-healing materials and their energy applications in view of the critical importance of self-healing systems for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In the first part of the review, an introduction about self-healing mechanisms and design strategies of self-healing materials is given. Then, selected important healing materials in the literature for the anodes of LIBs are mentioned in the second part. The results and future perspectives are stated in the conclusion section.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0106.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: robust diffusion estimation; self-adjusting step-size; non-Gaussian noise; wireless sensor networks
Online: 28 February 2017 (12:38:25 CET)
In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), each sensor node can estimate the global parameter from the local data in distributed manner. This paper proposed a robust diffusion estimation algorithm based on minimum error entropy criterion with self-adjusting step-size, which are referred to as diffusion MEE-SAS (DMEE-SAS) algorithm. The DMEE-SAS algorithm has fast speed of convergence and is robust against non-Gaussian noise in the measurements. The detailed performance analysis of the DMEE-SAS algorithm is performed. By combining the DMEE-SAS with diffusion minimum error entropy (DMEE) algorithms, an Improving DMEE-SAS algorithm is proposed, in non-stationary environment where tracking is very important. The Improving DMEE-SAS algorithm can avoid insensitivity of the DMEE-SAS algorithm due to the small effective step-size near the optimal estimator, and obtain a fast convergence speed. Numerical simulations are given to verify the effectiveness and advantages of these proposed algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0786.v3
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Smart textile piezoelectric; Polyvinylidene fluoride; energy harvesting; self-powered sensors
Online: 22 April 2021 (21:11:26 CEST)
The field of power harvesting has experienced significant growth over the past few years due to the ever-increasing desire to produce portable and wireless electronics with extended lifespans. The present work aims to introduce an approach to harvesting electrical energy from a mechanically excited piezoelectric element and investigates a power analytical model generated by a smart structure of type polyvinylidene fluoride(PVDF) that can be stuck onto fabrics and flexible substrates, although we report the effects of various substrates and investigates the sticking of these substrates on the characterization of the piezoelectric material.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Validation; Questionnaire Design; Self-Perception; Diabetes Mellitus; Self Care.
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:00:07 CET)
Background: Level of perceived competence as a basic psychological need could trigger achievement of diabetes self-management goals. Due to lack of a specific data collection tool to measure level of self-competence among Persian speaking patients with diabetes this study was conducted for cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric assessment of the Persian version of Perceived Competence Scale for Diabetes (PCSD-P). Methods: Standard translation/back-translation procedure was carried out to prepare a preliminary draft of the PCSD-P. Content and face validity of the early draft were checked by an expert panel including 15 scholars in the field of health education and promotion as well as nursing education with experience of working and research on diabetes. The final drafted questionnaire was completed by 177 randomly selected patients with type 2 diabetes. Based on the collected data structural validity of the contrived version was appraised using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA, CFA). Cronbach's alpha and Intraclass Correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to check the scale’s reliability and internal consistency. ; (3) Results: The estimated measures of Content Validity Index (CVI= 0.95) and Content Validity Ratio (CVR= 0.8) were in the range of acceptable recommended limits. The EFA analysis results demonstrated a single factor solution according to the items’ loadings for the component. The model fit indices i.e. RMSEA= 0.000, CFI=1, TLI=1, GFI= 0.998, NFI= 0.999 RFI= 0.995 confirmed consistency of the hypothesized one-factor solution. Values of the internal consistency and reliability coefficients were also in the vicinity of acceptable range (α= 0.892, ICC=0. 886, P= 0.001). Conclusions: The study findings revealed good internal validity and applicability of the PCSD-P to measure degree of self-competence among Persian speaking type 2 diabetes patients to manage the chronic disease. Due to unrepresentativeness of the study sample future cross-cultural test of PCSD-P on diverse and broader Persian speaking populations is recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0211.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: MOOCs; distance education; self-directed learning; self-defined learning pathways; 21st century abilities
Online: 18 September 2019 (17:00:14 CEST)
This study is a synthesis of 159 articles that were selected for their relevance to comprehend key aspects of the Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) phenomenon, from a discourse analysis perspective. Since 2011, MOOCs are expanding worldwide so that the number of subscribers outpointed 101 million at the end of 2018. This paper explores the question whether the MOOCs are the embodiment of the global one-world classroom or whether, instead, they represent a low-cost alternative tailored to a segment that doesn´t have enough time or resources to attend a brick-and-mortar college. In addition, the review tackles the link between motivation and low completion rates. Finally, we discuss the need to devise better methods to assess the pedagogical value of MOOCs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0104.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: diabetes self-management; family support; glycemic uncontrolled; type 2 DM; systematic review
Online: 12 May 2017 (05:27:28 CEST)
Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus is dramatically increasing in the wide world. The managing of diabetes care emphasized the self-management education and support into patients’ care and family care. Objective: to review and synthesizes the effectiveness of DSME strategies involving family as a key person to provide social support for diabetes mellitus self-management of glycemic uncontrolled patients Method: Three databases through PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus were reviewed to assess the relevant articles. The following search terms: “type 2 diabetes,” “self-management,” “family support,” and “glycemic uncontrolled.” We summarized details of family support on self-management among glycemic uncontrolled patients for 14 existing studies. Results: A total of 22 intervention studies were identified. Those studies have a heterogeneous of the education strategies, support perceived, follow-ups strategies and outcomes among type 2 DM. Family integration on diabetes self-management education (DSME) has a positive impact on several outcomes including, self-care behaviors, psychological outcomes, self-efficacy and clinical outcomes Conclusions: This systematic review found robust data related to the integration of family support on diabetes self-management among glycemic uncontrolled patients. Consequently, the improvement in outcomes was identified. Implications: The findings suggest model of family engagement is better and needed for sustaining the diabetes care in the long-term care
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0175.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Poly(A); dexrazoxane; supramolecular self-assembly; base stacking
Online: 9 December 2022 (09:55:12 CET)
In 2018, the author identified a previously unknown/unreported association between dexrazoxane and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). Interestingly, PAR is a close structural analogue of the polyadenine nucleotide polymer, polyadenosine monophosphate (poly(A)). In this report, subsequent in silico modelling of the interaction between dexrazoxane and poly(A) reveals some notable differences from the previously reported interaction between dexrazoxane and PAR. Significantly, the supramolecular self-assembly of dexrazoxane and poly(A) is distinguished by vertically-orientated nonelectrostatic forces comparable to the stabilizing interactions between stacked bases within DNA. Notably, the vertical separation of 3.4 Å between each stack is consistent with solvent entropy as a dominant driving force in stabilising the interaction. Additionally, concomitant conformational analysis by the author reveals the existence of low energy planar conformers of dexrazoxane. This analysis enables an explanation for the considerable discrepancies and conflicts that exist within the reported pharmacokinetic data for dexrazoxane. Exploring the significance of the interaction between dexrazoxane and poly(A), the author illustrates that survival, translation and replication of the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is absolutely dependent upon the mature and unhindered poly(A) tail of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. The proposition herein, that dexrazoxane, as a chameleonic agent sequesters the poly(A) tail of the SARS-CoV-2 genome by the catalysis of a supramolecular hybrid assembly establishes SARS-CoV-2 infected cells as deep compartments for the accumulation of dexrazoxane. Taken together, dexrazoxane or its demethylated analogue, represent a novel treatment to kill the SARS-CoV-2 virus by irreversible destabilization of the SARS-CoV-2 poly(A) tail.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Ship detection; self-supervised learning; transfer learning; Sentinel 2
Online: 7 October 2021 (23:04:24 CEST)
Automatic ship detection provides an essential function towards maritime domain awareness for security or economic monitoring purposes. This work presents an approach for training a deep learning ship detector in Sentinel-2 multispectral images with few labeled examples. We design a network architecture for detecting ships with a backbone that can be pre-trained separately. By using Self Supervised Learning, an emerging unsupervised training procedure, we learn good features on Sentinel-2 images, without requiring labeling, to initialize our network’s backbone. The full network is then fine-tuned to learn to detect ships in challenging settings. We evaluated this approach versus pre-training on ImageNet and versus a classical image processing pipeline. We examined the impact of variations in the self-supervised learning step and we show that in the few-shot learning setting self-supervised pre-training achieves better results than ImageNet pre-training. When enough training data is available, our self-supervised approach is as good as ImageNet pre-training. We conclude that a better design of the self-supervised task and bigger non-annotated dataset sizes can lead to surpassing ImageNet pre-training performance without any annotation costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0058.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: pediatric patient with T1DM; physical activity; muscle strength exercise; self-rated health
Online: 5 June 2018 (10:00:16 CEST)
Background: Even though a number of studies have verified the positive effect of physical activity (PA) on self-related health (SRH) no previous research has examined this association among pediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between regular physical activity (PA) and self-rated health (SRH) in pediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who lacked diabetes care. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study among pediatric patients with T1DM who lacked diabetes care and were enrolled in a diabetes education program between January 2011 to January 2015 at the endocrinology clinic of Seoul National University Children’s Hospital in South Korea. The eligible participants for this study were 37 pediatric patients with T1DM aged 9 to 17 years. PA was divided into regular PA and muscle strength exercise to analyze the relationship with SRH using binomial logistic regression analysis. Results: The results showed SRH of pediatric patients with T1DM who did not engage in regular PA was significantly lower than those who did (OR in regular PA = .199 [95% CI: .040, .995]; OR in regular muscle strength exercise = .097 [95% CI: .023, .825]). Conclusions: In conclusion, regular PA and muscle strength exercise in pediatric patients with T1DM who lacked diabetes care were effective in improving their SRH. A systematic plan is required to enhance regular PA for pediatric patients with T1DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0335.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Self-medication; dispensing; drug; prescription; misuse; Libya
Online: 28 June 2020 (10:03:59 CEST)
Background and Objectives: In Libya, prescription medicines can easily be dispensed without a prescription, as self-medication with the subsequent of potential misuse and unnecessary risk for patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis explored the prevalence of self-medication among citizens in Libya. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, Medline, Scopus, google scholar and ResearchGate databases for studies published in Libya reporting the prevalence of non-prescription use of medicines in community pharmacies, targeting studies published from Jan 2008 until Dec 2019. A random meta-analysis was performed to analyze pooled estimates of non-prescription usage of medicines. Results: Out of 63 articles identified, a total of 13 papers from 7 cities were met the inclusion criteria and involved a total of 4741 subjects. The overall pooled proportion of self-medication of drugs was 53.6% (95% CI: 0.93% - 1.08%), with low heterogeneity and the P-value of the whole population tasted was found to be = 1.000 (df = 12). Seven out of the 13 studies reported data on self-medication for antibiotics without prescription. The records ranged from 15.3% (95% CI 0.61–1.65) in Misurata to 76.6% (95% CI 0.80–1.25) in Tripoli. Conclusion: Self-medication use of medicines among Libyan population is a common phenomenon involving a high proportion use of antibiotics. This misuse of medications could enhance the development and spread of antibiotic resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0328.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: family violence; self-control; meta-analysis; adolescence
Online: 18 September 2018 (05:39:34 CEST)
Theoretical studies propose an association between family violence and low self-control in adolescence, yet empirical findings of this association are inconclusive. The aim of the present research was to systematically summarize available findings on the relation between family violence and self-control across adolescence. We included 27 studies with 143 effect sizes, representing more than 25,000 participants of eight countries from early to late adolescence. Applying a multi-level meta-analyses, taking dependency between effect sizes into account while retaining statistical power, we examined the magnitude and direction of the overall effect size. Additionally, we investigated whether theoretical moderators (e.g., age, gender, country), and methodological moderators (cross-sectional/longitudinal, informant) influenced the magnitude of the association between family violence and self-control. Our results revealed that family violence and self-control have a small to moderate significant negative association (r = -.191). This association did not vary across gender, country, and informants. The strength of the association, however, decreased with age and in longitudinal studies. This finding provides evidence that researchers and clinicians may expect low self-control in the wake of family violence, especially in early adolescence. Recommendations for future research in the area are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; self-management; blood glucose self-monitoring; mobile applications; medically underserved area; health literacy; telemedicine; disease management
