ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0639.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrous Oxide, Denitrification, Nitrogen Cycle, 15N2-labelling, Stable Nitrogen Isotopes.
Online: 26 October 2018 (16:02:24 CEST)
Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient and plays an important role in plant growth and physiology. In addition, N is also the limiting nutrient in most terrestrial ecosystems. The increasing use of N fertilizers increases agricultural production, but also has negative impacts on biodiversity, water quality and increases emissions of greenhouse gases such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and nitrous oxide (N2O) into the atmosphere. N2O is a strong greenhouse gas and the product of microbial transformation processes of N introduced into soil and groundwater (nitrification and denitrification). The production of N2O in soils is highly dependent on oxygen and water content, soil temperature and texture and the available amount of reactive nitrogen (NO3- or NH4+). In agricultural soils, N2O emissions are also influenced by the type of fertilizer used, crops grown, soil pH and NO3- concentration. Refined forms of land management, such as the cultivation of legumes, can reduce the use of fertilizers and thus also the emission of N2O. Legumes can use symbiotic nodule bacteria (rhizobia) to bind atmospheric N2 and make it available to the plant. Non-symbiotic soil microorganisms such as cyanobacteria or other heterotrophic and autotrophic prokaryotes are also able to fix N2. Furthermore, the N2-fixing enzyme nitrogenase, which is specific for most organisms, is not specific for other N2 compounds, especially N2O. To study the N2 and N2O fixation potential of soils and legumes, experiments with isotope-enriched N-gases (100 mol% 15N2 and 15N2O) were performed. Three different soil types (forest, meadow and wetland) as well as legume plants inoculated with rhizobia bacteria (Rhizobium leucaneae) (Leucaena leucocephala) were incubated in microcosms with different mixing ratios of N2 and N2O over a period of one week. The measured 15N enrichment was then used to determine the biological uptake rates. Both in plants and in soils admixtures of up to 40% N2O had no influence on the N2 fixation rate. N2 uptake rates were 1.2 ± 0.4 ug N gdw-1 d- 1in forest and grassland soils and 3.9 ± 1.2 ug N gdw-1 d- 1 in wetland soils. In contrast, the N2 fixation rates of leguminous plants were significantly higher (130 ± 40 ug N gdw-1 d- 1), with the highest accumulation not in root nodules but in the roots. In both plants and soil, the N2O fixation of 0.2 ± 0.1 ug N gdw-1 d- 1 could only be measured from a concentration of 4 vol%. The results indicate that both soils and legumes have a high potential to bind atmospheric nitrogen in the form of both N2 but not N2O. The fate of nitrogen in soil needs to be further investigated. N2 fixation seems to play an important role in wetland soils. Legumes in particular have the potential for NH4+ input and N2O reduction, as most of the solid nitrogen has been transferred to the roots, which can contribute significantly to soil nutrient input.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: anammox bacteria; composting; sewage sludge; low C/N ratio; nitrogen balance; ammonia emissions
Online: 6 June 2022 (05:27:20 CEST)
The C/N ratio is an extremely important parameter in the composting process, which is directly responsible for the growth of microorganisms. A low C/N ratio contributes to higher emissions of greenhouse gases and odorous substances, such as ammonia (NH3), which is formed by nitrogen mineralization. Due to the highly toxic effects of ammonia, it is a particularly unwanted by-product that can disrupt the composting process because it poisons microorganisms and cause environmental issues. The activity of anammox bacteria, so far analyzed only in wastewater treatment processes, is a particularly efficient method of nitrogen removal, having an advantage over the conventional methods used previously. Our study proofs the presence of anammox bacteria during composting, what gives an opportunity to improve the process and reduce its impact on atmospheric pollution. Despite the aerobic nature of this process, the composted mass of waste presents conditions conducive to the development of these ammonia oxidizing bacteria, as well as other strains of microorganisms cooperating with them. This makes it possible to compost at a low C/N ratio; in addition, there is no need for additional energy supply through aeration, as the processes carried out by anammox bacteria do not require oxygen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0315.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Dryland cropping system; Management practices; Nitrogen budget; Nitrogen input; Nitrogen output.
Online: 17 September 2018 (14:21:48 CEST)
Studies on N balance due to N inputs and outputs and soil N retention to measure cropping system performance and environmental sustainability are limited due to the complexity of measurements of some parameters. We measured N balance based on N inputs and outputs and soil N retention under dryland agroecosystem affected by cropping system and N fertilization from 2007 to 2011 in the northern Great Plains, USA. Cropping systems were conventional tillage barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.)-fallow (CTB-F), no-tillage barley-fallow (NTB-F), no-tillage barley-pea (Pisum sativum L.) (NTB-P), and no-tillage continuous barley (NTCB). Nitrogen rates to barley were 0, 40, 80, and 120 kg N ha-1. Total N input due to N fertilization, pea N fixation, soil N mineralization, atmospheric N deposition, nonsymbiotic N fixation, and crop seed N and total N output due to grain N removal, denitrification, volatilization, N leaching, gaseous N (NOx) emissions, surface runoff, and plant senescence were 28 to 37% greater with NTB-P and NTCB than CTB-F and NTB-F. Total N input and output also increased with increased N rate. Nitrogen sequestration rate at 0 to 10 cm averaged 22 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for all treatments. Nitrogen deficit ranged from 5 to 16 kg N ha-1 yr-1, with greater deficits for CTB-F and NTB-P and higher N rates. Because of increased grain N removal and reduced N loss to the environment and N fertilizer requirement, NTB-P with 40 kg N ha-1 can enhance agronomic performance and environmental sustainability while reducing N inputs compared to other management practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0239.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Nitrogen, N accumulation, nitrogen use efficiency, variety, maize
Online: 26 February 2019 (12:26:08 CET)
Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most widely grown important crop in mid altitude areas of intensive maize-based cropping system of western Ethiopia. Agronomic management is the most important input for getting potential yield and high net returns in hybrid maize production. A field experiment was carried out on farmers’ field to find out the effect of varieties (four maize) and nitrogen fertilizer rate (55, 110 kg N ha-1) with one control on yield components and nitrogen use efficiency of different maize varieties in 2013 and 2014 cropping season. It was laid with randomized complete block design in factorial arrangement with three replications. Mean grain yield, thousand seed weight, dry biomass and harvest index of maize varieties were significantly differed among farms and varieties of maize. Application of nitrogen fertilizer rates was significantly increased mean grain yield maize varieties. Interaction of maize varieties with nitrogen fertilizer rates was significantly affected all yield components of maize varieties. Application half and full recommended nitrogen fertilizer gave mean grain yield advantages of 31 and 41 % over control maize varieties planted without nitrogen application. Maize varieties producing higher mean grain yield was also giving higher mean dry biomass. Mean nitrogen up take was varied from 225 to 357 kg ha-1 among varieties of maize. Higher agronomic efficiency of all maize varieties was obtained from maize planted with application half recommended nitrogen fertilizer compared to full recommend. Agronomic efficiency was ranged from 18 to 33 produced among maize varieties. Significantly higher nitrogen up take efficiency of maize varieties was achieved from maize planted with full recommended nitrogen fertilizer application. Considerably higher nitrogen use efficiency of maize varieties was realized from all maize varieties planted with application half recommended nitrogen fertilizer. Application of half recommended nitrogen fertilizer was gave 32 % fertilizer N use efficiency advantage as compared to full recommended nitrogen fertilizer. Maize varieties BH-661>BH-660> BH-543>BH-540>BH-140 were desirable varieties for further promotion work and use by smallholder farmers in mid altitude area of western Ethiopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0409.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Nitrogen; transfer; transformation; N uptake; nitrogen use efficiency
Online: 20 September 2018 (13:09:32 CEST)
A field experiment was conducted in Ninghe, Tianjin, China, using 15N isotope method to evaluate the application of organic fertilizer on N distribution patterns of labelled and unlabeled N fertilizer, ammonium sulfate -15N uptake by rice, N use efficiency (NUE), and the fate of (15NH4)2SO4 applied. The experiment included eight treatments: CK-N (control + no-duck), CK-D (control + ducks), CF-N (chemical fertilizer + no-ducks), CF-D (chemical fertilizer + ducks), CM-N (chemical fertilizer + organic fertilizer + no-ducks), CM-D (chemical fertilizer + organic fertilizer + ducks), CD-N (chemical fertilizer 30% off + organic fertilizer + no-ducks), and CD-D (chemical fertilizer 30% off + organic fertilizer + ducks). The results showed that the application of organic fertilizer whether CM or CD significantly increased N and P concentrations over control (CK) and chemical fertilizer (CF). Moreover, no-significant differences were found in 15N fresh grain and husk concentration. Both organs ranged of 14.2-14.4 g kg-1 and 6.2-6.3 g kg-1, respectively. N derived from the fertilizer and soil significantly affected fresh grain compared to fresh husk. However, N uptake and N use efficiency did not show any differences. We concluded that organic fertilizer has a significant influence on rice growth and promote crop productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0210.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Nitrogen sink; sedimentation; nitrogen fixation; management; tropical reservoir; phosphorous sedimentation
Online: 16 May 2022 (12:25:44 CEST)
Nitrogen and phosphorous loading drives eutrophication of aquatic systems. Lakes and reservoirs are often effective N and P sinks, but information is needed on the variability of their biogeochemical dynamics, especially for tropical systems. A long-term N and P mass balance (2003-2018) in a small tropical eutrophic reservoir lake, Valle de Bravo (VB), Mexico, showed it is a net sink of N (-41.7 g N m-2 y-1), and P (-2.7 g P m-2 y-1), mainly through net sedimentation, equivalent to 181% and 68% of their respective loading (23.0 g N m-2 y-1 and 4.2 g P m-2 y-1). N mass balance showed that VB has a high net N atmospheric influx (31.6 g N m-2 y-1), which was 1.3 times the external load, and likely dominated by N2 fixation. During a period of high water level fluctuations (WLF), the net N atmospheric flux decreased by half compared to high level years. WLF can be a useful management tool to improve the trophic status of water bodies by decreasing anoxic conditions and net atmospheric fluxes, possibly through decreasing nitrogen fixation and/or promoting denitrification and other microbial processes that alleviate the N load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0513.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: dryland wheat; subsoiling; sowing date; nitrogen accumulation; nitrogen translocation; yield
Online: 21 November 2018 (04:51:17 CET)
Dryland winter wheat in Loess Plateau is facing yield reduction due to shortage of soil moisture and delayed sowing time. Field experiment was conducted at Loess Plateau in Shanxi Province, China from 2012 to 2014, to study the effect of subsoiling and conventional tillage and different sowing dates on the soil water storage and contribution of N accumulation and remobilization to yield of winter wheat. The results showed that subsoiling significantly improved the soil water storage at 0-300 cm depth, improved the number of tillers and pre-anthesis N translocation in various organs of wheat and post-anthesis N accumulation, eventually increased the yield up to 17-36%. Delaying sowing time had reduced the soil water storage at sowing and winter accumulated temperature by about 180˚C. The contribution of N translocation to grain yield was maximum in glume+spike followed by in leaves and minimum by stem+sheath. In addition a close relationship was found between the N accumulation and translocation and the soil moisture in the 20-300 cm. Subsoiling during the fallow period and the medium sowing date was beneficial for improving the soil water storage and increased the N translocation to grain, thereby increasing the yield of wheat, especially in dry year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0188.v2
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Co-composted Biochar; Nitrogen Uptake; Nitrogen Use Efficiency; Eutric Gleysol; Northern Ghana
Online: 26 April 2022 (10:02:22 CEST)
Inherent low soil fertility status limits productivity of rice in the lowland ecologies in Northern Ghana. Combining organic and inorganic N fertilizers could help to maintain the fertility of lowland soils for rice production. A screen house pot experiment was carried out to investigate the combined effect of biochar-compost and inorganic N fertilizer on the nitrogen uptake and agronomic performance of rice plants grown on Eutric Gleysol lowland soil. Inorganic N fertilizer alone and its combinations with different types of biochar-compost (based on the proportions of biochar and compost) were used as treatment. A control (unamended soil) was also included. The incorporation of biochar-compost and inorganic N fertilizer improved the growth parameters and yield components of rice plants. The combination of biochar-compost and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer was also found to improve nitrogen uptake and nutrient use efficiency (NUE) in rice plants. This practice could be the most likely viable option for alleviating lowlands soil fertility issues and increasing rice productivity in Northern Ghana.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0096.v1
Online: 20 September 2017 (10:55:56 CEST)
Cuboid diamonds are particularly common in the placers of the northeastern Siberian platform but their origin remains unclear. These crystals usually range in color from dark yellow to orange and more interestingly, are characterized by unusual low aggregated nitrogen impurities (non-aggregated C-center) suggesting a short residence time and/or low temperatures at which they have been stored in the mantle. In order to track possible isotopic signature that could help deciphering cuboid diamond's crystallization processes, δ13C values, δ15N values and nitrogen contents have been determined in-situ in three samples using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), whereas nitrogen aggregation state have been determined by FTIR spectroscopy. The samples fall out the δ13C vs. δ15N field of canonical mantle composition. Different scale of carbon and nitrogen fractionation may produce the observed variations. Alternatively, mixing of mantle and crustal material would obscure initial co-variations of δ13C values with δ15N or nitrogen content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0115.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Controlled drainage; Water content; Salinity (EC); Mineral nitrogen; Nitrogen loss; Yield of oilseed sunflower
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:06:58 CEST)
Controlled drainage (CD) is an important agricultural measure for maintaining soil moisture and nutrients, controlling groundwater level, and increasing crop yield. In arid regions, CD can be used to improve the water supply in agriculture and reduce environmental pollution. In this study, we investigated the effect of CD, including a drainage depth of 40 cm (CWT1) and 70 cm (CWT2) during the plant growth period, free drainage (FD), and open ditch drainage (OD) on the migration of water, nutrients, and salts in the soil; the dynamics of groundwater level; the loss of soil nitrogen; and the growth of oilseed sunflower plants. Compared with FD, CD increased the water and nutrient content in the soil, reduced nitrogen loss, and enhanced the ability of the soil to continuously supply nitrogen to the oilseed sunflower plants, which benefited plant growth at later growth stages and reduced environmental pollution. During the period between irrigation at the budding stage and harvest stage, the average soil water content in the 0–20 cm soil layer in CWT1 increased by 3.67%, 4.78%, and 0.55%, respectively, compared with that in CWT2, FD, and OD. The soil mineral content in CWT1 was 25.17%, 35.05%, and 17.78% higher than that in CWT2, FD, and OD, respectively, indicating that higher soil salinity occurred at the later stage of plant growth in CWT1, which actually had little effect on the plants due to their enhanced salt tolerance and increased need for water and nutrients at that stage. In addition, CD delayed the decline in groundwater level, which allowed the plants to use groundwater at later growth stages, and as a result the yield and water use efficiency were improved. CWT1 significantly increased oilseed sunflower yield by 4.52–11.14% and increased water use efficiency by 1.16–10.8%. Moreover, CWT1 also increased the survival rate of the oilseed sunflower plants by 2.62–2.92%, and the plants demonstrated good growth. Therefore, under CD conditions, plants used soil water and nitrogen more efficiently and, as a result, their productivity was increased, and the water quality was improved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0171.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Nitrate-Nitrogen; Nitrite-Nitrogen; Non-Parametric Hypothesis Testing, Type II Error, Rivers and Streams
Online: 7 June 2021 (12:40:00 CEST)