Online: 9 November 2021 (13:19:05 CET)
Medically underserved communities have limited access to effective disease management resources in the U.S. Mobile health applications (mHealth apps) offer patients a cost-effective way to monitor and self-manage their condition and to communicate with providers; however, current diabetes self-management apps have rarely included end-users from underserved communities in the design process. This research documents key stakeholder-driven design requirements for a diabetes self-management app for medically underserved patients. Semi-structured survey-interviews were carried out with 97 patients with diabetes and 11 healthcare providers from medically underserved counties in South Texas to elicit perspectives and preferences regarding a diabetes self-management app, and their beliefs regarding such an app’s usage and utility. Patients emphasized the need for accessible educational content and for quick access to guidance on regulating blood sugar, diet, and exercise and physical activity using multimedia rather than textual form. Healthcare providers indicated that glucose monitoring, educational content, and graphical visualization of diabetes data were among the top-rated app features. These findings suggest that specific design requirements for the underserved may improve the adoption, usability, and sustainability of such interventions. Designers should consider health literacy and numeracy, linguistic barriers, data visualization, data entry complexity, and information exchange capabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Kenya; COVID-19; community representatives; self-testing; diagnostics; qualitative research
Online: 10 May 2022 (09:38:58 CEST)
Rapid SARS-CoV-2 self-tests have the potential to expand access to COVID-19 testing and improve community-level case detection, particularly in resource-constrained countries such as Kenya. However, prior to their introduction, their acceptability must be assessed. This qualitative study explored key decision-takers’ values towards SARS-CoV-2 self-testing in Kenya. Healthcare workers, representatives of civil society, and potential implementors from Mombasa and Taita-Taveta were selected as decision-takers. Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data on their values towards self-testing. A thematic analysis approach was applied. Most informants considered that the Kenyan public is equipped to accept and use self-testing safely as an approach to help to reduce workload at public healthcare facilities, and know one’s COVID-19 status in a private manner. The informants emphasized the need to provide counselling to end-users, to support those needing to self-isolate, and to engage different civil society stakeholders in information provision on self-testing. Fear of stigma and of forced isolation were noted as potential deterrents to self-testing uptake for some individuals. In conclusion, there is high acceptability of self-testing in Kenya among decision-takers. However, enhanced education, counselling, and addressing deterrents to testing would be helpful to ensure effective use of SARS-CoV-2 self-testing in Kenya.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0545.v1
Online: 22 November 2018 (10:28:36 CET)
In the present work, we designed a mild strategy to make Cu2(OH)PO4 (CHP) nanoparticles on cotton fabrics (CFs) to achieve multi-functionalities. The phytic acid (IP6) assisted method was employed to synthesize nanoparticles (CHP-IP6). Under Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), we characterized the coated cotton fabrics. The CHP-IP6 treated fabrics showed prominent photocatalytic activity, excellent photocatalytic stability and thorough discoloration of methylene blue (MB) stain under sunlight irradiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0073.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: optical floating zone; self flux; crystal growth; oxide growth
Online: 13 April 2017 (06:18:11 CEST)
Growing crystals of nickel niobate (NiNb2O6), we noticed that changing growth conditions allowed our material to enter different areas of the phase diagram. In particular, we found that excess material accumulated within and above the liquid zone. Analysis showed that this was an unincorporated constituent. Changing the ratio of the constituent oxides - an excess of ~4% of either NiO or Nb2O5 gave us the opportunity to investigate changes in zone stability, melting temperature and quality of the resulting crystal. We found that a small excess of nickel oxide decreases the melting temperature significantly, and created the best pseudo-rutile NiNb2O6 crystal studied, while higher amounts of niobium oxide allowed us to stabilize the NiNb2O6 columbite phase. This research reinforces the idea that self-flux as a travelling solvent can significantly impact crystal growth parameters and quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0376.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: laser-induced plasma; atomic spectroscopy; self-absorption; nanoparticles; silver; hydrogen
Online: 20 July 2018 (05:49:30 CEST)
The resonance spectra of neutral silver indicate self-absorption for the studied Ag I lines at the wavelengths of 327.9 nm and 338.2 nm. The center dip is associated with self-reversal due to self-absorption in the plasma. The Q-switched radiation of 355 nm, 532 nm, or 1064 nm from a Nd:YAG laser device generates the plasma at the surface of silver nano-material targets, with experiments conducted in standard ambient temperature and pressure laboratory air. Procedures for recovery of the spectral line shapes confirm that over and above the effects of self-reversal, line shape distortion are important in the analysis. The work discusses parameters describing self-absorption when using fluence levels of 2 to 33 J/cm2 to generate the plasma. Furthermore, subsidiary calibration efforts that utilize the hydrogen alpha line of the Balmer series show that the Ag I lines at 827.35 nm and 768.7 nm are optically thin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0097.v1
Subject: Chemistry, General & Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD); Replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD); Conformational change; Cavity self-closure
Online: 10 January 2019 (11:43:44 CET)
2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) has unique properties to enhance the stability and the solubility of low water-soluble compounds by inclusion complexation. Understanding of the structural properties of HPβCD and its derivatives based on the number of 2-hydroxypropyl (HP) substituents at the a-D-glucopyranose subunits is rather important. In this work, replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the conformational changes of single- and double-sided HP-substitution called as 6-HPβCDs and 2,6-HPβCDs, respectively. The results show that glucose subunits in both 6-HPβCDs and 2,6-HPβCDs have lower chance to flip than in βCD. Also, HP groups are occasionally blocking the hydrophobic cavity of HPβCDs, thus hindering the drug inclusion. We found that HPβCDs with high number of HP-substitutions are more likely to be blocked, while HPβCDs with double-sided HP-substitution are even more probable to be blocked. Overall, 6-HPβCDs with three and four HP-substitutions are highlighted as the most suitable structures for guest encapsulation based on our conformational analyses such as structural distortion, radius of gyration, circularity and cavity self-closure of the HPβCDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0316.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: ; Social interaction; Self-organization; Imitation; Coordination dynamics; Group normalization; Interpersonal symmetry
Online: 13 September 2022 (15:59:57 CEST)
I present an experimental paradigm to explore the interpersonal dynamics generating a collective mind. I hypothesized that collective organization is based on dual interpersonal modes: (1) symmetrical and (2) anti‑symmetrical. I specified the geometric topology of these modes by detecting the spatiotemporal patterns that embed cooperative agents in a three‑dimensional matrix. I found that the symmetrical mode is executed automatically and without guidance. Conversely, the anti‑symmetrical mode required explicit direction and recruited attention for execution. I demonstrate that self‑other mirror‑symmetry stabilized group dynamics, enabled fast and efficient symmetrical imitation that optimized information transmission, whereas anti‑symmetrical imitation was comparatively slow, inefficient, and unstable. I determined that the anti‑symmetrical mode spontaneously transitioned to the symmetrical mode under perturbations. Crucially, this renormalization mechanism never transitioned from symmetrical to anti‑symmetrical. These self-organizing dynamics speak to interpersonal symmetry‑breaking. In the present work, spontaneous group choice mandated that agents synchronize cooperative cycles in symmetrical space under internal or external perturbations. I provide examples to illustrate that this self-regulating pullback attractor manifests in invertebrates and vertebrates alike. I conclude by suggesting that inter‑agent symmetry provides the social stability manifold through which attention-driven interactions enable intrapersonal and interpersonal change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0092.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; health practices; stress; self-care; cross-cultural study
Online: 2 February 2021 (15:09:40 CET)
The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to analyze the differential impact of the first COVID-19 lockdown (3rd April 2020) on stress, health practices, and self-care activities across different Hispanic countries, age range and gender groups. 1082 participants from Spain, Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador took part in this study. Irrespective of the country, and controlling for income level, young people, especially females, suffered a greater level of stress, perceived the situation as more severe, showed less adherence to health guidelines and reported lower levels of health consciousness, in comparison to their male peers and older groups. However, in the case of self-care, it seems that older and female groups are generally more involved in self-care activities and adopt more healthy daily routines. These results are mostly similar between Colombia, Ecuador, and Spain. However, Chile showed some different tendencies, as males reported higher levels of healthy daily routines and better adherence to health guidelines compared to females and people over the age of 60. Differences between countries, genders and age ranges should be considered in order to improve health recommendations and adherence to guidelines. It would also be crucial to identify vulnerable groups to promote the adoption of health behaviors that may help in the development of effective public health strategies. Future studies should be addressed to explore the possible causations of such differences in more cultural-distant samples and at later stages of the current outbreak.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0042.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: self-conscious emotions; shame; embarrassment; guilt; moral emotions; anterior insula
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:30:53 CET)
Self-conscious emotions, such as shame and guilt, play a fundamental role in regulating moral behavior and in promoting the welfare of the society. Despite their relevance, the neural bases of these emotions are uncertain. In the present meta-analysis, we performed a systematic literature review in order to single out functional neuroimaging studies on healthy individuals specifically investigating the neural substrates of shame, embarrassment and guilt. Seventeen studies investigating the neural correlates of shame/embarrassment, and seventeen studies investigating guilt brain representation met our inclusion criteria. The analyses revealed that both guilt and shame/embarrassment were associated with the activation of the left anterior insula, involved in emotional awareness processing, and arousal. Guilt specific areas were located within the left temporo-parietal junction, which is thought to be involved in social cognitive processes. Moreover, specific activations for shame/embarrassment involved areas related to social pain (dorsal anterior cingulate, insula, thalamus), behavioral inhibition (premotor cortex) networks. This pattern of results might reflect distinct action tendencies associated with the two emotions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0100.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: genomic DNA; probability; matrices; tensor product; Hadamard product; antenna arrays; photonic crystalls; liquid crystalls; self-organization; biophotonics
Online: 7 March 2022 (13:04:05 CET)
The article continues the author's publications about the matrix-tensor study of universal rules of stochastic (probabilistic) organization of long single-stranded DNA sequences in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. The author reveals that corresponding matrices of probabilities of n-plets in n-textual representations of each genomic DNA are numerically interrelated each with other in such algebraic form, which has analogies with formalisms of the known tensor-matrix theory of digital antenna arrays. These arrays combine many separate antennas into a single coordinated ensemble with unique emergent properties, due to which antenna arrays are widely used in devices of medicine, astrophysics, avionics, etc. The noted analogies allow putting forward the author's hypothesis that stochastic organization of genomic DNAs is connected with bio-antenna arrays. From the point of view of this hypothesis, many known facts about using principles of antenna arrays in inherited physiological phenomena are collected in a single grouping with genomic DNA: echolocation of dolphins and other animals; complex faceted eyes of insects; images on butterfly wings, consisting of many photonic crystals as nanoantenna arrays, etc. This new topic about the biological meaning of profitable properties of antenna arrays includes problems of biological evolution, the origin of the genetic code, regenerative medicine, development of algebraic biology, which are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0065.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: self-adhesion; self-healing; polymers; vitrimers
Online: 7 February 2019 (09:16:44 CET)
Vitrimers are covalent network materials, comparable in structure to classical thermosets. Unlike normal thermosets, they possess a chemical bond swap mechanism that makes their structure dynamic and suitable for activated welding and even autonomous self-healing. The central question in designing such materials is the trade-off between autonomy and material stability: The swap mechanism facilitates the healing but it also facilitates creep, which makes the perfectly stable self-healing solid a hard goal to reach. Here, we address this question for the case of self-healing vitrimers made from star polymers. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we study the adhesion of two vitrimer samples and find that they bond together on timescales that are much shorter than the stress relaxation time. We show that the swap mechanism allows the star polymers to diffuse through the material through coordinated swap events, but the healing process is much faster and does not depend on this mobility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0219.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Bayesian networks; self determined motivation; competitive anxiety; Entropy reduction.