Nitrogen and phosphorous support the ecosystem by supplying nutrients to algae and aquatic plants. Having them in excess results in the eutrophication of waters creating quality problems. In the past, nitrogen has been widely investigated for wells in the context of groundwater flow. However, a national-scale nitrogen assessment in rivers and streams has not received enough attention. In this research, the Wilcoxon rank sum test, as a non-parametric hypothesis testing method, has been applied to nitrogen concentration in the form of nitrate-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen in rivers and streams of the Contiguous United States. This approach was particularly selected because of the non-normal and positively skewed nitrogen levels occurring in the surface flow. This method was able to identify the impaired body of waters as well as quantify the confidence, significance, and errors involved. The Northern Appalachians (NAP), Northern Plains (NPL), and Xeric (XER) ecoregions were worsening in the nitrogen-nitrate condition with NAP, and XER needed immediate actions. The nitrite-nitrogen condition did not pose an immediate threat, so mitigation plans should focus more on nitrate-nitrogen remediation. It was shown that the method was superior to the two-sample t-test by yielding lower type II errors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0566.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: inorganic carbon; organic carbon and nitrogen; carbon and nitrogen isotopes; coastal sediments; environmental significance
Online: 27 October 2020 (21:41:21 CET)
Carbon and nitrogen contents and their isotopic components and AMS radiocarbon dating ages were measured for 57 coastal sediments from Weizhou Island to analyze the distribution of total inorganic carbon (TIC) and its carbon and oxygen isotopic components (δ13Ccarb and δ18Ocarb), total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents and their stable isotopic components (δ13CTOC and δ15NTN) and environmental significance. The results showed that the oldest age of coastal sediments on Weizhou Island was 2750 cal. a BP, and the average TIC contents of A1, A2, B1, C1, and D1 in the intertidal zone were all greater than 5%, where δ13Ccarb and δ18Ocarb were enriched, while the TIC contents in A3, C2, and D2 of the supra-tidal zone were low, where δ13Ccarb and δ18Ocarb were depleted. Moreover, TIC decreased sharply from the estuary to upstream region in the C1-C2 section. The average C/N ratio was 7.02, and δ13CTOC and δ15NTN were between -14.96‰~-27.26‰ and -14.38‰~4.12‰, respectively. These measurements indicated that the TIC in coastal sediments mainly came from seawater. A1, A2, and B1 in the northern intertidal zone exhibited organic terrestrial signals because of C3 and C4 plant inputs, which proved that the important source of the northern coast of Weizhou Island came from the island. The lacustrine facies deposits were mainly distributed in the upper reaches of the river, the northern coastline was rapidly advancing toward the sea, and part of the southwestern coastal sediments rapidly accumulated to the shore under the influence of a storm surge. The relative sea level of the Weizhou Island area has continuously declined at a rate of approximately 2.07 mm/a, using beach rock as a marker, since the Holocene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0568.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: ecological chemometrics; carbon cycle; nitrogen cycle; carbon and nitrogen distribution; plant leaf-litter-soil continuum
Online: 24 October 2018 (11:12:48 CEST)
We analyzed the plant-litter-soil continuum to investigate the carbon and nitrogen distribution and ecological stoichiometry of an evergreen broad-leaved forest at Dagangshan Mountain, Jiangxi. The results showed that the average C and N contents and C:N ratios in the leaves and fine roots among 6 different tree species were 401.87g/kg, 21.41g/kg, 19.27 and 348.64g/kg, 15.73g/kg, 23.97, respectively; the average C and N contents and C:N ratios were 323.06 g/kg, 12.76 g/kg, 25.58 respectively in leaf litter, and 16.40 g/kg, 1.09 g/kg, 16.27 respectively for soil. In contrast with the C content, the total N content of the fine roots and litter had a high coefficient of variation and a high spatial heterogeneity. We ranked the six different representative tree species according to total C and N content in leaves and fine roots. The results for each species were generally consistent with each other, showing a positive correlation relationship between total C and N content in the leaves and roots. Among them, S. discolor (Champ. ex Benth.) Muell. plants displayed high carbon and nitrogen storage capacities, and on the other hand, C. fargesii Franch., C. myrsinifolia (Blume) Oersted, A. fortunei (Hemsl.) Makino, and V. fordii (Hemsl.) Airy Shaw showed a high nitrogen transfer rate. Total soil N and C decreased with depth. Soil organic carbon (SOC), soil resistant organic carbon (ROC), total N, alkali nitrogen, NH4+-N and NO3--N contents were all also negative correlated with soil depth, but the contents of the NH4+-N and NO3--N did not change significantly; The spatial distribution of soil NO3--N was significantly heterogeneous. At 0-10 cm soil depth, SOC was positively correlated with alkaline nitrogen, and at 10-20 cm soil depth, SOC was significantly positively correlated with total N. In general, when soil carbon was abundant, nitrogen supply capacity was also high.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0355.v1
Online: 19 November 2021 (13:10:13 CET)
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) contributes to several impacts both for human health and the environment. Periodical measurement of NO2 at industrial and residential areas needs comprehensive and reliable instrumentation; long-interference-free measures with minimum maintenance and re-calibration. DOAS can be used as a direct measurement technique based on specific absorption characteristics of NO2 follow Beer-Lambert law. This research applies a low-cost folded path photometer for measurement NO2 in air. Cheap tubular acrylic used as a detection cell with a 3D printed framework makes it compact, modular, and flexible. Evaluation of the DOAS conducted by instrument test responses using NO2 gas. The estimated LOD was ~ 1263 pb using 2 nm resolution of the spectrometer and 6-meter detection cell length. Deviation of the DOAS estimated to be 0.8% at high concentration and 2.85% at a low concentration based on DOAS calibration. An intercomparison between methods used to evaluate instrument performance to measure NO2 using emission from a motorcycle with coefficient correlation (R) 0.649 for paired DOAS-ASTM D1607 Griesz Saltzmann Method 0.846 for paired DOAS-Electrochemical Gas Analyzer. This significant correlation is caused by different respond time between paired methods, while it is still comparable for NO2 measurement.
Online: 3 June 2021 (13:35:30 CEST)
A field experiment was conducted during Kharif 2018, laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications having seven treatments viz. N omission (T1), N applied as basal and AT (T2), N as basal, AT and PI (T3), N as basal and top dressing at NDVI threshold of 0.75 (T4), at NDVI threshold of 0.8 (T5), at SPAD threshold of 35.0 (T6) and SPAD threshold of 37.5 (T7) with Rice variety Sahabhagidhan.The study revealed that application of 30 kg N/ha as basal dose and top dressing of 20 kg N/ha twice at 35 and 63 DAS guided by NDVI threshold value of 0.8 (T5) was found to be superior over other treatments with respect to productivity. T5 recorded highest grain yield of 4438 kg/ha which was 17.0% higher than that top dressed at NDVI threshold of 0.75 (T4) and 7.1% higher than that top dressed at SPAD threshold value of 37.5 (T7). In case of SPAD meter, nitrogen top dressed at threshold value of 37.5 (T7) produced grain yield of 4143 kg/ha which was 15.0% higher than T6. T5 produced maximum dry matter of 8678 kg/ha with highest grain yield (4438 kg/ha), straw yield (5092 kg/ha) and harvest index 46.0%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0028.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Expired Plant Variety Protection (ex-PVP); maize; nitrogen stress; Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE); U.S. Corn Belt Germplasm
Online: 4 November 2017 (07:39:11 CET)
Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in maize (Zea mays L.) is an important trait to maximize yield with minimal input of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Expired Plant Variety Protection (ex-PVP) Act-certified germplasm may be an important genetic resource for public breeding sectors. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the genetic variation of N-use traits and to characterize maize ex-PVP inbreds adapted to the U.S. Corn Belt for NUE performance. Eighty-nine ex-PVP inbreds [36 stiff stalk synthetic (SSS), and 53 non-stiff stalk synthetic (NSSS)] were genotyped using 26,769 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, then 263 single-cross maize hybrids derived from these inbreds were grown in eight environments from 2011 to 2015 at two N fertilizer rates (0 and 252 kg N ha−1) and three replications. Genetic utilization and the yield response to N fertilizer were stable across environments and were highly correlated with yield under low and high N conditions, respectively. Cluster analysis identified inbreds with desirable NUE performance. However, only one inbred (PHK56) was ranked in the top 10% for yield under both N-stress and high N conditions. Broad-sense heritability across 12 different N-use traits ranged from 0.11 to 0.77, but was not associated with breeding value accuracy. Nitrogen-stress tolerance was negatively correlated with the yield increase from N fertilizer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0201.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: wastewater; valuable algal biomass; nitrogen; phosphorus; jellyfish
Online: 14 January 2022 (11:18:16 CET)
The introduction of organic and inorganic substances to the environment is a result of human activities such as agriculture, domestic and industrial wastewater which leads to pollution. Treatment processes of these wastewaters are being conducted globally to eliminate easily settled materials and recover nutrients in an attempt to release clear and apparently clean effluent into natural waters. Lack of removing inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients is the greatest cause of eutrophication in water bodies which inhibits the life of other organisms as well as pose a threat to human life and loss of the economy. Different technologies have been applied and are being developed to recover nutrients as well as heavy metals from wastewater to meet the permissible limits before discharging effluents. Wastewater treatment using microalgae offers an opportunity to provide tertiary bio-treatment and production of valuable biomass. Microalgae use the available inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth which are then harvested for various uses. Additionally, they have the ability to remove heavy metals and some toxic compounds. The main specific microalgae species in this study is the Chlorella sorokiniana with the Aequorea victoria jellyfish This paper reviews some of the wastewater treatment processes and focus on the use of microalgae and some of the shortcomings of the technologies and how they can be improved to achieve maximum nutrient recovery economically with low energy demand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0103.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: ammonia nitrogen; bentonite; COD; RSM; sawdust; SBR
Online: 6 August 2018 (09:08:31 CEST)
Water pollutants removal by biomass adsorbent has been considered innovative and cost effective, thus commendable for application in industrial applications. However, certain important aspects have been overlooked by researchers, namely the efficiency in the operation time and pollutant removal. In this research, landfill leachate samples with organic components were treated using bentonite-enriched with sawdust augmented (SBR) process. By modifying the pH, the sawdust samples were categorized into three: the acidic, the alkaline, and the neutral. To bentonite samples, the pH-adjusted sawdust was added at 10%, 20%, and 30% amounts by mass respectively. At the optimum aeration rate of 7.5 L/min and contact period of 22 h, the treatment achieved 99.28% and 95.41% removal of COD and NH3-N with bentonite respectively. For both pollutants, in the presence of sawdust, the removal reduced by about 17% with contact period reduced to 2 h which was a considerable achievement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0180.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Crushed glass; Carbon emission; Septic discharge; Total Nitrogen
Online: 19 April 2022 (10:30:59 CEST)
The on-site wastewater treatment system (OWTS) with a sand trench is an economical option for residents in rural areas or the countryside where a centralised sewer system is inaccessible. 2A sand achieves improved filtration, microbial activity and consistent long term performance when compared to gravel or scoria based trench systems. However, it is expensive and only readily available in a few areas across New Zealand. Additionally, it has a reputation for premature blockage when overloaded or compacted. The aim of this study is not only to critically evaluate the performance of Crushed Glass (CG) with respect to 2A sand, but also to investigate different loading rates for CG when treating primary treated effluent from a septic tank. A test rig was designed and constructed to simulate the real environment of the sand column in a discharge control trench. The treatment efficiency of three filters was recorded and compared in this study. Overall, the CG loaded at 25mm/day (CG25) and 50mm/day (CG50) provided an average of 13% and 6% more Total Nitrogen (TN) reduction than the sand filter, respectively. The removal rates for the TN were up to 69.5%. The CG50 filter performed similarly at 50mm/day as the 2A sand filter in terms of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)5 removal of more than 94%. The CG25 removal rates for TSS and BOD5 at the start of the trial (likely due to residual liquid contamination from the bottles when crushed) improved over the sampling period and ultimately achieved similar results of 92% and 91.3% to the filters loaded at 50mm/day. Lifecycle cost analyses and carbon balances were completed for the two media. It highlighted that the current price of CG is only half of 2A sand, yet it produces significantly less CO2 emissions than 2A sand. A 3-bedroom dwelling could save up to $500 and reduce 200kg of CO2 released to the environment annually when 2A sand is substituted for CG. Based on the findings of this paper, it is likely that the reduced installation cost, lessened environmental impact and theoretical availability will lead to CG systems becoming more common in New Zealand and abroad.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0142.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: atomic data; inner-shell photoionization; atomic nitrogen ion
Online: 5 April 2021 (14:22:55 CEST)
High-resolution K-shell photoionization cross-sections for the C-like atomic nitrogen ion (N+) are reported in the 398 eV (31.15 Å) to 450 eV (27.55 Å) energy (wavelength) range. The results were obtained from absolute ion-yield measurements using the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility for spectral bandpasses of 65 meV or 250 meV. In the photon energy region 398 eV - 403 eV, 1s⟶2p autoionizing resonance states dominated the cross section spectrum. Analyses of the experimental profiles yielded resonance strengths and Auger widths. In the 415 eV - 440 eV photon region 1s⟶1s2s22p2 4Pnp and 1s⟶1s2s22p2 2Pnp resonances forming well-developed Rydberg series up n=7 and n=8 , respectively, were identified in both the single and double ionization spectra. Theoretical photoionization cross-section calculations, performed using the R-matrix plus pseudo-states (RMPS) method and the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) approach were bench marked against these high-resolution experimental results. Comparison of the state-of-the-art theoretical work with the experimental studies allowed the identification of new resonance features. Resonance strengths, energies and Auger widths (where available) are compared quantitatively with the theoretical values. Contributions from excited metastable states of the N+ ions were carefully considered throughout.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0196.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: biochar; dryland; residue; nitrogen fertilizer; straw; wheat productivity
Online: 8 February 2021 (12:04:21 CET)
Water and nutrients shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in many arid and semiarid areas of the world. It is unknown whether improved water and nutrient conservation practices can be developed to alleviate this issue while increasing crop productivity. In this study, experimental work included the application of straw, biochar and N fertilizer. The straw and biochar were applied alone or combined with N fertilizer (0 and 100 kg N ha-1). Application of biochar and straw in combination with N fertilizer caused a reduction in mean soil temperature by an average of 20.05% and 18.10% relative to soils without carbon. Biochar and straw– amended soils significantly (P < 0.05) increased soil moisture content by 11.04% and 13.68% compared to no carbon treatments. Statistically comparable temperatures and moisture were recorded for both straw and biochar treated plots. Both biochar and straw treated soils produced the lowest bulk density (0–5 cm) at 1.15 g cm–3, and no carbon soils the highest at 1.20 g cm–3. The improved soil quality translated into higher biomass in the biochar (1906 kg ha–1) and biomass (1643 kg ha–1) and soils without carbon the lowest at 1553 kg ha–1. The improvement of soil moisture and the optimization of soil temperature for the two residue treated soils allow us to conclude that combined application of biochar and straw at the rate used in this study can be used as an effective farming model in alleviating water and nutrient shortage in semiarid environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0357.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Striga infestation; Striga damage; yield loss; nitrogen application
Online: 17 August 2020 (10:08:51 CEST)
Low soil nitrogen status of savanna soils in Nigeria contributes to the persistent Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. infestation that limits maize production. The application of nitrogen fertilizer to Striga-resistant hybrids may reduce Striga infection and increase grain yields. This study assessed the performance of maize hybrids at low (30 kg ha-1) and high (120 kg ha-1) nitrogen application under natural infestation with Striga at Kafin Madaki and Tudun Wada in 2014 and 2015. Results showed that the application of nitrogen at 120 kg ha-1 reduced number of Striga plants by 59% compared to application at 30 kg N ha-1 in Kafin Madaki and by 21% in Tudun Wada. Compared to 30 kg N ha-1, the 120 kg N ha-1 rate also reduced Striga damage rating by 22% in Kafin Madaki and by 33% in Tudun Wada across the hybrids. Hybrids 8338-1 (5.3) and OBASUPER 1 (4.3) were the only entries with Striga damage rating greater than 4.5 (SDR > 4.5) when averaged across the nitrogen levels at both locations. Grain yield was 86 and 98% higher in Kafin Madaki and Tudun Wada, respectively when N was applied at 120 kg N ha-1 than at 30 kg N ha-1. The hybrids M1124-3 and M1227-14 produced grain yields that were significantly higher than those of the other hybrids in all locations. The hybrid 8338-1 produced the lowest grain yield across locations. Our results showed that, the application of 120 kg N ha-1 to Striga resistant maize hybrids will reduce Striga infection and increase grain yield.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0034.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: freshwater insects; gut microbiome; nitrogen provisioning; nitrate reduction
Online: 5 August 2019 (00:48:14 CEST)
Biological nitrogen (N) provisioning is a seminal function of the gut microbes in several terrestrial insects, given the unbalanced carbon (C) and N ratios of their diets. Although freshwater insects face comparable dietary N limitations like terrestrial insects, little is known about this function by their gut microbiomes. In this study, we investigated microbial nitrate reduction to ammonium pathways as possible routes of biological N provisioning in two freshwater insects; filter-feeding Hydropsychidae and grazers/collectors Baetidae. After incubation in filtered (microbe-free) artificial stream water (ASW) containing dissolved 15N-labeled nitrate (treatment) or standard nitrate (control), bulk δ15N values of treatment samples (Baetidae = 100.62 ± 10.23, mean ± S.E.; Hydropsychidae = 76.82 ± 7.20) were significantly higher than controls (Baetidae = 10.14 ± 0.12 ; Hydropsychidae = 9.03 ± 0.20) in both functional feeding groups (F (3, 13) = 296, P < 0.0001). The treatment δ15N values are cautiously interpreted as reflecting uptake and incorporation of microbe-derived 15N-metabolites (15NH4 or 15N-amino acids) into host tissues following nitrate reduction to ammonium pathways in the gut lumen. Microbial nitrate reduction to ammonium activities was assessed via the quantification of dissimilatory (nrfA) and assimilatory (nasA) nitrate reduction to ammonium gene transcripts. There were no significant differences between control and treatment groups within each insect groups. Overall, this study provides a demonstration of the feasibility of applying 15N-stable isotope analysis for investigating, potential symbiotic functions of freshwater insect gut microbiomes, despite the preliminary nature of the results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0395.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: air quality; nitrogen oxides; dispersion modelling; computational fluid dynamics
Online: 31 March 2022 (05:55:45 CEST)
Road vehicles are a large contributor to Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) pollution. The routine road-side monitoring stations, however, may underrepresent the severity of personal exposure in urban areas, because long-term average readings cannot capture the effects of momentary, high peaks of air pollution. While numerical modelling tools historically have been used to propose an improved distribution of monitoring stations, ultra-high resolution Computational Fluid Dynamics models can further assist the relevant stakeholders in understanding the important details of pollutant dispersion and exposure at local level. This study deploys a 10 cm-resolution CFD model to evaluate actual high peaks of personal exposure to NOx from traffic, by tracking the gases emitted from the tailpipe of moving vehicles being dispersed towards the roadside. The investigation shows that a set of four Euro 5-rated diesel vehicles travelling at constant speed may generate momentary road-side concentrations of NOx as high as 1.25 mg/m3, with 25% expected increase for doubling the number of vehicles and approximately 50% reduction when considering Euro 6-rated vehicles. The paper demonstrates how the numerical tool can be used to identify the impact of measures to reduce personal exposure, such as protective urban furniture, as traffic patterns and environmental conditions change.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0029.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: carbon nanomaterials; nitrogen doping; sulphur doping; co-doping; electrocatalysts
Online: 2 December 2021 (10:18:53 CET)
In recent years, hetero atom incorporated specially structured metal-free carbon nanomaterials have drawn huge attention among researchers. In comparison to the un-doped carbon nanomaterials, hetero atoms like nitrogen, sulphur, boron, phosphorous etc. incorporated nanomaterials become well-accepted as potential electrocatalysts in water splitting, supercapacitors and dye-sensitized solar cells. This review emphasizes on the mostly popular synthetic strategies utilized in last two decades and their excellent performance in electrocatalytic studies.
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Microbiome; Diazotroph; Nitrogen fixation bacteria; Random Forest; Network; Trichomona
Online: 23 August 2021 (12:15:31 CEST)
Biofertilizer, an environment-friendly and renewable plant nutrient source, has been widely applied and studied to reduce dependency on chemical fertilizers. However, most studies focus on the effects of biofertilizer on the bacterial and fungal communities, and we still lack an understanding of biofertilizer on the protistan community. Here, the effects of biofertilizer application on the composition and interaction of the protistan community in the wheat rhizosphere were investigated based on a 4-year field experiment. Biofertilizer application altered soil physicochemical properties and the protistan community composition (ANOSIM, p < 0.001), and significantly induced an alpha diversity decline. Random forecast and redundancy analysis demonstrated that nitrogenase activity and available phosphorus were the main drivers. Trichomonas classified to the phylum Metamonada was enriched by biofertilizer, and was significantly positive connections with soil nitrogenase activity and some function genes involved in nitrogen-fixation and nitrogen-dissimilation. Biofertilization loosely connected biotic interactions, while did not affect the stability of the protistan community. Besides, biofertilizer promoted the connections of protists with fungi, bacteria, and archaea. Combined with the conjunct biotic network (protist, fungi, bacteria, and archaea) and interactions between protists and soil physicochemical properties/function genes, protists may act as keystone taxa potentially driving soil microbiome composition and function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0522.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Biogeographic Chocó; Carbon balance; Nutritional limitation; Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Potassium
Online: 22 July 2021 (14:14:30 CEST)
Tropical rainforests have the highest rates of net primary productivity (NPP) of the world. Hypotheses about the effect of edaphic nutrient contents, especially the availability of P, propose that they limit NPP of tropical forests or promote the redistribution of its above and belowground components. However, these hypotheses have not been tested experimentally in highly rainy tropical forests. To test such hypotheses, the effects of soil fertilization on the above and belowground NPP were evaluated in forests of two localities of Chocó (Colombia), one of the rainiest regions of the world. Five fertilization treatments (N, P, K, NPK and Control) were applied, and the above and belowground NPP were determined in permanent plots. There were no significant effects of treatments on total NPP; only the application of N significantly increased litter NPP. Additionally, a redistribution of the above and belowground NPP was found with the application of P, which increased the proportion of fine roots and litter, and decreased the woody components of forest NPP. This change of carbon allocation is interpreted as an ecophysiological mechanism to capture additional nutrients in soils with very low content of available P.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0061.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Sheep breeds; Awassi; Najdi; Harri; Growing; Digestibility; Nitrogen retention
Online: 2 July 2021 (14:19:29 CEST)
Forty-five of intact three sheep breeds (Awassi, Harri, and Najdi) were used in this study (15 animals of each breed), with weight ranged from 23.40 to 25.87 kg. Five animals from each group at the end of growth trial were used for digestibility and nitrogen balance trials. The three groups of sheep had effect (p > 0.05) in the final live weight (FLW). Average daily feed intake (ADI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly (p < 0.05) different among the three groups. For digestibility coefficients, the three breeds of sheep had no effect (p > 0.05) in dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). In the similar approach, no significant differences were founds among three breeds of sheep in digestible organic matter, digestible of crude protein, total digestible nutrients and nitrogen retention. The current study concluded that the sheep breeds affected average daily feed intake, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Awassi breed showed the best of average daily gain and feed conversion ratio followed by Najdi then Harri breeds. The breed of sheep had no effect on digestibility coefficients and nitrogen retention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0006.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: nitrogen cycle; ammonium; nitrate; nitrite; stratification; boreal; meromictic lake
Online: 1 July 2021 (09:33:16 CEST)
In order to better understand the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in meromictic lakes, which can serve as a model for past aquatic environments, we measured dissolved concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and organic nitrogen in deep (39 m maximal depth) subarctic Lake Svetloe (NW Russia). The lake is a rare type of freshwater meromictic water boy with high concentrations of methane, ferrous iron, manganese and low concentrations of sulfates and sulfides in the monimolimnion. In the oligotrophic mixolimnion, the concentration of mineral forms of nitrogen decreased in summer compared to winter, likely due to phytoplankton bloom. The decomposition of the bulk of organic matter occurs under microaerophilic/anaerobic conditions of the chemocline and accompanied by the accumulation of nitrogen in the form of N-NH4 in the monimonimlion. We revealed a strong relationship between methane and nitrogen cycles in the chemocline and monimolimnion horizons. The nitrate concentrations in Lake Svetloe varied in the range from 9 to 13 μM throughout the water column. This fact is rare for meromictic lakes, where nitrate concentrations up to 13 µM are found in the monimolimnion zone down to the bottom layers. We hypothesize, in accord with available data for other stratified lakes, that under conditions of high concentrations of manganese and ammonium at the boundary of redox conditions and below, anaerobic nitrification with the formation of nitrates occurs. Overall, most of organic matter in Lake Svetloe undergoes biodegradation essentially under microaerophilic/anaerobic conditions of the chemocline and the monimolimnion. Consequently, the manifestation of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle is expressed in these horizons in the most vivid and complex relationship with other cycles of elements.
Online: 23 April 2021 (12:02:53 CEST)
To increase rice production, fertilizer plays a crucial role in rice yield. In this research, we applied the coupled atmospheric and crop model, which is based on the WRF and CERES-Rice models, to find the appropriate nitrogen fertilizer level for increasing rice yield production in northern Thailand. The model was conducted from October to December in 2011 to 2015. To evaluate the model capability, the output from the model, including meteorological data, i.e., precipitation and temperature, and rice production, as compared to actual observation data. The modeling system shows an acceptable level of output for statistical examination; for example, the R2 values were 0.93, 0.76, and 0.97 for precipitation, temperature, and rice production, respectively. To assess the optimization of the nitrogen fertilizer level, we designed 9 experiments: control cases and other cases that were multiplied by a factor of 2 – 10 times the nitrogen fertilizer levels. The model suggested that we can produce worthwhile rice yield production by approximately 4830 kg/ha if we increase the nitrogen fertilizer levels by 36 kg/ha.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0702.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Sulfur; Hydrogen cyanide; Gas production; Ammonia nitrogen; Propionic acid
Online: 28 December 2020 (13:09:24 CET)
The study aimed to elucidate the optimum level of elemental sulfur, fresh cassava root (FCR), and urea and their effect on gas production, ruminal fermentation, thiocyanate concentration, and in vitro degradability. A 3×2×4 in a completely randomized design were conducted. Factor A was level of sulfur at 0%, 1%, and 2% of concentrate dry matter (DM), factor B was level of urea at 2% and 4% of concentrate DM, and factor C was level of the FCR at 0, 200, 300, and 400 mg of the total substrate. The study found that elemental sulfur, urea, and FCR had no interaction effect on the kinetics of gas, ruminal fermentation, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and in vitro degradability. Elemental sulfur supplementation (P<0.05) significantly increased the gas produced from an insoluble fraction (b), in vitro DM degradability and either neutral detergent fiber or acid detergent fiber degradability, and propionate (C3) concentration while decreased the ruminal HCN concentration. Urea levels showed a (P<0.05) significant increase of the potential extent of gas production, ruminal NH3-N, and total volatile fatty acid (VFA). FCR supplementation (P<0.05) significantly increased the gas produced from an immediate soluble fraction (a), gas produced from insoluble fraction, gas production rate constant, total VFA, C3 concentration, and HCN while decreased ruminal pH, acetate, and butyrate concentration. It could be concluded that 2% elemental sulfur, 4% urea, and 300 mg FCR showed a greater effect on gas production, ruminal fermentation, and HCN reduction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0351.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Sesbania grandiflora; Tannins; Saponin; Methane; Fecal nitrogen; Ammonia; Propionate
Online: 14 December 2020 (15:45:19 CET)
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude protein (CP) levels in concentrate and Sesbania grandiflora pod meal (SG) supplementations on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and methane (CH4) mitigation in Thai purebred beef cattle. Four cattle with 100 ± 5.0 kg body weight were used in this study. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment in a 4 × 4 Latin square design were conducted, in which factor A was the CP contents in concentrate of 14, and 16% of dry matter (DM) and factor B was the supplement contents of SG at 0.4% and 0.6% DM intake, respectively. The results showed that the CP contents in concentrate and SG had no interaction effect on intake, digestibility, ruminal ecologies, ruminal fermentation products, and nitrogen utilization. Increasing CP contents in concentrate did not influence DM intake and nutrients’ digestibility, and SG supplementation at 0.6% significantly (P<0.05) decreased CP digestibility. Increasing CP content to 16% increased significantly (P<0.05) the ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration while decreased significantly (P<0.05) the NH3-N concentration, protozoal number, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) at 4 h post-feeding. The 0.6% supplementation of the SG increased significantly average total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and propionate (C3) concentration while decreased significantly average acetate (C2), C2:C3 ratio, and CH4 production, which was 2.71% for C2, 13.17% for C2:C3 ratio, and 4.37% for CH4 production lower than 0.4% supplementation. Fecal nitrogen excretion was significantly decreased when supplemented with 0.6% of the SG. In conclusion, 0.6% of the SG supplementation showed a greater effect on intake, rumen manipulation, and CH4 mitigation and would recommend supplementation to a concentrate-based diet containing either 14% or 16% CP content.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0542.v1
Subject: Keywords: climate change； vegetables； crop wild relatives； nitrogen use efficiency
Online: 23 September 2020 (07:51:18 CEST)
Climate variation and change are an unavoidable phenomenon faced by the natural habitat of this planet. For getting potential yield from vegetable crops under the changing climate conditions, the practical strategies at field level can serve as a guideline for the farmers. Moreover, there are several strategies available for mitigating the harmful effects of climate change. In this manuscript, efforts have been made for reviewing the mitigating strategies against the impact of climate change in vegetable crops via conventional approaches. Considering the situation, the information reviewed revealed that significant result of conventional approaches with climate-smart adoptions strategies has a direct bearing on vegetable production for the increasing population in frenziedly changing climate scenario.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0299.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: air pollution; particulate matter; nitrogen dioxide; COVID-19; pandemic
Online: 18 May 2020 (09:36:25 CEST)