Online: 10 October 2018 (11:48:18 CEST)
This study is framed on the Information Theory as a constructive criterion to generate probabilistic distributions –through the elaboration of Bayesian Networks- and to reduce the uncertainty in the occurrence and relationship between two key psychological variables associated with the sports’ performance: Self-Determined Motivation and Competitive Anxiety. We analyzed 674 universitary students/athletes who competed in the 2017 Universitary Games (Universiade) in México, from 44 universities, with an average age of 21 years old (SD = 2.07), and with a sportive experience of 8.61 years of average (SD = 5.15). Methods: Regarding the data analysis, first of all a CHAID algorithm was carried out for to know the independence links among variables, and then two Bayesian networks (BN) were elaborated. The validation of the BN revealed AUC values ranging from 0.5 to 0.92. Subsequently, various instantations were carried out with hypothetical values applied to the “bottom” variables. Results showed two probability trees that have Extrinisic Motivation and Amotivation at the top, while the anxiety/activation due to the worry for performance was at the bottom of probabilities. The instantiations carried out support the existence of these probabilistic relationships, demonstrating the little influence on the competition anxiety generated by the intrinsic motivation. In conclusion, the reduction of the uncertainty made up by the restricted BN may aloe to re-introduce Information Theory principles in psychosocial studies, allowing authors to obtain useful probabilities values upon target psychological variables related with sportive performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0201.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: diabetes mellitus; obesity; meta-analysis; patient education; self-management; disease management
Online: 13 July 2022 (15:19:53 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity account for the highest burden of non-communicable diseases. There is increasing evidence showing therapeutic patient education (TPE) as a clinically and cost-effective solution to improve biomedical and psychosocial outcomes among people with DM and obesity. The present systematic review and meta-analysis presents a critical synthesis of development of TPE interventions for DM and obesity and the efficacy of these interventions across a range of biomedical, psychosocial and psychological outcomes. A total of 54 of these RCTs were identified among patients with obesity and diabetes and were thus, qualitatively synthesized. Out of these, 47 were included into quantitative synthesis. There was substantial heterogeneity in reporting of these outcomes (I2= 88.35%, Q= 317.64), with significant improvement (SMD=0.36, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.49) noted in biomedical outcomes in the intervention group. The effect sizes were comparable across interventions delivered by different modes and delivery agents. These interventions can be delivered by allied health staff, doctors or electronically as self-help programs, with similar effectiveness (P < 0.001). These interventions should be implemented in healthcare and community settings to improve health of patients suffering from DM and obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0272.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: ambient human energy, piezoelectric energy harvester, RC circuit model, self-powered device, wireless PPG sensor
Online: 24 July 2019 (11:50:43 CEST)
A new circuit model of the self-powered device for heart rate measurement is presented in this paper. This device consists of piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH), power management circuit (PMC) with energy storage, microcontroller, Photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor, and Wi-Fi module. The PEH is placed under the insole to harvest the pressure energy from human foot-step to generate ac power. In our model, a PEH is represented by sine voltage source, where its parameters were taken from experiments with 20 volunteers. The PMC is simplified by a switch with gain δ placed in series with the main circuit. The model of the main circuit is RC elements in parallel, where C is the capacitance of the storage device, and R is the equivalent parallel resistance of the microcontroller, PPG sensor, and Wi-Fi modules, respectively. The value of R depends on the power and current absorbed by those modules during sleep, deep sleep, sense, and transmit modes which collected from the datasheet. Finally, the proposed circuit model of the self-powered device was built and simulated in SPICE. The simulation results were compared with the laboratory experiment using commercial devices. Based on the results, the proposed model had small gaps compared to the real self-powered devices in terms of average current, voltage, power and efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0035.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: self-propulsion; self-organization; polymerization; prebiotic molecules
Online: 5 January 2020 (14:39:19 CET)
Self-assembly is a spontaneous process through which macroscopic structures are formed from basic microscopic constituents (e.g. molecules or colloids). By contrast, the formation of large biological molecules inside the cell (such as proteins or nucleic acids) is a process more akin to self-organization than to self-assembly, as it requires a constant supply of external energy. Recent studies have tried to merge self-assembly with self-organization by analyzing the assembly of self-propelled (or active) colloid-like particles whose motion is driven by a permanent source of energy. Here we present evidence that points to the fact that self-propulsion considerably enhances the assembly of polymers: self-propelled molecules are found to assemble into polymer-like structures, the average length of which increases towards a maximum as the self-propulsion force increases. Beyond this maximum, the average polymer length decreases due to the competition between bonding energy and disruptive forces that result from collisions. The assembly of active molecules might have promoted the formation of large pre-biotic polymers that could be the precursors of the informational polymers we observe nowadays.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Breast cancer; self-management; non-pharmacological interventions; clinical practice guidelines; content analysis
Online: 7 March 2022 (14:21:21 CET)
Background: A growing number of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) with regards to non-pharmacological interventions for breast cancer survivors are available. However, given the limitations in guideline development methodologies and inconsistency of recommendations, it remains uncertain how best to design and implement such non-pharmacological strategies to tailor interventions for breast cancer survivors with varied health conditions, healthcare needs, and preferences. Aim: To critically appraise and summarise available non-pharmacological interventions for symptom management and health promotion that can be self-managed by breast cancer survivors based on the recommendations of the CPGs. Methods: Clinical practice guidelines which were published between January 2016 and September 2021 and described non-pharmacological interventions for breast cancer survivors were systematically searched in six electronic databases, nine relevant guideline databases, and five cancer care society websites. The quality of the included CPGs was assessed by four evaluators using the Appraisal of Guidelines for REsearch and Evaluation, second edition tool. Content analysis was conducted to synthesise the characteristics of the non-pharmacological interventions that were recommended by the included CPGs, such as the intervention’s form, duration and frequency, level of evidence, grade of recommendation, and source of evidence. Results: Fourteen CPGs were identified and analysed. Of the 14 CPGs appraised, only five were rated as high quality. The domain with the highest standardised percentage was “scope and purpose” (84.61%), while the “applicability” domain had the lowest standardised percentage (51.04%). Five guidelines were assessed as “recommended”, seven were rated as “recommended with modifications”, and the remaining two were considered “not recommended”. Regarding the content analysis, physical activity/exercise, meditation, hypnosis, yoga, music therapy, stress management, relaxation, massage, and acupressure were the common self-managed non-pharmacological interventions recommended by the 14 CPGs. Physical activity/exercise was the only self-managed non-pharmacological intervention that was mostly recommended for psychological and physical symptom management by the included CPGs. However, there were significant disparities in terms of level of evidence and grade of recommendation in the included CPGs. Conclusion: The recommendations for the self-managed non-pharmacological interventions were varied and limited among the 14 CPGs, and some were based on medium- and low-quality evidence. More rigorous methods are required to develop high-quality CPGs in order to guide clinicians in offering high-quality and tailored breast cancer survivorship care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0318.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Hull-propeller interaction; Full-scale CFD; Scale effect; Self-propulsion; Statistical sea trails
Online: 24 December 2019 (11:16:25 CET)
Accurate prediction of the self-propulsion performance is one of the most important factors for energy-efficient design of a ship. In general, the hydrodynamic performance of a full-scale ship could be achieved by model-scale simulation or towing tank test with extrapolations. With the development of CFD methods and computing power, directly predict ship performance with full-scale CFD is an important approach. In this article, a numerical study on the full-scale self-propulsion performance with propeller operating behind ship at model- and full-scale is presented. The study includes numerical simulations using RANS method with double-model and VOF model respectively and scale effect analysis based on overall performance, local flow fields and detailed vortex identification. Verification study on grid convergence is also performed for full-scale simulation with global and local mesh refinements. And a series of sea trail tests were performed to collect reliable data for the validation of CFD predictions. The analysis of scale effect on hull-propeller interaction shows that the difference on hull boundary layer and flow separation is the main source of scale effect on ship wake. And the results of the fluctuations of propeller thrust and torque along with circulation distribution and local flow field show that propeller’s loading is significantly higher for model-scale ship. It is suggested that the difference on vortex evolution and interaction is more pronounced and have larger effects on ship’s powering performance at model-scale than full-scale according to the simulation results. From the study on self-propulsion prediction, it could be concluded that the simplification on free surface treatment does not only affect the wave-making resistance for bare hull but also the propeller performance and propeller induced ship resistance which can produced up to 5% uncertainty to the power prediction. Roughness is another important factor in full-scale simulation because it has up to approximately 7% effect on the delivery power. As a result of validation study, the numerical simulations of full-scale ship self-propulsion shows good agreement with the sea trail data especially for cases that have considered both roughness and free surface effects. This result will largely enhance our confidence to apply full-scale simulation in the prediction of ship’s self-propulsion performance in the future ship designs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0620.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Droughts; NDVI; CHIRPS; precipitation anomalies; potential evapotranspiration; self-calibrating palmer drought severity index
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:14:17 CET)
Drought severity still remains a serious concern across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) due to the destructive impact on multiple sectors of our society The interannual variability and trends in the changes of self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index based on Penman–Monteith (scPDSIPM) and Thornthwaite (scPDSITH) methods for potential evapotranspiration (PET), precipitation (P) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) anomalies, and sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly were investigated through statistical analysis of modelled and remote sensing data. It is shown that scPDSIPM and scPDSITH differed in the representation of drought characteristics over SSA. The scPDSI and remotely-sensed-based anomalies of P and NDVI showed wetting and drying trends over the period 1980-2012. The trend analysis showed increased drought events in the semi-arid and arid regions of SSA over the same period. A correlation analysis reveals a strong relationship between scPDSI variability and P, and NDVI anomalies for monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons. The correlation analysis of scPDSI variability with SST anomalies indicates significant positive and negative relationships, respectively. This study has demonstrated the applicability of multiple data sources for drought assessment and provides useful information for regional drought predictability and mitigation strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0276.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: entrepreneurial university; entrepreneurship; faculties of education; self-perception; triple helix; third mission; teacher training.