A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have determined a pneumonia outbreak in China (Wuhan and Hubei) on December 2019. While pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical intervention strategies are strengthened worldwide, the scientific community has been studying the risk factors associated with SARS-Cov-2, to enrich epidemiological information. For a long time, before the industrialized era, air pollution has been a real and big health concern and it is today a very serious environmental risk for many diseases and anticipated deaths in the world. It has long been known that air pollutants increasing the invasiveness of pathogens for humans by acting as a carrier and making people more sensitive to pathogens through a negative influence on the immune system. Based on scientific evidences, the hypothesis that air pollution, resulting from a combination of factors such as meteorological data, level of industrialization as well as regional topography, can acts both as an infection carrier as a harmful factor of the health outcomes of COVID-19 disease has been raised recently. This hypothesis is turning in scientific evidence, thanks to the numerous studies that have been launched all over the world. With this review, we want to provide a first unique view of all the first epidemiological studies relating the association between air pollution and SARS-CoV-2. Major findings are consistent, highlighting the important contribution of air pollution on the COVID-19 spread and with a less extent also PM10.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0409.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Agronomic traits; Hybrid performance; Nitrogen response; Plant density; Variability
Online: 27 February 2020 (15:59:14 CET)
Maize (Zea mays L.) production in West and Central Africa is constrained by drought, low soil-N and Striga infestation. Breeders in the region have developed and commercialized extra-early and early-maturing hybrids (E-EH and EH), which combine high yield potentials with tolerance/resistance to the three stresses. Hybrids of both maturity groups are new to the farmers; thus, the urgent need to recommend appropriate agronomic practices for these hybrids. We investigated the responses of four hybrids belonging to extra-early and early-maturity groups to plant density (PD) and nitrogen (N) application in five agroecologies. The EHs consistently out-yielded the E-EHs in all the five agroecologies. The hybrids showed no response to N-fertilizer application above 90 kg ha-1. All interactions involving N had no significant effect on all traits except in few cases. The E-EHs and EHs had similar response to PD; their grain yield decreased as PD increased. Contrarily, flowering was delayed and expression of some other agronomic traits such as plant and ear aspects became poorer with increased PD. Optimal yield was obtained at approximately 90 kg N ha-1 and 66,666 plants ha-1. Most of the measured traits indicated high repeatability estimates (i.e. ≥ 60) across the N levels, PDs and environments. Evidently, the hybrids were intolerant of high PD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0498.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: acrylamide; asparagine; agriculture; nitrogen; sulfur; fertilization; cereals; cropping system
Online: 22 October 2018 (12:57:43 CEST)
In a two-year field trial, the effect of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) fertilization was investigated on grain yield, grain quality parameters, formation of acrylamide (AA), and the precursor free asparagine (Asn) in organically and conventionally produced winter wheat cultivars. In both production systems, different types, amounts, and temporal distributions of N were tested. While the effect of S fertilizer types and amounts on free Asn was only tested in the conventional farming system. Within both cropping systems, grain yield and baking quality were significantly influenced by N treatment while the effect on free Asn was only minor. Especially within the organic farming system, increasing N fertilization levels did not increase free Asn significantly. A slight trend of increasing free Asn levels with an intensified N supply was observed, especially in the presence of crude protein contents of 14% or higher. But only N amounts of 180 kg N ha−1 or higher increased the probability of high free Asn contents considerably, while N supply below that amount led to free Asn values similar to the unfertilized controls. The results indicated that good baking quality can be achieved without significantly increasing free Asn levels. In addition, cultivars affected the levels of free Asn significantly. Compared to cv. “Bussard” and “Naturastar”, cv. “Capo” exhibited the lowest AA formation potential at an N supply of 180 kg N ha−1 while simultaneously reaching a crude protein content > 15% (conventional) and > 12% (organic). Thus, it seems that cultivars differ in their ability to store and incorporate free Asn into proteins. Over all trials, a correlation of free Asn and AA was shown by R2 = 0.77, while a relation of free Asn and protein was only R2 = 0.36. Thus, lowering free Asn by adjusting N treatments should not necessarily affect baking quality. S nutrition within conventional farming did not change free Asn amount or crude protein significantly, probably due to the fact that soil was not sulfate-deficient. In summary, it was evident that free Asn amounts in wheat varied widely both within cultivars and between cropping systems. In order to clearly unravel genotypic differences and their interaction with environmental factors and especially N fertilization, further research is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0028.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: amorphous oxide semiconductor (AOS); thin film transistor (TFT); nitrogen-doped amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO:N); nitrogen-doped amorphous InZnO (a-IZO:N); hetero-structure
Online: 8 September 2017 (09:54:19 CEST)
The nitrogen-doped amorphous oxide semiconductor (AOS) thin film transistors (TFTs) with double-stacked channel layers (DSCL) were prepared and characterized. The DSCL structure composed of nitrogen-doped amorphous InGaZnO and InZnO films (a-IGZO:N/a-IZO:N or a-IZO:N/a-IGZO:N) made the corresponding TFT devices exhibit quite large field-effect mobility due to the existence of double conduction channels. Especially, the a-IZO:N/a-IGZO:N TFTs showed even better electrical performance (μFE = 15.0 cm2·V-1·s-1, SS = 0.5 V/dec, VTH = 1.5 V, ION/IOFF = 1.1×108) and stability (VTH shift of 1.5, -0.5, and -2.5 V for positive bias-stress, negative bias-stress and thermal stress tests, respectively) than the a-IGZO:N/a-IZO:N TFTs. Based on the X-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements and energy band analysis, it was assumed that the optimized interface trap states, the less ambient gas adsorption, and the better suppression of oxygen vacancies in the a-IZO:N/a-IGZO:N hetero-structures might be responsible for the better behaviors of the corresponding TFTs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0355.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Wastewater treatment; Nitrogen-containing pollutants; Nitrate photoreduction; SCR; Photocatalysis; Titania.
Online: 24 January 2022 (12:46:10 CET)
Bare titania and metal promoted TiO2 catalysts were employed in the treatment of nitrates, which are ubiquitous pollutants of wastewater. The results show that the process can be carried out under visible light (from white light LED lamp) and, in the best case, 23.5% conversion of nitrate was obtained over 4 hours with full selectivity towards N2 by employing 0.1 mol% Ag/TiO2 prepared by flame spray pyrolysis. Moreover, the performance was worse when testing the same catalysts with tap water (11.3% conversion), due to the more complex composition of the matrix. At last, it was found that the photoreduction of nitrate can be effectively performed in combina-tion with the photo-oxidation of ammonium without loss in the activity, opening to the possi-bility to treat highly polluted wastewater with a single process. The latter treatment employs the two contaminants simultaneously as electron and holes scavengers, with very good selectiv-ity, in a completely new process that we may call Photo-Selective Catalytic Reduction (Pho-to-SCR).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0236.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Abscisic acid; , Brassica juncea; Nitrogen; Salinity; Oxidative stress; Photosynthetic functions
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:47:56 CEST)
The present study assessed the effect of abscisic acid (ABA; 25 µM) and/or nitrogen (N; 10 mM) in minimization of salinity (NaCl; 100mM)-impact on growth, photosynthetic efficiency, Rubisco activity, nitrogen and sulfur assimilation, oxidative stress (H2O2), lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, (TBARS), osmolyte (Proline) content, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD glutathione reductase, GR; ascorbate peroxidase, APX) in cultivar RH0-749 of Brassica juncea L. NaCl stress caused significant elevations in H2O2 and TBARS, and differentially modulated proline content, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and impaired growth and photosynthetic functions. Exogenously applied 25 µM ABA negatively affected plant growth and photosynthesis in B. juncea without NaCl. In contrast, exogenously applied 25 µM ABA and 10 mM N, alone or in combination minimized oxidative stress, and maintained a fine-tuning between proline content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and thereby improved plant growth and photosynthetic functions in NaCl exposed B. juncea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0147.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Abscisic acid; Brassica juncea; Nitrogen; Salinity; Oxidative stress; Photosynthetic functions
Online: 7 June 2021 (07:47:12 CEST)
The present study assessed the effect of abscisic acid (ABA; 25 µM) and/or nitrogen (N; 10 mM) in minimization of salinity (NaCl; 100mM)-impact on growth, photosynthetic efficiency, Rubisco activity, nitrogen and sulfur assimilation, oxidative stress (H2O2), lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, (TBARS), osmolyte (Proline) content, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD glutathione reductase, GR; ascorbate peroxidase, APX) in cultivar RH0-749 of Brassica juncea L. NaCl stress caused significant elevations in H2O2 and TBARS, and differentially modulated proline content, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and impaired growth and photosynthetic functions. Exogenously applied 25 µM ABA negatively affected plant growth and photosynthesis in B. juncea without NaCl. In contrast, exogenously applied 25 µM ABA and 10 mM N, alone or in combination minimized oxidative stress, and maintained a fine-tuning between proline content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and thereby improved plant growth and photosynthetic functions in NaCl exposed B. juncea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0095.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: antioxidants; Brassica juncea; ethylene; nitrogen assimilation; proline metabolism; sulfur assimilation
Online: 3 June 2021 (09:55:26 CEST)
In the present study, the potential of ethylene as ethephon (an ethylene source) was investigated individually or with a combination of the split dosage of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) soil treatments for the removal of damaging effects of salt stress (100 mM NaCl) in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Plants were grown with 50 mg N plus 50 mg S kg−1 soil at sowing time and an equivalent dosage at 20 days after sowing ([N50 + S50]0d + [N50 + S50]20d). Ethephon at 200 μL L‒1 was applied to combined split dosage of N and S with or without NaCl. Plants subjected to NaCl showed a deceased in growth and photosynthetic characteristics as well as N and S assimilation, though, proline metabolism and antioxidants increased. The application of ethephon to plants grown with split N and S dosages significantly enhanced the photosynthetic efficiency by increasing the assimilation of N and S, improving the content of proline and induction of the antioxidant system with or without NaCl. The regulation of ethylene and/or split form N and S application may be the potential tools for overcoming salt stress effects in this species and in related Brassicaceae.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: black poplar; dimensional stability; factor influence; nitrogen atmosphere; thermal modification
Online: 26 February 2021 (10:53:16 CET)
Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) was thermally modified in nitrogen atmosphere. Treatment in nitrogen atmosphere can improve the dimensional stability of black poplar. The effects of the modification process on poplar wood were evaluated for temperatures: 160 °C, 190 °C, and 220 °C applied for 2 h; and 160 °C and 190 °C for 6 h. The percentual impact of temperature and time of modification on the properties of modified wood was analysed. The study permitted to identify correlations between the chemical composition and selected physical properties of thermally modified poplar wood. The dimensional stability of poplar wood improves after thermal modification in nitrogen. The higher the temperature of modification, the lower the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of black poplar. At the temperature of 220 °C, EMC was two times lower than the EMC of non-modified black poplar. It is also possible to reduce the dimensional changes of wood two-fold (at the modification temperature of 220 °C), both in radial and tangential directions, independently of the acclimatisation conditions (from 34% to 98% RH). Similar correlations have been found for wood that has been soaked in water. Higher modification temperatures and longer processing times contributed to a lower swelling anisotropy (SA).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0383.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: bioretention; nitrogen removal; submerged zone; alternate wet and dry conditions
Online: 31 January 2020 (11:31:15 CET)
Adding a submerged zone (SZ) is deemed to promote denitrification during dry periods and thus improve NO3--N removal efficiency of a bioretention system. However, few studies had investigated the variation of nitrogen concentration in the SZ during dry periods and evaluated the effect of the variation on nitrogen removal of the bioretention system. Based on the experiment in a mesocosm bioretetion system with SZ, this study investigated the variation of nitrogen concentration of the system under 17 consecutive cycles of wet and dry alternation with varied rainfall amount, influent nitrogen concentration and antecedent dry periods (ADP). The results indicated that (1) during the dry periods, NH4+-N concentrations in SZ showed an exponential decline trend, decreasing by 50% in 12.9 ± 7.3 hours; while NO3--N concentrations showed an inverse S-shape decline trend, decreasing by 50% in 18.8 ± 6.4 hours; (2) during the wet periods, NO3--N concentration in the effluent showed an S-shape upward trend; and at the early stage of the wet periods, the concentration was relatively low and significantly correlated with ADP, while the corresponding volume of the effluent was significantly correlated with the SZ depth; (3) in the whole experiment, the contribution of nitrogen decrease in SZ during dry periods to NH4+-N and NO3--N removal accounted for 12% and 92%, respectively; and the decrease of NO3--N in SZ during the dry period was correlated with the influent concentration in the wet period and the length of the dry period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0270.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: nitrogen; phosphorus; nutrient cycling; biogeochemistry; geochemistry; geophysics; wetlands; catchment management
Online: 24 November 2019 (05:05:30 CET)
The impact of riparian wetlands on the cycling, retention and export of nutrients from land to water varies according to local environmental conditions and is poorly resolved in catchment management approaches. To determine the role a specific wetland might play in a catchment mitigation strategy, an alternative approach is needed to the high frequency and spatially detailed monitoring programme that would otherwise be needed. Here, we present a new approach using a combination of novel and well-established geochemical, geophysical and isotope ratio approaches. This was developed and tested against a 2-year high-resolution sampling programme in a lowland permeable wetland in the Lambourn catchment, UK. The monitoring programme identified multiple pathways and water sources feeding into the wetland, generating large spatial and temporal variations in nutrient cycling, retention and export behaviours within the wetland. This complexity of contributing source areas and biogeochemical functions within the wetland were effectively identified using the new toolkit approach. We propose that this technique could be used to determine the likely net source/sink function of riparian wetlands prior to their incorporation into any catchment management plan, with relatively low resource implications when compared to a full high frequency nutrient speciation and isotope geochemistry-based monitoring approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0216.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: amino acid; digestive enzyme; low protein diet; nitrogen balance; pigs
Online: 19 November 2019 (02:56:38 CET)
This study was conducted to determine the dynamic effects of dietary crude protein (CP) intake on nitrogen (N) balance, ileal amino acid digestibility, and gene expression levels of digestive enzymes at three stages in pigs. In Experiment 1, 18 growing pigs (average body weight (BW) = 9.5 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (n = 6/treatment group), including normal (20% CP), low (17% CP), and very low (14% CP) protein intake. In Experiment 2, 18 growing pigs (average BW = 30 kg) were allotted randomly to one of three treatments (n = 6/treatment group), including normal (18% CP), low (15% CP), and very low (12% CP) protein intake. In Experiment 3, 18 growing pigs (average BW = 45 kg) were assigned randomly to one of three treatments (n = 6/treatment group), including normal (16% CP), low (13% CP), and very low (10% CP) protein intake. Growing pigs fed the 14% CP and 17% CP diets had lower final BW (P < 0.05) and average daily gain (ADG) (P < 0.05) compared to pigs fed the 20% CP diet. Reducing the dietary CP level from 20 to 14% decreased urinary N excretion by 52.8% (P < 0.001) in Experiment 1. Reducing the dietary CP level from 18 to 12% decreased urinary N excretion by 55.3% (P < 0.001) and reduced fecal N excretion by 34% (P < 0.05) in Experiment 2. Reducing the dietary CP level from 16 to 10% decreased urinary N excretion by 56.4% (P < 0.001) and fecal N excretion by 47.1% (P < 0.001) in Experiment 3. Pigs fed the very low (14%, 12%, and 10% CP) diets showed higher digestibility for CP (P < 0.05), His (P < 0.05), Ile (P < 0.05), Phe (P < 0.05), Thr (P < 0.05), Trp (P < 0.05), Glu (P < 0.05), and Ser (P < 0.05) compared to pigs fed the normal (20%, 18%, and 16% CP) diets among the three experiments. Pigs fed the very low (14%, 12%, and 10% CP) diets showed higher mRNA levels for chymotrypsin C (P < 0.01 in Experiment 1 and 2; P < 0.05 in Experiment 3) compared to pigs fed the normal (20%, 18%, and 16% CP) diets among the three experiments. These results indicated that a reduction in dietary CP by 6% limited the growth performance of growing pigs, and a reduction of dietary CP by 3% supplemented with essential amino acids could reduce the excretion of N into the environment without affecting weight gain.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0250.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: diazotroph; rhizosphere; nitrogen-fixation; free-living non-symbiotic diazotrophs; Betaproteobacteria