Online: 16 September 2021 (11:03:53 CEST)
Universities have increasingly incorporated a third mission into their strategic planning. In addition to teaching and research, they have emphasised the training of entrepreneurs. However, there is still a lot of work to be done, as this process is facing resistance. The Entrepreneurial University covers all disciplines, including faculties of education. However, it has been shown that entrepreneurship tends to be more related to the faculties of economics and engineering, with a lesser presence in the faculties of education for various reasons: they consider entrepreneurship to be alien to their teaching role, there is a lack of entrepreneurial culture, and the objective of the Entrepreneurial University is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyse the level of entrepreneurship in Spanish faculties and schools of education. Forty deans and heads of education faculties in Spain took part in the survey. The results indicated a sufficient level of entrepreneurship; the dimensions related to active methodologies, and mission and strategy were the most developed, whereas entrepreneurship funding and entrepreneurship training for faculty employees were the least developed areas. Some deans noted that entrepreneurship was alien to their professional performance, although courses and good practices for the development of entrepreneurial initiative are gradually being implemented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0080.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Symmetry; Self-Face Recognition; Right Hemisphere; Self-Awareness
Online: 2 April 2021 (18:19:34 CEST)
While the desire to uncover the neural correlates of consciousness has taken numerous directions, self-face recognition has been a constant in attempts to isolate aspects of self-awareness. The neuroimaging revolution of the 1990’s bought about systematic attempts to isolate the underlying neural basis self-face recognition. These studies, including some of the first fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) studies, revealed a right hemisphere bias for self-face recognition in a diverse set of regions including the insula, the Dorsal Frontal Lobe, the Temporal Parietal Junction and Medial Temporal Cortex. Confirmation of these data (which are correlational) was provided by TMS (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation) and patients in which direct inhibition or ablation of right hemisphere regions leads to a disruption or absence of self-face recognition. These data are consistent with a number of theories including a right hemisphere dominance for self-awareness and/or a right hemisphere specialization for identifying significant social relationships including to oneself.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0190.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: User experience; user requirement; developer productivity; developer self-efficacy; solo software development; UX Journey
Online: 11 January 2023 (02:37:34 CET)
User experience and user requirements are two independent approaches. User requirements address the customer's requirements and expectations for the solution, whereas user experience encompasses all aspects of how the user interacts with and uses the software. The software product should be easy to use and has usable features. Moreover, the additional value for the software is if the product has an attractive design or working environment that is in line with user behaviors, it can occur if integrate software requirements and user experience. Integration escalates developer productivity by focusing on features that meet the user's needs and expectations. That integration improves efficiency in software development by identifying and addressing problems that may arise during the development process, saving developer time and effort in developing software. The usage context of integration of user experience and user requirements in UX Journey contributes increase developer productivity and self-efficacy in developing software by focusing development on features that match the user needs, as well as increasing efficiency in overcoming problems that arise during the development process. UX Journey makes developers feel more confident in their ability to develop quality software.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0035.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Extrinsic self-healing; Self-healing detection; Aggregation-induced emission; Dye-Loaded microcapsule; Self-healing monitoring
Online: 2 April 2019 (15:32:34 CEST)
We report the development of an extrinsic self-healing coating system that shows no fluorescence from the intact coating, yellowish fluorescence in cracked regions, and greenish fluorescence in healed regions, thus allowing the separate monitoring of cracking and healing of coatings. This fluorescence monitoring self-healing system consisted of a top coating, an epoxy matrix resin containing mixed dye-loaded in single microcapsule. The dye-loaded microcapsules consisted of a poly(urea-formaldehyde) shell encapsulating a healing agent containing MAT-PDMS and styrene, a photo-initiator and a mixture of two dyes, one that fluoresces only in the solid state (DCM) and a second that fluoresces dramatically increased in the solid than solution state (4-TPAE). A mixture of the healing agent, photo-initiator and the two dyes was yellow due to fluorescence from DCM. On UV curing of this mixture, however, the color changed from yellow to green and the fluorescence intensity increased due to fluorescence from 4-TPAE in the solid state. When a self-healing coating embedded with microcapsules containing the DCM/4-TPAE dye mixture was scratched, the damaged region exhibited a yellowish color that changed to green after healing. Thus, the self-healing system reported here allows the separate monitoring of cracking and healing based on changes in fluorescence color.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: piezoelectric cantilever energy harvester 1; autonomous 2; adaptive 3; self-powered 4; voltage doubler interface circuit 5; closed loop control 6; feed-forward 7; multi-shot technology 8
Online: 12 January 2017 (10:45:23 CET)
The abundant mechanical vibration energy in bridge road environment can be converted into electric energy by using the piezoelectric energy harvest technology, which could be an efficient way to provide energy required by the wireless sensor network in the bridge condition monitoring system. An autonomous energy harvesting system has been designed based on cantilever beams for sensing and acquiring the bridge vibration energy. After the analysis of the dynamic properties of the piezoelectric cantilever beam in the energy conversion, three kinds of interface circuits were compared through simulation and experimental results. It was shown that the VD interface circuit has less power loss. Furthermore, the proposed closed loop control method based on the VD circuit was simple, adaptive, and self-powered, which is suitable for the road energy harvesting application. Finally, the energy harvesting system based on VD circuit was realized with harvested power of around 0.8mW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0123.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19; nurses; self-concept; self-confidence; professional practice
Online: 5 November 2021 (14:12:02 CET)
Purpose: To identify the impact of dealing with COVID-19 patients in clinical areas on nurses' professional self-concept and self-confidence. Background: Professional self-concept is considered a critical factor in the recruitment/retention process in nursing, nursing shortage, career satisfaction, and academic achievements. Professional self-confidence is also a crucial determinant in staff satisfaction, reducing turnover, and increasing work engagement. Design: Descriptive, comparative study. Methods: The study was conducted between February to May 2021 by utilizing a convenience sampling technique. A total of 170 nurses from two facilities were recruited from two COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 designated facilities. The level of professional self-concept and self-confidence was assessed by utilizing the Nurses' Self-Concept Instrument and Self-Confidence Scale. Results: The professional self-concept level among the exposed group to COVID-19 patients was lower than the comparison group, while the professional self-confidence level among the exposed group to COVID-19 patients was similar to the comparison group. On the other hand, the satisfied staff and those who received professional training in dealing with COVID-19 patients reported a higher level of professional self-concept. Conclusions: Dealing with COVID-19 patients has an impact on professional self-concept; the exposure group was lower than those who did not deal with COVID-19 patients, while the professional self-confidence level among the exposed group was similar to the comparison group. Getting professional training in dealing with COVID-19 patients and being satisfied at work were significant factors in improving the professional self-concept. Policymakers should create strategies that target the improvement of professional training in dealing with COVID-19 patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: reflective learning, assessment, self-reflection, self-regulation, physics education
Online: 7 August 2018 (23:43:05 CEST)
This paper addresses the development of knowledge and assessment-centered learning approaches within a reflective learning framework in a first year physics class in a university faculty. The quality of students’ reflections was scored using a Self-reporting Reflective Learning Appraisal Questionnaire at the end of each learning approach. The results showed the differences between the approaches based on reflections on the learning control through self-knowledge, by connecting experience and knowledge, as well as through self-reflection and self-regulation. Assessment-centered activities fundamentally help students identify aspects of their attitudes towards, as well as regulate, their sustainability learning education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: teacher burnout; well-being; self-control; positive emotionality; professional experience; psychological profile; COVID-19
Online: 2 August 2021 (15:32:37 CEST)
Teacher burnout has been revealed to be one of the most common negative consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic The purpose of this study was to identify distinct psychological resources and burnout risk profiles of teachers and to examine their association with Kolb’s Educator Roles and the professional experience. Methods: The survey data were collected from 330 preschool and primary school (84 males, Mage = 38.3, SD = 9.14) teachers using a convenience sampling method. Results: The two-step cluster analysis revealed two distinct profiles. The first profile, ‘High psychological resources, no burnout risk’, was characterised by absent symptoms of burnout and increased levels of well-being, self-control, and positive emotionality. The second profile, ‘Moderate psychological resources, mild burnout’, was associated with medium levels of well-being, self-control and positive emotionality accompanied by mild burnout. Our findings highlighted that cluster 1 had a significantly higher score for the Facilitator role and cluster 2 for the Expert and Coach roles. In addition, teachers with less professional experience were more likely to belong to cluster 1, taking into account their good skills on digital literacy. Conclusions: These findings help to provide new insights into the explanation of teacher burnout and the design of intervention programmes.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Photonic crystal waveguide; Pulse acceleration; Self-steepening; Self-phase modulation
Online: 28 June 2021 (11:44:55 CEST)
Based on the sensitive sum frequency generation cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating (SFG-XFROG) measurement setup, besides the pulse broadening, blue shift, red shift and obvious pulse acceleration, we observed the soliton evolution when the low energy soliton pulse with wavelength of 1555nm transmit through the Si photonic crystal waveguide. The measurements were nicely matched with the simulation results, which are achieved with an optimized nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) modeling. The effects of various parameters of the silicon photonic crystal waveguides and the incident pulses on the pulse transmission were also analyzed, including the nonlinear effects and dispersion such as the self-phase modulation (SPM), self-steepening (SS) and intra-pulse Raman scattering(IRS). The results help us understand further the ultra-fast nonlinear dynamics of soliton in silicon-based waveguides, and even open a novel way for soliton-based functional elements in CMOS-compatible platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0305.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: sustainable happiness; ideal self; ideal social self; brand identification; positive
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:39:58 CEST)
Building on the Sustainable Happiness Model, this study examined how congruency between ideal self-image and brand image influence a sense of happiness. The findings show that when ideal self-image and ideal social self-image are congruent with brand image a sense of happiness can be enhanced through brand identification and positive emotions. This study contributes to literature as it reveals the mechanism of how congruency between ideal self-image and brand image positively affect happiness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0354.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: health self-tracking; data donation; data sharing; quantified self; mobile tracking
Online: 27 June 2022 (08:46:26 CEST)
Health self-tracking is an ongoing trend as software and hardware evolve, making the collection of personal data not only fun for users but also increasingly interesting for public health research. In a quantitative approach we studied German health self-trackers (N=919) for differences in their data disclosure behavior by comparing data showing and sharing behavior among peers and their willingness to donate data to research. In addition, we examined user characteristics that may positively influence willingness to make the self-tracked data available to research and propose a framework for structuring research related to self-measurement. Results show that users' willingness to disclose data as a "donation" more than doubled compared to their "sharing" behavior (willingness to donate= 4.5/10; sharing frequency= 2.09/10). Younger men (up to 34 years), who record their vital signs daily, are less concerned about privacy, regularly donate money, and share their data with third parties because they want to receive feedback, are most likely to donate data to research and are thus a promising target audience for health data donation appeals. The paper adds to qualitative accounts of self-tracking but also engages with discussions around data sharing and privacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0329.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biomaterials; biofabrication; compartmentalization; materials research; microsystems; nanotechnology; self-assembly; self-organization
Online: 28 December 2018 (04:46:37 CET)
The recommendations of the panel of experts on the further development of the ‘High-Tech Strategy’ of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany designate the biologization of economic processes along with digitization as the central driver of societal change. Various fields such as the 'biologization of materials research' were then defined in the 'Bio-Agenda' in order to walk the path from biology to innovation. In view of this perspective, we describe how the use of biological materials and mechanisms can lead to resource conservation, the production of intelligent materials and new technological and medical applications. Our strategy, based on research on ‘Biointerfaces in Technology and Medicine’, aims at the development of modular biohybrid systems that could be used as 'biofactories of the future' for sustainable production processes. To achieve this goal, in a first phase already known technologies have to be further refined and integrated in order to obtain and apply compartmentalized reaction systems on different length and time scales. In a second phase, the resulting functional units will be employed to develop dissipative systems useful for biomedical applications and advanced production processes. From a technical point of view, future success in creating 'something entirely new' will depend crucially on robust and complementary research capabilities. Since the close connection of engineering and life sciences at KIT provides an excellent basis for this endeavor, we consider the above perspectives to be feasible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0226.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: autogenous intelligence; bootstrap fallacy; recursive self-improvement; self-modifying software; singularity
Online: 14 June 2018 (08:53:23 CEST)
Toby Walsh in “The Singularity May Never Be Near” gives six arguments to support his point of view that technological singularity may happen but that it is unlikely. In this paper, we provide analysis of each one of his arguments and arrive at similar conclusions, but with more weight given to the “likely to happen” probability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0221.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: laser-induced plasma; atomic spectroscopy; self-reversal; self-absorption; nanoparticles; silver; hydrogen
Online: 22 June 2019 (11:43:23 CEST)
Q-switched laser radiation at wavelengths of 355 nm, 532 nm, and 1064 nm from a Nd: YAG laser was used to generate plasma in laboratory air at the target surface made of compressed nano-silver particles of size 95 ± 10 nm. The emitted resonance spectra from the neutral silver at wavelengths of 327.9 nm and 338.2 nm indicate existence of self-reversal in addition to plasma self-absorption. Both lines were identified in emission spectra at different laser irradiation wavelengths with characteristic dips at the un-shifted central wavelengths. These dips are usually associated with self-reversal. Under similar conditions, plasmas at the corresponding bulk silver target were generated. The recorded emission spectra were compared to those obtained from the nano-material target. The comparisons confirm existence of self-reversal of resonance lines that emerge from plasmas produced at nano-material targets. This work suggests a method for recovery of the spectral line shapes and discusses practical examples. In addition, subsidiary calibration efforts that utilize the Balmer series Hα-line reveal that other Ag I lines at 827.35 nm and 768.7 nm are optically thin under variety of experimental conditions and are well-suited as reference lines for measurement of the laser plasma electron density.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0285.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: cyber physical systems; industry 4.0; MDE; lifetime verification & validation; dependability; correctness; flexibility; real-time self-adaptation, self-management; self-healing
Online: 29 January 2019 (04:45:47 CET)
Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) has been a popular research area in the last decade. The dependability of CPS is still a critical issue, and rare survey has been published in this domain. CPS is a dynamic complex system, which involves various multidisciplinary technologies. To avoid human error and to simplify management, self-management CPS (SCPS) is a wise choice. And to achieve dependable self-management, systematic solution is necessary to verify the design and to guarantee the safety of self-adaptation decision, as well as to maintain the health of SCPS. This survey first recalls the concepts of dependability, and proposes a generic environment-in-loop processing flow of self-management CPS, and then analyzes the error sources and challenges of self-management through the formal feedback flow. Focus on reducing the complexity, we first survey the self-adaptive architecture approaches and applied dependability means; then we introduce a hybrid multi-role self-adaptive architecture, and discuss the supporting technologies for dependable self-management at the architecture level. Focus on dependable environment-centered adaption, we investigate the verification and validation (V&V) methods for making safe self-adaptation decision and the solutions for processing decision dependably. For system-centered adaption, the comprehensive self-healing methods are summarized. Finally, we analyze the missing pieces of the technology puzzle and the future directions. In this survey, the technical trends for dependable CPS design and maintenance are discussed, an all-in-one solution is proposed to integrate these technologies and build a dependable organic SCPS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive survey on dependable SCPS building and evaluation.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0196.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Perspective Taking; Self-Awareness; Self-Representation; Metarepresentation; Theory of Mind; Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:35:01 CEST)
Only by understanding the ability to take third-person perspective can we begin to elucidate the neural processes responsible for one’s inimitable conscious experience. The current study examined differences in hemispheric laterality during a first-person perspective (1PP) and third-person perspective (3PP) taking task, when using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Participants were asked to take either the 1PP or 3PP when identifying the number of spheres in a virtual scene. During this task, single-pulse TMS was delivered to the motor cortex of both the left and right hemispheres of 10 healthy volunteers. Measures of TMS-induced motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the contralateral abductor pollicis brevis (APB) were employed as an indicator of lateralized cortical activation. The data suggest that the right hemisphere is more important in discriminating between 1PP and 3PP. These data add a novel method for determining perspective taking and add to the literature supporting the role of the right hemisphere in meta representation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0134.v1
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:52:37 CEST)
Background: Nursing services provided by nurses are based on knowledge and competence in the field of nursing science developed in accordance with Client needs, scientific developments, and the demands of globalization. These health services include nursing services that are carried out responsibly, accountably, with quality, and safely by nurses who have obtained registration and permission to practice. Nursepreneur is innovation and courage to take risks and is ready to work hard to achieve goals with optimism. Which has important components namely: 1) quality, 2) role, 3) option and success. The post-pandemic new world, especially in the health care system, continues to grapple with the demands of costs to provide patient care and safety. By using the application of the nursing theory model. Purpose :. Assessing scientific studies on the application of evidence-based intervention in wound care using nursing theory, identifying the important role of telenursing in improving nursing services in Nerspreneurship, Method: literature study Conclusion: Telenursing in nursing focuses on providing nursing care through information technology, such as telephone, computers, and the Internet that can be used to improve treatment outcomes among older people, especially those with low literacy skills and low financial status (Esmaeilpour-BandBoni et al., 2020). The statement from the results of the study refutes that Telenursing is intended for patients who have higher education and middle and upper economic states.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0095.v1
Online: 5 April 2021 (10:58:22 CEST)
Background: Indonesia is an archipelago with various cultured, will bee affects all aspects of people's lives, including beliefs related to health behavior and health care. One problem that needs serious attention is the elderly group because the elderly are a vulnerable group who have a high risk of experiencing health problems, such as anemia with hypertension, so they need good care management. The research objective was to determine self-management intervention for hypertensive elderly. Methods: This research is a literature review with five databases (Scopus, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Proquest), the study design used is an experimental, descriptive, cross-sectional, and review systematic, in March 2021. Guidelines for using JBI to measure quality and listing check out Prisma in this review guide. A feasibility study based on title, abstract, full text, and research methodology. The data analysis used narrative analysis based on the research findings. Results: Twelve articles met the predefined review inclusion criteria. The study found eight interventions for self-management in elderly hypertension, namely: 1) Knowledge of hypertension, 2) Regulation of physical activity, 3) Limitation of alcohol and cigarette consumption, 4) Sleep rest and stress management, 5) Diet and body weight management, 6) Blood pressure control, 7) Family and social support, 8) Adherence to therapy regimens. Conclusion: The conclusion of the study results obtained eight elderly self-management interventions, this done properly will affect compliance in optimizing the health of the elderly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0210.v1
Online: 22 January 2019 (10:56:07 CET)
Background: Since the beginning of the 20th century, the importance of creating healthy work environments and promoting the health of workers in the healthcare sector to create Healthy and Resilient Organizations has been emphasized. In this context, self-esteem is an essential construct which influences health and healthy life styles, and therefore, the general wellbeing of nurses. The objective of this study was to analyze the mediating role of reasons for exercising in the effect that self-esteem has on uncontrolled eating by nursing professionals. Methods: The sample was made up of 1094 nurses who were administered the Rosenberg General Self-esteem Scale, the Goal Content for Exercise Questionnaire and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18. Results: Bivariate correlation analysis and multiple mediation analysis showed that self-esteem has direct and indirect effects on uncontrolled eating. More so, self-esteem predicts doing physical exercise to improve one’s image, recognition and social affiliation, although the effects on uncontrolled eating were only significant through image. Conclusions: The results have important practical implications in the framework of Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP) as it emphasizes self-esteem, physical exercise and eating as essential aspects of the health and wellbeing of employees in the healthcare sector, highlighting the importance of creating organizations committed to promoting the psychosocial health of their workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0115.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: organic photovoltaics; self-assembly; thermodynamics
Online: 5 November 2018 (12:06:31 CET)
We develop an optimized force-field for poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and demonstrate its utility for predicting thermodynamic self-assembly. In particular, we consider short oligomer chains, model electrostatics and solvent implicitly, and coarsely model solvent evaporation. We quantify the performance of our model to determine what the optimal system sizes are for exploring self-assembly at combinations of state variables. We perform molecular dynamics simulations to predict the self-assembly of P3HT at ~350 combinations of temperature and solvent quality. Our structural calculations predict that the highest degrees of order are obtained with good solvents just below the melting temperature. We find our model produces the most accurate structural predictions to date, as measured by agreement with grazing incident X-ray scattering experiments.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0031.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: scaling; self-similarity; stochastic processes
Online: 10 February 2017 (10:02:13 CET)
Partial differential representation of self-similarity feature has been derived from notion of the homogenous function in general sense. This representation allows consideration of stochastic self-similar systems. As well as the partial differential representation allows consideration of Stochastic Partial Differential Equation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: cyber physical systems; industry 4.0; MDE; hardware and software co-design; lifetime verification & validation; dependability; correctness; flexibility; self-management; self-adapting; self-healing
Online: 17 July 2017 (10:27:33 CEST)
Though Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) become very popular in last the decade, dependability of CPS is still a critical issue and related survey is rare. We try to spell out the jigsaw of technologies and figure out the technical trends of dependable self-managing CPS. This survey first recalls the motivation and the similar concepts. By analyzing four generic architectures, we summarize the common characteristics and related assurance technologies, and propose a more generic environment-in-loop processing flow of CPS and a formal interaction flow between physical space and cyber space. Further, the similarity between correctness and dependability is formally analyzed and the new five research questions of dependable self-managing CPS are presented. Then we review the critical technologies and related correctness verification & validation (V&V) methods, the architectures for dependable self-managing CPS. Further, the detail dependability management and V&V technologies are surveyed, which covers the areas of running-time fault management methods and whole life cycle V&V technologies, maintenance and available tool sets. For holistic CPS development, Modeling techniques and MDE (model driven engineering) based V&V methods are analyzed in detail. Then we complete the jigsaw of technologies and figure out the missing part. Further, we propose the technical challenges and the further direction. To our best knowledge, this is the first comprehensive survey on dependable self-managing CPS development and evaluation.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: self-care; self-care monitoring; quality of life; stoma care; health promotion; nurse – patient interaction
Online: 12 January 2021 (17:32:17 CET)
The current article examined stoma self-care and health-related quality of life in patients with drainage enterostomy, describe clinical and sociodemographic variables and analyze the relations between all of them. Trained interviewers collected data using a standardized form that queried sociodemographic and clinical variables, collected from the electronic medical record, in addition to the Specific Self-Care for Ostomized Patients Questionnaire (CAESPO) and Stoma Quality of life (S-QoL) from January 2016 to January 2017. This was a multicenter, cross sectional study conducted in four hospitals of the province of Castellon (Spain) where 120 participants were studied. Significant differences were found in Self Care according to sex (p = .043); married participants show higher score (p < .01); also, significant differences according to work activity were observed (p < .01). Regarding the clinical variables, differences were observed according to the autonomy of care, the presence of complications in the stoma, the use of irrigation and the type of effluent (p < .01). We can highlight the importance of the skills related to self-care by ostomized patients has for a good level of quality of life related to health. In this learning process, the figure of the stoma therapist plays a very important role.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0123.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Adjuvants; emulsions; self-emulsification; alpha-tocopherol
Online: 7 November 2022 (12:18:18 CET)
Research for novel vaccine adjuvants remains a critical need to improve the immune responses to a recombinant vaccine antigen. Emulsion adjuvants such as AS03 and MF59, particularly in the area of Influenza vaccines, have shown antigen dose sparing and allowed reduced immunizations. It was previously demonstrated that these emulsion adjuvants can be formulated using a simpler, low shear process of self-emulsification. The role of alpha tocopherol as an immunomodulator in emulsion adjuvants is evident from the success of AS03 in the on-going covid-19 pandemic. Although, it was a challenge to formulate alpha tocopherol with a low shear process to get closer to the AS03 composition, the self-emulsified version referred as self-emulsifying adjuvant systems (SE-AS) showed comparable immune responses to AS03 when co-administered with a Quadrivalent influenza virus (QIV) vaccine. In this paper, we first optimized the SE-AS with alpha tocopherol referred to as SE-AS44 to allow sterile filtration. We compared the in vitro cytokine profile with self-emulsifying adjuvant 160 (SEA160), a squalene-only self-emulsified adjuvant with composition similar to MF59. We compared SE-AS44 and SEA160 co-administered with a recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV) pentamer antigen, which is a less immunogenic antigen, in vivo to compare the antibody and T-cell responses, in different adjuvanted groups, in C57BL/6 mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0273.v1
Online: 9 June 2021 (22:14:21 CEST)
Background: HIV self-testing (HIVST) is one of the recommended approaches for HIV testing services, particularly for helping reach populations who would not normally access facility-based HIV testing. HIVST must be tailored to different populations to ensure uptake. Objective: The main objective of this study was to develop an acceptable HIVST delivery strategy to help improve urban men’s engagement with HIV services. Methods: We invited key stakeholders for urban men’s HIV services to participate in a co-creation workshop aimed at developing HIVST delivery approaches for urban men, using eThekwini municipality as a study setting. We conducted purposive sampling to include health care users and health care providers, representing a range of views across the public sector and voluntary sector. We employed the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) method for data collection. The NGT workshop was conducted in two consecutive phases: phase one was focused on determining barriers for men’s engagement with the current/facility-based HIV testing services; phase two was aimed at determining HIVST delivery strategies. We used the results of the NGT to design a tailored HIVST strategy for urban men in eThekwini District. Results: Participants identified the following psychological factors as the most important barriers to uptake of HIV testing services by urban men: stigma, ignorance about the importance of testing and testing process as well as fear of positive test results. Key stakeholders suggested internal motivation strategies as a potentially effective approach to support HIVST delivery strategy. Guided by the NGT results, we designed a HIVST delivery strategy that is supported by a risk communication approach Conclusion: We designed an evidence-based risk communication mobile health (mHealth) strategy coupled with SARS COV-2 self-testing tailored to improve men’s uptake of HIVST. A follow-up study to evaluate the feasibility of implementing these approaches is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: open access; api; self archiving,; automation
Online: 13 February 2020 (10:34:30 CET)
This proposal describes the design and development of an interoperable application that supports green open access with long-term sustainability and improved user experience of article deposit. Introduction: The lack of library resources and unfriendly repository user interface are two significant barriers that hinder green open access. Tasked to implement the open access mandate, librarians at an American research university developed a comprehensive system called Easy Deposit 2 to automate the support workflow of green open access. Implementation: Easy Deposit 2 is a web application that is able to harvest newly publications, outreach for manuscript on behalf of the library, and facilitate self-archiving to IR. It is developed and maintained by the library and integrated with the IR. Results and Discussion: The article deposit rate is about 25% with Easy Deposit 2, which increases significantly comparing to the previous period. It also serves as a local database for faculty publications with open access status. The lesson learned is that library cannot rely on a single commercial provider for publication data due to mismatched priorities. Conclusion: Recent IT developments provides new opportunities of innovation like Easy Deposit 2 in supporting open access. Academic librarians are vital in promoting "openness" in scholarly communication such as transparency and diversity in the sharing of publication data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0314.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: self-reflection; adolescent; Smoking Cessation Program
Online: 24 December 2019 (09:41:29 CET)
The study aimed to understand the experiences of adolescent smokers who participated in a smoking cessation program based on self-reflection, and to develop the theoretical basis for constructing similar programs. The participants, ten students from middle and high schools located in cities G and S, were interviewed after the program ended. Data were collected from August to November 2019 and analyzed using a phenomenological approach to understand participant experiences in depth. The analysis revealed five major themes: ‘Uniqueness of the Program,’ ‘Perception of Smoking Cessation,’ ‘Positive Reflection on Life,’ ‘Understanding Others,’ and ‘A Search for Hope and Vision in Life.’ The findings revealed that the smoking cessation program facilitated the development of self-identity and vision, which may indirectly strengthen the motivation for adolescent smokers to quit smoking. These findings suggest the need for a life-changing smoking cessation program that enhances self-concept and self-esteem. Moreover, it highlights the importance of follow-up research to ensure effectiveness, and the need to develop programs with creative content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0059.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Self-employment; household determinants; financial Crisis
Online: 7 June 2019 (12:48:50 CEST)