Online: 22 October 2019 (04:18:16 CEST)
Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the type strain of Ideonella azotifigens DSMZ21438T (formally 1a22T = JCM15503T). Ideonella azotifigens DSMZ21438T a novel betaproteobacterial non-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing grass rhizosphere dwelling microbe. The 891,561 paired-end shotgun reads were quality filtered and decontaminated with the ATLAS pipeline, then assembled with Unicycler. The genome size is 6,257,981 bp, an N50 size of 7,849 bp, with a G+C content of 66.71%, and with 5,882 predicted protein-coding genes. I. azotifigens DSMZ21438T represents the first member of the genus isolated from rhizosphere soil, providing a framework for further study into non-alphaproteobacterial nitrogen fixation and synthetic biology applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0498.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: bioavailability; Fe; nitrogen deficiency; phosphorous deficiency; phytic acid; wheat; Zn
Online: 26 July 2018 (03:40:56 CEST)
Iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) deficiency in cereal grains has deleterious effects on the health of millions of people, especially in developing countries. As wheat, as a staple crop, is consumed in large quantities, its micronutrient content is important. Crops in Africa are often grown under low nitrogen (N) and low phosphorous (P) conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of low N and low P stress on Fe and Zn and phytic acid concentration, in two commercial spring wheat cultivars with excellent baking quality. The two cultivars did not differ significantly for the measured characteristics. Across all treatments the average values for Fe varied between 19.60-28.61 mg kg-1, Zn between 17.68-33.79 mg kg-1 and phytic acid between 5.03-6.92 mg g-1. Low P stress lead to the highest values of Fe and Zn, and the lowest value for phytic acid. Phytic acid:Fe and phytic acid:Zn ratios were also highly significantly reduced under low P stress conditions. Low N conditions caused significantly increased Zn levels. Despite this, the phytic acid:Fe and phytic acid:Zn ratios were relatively high under all conditions, indicating a low bioavailability of both Fe and Zn in these wheat cultivars.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0124.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: NO2; NO; gas sensor; nitrogen oxide emission; semiconductor; carbon; electrochemical
Online: 25 December 2016 (08:38:47 CET)
Reactive NOx is one of the major air pollutants, which also plays a key role as greenhouse gas. Many research efforts have been devoted to not only detection of NOx in air but also abatement of NOx emission. The aim of this mini review is to provide a panoramic snapshot of the electrochemical analysis methods for the emission and detection of NOx in atmosphere, with special emphasis on NOx sensor. The electrochemical detecting mechanism and materials for fabricating electrochemical gas sensors are discussed and the prospects and challenges in this area are also evaluated. This work will serve as a useful source to inform the interested audience of the latest developments and applications in the field of NOx emission and electrochemical detection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0067.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD); boron doping; nitrogen doping; nanowire (NW); gas sensor; ultraviolet (UV) photodetector; piezoresistance (PZR) sensor; biosensor; nitrogen-vacancy (NV); magnetic quantum sensor
Online: 5 January 2021 (09:09:09 CET)
The aim of this review is to provide a survey of the recent advances and the main remaining challenges related to the ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) nanowires and other nanostructures which exhibit excellent capability as the core components for many diverse novel sensing devices, due to the unique material properties and geometry advantages. The doping introduced in the gas phase during deposition promotes p-type or n-type conductivity. With the establishment of the UNCD nanofabrication techniques, more and more nanostructure based devices are being explored in measuring basic physical and chemical parameters via classic and quantum methods, as exemplified by gas sensors, ultraviolet photodetectors, piezoresistance effect based devices, biological applications, and nitrogen-vacancy color center based magnetic field quantum sensors. Highlighted finally are some of the remaining challenges and future outlook in this area.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Wheat; yield; triple-super-phosphate; sulfur; nitrogen; micro-dosing, precision-farming
Online: 21 July 2021 (08:22:32 CEST)
This research was specifically aimed at assessing the influence of sulfur in triple-super phosphate (TSP) on wheat yield. From the results, wheat showed response to sulfur (S) from gypsum (in 67%); and nitrogen (N) from urea in about 100% (of 24 sites). Based on this N was found to be the most limiting element to wheat production followed by sulfur, and then by phosphorus. TSP is tested to contain agronomically up to 2-6% by weight of S. However, wheat didn’t show response to S impurity supplied in the form of TSP. Though, not statistically significant, it is observed that there have always been yield increments by certain percent due to S from TSP in 8 out of 10 target sites, which is depicted in the increasing trends of yield response curves. From this it is learnt that, the benefits of the accidental/incidental application of such high analysis fertilizers can be many-folds in the quality attributes of wheat, if the soils of such investigation at the same time would contain significant amount of organic matter (OM). Indeed, such analysis would be vital in varietal specific nutrient requirement studies in precision-farming and/or in categorizing soils into fertility gradients and fertilizer recommendation domains.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: elevated CO2; nitrogen-fixing plants; herbivores; total phenolic compounds; C:N ratio
Online: 8 February 2021 (10:32:07 CET)
Many studies have found that future predicted CO2 levels (< 800 ppm) can increase plant mass but dilute N content in leaves, impacting antiherbivore compounds. Nitrogen-fixing plants may balance leaf C:N ratio under elevated CO2, counteracting this dilution effect. The aim of this study was to look at how nitrogen-fixing plants grow and respond to herbivore damage at different CO2 levels. Alnus incana ssp. rugosa was grown at 400, 800, or 1600 ppm CO2 in soil collected from the field, inoculated with Frankia and exposed to herbivores (Orgyia leucostigma). Elevated CO2 increased nodulated plant biomass and stimulated the nitrogen fixation rate in the early growth stage. However, nitrogen-fixing plants were not able to balance the C:N ratio under elevated CO2 after grown 19 weeks. When plant were grown at 400 and 1600 ppm CO2, herbivores preferred to feed on leaves of nodulated plants. At 800 ppm CO2, nodulated plants accumulated more total phenolic compounds in response to herbivore damage than plants in the non-Frankia and non-herbivore treatments. Our results suggest that plant leaf defence, not leaf nutritional content, is the dominant driver of herbivory and nitrogen fixing plants have limited ability to balance C:N ratios at elevated CO2 in natural soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0101.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: nutrient loading; geospatial model; dissolved inorganic nitrogen; water quality; island management
Online: 6 March 2020 (03:23:41 CET)
Excessive nutrient discharge to tropical island coastlines drives eutrophication and algal blooms with significant implications for reef ecosystem condition and provision of ecosystem services. Management actions to address nutrient pollution in coastal ecosystems include setting water quality standards for discharging surface waters. However, these standards do not account for the effects of groundwater discharge, variability in flow, or dilution, all of which may influence assessment of true nutrient impacts on nearshore reef habitats. We developed a method to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) loads to coastal zones by integrating commonly available datasets within a geospatial modeling framework for Tutuila, American Samoa. The DIN loading model integrated an open-source water budget model, water sampling results, and publically available streamflow data to predict watershed-scale DIN loading to the island’s entire coastline. When compared to surface water pathways, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was determined to be the most important coastal delivery mechanism of terrigenous DIN, which supports findings from other tropical islands. Onsite wastewater disposal systems were also found to be the primary anthropogenic sources DIN to coastal waters. Our island-wide DIN loading model provides a simple and robust metric to define spatially-explicit sources and delivery mechanisms of nutrient pollution to nearshore reef habitats. Understanding the sources and primary transport modes of inorganic nitrogen to nearshore reef ecosystems can have significant implications for place-based management interventions aimed at increasing the adaptive capacity of unique island ecosystems to environmental variation and disturbances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0313.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: nanoaditives; nitrogen foamed stimulation fluids; reservoir stimulation; rheology; formation damage; SEM
Online: 28 April 2019 (10:54:56 CEST)
Impact of Nitrogen Foamed Stimulation Fluids Stabilized by Nanoadditives on Reservoir Rocks of Hydrocarbon Deposits
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0024.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2); Random Forest; Contribution Rate; Air pollution; COVID-19 lockdown
Online: 2 August 2021 (11:54:10 CEST)
During the COVID-19 lockdown in Wuhan, transportation, industrial production and other human activities declined significantly, as did the NO2 concentration. In order to assess the relative contributions of different factors to reductions of air pollutants, sensitivity experiments were implemented by random forest (RF) model, with the comparison of contributions of meteorology, road traffic, and emission sources between different periods. Besides, an emulator was operated to suggest an appropriate limit for control of transportation. The RF models showed different mechanisms for air pollutants. Within-city Migration index (WMI) was more important in the normal, pre-lockdown and post-pandemic model while Out-Migration Index (OMI) was emphasized in the lockdown model. In the COVID-19 lockdown period, 73.3% of the reduction can be attributed to the decreased road traffic, showing massive impact of road traffic on the air quality. In the post-pandemic period, meteorology controlled about 42.2% of the decrease and emissions from industry and household controlled 40.0% while road traffic only contributed to 17.8%. It was suggested that priority of restriction should be given to road traffic within the city. A limit of less than 40% on the control of the road traffic can get a better effect, especially for cities with severe traffic pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0411.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: lithium-ion battery; silicon nanoparticles; nitrogen-doped graphene; carbon nanofibers; anode material
Online: 15 June 2021 (14:48:47 CEST)
We report a self-assembly synthesis of silicon nanoparticles/nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide/ carbon nanofiber (Si@N-doped rGO/CNF) composites as potential high-performance anodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIB) through the electrostatic attraction between amino and carboxyl groups. Nitrogen atoms generate a large number of vacancies or defects on the graphite plane, providing additional transmission channels for the diffusion of lithium ions, and improving the conductivity of the electrode. Carbon nanofiber (CNF) can help maintain the stability of the electrode structure and prevent silicon nanoparticles from falling off the electrode, prevent silicon nanoparticles from being directly exposed to the electrolyte, and can form a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film. The three-dimensional conductive structure composed of Si, nitrogen atom-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-doped rGO), and CNF can effectively buffer the volume changes of silicon nanoparticles, shorten the transmission distance of lithium ions (Li+) and electrons, and make the electrode have good conductivity and stability in mechanical properties. In addition, compared with the Si@N-doped rGO and Si/rGO/CNF composite electrode, the Si@N-doped rGO/CNF composite electrode shows good cycle performance and rate capability, and its reversible specific capacity can reach 1418.8 mAh/g. The capacity retention rate is 64.7%, and the coulomb efficiency is 95%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0539.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Total organic carbon; Total nitrogen; Soil microbial biomass; Vegetation types; Hongqipao reservoir
Online: 23 July 2020 (08:13:39 CEST)
This study investigated the spatial variability of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and soil microbial biomass nitrogen (SMBN) in Hongqipao reservoir dominated by different vegetation types and the possible relationships with other soil properties. Top 0–50cm soil samples were collected in sites dominated by different vegetation types within the reservoir littoral zone. There was high spatial variability for SOC, TN, SMBC and SMBN in the Hongqipao reservoir. In addition, the SOC, TN, SMBC and SMBN contents decreased with increasing soil depth. This could be attributed by the fact that when plants detritus decompose, most of their organic matter is mineralized and a new soil layer which contains a greater amount of organic carbon is formed at the top. According to Pearson's correlation values and redundancy analysis (RDA) results, SOC was significantly and positively correlated with TN likely because the vegetation organic matter and liter could be the main nitrogen sources. Similarly, soil moisture content (MC) was significant positive correlated with SOC and TN. Conversely, BD was significant negative correlated with SOC and TN contents in the 0-50 cm soil profiles. However, no significant correlations were observed between SOC, TN, SMBC and SMBN contents and soil pH values. SMBN was significantly and positive correlated with C:N ratio and BD and negative related with MC. Multiple linear regression model revealed that all measures soil properties in this study could explain higher significant variability of the response variables (SOC, TN, SMBC and SMBN contents). This implies that all the measured soil variables within the different vegetation types in the reservoir played a crucial role in determining the contents of SOC, TN, SMBC and SMBN. This study further suggests that vegetation types play a major role in determining the spatial characteristics of SOC and TN. Any changes in the vegetation types in the reservoir may influence the distribution of SOC and TN. This may affect the global carbon budget and the atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration significantly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0007.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Zea mays L.; nitrogen; chessboard design; geographically weighted regression; yield response functions
Online: 1 February 2019 (09:22:35 CET)
There is a large body of research on determining the impact of field variability of soil on crop yields. In contrast, site-specific information about crop responses to agronomic treatments is less frequent. On-Farm Precision Experimentation (OFPE) brings important information to understand the spatial variation of crop response to agronomic practices and thus to improve agronomic decisions. The objective of this work was to investigate the spatial variability of corn yield responses to nitrogen and seed rates using OFPE in four fields in the US Midwest. Geographically weighted regression was applied to generate local regression coefficients, which were used to delineate response zones in each field. The results showed the existence of great potential to adjust the rates of these inputs according to the response of each zone identified by the proposed method. The results of this study can be applied to reevaluate expectations on variable rate prescriptions guided largely by soil and variability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0469.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: caffeine; nitrogen-doping; graphene; nanowires; functionalization; pyridinic; monolayer; synthesis; carbon nanostructures; nanomaterials
Online: 25 July 2018 (06:10:43 CEST)
In this work, we propose an easy and a low cost method for the synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene NDG and its silver nanowires NW functionalization NWGN. The synthesis was performed using the improved graphene oxide method, chemical reduction of graphene oxide in the presence of caffeine as green nitrogen source and the subsequently the silver nanowires growth in the surface, by the chemical reductions salts in the presence of NG. Achieving a homogeneous growing (coating) of graphene sheets. The samples were analyzed using conventional characterization techniques: SEM-EDX, XRD, FT-IR, RAMAN, TEM, HRTEM, STEM and XPS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0322.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: stormwater; monitoring; gross pollutant generation rates; suspended solids; nitrogen; phosphorus; heavy metals
Online: 18 July 2018 (09:07:46 CEST)