While some researchers have suggested that the self-employment (SE) sector is a haven during a financial Crisis, others believe that SE is not necessarily the desired outcome, but an indicator that the labor market is tightening for some groups. Few researchers have compared the SE sector before and after the occurrence of a significant financial Crisis, especially in developed countries. This paper analyzes the determinants of entry into self-employment during the 2008 Spanish Crisis. Using data from the Encuesta de Presupuesto Familiar (EPF), results show that although the rate of SE did not experience a significant change during this time the Crisis affected people differently based on gender, with being females more affected than males. Results also suggest differences between Comunidades Autonomas in how the self-employment sector behaved during the Crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0441.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: self-gravitation, black holes, neutrino stars
Online: 21 September 2018 (16:41:04 CEST)
Due to limitation of the binding energy of a self-gravitating matter, the radius of a body is at least twice larger than the Schwarzschild radius. The total energy is adsorbed at the body surface, giving rise of a size-dependent surface tension. Since the Hawking temperature appears to be the critical one, the black holes possess zero surface tension. Microscopic neutrino stars are also introduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0056.v1
Online: 10 October 2017 (02:55:22 CEST)
This study aimed to know the conditioning factors of the transition process to the self-care of women diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. This qualitative study was carried out from June to September 2015 with seven seropositive women, users of a specialized service in sexually transmitted diseases in the municipality of Imperatriz, Maranhão State, Brazil. For the data collection, an individual interview was used, and data analysis was performed by content analysis delineated by Hsieh and Shannon (2005). The resources that influence the self-care in the transition process of women with HIV/AIDS are represented by personal conditioning factors, such as the meaning they attribute to the living with the disease, personal attitudes and cultural beliefs, socioeconomic status, preparation and knowledge about the disease, and by conditioning factors found in the community and society. The transition theory can provide important insights about the resources present in the adaptation process of women diagnosed with HIV so that they can perform their self-care satisfactorily.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0049.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: shape memory; liquid crystalline; self-healing
Online: 15 September 2016 (11:07:50 CEST)
To better understand the shape memory materials and self-healing materials, a new series of liquid-crystalline shape memory polyurethane (LC-SMPU) composites, named SMPU-OOBAm, were successfully prepared by incorporating 4-octyldecyloxybenzoic acid (OOBA) into the PEG-based SMPU. The effect of OOBA on the structure, morphology and properties has been carefully investigated. The results demonstrate that SMPU-OOBAm have liquid crystalline properties, triple-shape memory properties and self-healing properties. The incorporated OOBA promotes the crystallizability of both soft and hard segments of SMPU, and the crystallization rate of the hard segment of SMPU decreases when the OOBA-content increases. Additionally, the SMPU-OOBAm forms a two-phase separated structure (SMPU phase and OOBA phase), and it shows two-step modulus changes upon heating. Therefore, the SMPU-OOBAm shows triple-shape memory behavior, and the shape recovery ratio decreases with an increase in the OOBA content. Finally, SMPU-OOBAm shows self-healing properties. The new mechanism can be ascribed to the heating-induced “bleeding” of OOBA in the liquid crystalline state and the subsequent re-crystallization upon cooling. This successful combination of liquid crystalline properties, triple-shape memory properties and self-healing properties make the SMPU-OOBAm composites with many promise applications in smart optical devices, smart electronic devices and smart sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0070.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Self-Action Leadership (SAL), SAL model, SAL theory, nomological, existential growth, organizational (or corporate) citizen, SAR project, SAL project, step-habit, Self-Declaration of Independence, Self-Constitution
Online: 23 July 2016 (10:26:10 CEST)
In 2015, the Self-Action Leadership Theory—a qualitative, nomological expansion of self-leadership theory rooted in atmospheric and astronomical metaphor aimed at expanding the personal freedom of individuals, organizations, and nations by bolstering the existential growth of individuals through a series of Maslow-esque stages of holistic, personal development. This article introduces an accompanying, practitioner-based Model of Self-Action Leadership (SAL) aimed at the implicit enhancement of a holistic range of administrative processes through explicit training, mentoring, and coaching in the model’s general and universally-applicable principles and practices. The SAL model produces an original construct of personal leadership practice that builds upon the extant self-leadership academic canon, which dates back to 1983 (Manz, 1983). It also provides an analogue to four of the five core processes of Project Management by positioning a self-action leader (an individual) as the ongoing “project” at hand. The SAL Model is rooted in action research and was developed through a variety of self-oriented, action research projects in conjunction with a comprehensive, qualitative, analytical autoethnographic study of a scholar’s life experiences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0505.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: adhesion; self-assembly; drug delivery; curved surface; template-assisted self-assembly; nanotechnology; single-molecule system; polymer nanocomposite.
Online: 23 February 2021 (09:35:14 CET)
Nanometer-curved surfaces are abundant in biological systems as well as in nano-sized technologies. Properly functionalized polymer-grafted nanoparticles (PGNs) adhere to surfaces with different geometries and curvatures. This work explores some of the energetic and mechanical characteristics of the adhesion of PGNs to surfaces with positive, negative and zero curvatures using Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics (CGMD) simulations. Our calculated free energies of binding of the PGN to the curved and flat surfaces as a function of separation distance show that curvature of the surfaces critically impacts the adhesion strength. We find that the flat surface is the most adhesive, and the concave surface is the least adhesive surface. This somewhat counterintuitive finding suggests that while a bare nanoparticle is more likely to adhere to a positively curved surface than a flat surface, grafting polymer chains to the nanoparticle surface inverts this behavior. Moreover, we studied the rheological behavior of PGN upon separation from the flat and curved surfaces under external pulling force. The results presented herein can be exploited in drug delivery and self-assembly applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0012.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Self-similarity; fractal geometry; generalized homogeneous functions; general covariance; Self -organized criticality; Lie groups; effective field theory
Online: 1 December 2020 (10:29:47 CET)
The goal of this work is to show that the underlying symmetries of effective field theory can be traced to the onset of self-similarity. In particular, we argue that the scale-free structure of fractal geometry lies at the heart of invariance principles in classical and Quantum Field Theory.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0468.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Mentalization; Secure Attachment; Nonsuicidal Self-Injury; Adolescents
Online: 26 December 2022 (03:50:08 CET)
This paper, which is one of the few in the world dealing with this topic, presented the psychologist's work based on the concepts of mentalization and internal working models (IWMs) of attachment, with an adolescent girl who was prone to nonsuicidal self-injury. Gaga, a student in the first grade of high school, had visible scars from cutting her hands on the inner sides of both forearms. Gaga told the psychologist that her mother believes that this is an attempt to draw attention to her problems, and even a suicide attempt. Together with Gaga, the psychologist made a formulation of her mental difficulties. The main aim of the psychologist's work with Gaga was to control unpleasant impulses and emotions, so as to eliminate self-injury. This aim has been achieved through three global tasks: 1) that Gaga, in the relationship with the psychologist, builds her IWMs as positive, so that she can see herself as a person who is worthy of the love and support of close people; 2) to develop a stable capacity for mentalization; 3) to apply this acquired skills in the interpretation of her affective experiences. The mentalizing approach in working with Gaga was based on an attitude of emotional warmth, acceptance and authentic interest in her inner world. The psychologist's work with Gaga led to her better self-control, which resulted in the cessation of her self-injury. In her work with a psychologist, Gaga acquired positive IWMs, which she transferred into other significant interpersonal relationships.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0330.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: consciousness; awareness; attention; free will; self-awareness
Online: 17 November 2022 (08:59:13 CET)
Consciousness is usually perceived as a state of being aware of one’s environment as well as self. Despite its omnipresence in our life, understanding this concept is challenging. This has given rise to several theories attempting to explain the nature of consciousness, as well as hard and soft problems of consciousness. In fact, the boundaries of consciousness defined by these theories are a topic of continued discussion, particularly in light of the recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI). Some of these theories consider consciousness as a simple integration of information while others purport the need for an agency in the process of integration for an entity to be considered conscious. Some theories consider consciousness as a graded entity and some equate consciousness with content of awareness. In this work, major theories of consciousness are reviewed and compared, focusing on awareness, attention, and sense of self. These findings are interpreted in relation to AI in order to ascertain what makes AI distinct from natural intelligence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0073.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: Consciousness; awareness; free will; attention; self-awareness
Online: 6 June 2022 (09:01:24 CEST)
Consciousness is usually interpreted as a state of being aware of one’s environment as well as self, while awareness is understood as knowledge of something. Despite their semantic differences, in philosophy, these terms are often used interchangeably, as is the case of the hard problem of consciousness proposed by Chalmers, which in fact is the hard problem of awareness. Trilogy paradigm of consciousness (or simply “trilogy”) offers a new paradigm where consciousness is the result of a unique interaction between awareness and the decision-making process. By conferring the input of awareness to the decision-making process, a new mental function of awareness-based choice selection (ABCS) or true free will emerges. Likewise, application of the power of decision-making to the process of awareness gives rise to discretionary selection of information for awareness (DSIA) or intentional attention. The intertwined actions of ABCS and DSIA comprise “I” which is the faculty of our consciousness and is what sets natural intelligence (NI) apart from artificial intelligence (AI). Based on trilogy, mind is an unconscious compilation of all mental function excluding ABCS and DSIA that are the essence of consciousness. As humans, we are a union of “I,” our minds, and our bodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: informality; working conditions; self-reported health; survey
Online: 2 March 2022 (02:41:32 CET)
Peru has one of the highest informal employment rates in Latin America (73%). Previous studies have shown higher prevalence of poor self-perceived health (P-SPH) in informal workers compared to formal. The study’s aim is to analyse the role of working conditions in the association between informality and SPH in urban working population in Peru. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 3098 workers from the working conditions survey of Peru 2017. Prevalence of P-SPH and exposure to poor working conditions were calculated separated by formal and informal employment and stratified by sex. Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between P-SPH and informal employment, with its prevalence ratios (PR) crude and adjusted for working conditions. Informal employment was 76% in women and 66% in men. Informal workers were more exposed to poor working conditions than formals and reported worse SPH. Workers in informal employment showed higher risk of P-SPH than formals: PR 1.38 [95% CI: 1.16 – 1.64] in women and PR 1.27 [95% CI: 1.08 – 1.49] in men. Adjustment by working conditions weakened the association in both sexes. In women, this association was only partially explained by worse working conditions 1.23 [95% CI: 1.04 – 1.46]. The negative effect on informal workers’ health is partially explained by poor working conditions. However, there is a part of the effect explained by informality per se.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0134.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Self-Regulation Therapy; coping strategies; emotionality; drugs
Online: 7 September 2021 (17:01:06 CEST)
Background: This study consists of a brief psychological intervention, which uses the Self-Regulation Therapy (SRT, procedure based on suggestion and classical conditioning), to improve coping with stress and emotionality by reproducing the positive effects of illegal drugs: cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy. Method: 15 volunteers (8 males, 7 females), with a mean age of 24.67 (SD = 4.43), underwent intervention to improve their coping with stress and emotionality using SRT. They carried out pre- and post-intervention scores for 10 days and during a 4-week fol-low-up. The employed instruments were: COPE (Coping Skills Inventory) and PNAS (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule). Results: SRT was superior to non-intervention for the 4 coping strategies (2= .829, .453, .411 and .606) and for positive (2= .371) and negative emotionality (2= .419). An improvement in scores was evidenced in the follow-up scores compared to the pre-intervention measures. Conclusions: This study shows for the first time that it is possible to use illegal drugs, considered harmful to public health, to improve young people’s coping capacity and emotionality by reproducing their positive effects with SRT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0579.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: intrahepatic, biliary duct; micropatterning, cholangiocyte,; self-organogenesis
Online: 23 June 2021 (12:05:08 CEST)
Background & Aims: Globally, liver diseases account for 2 million deaths per year. For those with advanced liver disease the only curative approach is liver transplantation. However, less than 10% of those in need get a liver transplant due to limited organ availability. To circumvent this challenge, there has been a great focus in generating a bioengineered liver. Despite its essential role in liver functions, a functional biliary system has not yet been developed. In this framework, exploration of epithelial cell self-organogenesis and microengineering-driven geometrical cell confinement allow to envision the bioengineering of a functional biomimetic intrahepatic biliary tract. Approach: Three-dimensional (3D) bile ducts were built in vitro by restricting cell adhesion to two-dimensional (2D) patterns to guide cell self-organization. Tree shapes mimicking the configuration of the human biliary system were micropatterned on glass slides, restricting cell attachment to these areas. Different tree geometries and culture conditions were explored to stimulate self-organogenesis of normal rat cholangiocytes (NRCs) used as a biliary cell model, either alone or in coculture with human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results: Pre-seeding the micropatterns with HUVECs promoted luminogenesis with higher efficiency to yield functional branched biliary tubes. Lumen formation, apico-basal polarity, and preservation of the cholangiocyte phenotype were confirmed. Moreover, intact and functional biliary structures were detached from the micropatterns for further manipulation. Conclusion: This study presents physiologically relevant 3D biliary duct networks built in vitro from 2D micropatterns. This opens opportunities for investigating bile duct organogenesis, physiopathology, and drug testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0567.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: multimedia; self-care; quality of life; enterostomy
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:08:14 CEST)
(1)Background: This report was an effective evaluation of using multimedia educational program for self-care and quality of life in patients with a stoma at postoperative and established a simple threshold for enterostomy self-care skills.(2)Methods:108 patients with enterostomy were randomly assigned to receive either the intervention multimedia education program (including information about preparation for enterostomy care, cleaning method, manual bag replacement steps and precautions). The primary outcome was self-care ability and quality of life (defined as overall enterostomy self-care ability and overall quality of life), which was assessed at 2 weeks after intervention via an interview.(3)Results: Compared with those who in the conventional stoma education program, patients received the multimedia education program significantly improved their overall self-care ability and quality of life in statistically. The threshold of the enterostomy self-care skill scale was 20 points, and its corresponding sensitivity was 77.8%, and the specificity was 75.7%.(4)Conclusions: According to our study, the multimedia education program could enhance self-care ability of home care and quality of life in patients with enterostomy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: bioconcrete; microbes; biomineralization; self-healing; calcite precipitation
Online: 1 April 2021 (12:56:36 CEST)
The advancement of bioconcrete over cementitious composites has brought us to the application of microbes in the field of construction materials. Certain microbes like bacteria, algae, and fungi have been discussed in the review. The purpose of applying these microbes in the matrix is mainly to enhance the concrete’s strength and other properties such as durability, resistance, and self-healing ability. As these microbes are able to induce calcite biomineralizations, the process is also known as Microbiologically Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP). Some known microorganisms with their mentioned ability are Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cohnii (bacteria), Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis (algae), and Trichoderma reesei, Aspergillus niger, and Neurospora crassa (fungi). The paper provides a “state-of-the-art” review of research into the effects of bioconcrete and discusses the overall methodologies of every medium with their physiological, physicochemical and bioengineering properties in the light of recent researches done so far in the same field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0315.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: schizophrenia; schizoaffective disorder; self-efficacy; coping; stress.