Urban stormwater runoff from a medium-density residential development in southeast Queensland has been monitored in the field since November 2013. A treatment train installed on the site includes rainwater tanks collecting roofwater, 200-micron mesh baskets installed in grated gully pits and two 850 mm high media filtration cartridges installed in an underground 4 m3 vault. A monitoring protocol developed by research partners, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), guided the monitoring process over a 4.5-year period. Heavy metals were included in the list of analytes during the monitoring period as the catchment is within 1 km of the environmentally-sensitive Moreton Bay, Queensland. Removal efficiencies observed at this site for the regulated pollutants; total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) for the pit baskets were 61%, 28% and 45% respectively. The cartridge filters removed 78% TSS, 59% TP, 42% TN, 40% total copper and 51% total zinc. As the measured influent concentrations to the cartridge filters were low when compared to industry guidelines, the dataset was merged with international field results for TSS (n=39) and TP (n=32) but truncated within anticipated guideline levels. The combined dataset for the media filter demonstrates performance at 89% TSS, 66% TP and 42% TN. The total gross pollutant generation rate from the medium-density residential catchment was observed to be 0.24 m3/Ha/year, with a corresponding air-dried mass of 142.5 kg/Ha/year. Less than 2% of the gross pollutant mass was anthropogenic. The findings of this research suggest that the treatment train, and in particular the media filter, holds promise for the removal of total copper and total zinc, in addition to TSS, TP and TN, from urban stormwater runoff. Based on a maximum, low risk trigger TN concentration of 1.5 mg/L, the field test data from 4.5 years of operation and standard maintenance, suggests a 5.5-year replacement interval for the media filters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0294.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: microporous organic polymers; nitrogen-rich; CO2 adsorption; H2 adsorption; I2 vapor sorption
Online: 19 June 2018 (10:53:12 CEST)
Microporous organic polymers (MOPs) are promising materials for gas sorption because of the intrinsic and permanent porosity, designable framework and low density. The introduction of nitrogen-rich building block in MOPs will greatly enhance the gas sorption capacity. Here, we report the synthesis of MOPs from the 2,4,6-tris(4-ethynylphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine unit and aromatic azides linkers via click polymerization reaction. FTIR and solid state 13C CP-MAS NMR confirm the formation of the polymers. CMOP-1 and CMOP-2 exhibit microporous networks with BET surface area of 431 and 406 m2 g-1 and narrow pore size distribution under 1.2 nm. Gas sorption isotherms including CO2 and H2 were measured. CMOP-1 stores superior CO2 level of 8.2 wt% (1.88 mmol g-1) at 273 K/1.0 bar and H2 uptake up to 0.6 wt% at 77 K/1.0 bar, while CMOP-2 with smaller surface area shows lower CO2 adsorption capacity of 7.3 wt% (1.66 mmol g-1) and H2 uptake (0.5 wt%). In addition, I2 vapor adsorption was tested at 353 K. CMOP-1 shows higher gravimetric load of 160 wt%. Despite of the moderate surface area, the CMOPs display excellent sorption ability for CO2 and I2 due to the nitrogen-rich content in the polymers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0122.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: crust type; soil depth; physicochemical properties; enzyme; microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen
Online: 19 April 2017 (11:23:58 CEST)
This study investigated the effects of soil crust development on the underlying soil properties. The field sampling work was conducted in June 2016 in the Hobq Desert in Inner Mongolia, North China. Soil crust samples and 0–6, 6–12, 12–18, 18–24, 24–30 cm deep underlying soil samples were taken from five representative areas of different soil crust development stages. All samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties including water content, bulk density, aggregate content, organic matter content, enzyme activities, and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. The results showed that the thickness, water content, macroaggregate (>250 μm) content, organic matter content, microbial biomass and enzyme activities of the soil crusts gradually increased along the soil crust development gradient, while the bulk density of the soil crusts decreased. Meanwhile, the physicochemical and biological properties of the soils below the algal and moss crusts were significantly ameliorated when compared with the physical crust. Moreover, the amelioration effects were significant in the upper horizons (approx. 0–12 cm deep) and diminished quickly in the deeper soil layers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0028.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Total nitrogen; total phosphorous; land use; topographic slope position; pollution source control zoning
Online: 4 July 2022 (03:57:50 CEST)
The eutrophication caused by excessive total nitrogen(TN) and total phosphorus(TP) emissions has been widely concerned by the whole society. Studies have revealed the relationship between land use and TN and TP, but the relationship between land use compound topographic position and TP and TN was seldom studied. Therefore, Spearman correlation and redundancy analyses were used to reveal the relationship between land use compound topographic position and TN and TP based on the monthly data of 28 water quality sampling sites and the land use data of 2013 and 2016 in the lakes of Guizhou Plateau. The results show that the nutritional state of the HBA watershed is medium. The trophic level index (TLI) value and TN concentration were high during flood, while TP concentration was high in dry period. The TN concentration in the tributaries was higher than that in the reservoir area. Construction and valley were the sources of the pollution, whereas forest land and gentle slope were the sink. According to the”source-sink”effect, the optimal zoning of land use was completed, and the urban land pollution govern area should be strengthened firstly. This paper can provide decision support for water environment management and sustainable development decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0388.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: organic soil carbon; seasonal dynamics; biomass of microorganisms; organic nitrogen; tillage; microbial index
Online: 23 December 2021 (11:51:57 CET)
The main purpose of this study was to determine the size and direction of the seasonal dynamics of organic carbon (Сmicro) and nitrogen (Nmicro) biomass of microorganisms and microbial index (Cmicro : Corg) of natural and agrocenoses with their different uses. Field research methods involved taking of soil samples in 0-10-, 10-20- and 20-40 сm layers. Under laboratory conditions, the content of total soil carbon was determined by dry oxygen combustion on a Vario EL III analyzer (Elementar Analyzensysteme, Hanau, Germany). The carbon content of microbial biomass (Сmicro) was determined by chloroform fumigation extraction method (CFE). To freshly taken soil samples (2 hours) and soil samples after their 24-hour fumigation with chloroform vapors, 0.5 M K2SO4 was added to extract biomass lysis products of soil microorganisms. The content of organic carbon and nitrogen in the biomass of microorganisms in the obtained filtrates was determined on the Elementar Liqui TOC II, Analyzensysteme GmbH, Germany. The carbon content of microbial biomass was calculated from the difference between carbon in fumigated and control samples using a factor of 0,45 - for carbon and 0,54 – for nitrogen. The microbial index of soils was determined by the ratio between the carbon of microorganisms and the total organic carbon of the soil – Cmicro : Corg • 100 (%). Average values and confidence intervals were determined for each defined indicator. The Bonferoni method was used to correct the errors of multiple comparative samples of a one-way ANOVA analyze. K. Pearson’s linear correlation analysis was used to establish the relationships between the dynamics of carbon biomass of microorganisms and organic carbon of the soil during the growing season. Our research has shown the dynamics of Сmicro, Nmicro, Сmicro : Nmicro and Cmicro : Corg during the growing season. Analysis of the box plot showed the largest amplitude of Сmicro changes in the upper 0-10 cm layer of izogumusol. The smallest difference in the quartile range (IQR0,25-0,75) was for no-till and overhang (Ab) in the upper 0-10-, no-till (NT) and fallow (F) - in the layer 10-20- and plowing (CT) - in a layer of 20-40 cm. The content of organic carbon biomass of microorganisms in the upper layer of izogumusol at the beginning of the growing season had the highest values of Ab (577,79 1,64 mg/kg), NT (485,43 1,97 mg/kg) and CT (470,43 0,77 mg/kg), the smallest - for F (370,15 2,18 mg/kg). The content of Nmicro during this period decreased from Ab to Comb (combined tillage), NT, CT, Rot (rotary tillage), RT (reduced (ridge) tillage) and F, respectively. In the 20-40 cm layer, the highest values of Сmicro and Nmicro were observed in mid-July. The lowest values of Сmicro and Nmicro and the largest – Сmicro : Nmicro were found in late August for all variants and layers of the study. The dynamics of the microbial index resembled the trends of Сmicro and Nmicro. The largest share of Smicro in Sorghum during the growing season, on average was: - Ab (1,82 1,85 %) and NT (1,66 1,52 %) - in the layer 0-10-, - Ab (1,23 1,27 %) and NT (1,29 1,32 %) - in the layer 10-20- and - Ab (1,19 1,09 %) and F (1,11 1,077 %) - in a layer of 20-40 cm. Different use of izogumusol affected the amplitude of seasonal changes of Сmicro and Nmicro and did not affect on their direction. The maximum content of Сmicro and Nmicro was observed at the beginning of the growing season - in a layer of 0-10 cm and in mid-July - in a layer of 20-40 cm, the minimum - at the end of the summer period. During this period, the widest ratio of Сmicro : Nmicro was for F and CT - in the layer 0-20 cm and CT and Rot - in the layer 20-40 cm. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between Сmicro and Corg increased from the upper 0-10- to the lower 20-40 cm layer of izogumusol. "Strong" and "high" negative correlations have been established between Сmicro and Corg, but no pattern has been found between the correlation coefficient and tillage technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0374.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Oxygen reduction reaction; Nanoporous activated carbon; Cobalt-nitrogen-doped carbon; Nonprecious metal catalyst
Online: 26 October 2021 (11:34:57 CEST)
Compared with precious metal catalysts, non-platinum catalysts have the advantages of low cost and high performance. Among them, the activated carbon (AC) with a large specific surface area (SSA) can be used as a carrier or as a carbon source of nonprecious metal/carbon system catalyst at the same time. Therefore, this paper uses cheap pine peel bio-based materials to prepare large surface area activated carbon and then compound with cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) to obtain a high-performance cobalt/nitrogen/carbon catalyst. The merits include AC@CoPc composite catalysts are prepared by precisely controlling the composite proportion of AC and CoPc, the atomically dispersed Co nanoparticles form and synergistically with N promote the exposure of CoNx active sites, and the Eonset of the catalyst treated with a composite proportion of AC and CoPc of 1 to 2 at 800 °C (AC@CoPc-800-1-2) is 1.01 V, which is higher than Pt/C (20 wt%) catalyst. Apart from this, the stability is 87.8% in 0.1 M KOH after 20000 s testing in compared with other AC@CoPc series catalysts and Pt/C (20 wt%) catalyst. Considering from the performance and price of the catalyst in practical application, these composite catalysts combine biomass carbon materials with phthalocyanine series, which will be widely used in the area of nonprecious metal catalysts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0460.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: Cannabis; cannabinoids; nutrients; nitrogen (N); phosphorus (P); potassium (K); yield; response surface methodology
Online: 24 August 2021 (08:40:44 CEST)
Following legalization, cannabis has quickly become an important horticultural crop in Canada and increasingly so in other parts of the world. However, due to previous legal restrictions on cannabis research there are limited scientific data on the relationship between nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) supply (collectively: NPK) and the crop yield and quality. This study examined the response of a high delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Cannabis sativa cultivar grown in deep-water culture with different nutrient solution treatments varying in their concentrations (mg L-1) of N (70, 120, 180, 250, 290), P (20, 40, 60, 80, 100) and K (60, 120, 200, 280, 340) according to a central composite design. Results demonstrated that inflorescence yield responded quadratically to N and P, with the optimal concentrations predicted to be 194 and 59 mg L-1, respectively. Inflorescence yield did not respond to K in the tested range. These results can provide guidance to cultivators when formulating nutrient solutions for soilless cannabis production and demonstrates the utility of surface response design for efficient multi-nutrient optimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0377.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: mosquito; Anopheles; microbiota; malaria; Plasmodium; metabolism; immunity; TCA cycle; nitrogen excretion; amino acids
Online: 17 July 2020 (11:00:53 CEST)
The mosquito microbiota reduces the vector competence of Anopheles to Plasmodium and affects host fitness, it is therefore considered as a potential target to reduce malaria transmission. While immune induction, secretion of antimicrobials and metabolic competition are three typical mechanisms of microbiota-mediated protection against invasive pathogens in mammals, the involvement of metabolic competition or mutualism in mosquito-microbiota and microbiota-Plasmodium interactions has not been investigated. Here, we describe a metabolome analysis of the midgut of An. coluzzii provided with a sugar-meal or a blood-meal, under conventional or antibiotic-treated conditions. We observed that the antibiotic treatment affects the tricarboxylic acid cycle and nitrogen metabolism, notably resulting in decreased abundance of free amino acids. Linking our results with published data, we identified candidate pathways which may participate in microbiota/Plasmodium interactions via metabolic interactions or immune modulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0216.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: nutrient use efficiency; grain yield; nitrogen, phosphorus; potassium; green super rice; BC breeding
Online: 12 July 2018 (11:05:46 CEST)
To develop green super rice varieties with high and stable yields under the rainfed conditions and improved nutrient use efficiency (NuUE), a modified backcross (BC) breeding approach was adopted using a high yielding and widely adaptable Xian variety, WTR1, as the recipient and a Geng variety, HAN, as the donor. Starting from the BC1F2 generation, the BC population had gone through one generation of selection under the IG, LI and RF conditions, followed by consecutive four generations of screening and selection for high GY under six different nutrient conditions, leading to the development of 230 BC1F6 introgression lines (ILs). The final evaluation of the 230 ILs under the six nutrient conditions identified many ILs with improved yields under various combinations of nutrient deficient conditions, including 12 promising lines that had significantly improved NuUE under two or more nutrient deficiency conditions. Our results demonstrated an efficient inter-subspecific BC breeding procedure with first round selection under the rainfed-drought condition followed by four generations of progeny testing for yield performances under six different nutrient conditions. The promising ILs were studied under replicated yield trials under 75N and -NPK conditions for developing high yield rice varieties with improved NuUE. Our results indicated that NuUE in rice was controlled by complex genetic and physiological mechanisms and the developed ILs provided useful materials for genetic and molecular dissection of NuUE in rice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0230.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: intercropping; nitrogen transfer; microbial community structure; microbial activity; DNA-SIP; high-throughput sequencing; metagenomes
Online: 15 July 2022 (09:38:10 CEST)
Intercropping systems can flexibly use resources such as sunlight, heat, water, and nutrients in time and space, improve crop yield and land utilization rates, effectively reduce continuous cropping obstacles and the occurrence of diseases and insect pests, and control the growth of weeds. Thus, intercropping is a safe and efficient ecological planting mode. The legume–cereal intercropping system is the most common planting combination. Legume crops fix nitrogen from the atmosphere through their symbiotic nitrogen fixation abilities, and the fixed nitrogen can be transferred to and utilized by cereal crops in various ways. The symbiotic nitrogen fixation efficiency of legume crops was improved by reducing the inhibition of soil nitrogen on nitrogenase activity through competitive absorption of soil nitrogen. However, the effects of nitrogen transformation and distribution in intercropping systems, and microbial community structure characteristics on nitrogen transfer need to be further explored. In this review, ⅰ) we present the transformation and distribution of nitrogen in the legume–cereal intercropping system; ⅱ) we describe the soil microbial community characteristics in intercropping systems; and ⅲ) we discuss the advantages of using modern biological molecular techniques to study soil microorganisms. We conclude that intercropping can increase the diversity of soil microorganisms, and the interaction between different plants has an important impact on the diversity and composition of the bacterial and fungal communities. The extensive application of modern biological molecular techniques in soil microbial research and the great contribution of intercropping systems to sustainable agriculture are particularly emphasized in this review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0186.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Fine root; tropical rainforest; nutrients dynamics; litter bags; decay rate; nitrogen mineralization, Calcium, Magnesium.