Online: 11 March 2021 (11:19:02 CET)
There is growing evidence on the relevance of self-efficacy for well-being and functioning among individuals with psychotic disorders, but specific self-efficacy for coping with stress has rarely been investigated. This study explored the outcomes of an intervention for the improvement of coping resources based on a training in coping skills and coping with stress self-efficacy (CSSE). Fourteen adult volunteers who were diagnosed with schizophrenia (n=12) or schizoaffective disorder (n=2) were matched in clinical and sociodemographic characteristics and randomly assigned to the study groups. The intervention group received the training along with their pharmacological therapy; the control group received their prescribed drug therapy. Participants completed self-reports on CSSE, perceived successful daily functioning based on coping skills, and clinical status (BPRS-E). Trained patients showed a significant increase in CSSE and reported greater successful functioning status, and significant improvements in their clinical status were also observed. All these enhancements remained at 3-month and 6-month follow-ups. Control participants showed no significant changes. Moreover, the intervention condition interacted with CSSE and perceived coping functioning in explaining improvements in clinical status: in the treatment group, greater CSSE translated into enhanced daily functioning, and this improvement predicted better clinical status. These findings stress the relevance of promoting coping resources in psychotic disorders and provide preliminary evidence for the potential benefits of CSSE.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0176.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: DNA nanotechnology; Protein Nanotechnology; Self-assembly; Bionanomaterials
Online: 5 March 2021 (09:13:43 CET)
Proteins and DNA exhibit key physical chemical properties that make them advantageous for building nanostructures with outstanding features. Both DNA and protein nanotechnology have growth notably and proved to be fertile disciplines. The combination of both types of nanotechnologies is helpful to overcome the individual weaknesses and limitations of each one, paving the way for the continuing diversification of the structural nanotechnologies. Recent studies have implemented a synergistic combination of both biomolecules to assemble unique and sophisticate protein-DNA nanostructures. These hybrid nanostructures are highly programmable and display remarkable features that create new opportunities to build in the nanoscale. This review focuses on the strategies deployed to create hybrid protein-DNA nanostructures. Here, we will discuss strategies such as polymerization, spatial directing and organizing, coating, rigidizing or folding DNA into particular shapes or moving parts. The enrichment of structural DNA nanotechnology by incorporating protein nanotechnology has been clearly demonstrated and still shows a large potential to create useful and advanced materials with cell-like properties or dynamic systems. It can be expected that structural protein-DNA nanotechnology will open new avenues in the fabrication of nano-assemblies with unique functional applications and enrich the toolbox of bionanotechnology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0636.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: motivation; self-regulated learning; transition; secondary school
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:40:55 CEST)
Transition from primary to secondary school is more successful when students’ learning is consistent. Students are also more likely to enjoy the school, engage with learning, and have a high academic achievement in the secondary school when they feel motivated. This is a critical aspect especially in cases when global pandemics situations allow only the online schooling opportunity. Students that are away from school lack the traditional sources of motivation and self-regulated learning skills, thus research is needed to identify other important factors that can be developed in remote settings. The aim of this study was to find out how students perceive their experience with the transition from primary to secondary school and how such a transition influences students’ self-regulated learning (SRL) and motivation. Self-reported data were collected during the COVID-19 breakout from a total of N=80, 6th and 7th grade students aged 12-14 years old. Results showed that students had a successful transition, especially when they are supported by their parents and teachers. Next, Bivariate Pearson Correlation analysis indicated that students’ perceptions about their experience with the transition from primary to secondary school and their self-regulated learning and motivation are significantly correlated. No gender differences were found among all main study variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0350.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: solar panel; laminatel vibrations; self-cleaning; cymatics
Online: 19 April 2020 (13:51:32 CEST)
The Photovoltaic modules are usually installed on the ground which exposes it to surface deposition of foreign particles. In the Middle East and North Africa region, the primary culprit is dust and sand. They form an insulating and opaque layer on the surface of the glass, which obstructs its heat transfer and optical properties, thereby reducing the overall yield efficiency of the solar panel. Cleaning of this layer is critical to the operation of the solar panel and often requires great effort and energy on a large-scale solar array. In this paper, we propose a novel self-cleaning mechanism for solar panels, with an understanding of the structural integrity of the Photovoltaic laminate and application of external mechanical vibration. By applying an external source of vibration, the solar panels vibrate, excites its fundamental frequencies and cleans by its own. The method is analyzed using finite element analysis method and tested using experiments. Our simulation results based on IEC 61215 show that the maximum principal stress and deformation in the critical layers is within limits. Our experimental results prove the proposed theory is feasible and can be extended to large scale solar arrays. Our proposed method is retrofittable and could save money, energy and effort in cleaning the solar arrays, which can replace current techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0061.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: Aminated polystyrene; Nanoparticles; Interfacial tension; Self-assembly
Online: 4 March 2020 (10:36:44 CET)
Nanoparticle (NP)–surfactants formed by the self-assembly of NPs and end-functionalized polymers at the hydrophilic/hydrophobic interface have a wide range of applications in many fields. In this study, the influence of density of amino groups, NPs dimension and pH on the interaction between end-functionalized polymers and NPs were extensively investigated. Single amino-terminated polystyrene (PS-NH2, Mw ≈ 0.6k, 2.5k, 3.5k, 3.9k) and diamino-terminated polystyrene (H2N-PS-NH2, Mw ≈ 1.1k, 2.8k) were prepared using reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization. NPs with different dimensions (zero-dimensional carbon dots with sulfonate groups, one-dimensional cellulose nanocrystals with sulfate groups and two-dimensional graphene with sulfonate groups) in the aqueous phase were added into the toluene phase containing the aminated PS. The influence of pH and the molecular weight of amino-terminated PS on the interfacial tension between two phases were investigated. The results indicate that aminated PS exhibited the strongest interfacial activity after compounding with sulfonated NPs at a pH of 3. Terminating PS with amino groups on both ends leads to better performance in in reducing the water/toluene interfacial tension than modifying the molecular structure of PS on a single end. The dimension of sulfonated NPs also contributed significantly to the reduction of the water/toluene interfacial tension. The minimal interfacial tension was 4.49 mN/m after compounding PS-NH2 with sulfonated zero-dimensional carbon dots. Molecular dynamics simulation on the evolution of the water/toluene interface in the presence of sulfonated carbon dots and H2N-PS-NH2 revealed that these opposite charged substances moved towards the interface in an extreme short time and orderly assembled in a thermodynamic equilibrium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0064.v1
Online: 5 September 2019 (15:44:49 CEST)
In this paper, first the Self-Written Waveguide (SWW) process in wet photopolymer media (liquid solutions), are examined for three examples: single-, counter-, and co-fibers exposure. Then the SWWs formed inside solid material are examined including the effects of manipulating the alignment of the fibers. In all cases high precision measurements are used to position the fiber optic cables (FOCs) before exposure using a microscope. The self-writing process is indirectly monitored by observing (imaging) the light emerging from the side of the material sample during SWW formation. In this way the optical waveguide trajectories formed in an Acrylamide/Polyvinyl Alcohol (AA/PVA) a photopolymer material (sensitized at 532 nm) are examined. First the transmission of light by this material is characterized. Then the bending and merging of the waveguides which occur are investigated. The predictions of our model are shown to qualitatively agree with the observed trajectories. The largest index changes taking place at any time during the exposure, i.e. during SWW formation, are shown to take place at the positions where the largest exposure light intensity is present. Typically, such maxima exist close to the input face and the first maximum is referred to as the location of the Primary Eye. Other local maxima also appear further along the SWW and are referred to as Secondary Eyes, i.e. deeper within the material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0241.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: motivation; well-being; self-steem; psychology; sport
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:29:23 CEST)
The work shows a single case intervention based on the motivational coaching model the “Cantón’s Giraffe”, theoretically and experimentally proven in a 20-years-old dancesport practitioner, who considered improving her execution with her dance partner. Methodological triangulation was used , combining a test-retest quantitative measure (Using Ryff Psychological Wellbeing Scales; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire and an ad-hoc instrument for the motivational force assessment) and subjective analysis of the responses from the interviews conducted. A three-phase intervention protocol was used : identification, intervention, and follow-up. The results show an improvement in reevaluation scores, an increase in the subjective evaluation, and participant satisfaction and perceived resources raised at the end of the intervention. These results are in line with previous similar studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0138.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: hydrogel; hydrophobicity; self-assembly; degree of swelling
Online: 11 April 2019 (08:58:09 CEST)
Hydrogels incorporated with hydrophobic motifs have received considerable attention to recapitulate the cellular microenvironments, specifically for the bio-mineralization of a 3D matrix. Introduction of hydrophobic motifs into a hydrogel often results in irregular arrangement of the motifs, and further phase separation of hydrophobic domains, but limited efforts have been made to resolve this challenge in the hydrophobically-modified hydrogel. Therefore, this study presents an advanced integrative strategy to incorporate hydrophobic domains regularly in a hydrogel by self-assembling of polymer cross-linkers, building blocks of a hydrogel. Self-assemblies between polymer cross-linkers were examined as micro-domains to incorporate hydrophobic motifs in a hydrogel. The self-assembled structures in a pre-gelled solution were confirmed with the fluorescence analysis and the hydrophobicity of a hydrogel could be tuned by incorporating the motifs in a controlled manner. Overall, the results of this study would greatly serve to tuning performance of a wide array of hydrophobically-modified hydrogels in drug delivery, cell therapies and tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0224.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: self-esteem; quality of sleep; eating; nursing
Online: 18 December 2018 (12:12:23 CET)
In recent decades, organizational research has given special attention to the mechanisms promoting the health and wellbeing of nursing professionals. In this context, self-esteem is a personal resource which influences wellbeing at work and psychological wellbeing of nurses. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mediating role of eating in the effect of sleep quality on self-esteem in nursing professionals. The sample of 1073 nurses were administered the Rosenberg General Self-Esteem Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18. The results show that poor sleep quality and type of eating directly and indirectly affect self-esteem. More so, poor sleep quality deteriorated self-esteem through emotional eating, and even though emotional eating facilitated disinhibited eating, this relationship had no significant effects on self-esteem. The findings of this study suggest that hospital management should implement employee health awareness programs on the importance of healthy sleep and design educational interventions for improving the quality of their diet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: stress perceived; self-efficacy; engagement; work; nursing
Online: 3 December 2018 (04:10:41 CET)
Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP) examines the mechanisms that promote workers’ health and wellbeing, in addition to risk factors arising from work activity. The aim of this study was to analyze the mediating role of perceived stress in the effect that self-efficacy has on engagement in nurses. The sample comprised 1777 currently working nurses. We administered the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), the Perceived Stress Questionnaire and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Following bivariate correlational analysis, multiple linear regression analysis, and simple and multiple mediation analysis the results showed Self-efficacy to be a powerful personal resource that positively predicts employees’ engagement, although the effect diminishes when there are mediating variables of stress. We found differences in the way the different aspects of stress mediated the relationship between Self-efficacy and the engagement dimensions. “Energy–joy” was the strongest mediating variable for all of the engagement dimensions, and this, together with “harassment–social acceptance” dampened the effect of Self-efficacy on vigor and dedication, whereas “Overload” was only a mediator for dedication. Because nurses work in a stressful environment, risk factor arising from work activity, hospital management should design interventions to enhance their workers’ personal resources and improve personal and organizational wellbeing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0428.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: thermo-responsive; ultrafiltration; enzymes; self-cleaning; nanofibers
Online: 24 August 2018 (07:52:04 CEST)
Controlling surface-protein interaction during wastewater treatment is the key motivation for developing functionally modified membranes. A new biocatalytic thermo-responsive poly(vinylidene fluoride)(PVDF)/nylon-6,6/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAAm) ultrafiltration membrane was fabricated to achieve dual functionality of protein-digestion and thermo-responsive self-cleaning. The PVDF/nylon-6,6/PNIPAAm composite membranes were constructed by integrating a hydrophobic PVDF cast layer and hydrophilic nylon-6,6/PNIPAAm nanofiber layer where trypsin enzymes were covalently immobilized. The immobilization density of enzymes on the membrane surface decreased with increasing PNIPAAm concentration, due to the decreased number of amine functional sites. Through a ultrafiltration study using a model solution containing BSA/NaCl/CaCl2, the PNIPAAm containing biocatalytic membranes demonstrated a combined effect of enzymatic and thermo-switchable self-cleaning. The membrane without PNIPAAm revealed superior fouling resistance and self-cleaning with an RPD of 22%, compared to membranes with 2 and 4 wt% PNIPAAm with 26% and 33% RPD, respectively, after an intermediate temperature cleaning at 50°C, indicating that higher enzyme density offers more efficient self-cleaning than the combined effect of enzyme and PNIPAAm at low concentration. The conformational volume phase transition of PNIPAAm did not affect the stability of immobilized trypsin on membrane surface. Such novel surface engineering design offer a promising route to severe surface-protein contamination remediation in food and wastewater applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0392.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: underwater acoustic communication; parametric technique; self-demodulation
Online: 28 May 2018 (09:42:15 CEST)
This paper presents a study of different types of parametric signals with application to underwater acoustic communications. In all the signals, the carrier frequency is 200 kHz, which corresponds to the resonance frequency of the transducer under study and different modulations are presented and compared. In this sense, we study modulations with parametric sine sweeps (4 to 40 kHz) that represent binary codes (zeros and ones), getting closer to the application in acoustic communications. The different properties of the transmitting signals in terms of bit rate, directivity, efficiency and power needed are discussed as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0093.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Peptide; self-assembly; nanomaterial; hydrogel; aspergillosis; candidiasis.
Online: 4 May 2018 (12:58:24 CEST)
The threat of antimicrobial resistance to society is compounded by a relative lack of new clinically effective licensed therapies reaching patients over the past three decades. This has been particularly problematic within antifungal drug development leading to a rise in fungal infection rates and associated mortality. This paper highlights the potential of an ultrashort peptide, (naphthalene-2-ly)-acetyl-diphenylalanine-dilysine-OH (NapFFKK-OH), encompassing hydrogel-forming and antifungal properties within a single peptide motif, thus overcoming formulation (e.g. solubility, drug loading) issues associated with many current employed highly hydrophobic antifungals. A range of fungal susceptibility (colony counts) and cell cytotoxicity (MTS cell viability, LIVE/DEAD staining® with fluorescent microscopy, haemolysis) assays were employed. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the nanofibrous architecture of our self-assembling peptide, existing as a hydrogel at concentrations of 1% w/v and above. Broad-spectrum activity was demonstrated against a range of fungi clinically relevant to infection (Aspergillus niger, Candida glabrata, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida dubliniensis) with greater than 4 log10 CFU/mL reduction at concentrations of 0.5% w/v and above. We hypothesise antifungal activity is due to targeting of anionic components present within fungal cell membranes resulting in membrane disruption and cell lysis. NapFFKK-OH demonstrated reduced toxicity against mammalian cells (NCTC 929, ARPE-19) suggesting increased selectivity for fungal cells. However, further studies relating to safety for systemic administration is required, given the challenges toxicity has presented in the wider context of antimicrobial peptide drug development. Overall this study highlights the promise of NapFFKK-OH hydrogels, particularly as a topical formulation for the treatment of fungal infections relating to the skin and eyes, or as a hydrogel coating for the prevention of biomaterial related infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0206.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: body self-image; adolescent; anthropometry; nutritional status
Online: 16 April 2018 (10:51:45 CEST)
The critical changes in physical appearance during adolescence can considerably influence the self-appraisal of body image. The purpose of this study is to analyze body self-image gender differences in Mediterranean adolescents, and his relationships to the anthropometric characteristics of this population in different phases of the adolescence. Participants were 809 Mediterranean teenagers (396 females) aged 11 to 17. A relative low prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was observed among healthy urban Mediterranean adolescents (boys 17.3%; girls 22.7%). Girls showed statistically significantly higher mean BSQ scores than boys (M = 61.7, SD = 26.6 versus M = 56.3, SD = 27.1; p < 0.001). Girls in the late adolescence were more often classified as being dissatisfied (31%) in comparison to those in the early adolescent group (19.1%; p < 0.05). There was a good correlation of BSQ scores with all the anthropometric variables in males but not in females.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0153.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: provenance; quantified self; personal informatics; visualization; comics
Online: 21 December 2017 (05:40:26 CET)
Personal health data is acquired, processed, stored, and accessed using a variety of different devices, applications, and services. These are often complex and highly connected. Therefore, use or misuse of the data is hard to detect for people, if they are not capable to understand the trace (i.e., the provenance) of that data. We present a visualization technique for personal health data provenance using comics strips. Each strip of the comic represents a certain activity, such as entering data using a smartphone application, storing or retrieving data on a cloud service, or generating a diagram from the data. The comic strips are generated automatically using recorded provenance graphs. The easy-to-understand comics enable all people to notice crucial points regarding their data such as, for example, privacy violations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0020.v1
Online: 4 December 2017 (08:27:41 CET)
This article will examine the ambivalence in the views of Jewish authorities towards suicide. There are Jewish rulings which forbid the taking of one's own life, including requested euthanasia. There are seemingly contrary rulings which tolerate and sometimes admire suicide, particularly under conditions of religious persecution. The article will attempt an overview of suicide rates in Jewish communities, indicating variations in different circumstances. The question of whether religiosity affects suicide will be raised and examined. These variations—and of course other factors—may offer some clues to the precursors of suicide, and the processes which may be involved. The causal and risk factors in self-harm among Jews will also be examined. The article then turns to post-suicide events, behaviours and attitudes in Jewish communities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0199.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: dissipative structure; energy conversion; mechanical work; self-oscillation; collective dynamics; autonomous motion; self-replication; autocatalysis; molecular motor; molecular robot
Online: 9 September 2020 (05:24:42 CEST)
The construction of molecular robotic-like objects that imitate living things is an important challenge for current chemists. Such molecular devices are expected to perform their duties robustly to carry out mechanical motion, process information, and make independent decisions. Dissipative self-organization plays an essential role in meeting these purposes. To produce a micro-robot that can perform the above tasks autonomously as a single entity, a function generator is required. Although many elegant review articles featuring chemical devices that mimic biological mechanical functions have been published recently, the dissipative structure, which is the minimum requirement, has not been sufficiently discussed. This article aims to show clearly that dissipative self-organization is a phenomenon involving autonomy, robustness, mechanical functions, and energy transformation. Moreover, the author details the recent experimental results of an autonomous light-driven molecular device that achieves all of these features. In addition, a chemical model of cell-amplification is also discussed to focus on the generation of hierarchical movement by dissipative self-organization. By reviewing this research, it may be perceived that mainstream approaches to synthetic chemistry have not always been appropriate. In summary, the author proposes that the integration of catalytic functions is a key issue for the creation of autonomous microarchitecture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0281.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Covid-19; Medicine; Practice; Bedelle city; Self-Medication
Online: 19 October 2022 (10:09:14 CEST)
Abstract Introduction There is a clear link between self-medication practice and ongoing pandemic diseases like COVID-19, According to studies conducted globally and the general Ethiopian population turned to self-medication and symptomatic treatment as a result of inadequate COVID-19 treatment and also about 80% of the population amassed drugs for pandemic use. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess self-medication practice for treatment of Covid-19 and reason to use self- medication among residents in Bedelle city and its surrounding, Southwest Oromia, Ethiopia. Methodology: A cross sectional study design was employed and the standardized questionnaire was developed by reviewing relevant literatures then the data was collected using face to face interview. Final data was analyzed by using SPSS version 23. Result: The final study contained 415 respondents in total, with a response rate of 98.5%. The majority of responses were females and between the ages of 18 - 25 Category. In this study population, the use of self-medication since the onset of the Covid-19 epidemic was reported by participants were around 50.6%. Analgesics (42.4%) and cold medicines (29.5%) were the most frequently used medications for treatment of COVID-19. Also the reported uses of these drugs included treatment of Covid-19 symptoms like the Headache (22.2%), Fever (13.2%), respiratory infective (14.3%), and cold (21.4%) were the most frequently reported symptoms for self-medication. Self-medication methods were used more frequently by women than Men. Conclusion: According to this study, analgesics and cold medications are commonly self- medicated drugs used for Covid-19 therapy. It is a serious health concern, particularly when COVID-19 symptoms are present, and high consumption of self-medication has been linked to COVID-19 prevention or treatment. Key words: Covid-19, Medicine, Practice, Bedelle city, Self-Medication
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0104.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Philosophy; Social media; Psychological well-being; Self-regulation
Online: 7 September 2022 (07:03:56 CEST)
Introduction: The application of the concept of self-regulation that has an impact on the psychological well-being of adolescent social media users as self-regulation in a core aspect of human functioning that helps facilitate the successful pursuit of personal goals and adaptability to changes in the environment. This literature aims to determine the study of the psychological well-being philosophy of adolescent social media users based on self-regulation.Methods: This literature study was conducted through a search for scientific publications ranging from 2018-2022. The databases used are PubMed, Science Direct, and ProQuest. The literature search was carried out according to topics with four groups of keywords based on Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) and combined with Boolean operators AND, OR and NOT, keywords Self-regulation AND mental wellbeing AND social media AND adolescence.Results: A study of the psychological well-being of adolescent social media users based on self-regulation based on ontology, epistemology, and axiology studies. Self-regulation is a philosophy that emphasizes the dynamic process that directs the behavior of a teenager towards the desired final state and adapts to changes that occur in the surrounding environment. The adaptation process is carried out as a form of self-regulation of the positive and negative impacts of using social media on adolescents with a motivational approach and avoidance system. The approach motivation system is carried out if it provides positive aspects in social media. While avoidance motivation is carried out if it has a negative impact in the form of low self-esteem, depression, and body image disturbances as a result of social comparisons made by teenagers when they see other people's posts.Conclusion: The concept of psychological well-being of adolescent social media users based on self-regulation is beneficial for parents to improve the parenting pattern of adolescent children. Good parenting is needed in understanding the positive and negative impacts of using social media and reducing externalization problems in adolescents.