Online: 20 February 2019 (09:09:06 CET)
Plants produce above- and below-ground biomass. However, our understanding of both production and decomposition of below-ground biomass is poor, largely because of the difficulties of accessing study materials. Below-ground organic matter decomposition studies are scanty and especially rare in the tropics. Here, we used a litter bag experiment to quantify the mass loss and nutrients dynamics of decomposing twigs and fine roots from an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal associated tree, Parashorea chinensis, in a tropical rain forest in Southwest China. Overall, twig litter decomposed 1.9 times faster than fine roots (decay rate (k) twig=0.255, root=0.134). The difference in decomposition rates can be explained by a difference in phosphorus (P) concentration, availability and use by decomposers or C quality. Both materials showed an increase in N concentration, with final measurements still higher than initial levels. This suggests N may not be available due to microbial immobilization. Both carbon and nitrogen dynamics were significantly predicted by mass loss and showed a negative and positive relationship, respectively. Our study results imply that fine roots carbon and nitrogen contribute more to soils organic matter and enlarge the resident time. Therefore, better understanding of carbon cycle requires better understanding of mechanisms governing below ground biomass decomposition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0322.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: crotoxin; macrophages; neutrophils; inflammation; ATP; reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; cytokines; co-culture model
Online: 23 May 2018 (09:12:45 CEST)
Crotoxin (CTX), the predominant toxin in Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom (CdtV), has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Despite its inhibitory action on neutrophil migration and phagocytosis, CTX does not directly affect the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the neutrophils. In contrast, it enhances the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates by macrophages. Given the importance of macrophage-neutrophil interactions in innate antimicrobial defense, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CTX on neutrophil ROS production and killing activity, either through CTX-treated macrophage co-culture or conditioned medium of CTX-treated macrophages. The results showed an important modulatory action of CTX on the neutrophil function as well as neutrophil-macrophage interactions, as demonstrated by the increased production of hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, nitric oxide and TNF-α, along with the increased fungicidal activity of neutrophils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0667.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: COVID-19; air quality; nitrogen oxides; ozone; aerosol; source apportionment; aerosol profiles; models; Alps; Italy
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:37:17 CEST)
The effect of COVID-19 confinement regulations on air quality in the northwestern Alps is here assessed based on measurements at five valley sites in different environmental contexts. Surface concentrations of nitrogen oxides, ozone, particle matter, together with size, chemical, and optical (light absorption) aerosol properties, complemented by observations along the vertical column are considered. The 2020 concentration anomalies relative to previous years’ average are compared with the output of a machine learning algorithm accounting for weather effects and a chemical transport model, their difference being within 10–20 %. Even in the relatively pristine environment of the Alps, the «lockdown effect» is well discernible, both in the early confinement phase and in late 2020, especially in NOx concentrations (NO decreasing by >80 % and NO2 by >50 %). While ozone shows little variation, secondary aerosols increase due to enhanced transport from the neighbouring Po basin and coarse particles decrease due to missing resuspension by traffic and, in the city, to the shutdown of a steel mill. The NO2 vertical column density decreases by >20 %, whereas the aerosol profile is mainly influenced by large-scale dynamics, except a shallow layer about 500 m thick possibly sensitive to curtailed surface emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0542.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: leaf surface; soil surface cover; growth rate; nitrogen leaf content; SPAD; triangular greenness index (TGI)
Online: 21 December 2020 (18:50:21 CET)
Management practices must be developed to improve yam production sustainability. Image-based phenotyping techniques could help developing such practices based on non-destructive analyses of important plant traits. Our objective was to determine the potential of image-based phenotyping methods to assess traits relevant for tuber yield formation in yam grown in glasshouse and field. We took plant and leaf pictures with consumer cameras. We used the numbers of image pixels to derive the shoot biomass and the total leaf surface and calculated the ‘triangular greenness index’ (TGI) which is an indicator of the plant nitrogen (N) nutritional status. Under glasshouse conditions, the number of pixels obtained from nadir view (image taken top down) was positively correlated to the shoot biomass, and the total leaf surface, while the TGI was negatively correlated to the N content of diagnostic leaves. Under field conditions, pictures taken from the nadir view showed an increase in soil surface cover and a decrease in TGI with time. TGI was negatively correlated to SPAD measured on specific leaves but was not correlated to the N content of these leaves. In conclusion, these phenotyping techniques deliver relevant results but need to be further developed and validated for application in yam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0094.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: surface; textiles; flame retardant; plasma; ultraviolet; durability; phosphorus; nitrogen; polyurethane; thermal analysis; scanning electron microscopy
Online: 8 April 2018 (11:59:49 CEST)
Conventional flame retardant (FR) application processes for textiles involve aqueous processing which is resource intensive in terms of energy and water usage. Recent research using sol-gel and layer-by-layer chemistries, while claimed to be based on more environmentally-sustainable chemistry, still require aqueous media with the continuing problem of water management and drying processes being required. This paper outlines the initial forensic work to characterise commercially produced viscose/flax, cellulosic furnishing fabrics which have had conferred upon them durable flame retardant (FR) treatments using a novel, patented atmospheric plasma/UV excimer laser facility for processing textiles with the formal name - Multiplexed Laser Surface Enhancement (MLSE) system. This system (MTIX Ltd., UK), is claimed to offer the means of directly bonding of flame retardant precursor species to the component fibres introduced either before plasma/UV exposure or into the plasma/UV reaction zone itself, thereby eliminating a number of wet processing cycles. Nine commercial fabrics, pre-impregnated with a semi-durable, proprietary FR finish and subjected to the MLSE process have been analysed for their flame retardant properties before and after a 40 °C 30 min water soak. For one fabric, the pre-impregnated fabric was subjected to a normal heat cure treatment which conferred the same level of durability as the plasma/UV-treated analogue. TGA and LOI were used to further characterise their burning behaviour and the effect of the treatment on surface fibre morphologies were assessed. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that negligible changes had occurred to surface topography of the viscose fibres occurred during plasma/UV excimer processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0055.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: amidophosphoric acid; diamidophosphate; prebiotic phosphoryl compound; phosphonitrogen glass; enthalpy; Gibbs Free energy; biomimetic nitrogen fixation
Online: 7 February 2018 (05:12:33 CET)
Diamidophosphate has been identified as a possible prebiotic compound used in the precursor membranes of the first ‘life’. Compounds such as these will be helpful in developing novel biomimetic approaches in synthetic chemistry. Thermochemical data for this type of compounds are not available. Hess’ law and estimates from calorimetric measurements used by Wakefield in the 1970s for other amido phosphates have been used to estimate the thermochemical values for the diamido and monoamido-phosphoric acid. Enthalpy of formation at 298.15 oC is calculated as – 821.9 kJ/mol and the free energy of formation calculated as -813.5 kJ/mol for the diamidophosphoric acid. The calculated enthalpy of formation of monoamidic phosphoric acid is -1117.1 kJ/mol and its free energy of formation is - -1105 kJ/mol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0150.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: olive pomace oil; fatty acid profile; total nitrogen content; total protein; olive pomace; biochemical characterization
Online: 20 March 2017 (08:40:46 CET)
In this study, the olive pomace was considered because of its importance in the environment. So, this study carried out to estimate the total nitrogen content and the fatty acids profile of olive pomace. The olive pomace samples were collected from Irbid, Jarash, Ajloun and Mafraq during the harvesting season 2014 to study the biochemical characteristics of fatty acid composition and the total nitrogen (TN) content. The total nitrogen content was determined by standard Kjeldahl method and the fatty acid profile was detected by gas chromatography (GC). The results show that the total nitrogen content ranged from (0.39 ± 0.0) to (0.62 ± 0.02) with statistically significant difference suggesting that the composition of matrices and their percentage may be responsible for composition of amendments. The calculated total protein percentage ranged between (2.43 ± 0.00) to (3.87 ± 0.17). Also, 13 different fatty acids were quantitatively profiled and quantitated. Oleic acid (C 18:1) was found to be the highest percentage of all other fatty acids and ranged between (59.03%) and (63.81%), moreover the C 18:1/C 18:2 (oil quality) was calculated and C.V% showed variation meaning that nutritional implication could affect the oxidative stability of oils. In conclusion, OP by-product could give a sustainable and alternative-cheap source for fertilizers, pharmaceutical industries, cosmetics and other industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0069.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: technetium; imidazole; technetyl; XRD-analysis; Hirshfeld surface analysis; π-interactions; met-al-nitrogen bond; supramolecular chemistry
Online: 3 August 2022 (03:29:49 CEST)
In this work, we have proposed two new methods for the synthesis of [TcO2L4]+ (where L = im-idazole (Im), methylimidazole (MeIm)) complexes using thiourea (Tu) and Sn(II) as reducing agents. The main and by-products of the reactions were determined, and possible reaction mechanisms were proposed. We have shown that the reduction of Tc(VII) with thiourea is ac-companied by the formation of the Tc(III) intermediate and further oxidation to Tc(V). The reac-tion conditions changing can lead to the formation of Tc(VII) and Tc(IV) salts. Seven new crystal structures are described in this work: Tc(V) complexes, salts with Tc(VII) and Tc(IV) anions. For halide salts of Tu the cell parameters were determined. In all obtained compounds, except for [TcO2(MeIm)4]TcO4, there are π-stacking interactions between aromatic rings. An increase in the anion size lead to weaken intermolecular interactions. Halogen bonds and anion-π interactions have also been found in hexahalide-containing compounds. The Hirshfeld surface analysis showed that the main contribution to the crystal packing is made by van der Waals interactions of the H···H type (42.5–55.1%), H···C/C ···H (17.7–21.3%) and hydrogen bonds, which contribute 15.7–25.3% in total.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0276.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: cover crop; cereal rye; hairy vetch; decomposition; Nitrogen release; exponential and hyperbolic models; Akaike Information Criterion
Online: 18 March 2020 (16:44:57 CET)
Empirical models help us understand the process of plant residue decomposition and nutrient release into the soil. The objective of this study was to determine an appropriate model to describe the decomposition of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) and cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop (CC) residue and nitrogen (N) release. Data pertaining to above and belowground CC residue mass loss and N release for up to 2633 cumulative decomposition degree days (112 d) after litterbag installation were obtained from two cropping system experiments, one conducted in 2015 and the other in 2017 and 2018 at the humid subtropical environment of southern IL, USA. Six exponential and two hyperbolic models were fit to percent mass and N remaining data to find the one with minimum Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and residual sum of squares. Modified three-parameter single exponential and two- or three-parameter hyperbolic models best met the assumed criteria of selection for above and belowground CC residue, respectively. Fitting a double exponential model to a combined data for percent mass and N remaining, which identified two mass and N pools, a fast and a slow pool with different rate constants. A five-parameter double exponential with an asymptote met the preset criteria and passed all tests for normally distributed population, constant variance, and independence of residuals at α = 0.05 when fit to combined data of hairy vetch shoot mass and N remaining. However, a two-parameter hyperbolic and three-parameter asymptotic hyperbolic model provided the best fit to a combined data of cereal rye shoot mass and N remaining, respectively. Both hyperbolic decay models showed a good fit for belowground mass decomposition and N release for both CCs. Cereal rye had poorer fit than hairy vetch for mass and N remaining of both above and belowground mass. The best-selected decay models can be used to estimate the decomposition and N release rates of hairy vetch and cereal rye above and belowground residue in a similar environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0026.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: japanese larch (larix kaempferi); heterophyllous shoots; year-to-year variation; electron transport rate; nitrogen remobilization rate
Online: 3 December 2019 (11:55:45 CET)
Ground-level ozone (O3) increases in the northeastern part of Eurasia, where larch species are dominant trees and have been planted intensively. The Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi; hereafter larch) is classified as the tree species most of its sensitive to O3 based on data from long-shoot needles of seedlings. This criterion should be reconsidered based on O3 uptake, which is strongly depended on stomatal conductance (Gs) of adult trees through the difference in relevant needle traits. Because Gs is closely correlated with photosynthetic activity, we measured the in situ seasonal and yearly change in photosynthetic function, needle mass per area (LMA) and nitrogen (N) content of both short- and long-shoot needles of the canopy of larch trees over successive 3 years. No difference was observed in the in light saturated photosynthetic rate at ambient CO2 (Psat) between needles of hetero types of shoot in the latter part of the growing season, but clear differences were found within a specific year, indicating that seasonal changes in climatic factors determine Psat in the long term. The Psat-N relations differed significantly between the needle types. However, Psat at saturated CO2 (Pmax)-N was quite similar, implying that the CO2 diffusion difference between short- and long-shoots is responsible for the differing Psat -N. In conclusion, seasonal and yearly variations in photosynthetic capacity are mainly determined mainly by climatic variations, whereas shoot type determined the traits of photosynthetic N utilization as well as Gs regulation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0180.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: oxidative stress; nitrative stress; reactive oxygen species; reactive nitrogen species; nitric oxide inflammation; obesity; peroxynitrite; adipose tissue
Online: 30 September 2022 (11:10:38 CEST)
It is now well accepted that most chronic diseases have a common feature which is “low-grade” inflammation. Whether inflammation is causal or rather consequent to these diseases is still a matter of debate. A key factor of inflammation is considered to be “oxidative stress”, which is the result of an alteration of redox homeostasis which is critical for the regulation of physiological cell and organ metabolism and proliferation. The term “oxidative stress” is how-ever often used in an inappropriate manner as the primary target of the initial oxidative radical, superoxide ion, is nitric oxide which, being in large excess, acts as a “buffer”, yielding reactive nitrogen species. It is only once the superoxide fluxes exceed the nitric oxide fluxes that true “oxidative stress” occurs. Nitro-oxidative stress is a more appropriate term which takes into account the evolving generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species and their effects on cell and organ pathophysiology. The molecular bases of redox homeostasis and nitro-oxidative stress will be presented and discussed using obesity-linked inflammation as a path-ophysiological example.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0651.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: 3,4-Dimethylpyrazole phosphate; Durum Wheat; Environmental impact; Methylene Urea; Nitrogen Management; Nitrate-Vulnerable zones; Sustainable Agriculture; Urea
Online: 27 May 2021 (07:43:23 CEST)
In Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZ) site-specific techniques are needed to match N availability with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum Desf.) requirements. Enhanced-efficiency fertilizers (EEF) can improve efficient N supply and reduce leaching, thus contributing to sustainable agriculture. To study the effects of rates, sources and timings of nitrogen application, two-year field experiments were carried out at two Mediterranean NVZs of Central Italy (Pisa and Arezzo). The trial compared: i) two N rates: one based on the crop N requirements (NO), the other on the Action Programmes’ prescriptions of the two NVZ (NAP); ii) three N sources (urea, methylene urea (MU), and nitrification inhibitor (NI) 3,4-Dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP); and two top-dressing timings (1st tiller visible and 1st node detectable). Grain yield and yield components were determined, together with N uptake. Results showed that: i) grain and biomass production were reduced with NAP at both locations; ii) urea performed better than slow-release fertilizers; iii) the best application time varied depending on N source and location: at Pisa enhanced-efficiency fertilizers achieved higher yields when applied earliest, while for urea the contrary was true; at Arezzo different N fertilizers showed similar performances between the two application timings. Different behaviors of top-dressing fertilizers at the two localities could be related to the diverse patterns of temperatures and rainfall. Therefore, optimal fertilization strategies vary according to environmental conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0603.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: ORR; PGM-free; iron; chitosan; biomass, acid electrolyte; iron-nitrogen-doped carbon; graphitization, site density, Fe-Nx
Online: 26 February 2021 (09:43:44 CET)
The development of platinum group metal-free (PGM-free) electrocatalysts derived from cheap and environmentally friendly biomasses for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a topic of relevant interest, particularly from the point of view of sustainability. Fe-nitrogen-doped carbon materials (Fe-N-C) have attracted particular interest as alternative to Pt-based materials, due to the high activity and selectivity of Fe-Nx active sites, the high availability and good tolerance to poisoning. Recently, many studies focused on developing synthetic strategies, which could transform N-containing biomasses into N-doped carbons. In this paper chitosan was employed as a suitable N-containing biomass for preparing Fe-N-C catalyst in virtue of its high N content (7.1%) and unique chemical structure. Moreover, the major application of chitosan is based on its ability to strongly coordinate metal ions, a precondition for the formation of Fe-Nx active sites. The synthesis of Fe-N-C consists in a double step thermochemical conversion of a dried chitosan hydrogel. In acidic aqueous solution, the preparation of physical cross-linked hydrogel allows to obtain sophisticated organization, which assure an optimal mesoporosity before and after the pyrolysis. After the second thermal treatment at 900 °C, a highly graphitized material was obtained, which has been fully characterized in term of textural, morphological and chemical properties. RRDE technique was used for understanding the activity and the selectivity of the material versus the ORR in 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte. Special attention was put in the determination of the active site density according to nitrite electrochemical reduction measurements. It was clearly established that the catalytic activity expressed as half wave potential linearly scales with the number of Fe-Nx sites. It was also established that the addition of the iron precursor after the first pyrolysis step leads to an increased activity because of both an increased number of active sites and of a hierarchical structure, which improves the access to active sites. At the same time, the increased graphitization degree, and a reduced density of pyrrolic nitrogen groups are helpful to increase the selectivity toward the 4e- ORR pathway.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0511.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Ferroptosis; glutathione peroxidases; heme peroxidases; hydrogen peroxide; lipid peroxidation; nitrogen monoxide radical; superoxide dismutase; superoxide radical; thioredoxin
Online: 26 October 2020 (10:43:02 CET)
The beginnings of redox biology are recalled with special emphasis on formation, metabolism and function of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in mammalian systems. The review covers the early history of heme peroxidases and the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide, the discovery of selenium as integral part of glutathione peroxidases, which expanded the scope of the field to other hydroperoxides including lipid hydroperoxide, the discovery of superoxide dismutases and superoxide radicals in biological systems and their role in host defense, tissue damage, metabolic regulation and signaling, the identification of the endothelial-derived relaxing factor as the nitrogen monoxide radical and its physiological and pathological implications. The article highlights the perception of hydrogen peroxide and other hydroperoxides as signaling molecules, which marks the beginning of the flourishing fields of redox regulation and redox signaling. Final comments describe the development of the redox language. In the 18th and 19th century, it was highly individualized and hard to translate into modern terminology. In the 20th century, the redox language co-developed with the chemical terminology and became clearer. More recently, the introduction and inflationary use of poorly defined terms has unfortunately impaired the understanding of redox events in biological systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0536.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: 3,3’,5,5’-tetramethylbenzidine; reactive oxygen species (ROS); reactive nitrogen species (RNS); photoacoustic probes; optical sensors; singlet oxygen
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:17:34 CEST)
Photoacoustic imaging is attracting a great deal of interest owing to its distinct advantages over other imaging techniques such as fluorescence or magnetic resonance image. Availability of photoacoustic probes for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) could shed light on a plethora of biological processes mediated by these key intermediates. Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) is a non-toxic and non-mutagenic colorless dye that develops a distinctive blue color upon oxidation. In this work we have investigated the potential of TMB as photoacoustic probe for ROS/RNS. Our results indicate that TMB reacts with hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen and nitrogen dioxide to produce the blue oxidation product, while ROS such as the superoxide radical anion, sodium peroxide, hydroxyl radical or peroxynitrite yield a colorless oxidation product. TMB does not penetrate Escherichia coli cytoplasm but is capable of detecting singlet oxygen generated in its outer membrane.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0220.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel; multi-strand composite welding wire; EBSD; welding thermal cycle; mechanical property; microstructure
Online: 21 August 2019 (03:34:18 CEST)
A multi-strand composite welding wire was applied to join high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel, and microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated. The electrical signals demonstrate that the welding process using a multi-strand composite welding wire is highly stable. The welded joints are composed of columnar austenite and dendritic ferrite and welded joints obtained under high heat input and cooling rate have a noticeable coarse-grained heat-affected zone and larger columnar austenite in weld seam. Compared with welded joints obtained under the high heat input and cooling rate, welded joints have the higher fractions of deformed grains, high angle grain boundaries, Schmid factor and the lower dislocation density under the low heat input and cooling rate, which indicate a lower tensile strength and higher yield strength. The rotated goss (GRD) orientation of a thin plate and the cube (C) orientation of a thick plate are obvious after welding, but the S orientation at 65° sections of Euler’s space is weak. The δ-ferrite was studied based on the primary ferrite solidification mode. It is observed that low heat input and high cooing rate result in the increasing of δ-ferrite and high dislocation density was obtained in grain boundaries of δ-ferrite. M23C6 precipitates due to low cooling rate and heat input in weld seam and deteriorates the elongation of welded joints. The engineering stress-strain curves also show the low elongation and tensile strength of welded joints under low heat input and cooling rate, which is mainly caused by the high fraction of δ-ferrite and the precipitation of M23C6.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: PET additives; recycled concrete; concrete porosity; polymeric resins; porosimetry of nitrogen (N2) gas adsorption; acoustic resonance spectroscopy
Online: 16 December 2016 (11:01:40 CET)
In the field of construction, materials referred to as sustainable are currently undergoing a process of technological development. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the behavior of the fundamental properties of concretes prepared with recycled coarse aggregates that incorporate in their matrix a polyethylene terephthalate-based additive in an attempt to reduce their high porosity. Techniques to measure the gas adsorption, water porosity and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to evaluate the effect of the additive on the physical, mechanical and microstructural properties of these concretes. Porosity reductions of up to 30.60% are achieved with the addition of 1, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9% of the additive, defining a new state in the behavioral model of the additive (the overdosage point) in the concrete matrix; in addition, the porous network of these concretes and their correlation whit other physical and mechanical properties are also explained.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0036.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Clearcutting; Norway spruce; European beech; litter decomposition; N; Ca; Home-field advantage (HFA); Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes
Online: 2 February 2022 (13:49:41 CET)
Home-field advantage (HFA) encompasses all the processes leading to faster litter decomposition in the 'home' environment as compared to that of ‘away’ environments. To determine the occurrence of HFA in a forest and adjacent clear-cut, we set up a reciprocal litter decomposition experiment within the forest and clear-cut for two soil types (Cambisols and Gleysols) in temperate Germany. The forest was dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies), whereas forest regeneration of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica) after clearcutting was encouraged. Our observation that Norway spruce decomposed faster than European beech in 70-yr-old spruce forest, was therefore most likely related to specialized litter-microbial interaction under existing spruce, and leading to a HFA. The ‘spruce’ microbial biome and soil conditions of original forest were then rapidly changed even after a short-term regeneration following clearcutting, resulting in faster beech decomposition also masking any HFA for spruce, particularly in moisture- and nutrient-deficient Cambisols. Divergence between forest and clear-cut in the Cambisol of their litter δ15N values beyond 9 months, implied litter N decomposition was only initially independent of soil and residual C status. We conclude that clearcutting modifies HFA and helps promote the establishment or regeneration of European beech in this and similar forest mountain upland areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0644.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), Spirulina, Hydroprocessing, Hydrotreating, Upgrading, Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), Hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), Fractional distillation, Drop-in biofuels, Nitrogen distribution
Online: 27 October 2018 (21:20:47 CEST)
To obtain drop-in fuel properties from non-feed biomass, we herein report the catalytic hydrotreatment of microalgae biocrude, produced from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of Spirulina. Our contribution focuses on the effect of temperature, initial H2 pressure, and residence time on the removal of heteroatoms (O and N). In contrast to common hydrotreating experimental protocols at batch scale, we devised a set of two-level factorial experiments and studied the most influential parameters affecting the removal of heteroatoms. It was found that up to 350 °C, the degree of deoxygenation (de-O) is mainly driven by temperature, whereas the degree of denitrogenation (de-N) also relies on initial H2 pressure and temperature-pressure interaction.Based on this, complete deoxygenation was obtained at mild operating conditions (350 °C), reaching a concurrent 47 % denitrogenation. Moreover, three optimized experiments are reported with 100 % removal of oxygen. In addition, the analysis by GC-MS and Sim-Dis gives insight to the fuel quality. The distribution of heteroatom N in lower (<340 °C) and higher (>340 °C) fractional cuts is studied by a fractional distillation unit following ASTM D-1160. Final results show that 63-68 % of nitrogen is concentrated in higher fractional cuts.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0263.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Paenibacillus; rhizosphere; non-rhizobial endophyte (NRE); Trifolium; clover; Bodega Bay; diazotroph; plant-growth promoting bacteria; free-living nitrogen fixer
Online: 23 October 2019 (03:52:41 CEST)
Paenibacillus sp. tmac-D7 was isolated from coastline growing Trifolium macraei (double-head clover) root nodules from Bodega Bay, California. The draft genome is 5,567,337 bp with a G+C% of 52.4%, an N50 of 114,261 bp, and 5,282 predicted protein-coding genes. Paenibacillus, while found in many other environments, is frequently isolated from root nodules, with many acting as plant pathogen antagonists. Paenibacillus sp. tmac-D7 is the first genome of a non-rhizobial endophyte isolate from wild Trifolium macraei (double-head clover).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0359.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Core set; Climate change; Nitrogen use efficiency; Omic approaches; Plant genetic resources; Stress; Systems biology; Water use efficiency
Online: 15 July 2021 (13:28:14 CEST)
Germplasm is a long-term resource management mission and investment for civilization. For both food and nutritional health, the present changing environmental scenario has become an urgent universal concern. Multiple excellent studies have been previously performed, although the advancement and innovation of practices will require the exploration of the potentiality of crop germplasm. In this study, we emphasized (i) germplasm activates, current challenges and ongoing trends of the crop germplasm, and (ii) how the system biology will be helpful to understand the complex traits such as water use efficiency (WUE), and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) to mitigate challenges for sustainable development under growing food requirement and climate change conditions. We focused on a vision for transforming PGR into a bio-digital resource system, for the development of climate-smart crops for sustainable food production. Moreover, this review attempted to address current challenges, research gaps and describe the advanced integrated strategies that could provide a platform for future crop improvement research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0166.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: carbon clathrates; hybrid carbon-silicon clathrates; hybrid carbon-nitrogen clathrates; electrode materials; hydrogen storage materials; energy storage materials; hard materials
Online: 18 January 2018 (05:08:03 CET)
Hybrid carbon-silicon, carbon-nitrogen, and carbon-boron clathrates are new classes of Type I carbon-based clathrates that have been identified by first-principles computational methods by substituting atoms on the carbon clathrate framework with Si, N, and/or B atoms. The hybrid framework is further stabilized by embedding appropriate guest atoms within the cavities of the cage structure. Series of hybrid carbon-silicon, carbon-boron, carbon-nitrogen, and carbon-silicon-nitrogen clathrates have been shown to exhibit small positive values of the energy of formation, indicating that they may be metastable compounds and amenable to fabrication. In this overview article, the energy of formation, elastic properties, and electronic properties of selected hybrid carbon-based clathrates are summarized. Theoretical calculations that explore the potential applications of hybrid carbon-based clathrates as energy storage materials, electronic materials, or hard materials are presented. The computational results identify compositions of hybrid carbon-silicon and carbon-nitrogen clathrates that may be considered candidate materials for use as either electrode materials for Li-ion batteries or as hydrogen storage materials. Prior processing routes for fabricating selected hybrid carbon-based clathrates are highlighted and difficulties encountered are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0167.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: molecular spectroscopy; diatomic molecules; optical emission spectroscopy; laser induced optical breakdown; hydroxyl; nitrogen second positive; cynaide; atomic spectroscopy; plasma physics; astrophysics
Online: 13 September 2022 (09:59:03 CEST)
This work investigates spatial and temporal distributions of hydroxyl, OH, in laser-plasma in laboratory air at standard ambient temperature and pressure. Of interest are determination of temperature and density of OH and establishment of a correlation of molecular OH emission spectra with shadow graphs for time delays of 50 to 100 microsecond, analogous to previous work on shadow graph and emission spectroscopy correlation for cynaide, CN, in gas mixtures and for time delays of the order of 1 microsecond. Wavelength- and sensitivity- corrected spatiotemporal data analysis focuses on temperature inferences using molecular OH emission spectroscopy. Near-ir radiation from a Q-switched laser device initiates optical breakdown in laboratory air. The laser device provides 6 nanosecond, up to 850 milli Joule pulses at a wavelength of 1064 nanometer, and focal irradiance in the range of 1 to 10 Tera Watt per centimeter-squared. Frequency doubled beams are utilized for capturing shadow graphs for visualization of the breakdown kernel at time delays in the range of 0.1 to 100 microsecond. OH emission spectra of the laser plasma, spatially resolved along the slit dimension, are recorded in the wavelength range of 298 nm to 321 nm, and with gate widths adjusted to 10 microsecond for the intensified charge-coupled device that is mounted at the exit plane of a 0.64 m Czerny-Turner configuration spectrometer. Diatomic OH signals occur due to recombination of the plasma and are clearly distinguishable for time delays larger than 50 microsecond, but are masked by spectra of N2 early in the plasma decay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0101.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: nutrient resources recovery , chemical oxygen demand (COD), carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), co-composting, wastewater sludge, municipal solid wastes (MSW)
Online: 8 March 2019 (04:06:02 CET)
The purpose of this study is nutrient resources recovery by achieving the optimal chemical oxygen demand (COD) and carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) in co-composting wastewater treatment plant sludge with Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW). In this effort, the co-composting has been conducted in form of a case study in the northern region of Iran. In this research, 192 tests were carried out on four series of samples examined in terms of waste to sludge ratio, different aeration period, the percent of porous materials and the moisture content. This study was carried out at a temperature of 50 °C for a 15 day period by application of the in-vessel system and shows that the best ratio for waste to sludge is 2:1, while the 8 hour period is the best aeration period. The porous material which can be added to the composting process is limited to 15% in weight. In other words, any more or less amount of this material will adversely impact the process. Moreover, this research suggests that the sludge dewatering is not required in such processes. In Addition, the efficiency of both COD and C/N reductions equals to about 40%.