ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0107.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: intelligence; development of intelligence; cognitive development; network models; factor models; psychometrics; latent variable models
Online: 25 January 2017 (03:14:34 CET)
Cronbach’s (1957) famous division of scientific psychology into two disciplines is still actual for the fields of cognition (general mechanisms) and intelligence (dimensionality of individual differences). The welcome integration of the two fields requires the construction of mechanistic models of cognition and cognitive development that explain key phenomena in individual differences research. In this paper we argue that network modeling is a promising approach to integrate the processes of cognitive development and (developing) intelligence into one unified theory. Network models are defined mathematically, describe mechanisms on the level of the individual, and are able to explain positive correlations among intelligence subtest scores - the empirical basis for the well-known g-factor - as well as more complex factorial structures. Links between network modeling, factor modeling and item response theory allow for a common metric, encompassing both discrete and continuous characteristics, for cognitive development and intelligence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0123.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: co-management; livelihoods; conflicts; biodiversity conservation; sustainable development
Online: 24 November 2016 (11:25:34 CET)
Good governance in natural resource management (NRM) is one of the most challenging issues in developing countries that often inappropriately embedded in national policies and political agendas. It is, in fact, even more important for countries like Bangladesh with exceptionally high pressure and dependence on its natural resources for sustaining rural livelihoods. Globally, nowadays, good governance is considered as one of the key factor for achieving the goal of sustainable development and biodiversity conservation. Bangladesh, of late has responded to that global zeal by involving local communities in the management of country’s declining forest and other natural resources. The colonial legacy of the forestry sector of Bangladesh was planned and, managed as interim projects through donors’ prescriptions. Thus, institutions, management processes and conservation outcomes were problematic. The conventional approach adopted by colonial and post-colonial regimes for forest management also proved to be inefficient due to its top-down management system. The absolute dependency on donor support, and their prescription sometimes worsened the situation both ecologically and socially. Global, regional and local trends supported the need for a different dimension in the governance paradigms. The introduction of a pluralistic approach, known as co-management in protected areas (PAs) is an example of an attempt whereby shared governance mechanism are implemented to attain the desired goals of conservation that will also address the livelihoods and aspirations of communities living in and around PAs of the country. However, in designing future forest and PA regimes the concern of the external aid support and attached conditions remain a reality that needs to be addressed. Adequate attention should be given to our vanishing biodiversity, culture and community livelihoods through devising an appropriate governance mechanism recognizing and supporting local rights, access and participation in the environmental management. It is now time to mainstream the adhoc nature of governance according to our national conservation strategy and policy frameworks in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the Bangladesh NRM sector addressing the human and community right of people in the specific context of forest protected areas management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0024.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: SWAT; model development; paddy fields; irrigation; return flow
Online: 3 November 2016 (09:42:16 CET)
The consumption of rice, which recently increases globally, leads to requirement for planning sustainable water management for paddy cultivation. In this research, SWAT model was modified to evaluate sustainability of paddy cultivation. Modifications to simulate paddy cultivation are 1) to equip with a new water balance model of impounded fields, 2) to add an irrigation management option for paddy fields, which is characterized by flood irrigation managed by farmers on a daily basis, 3) to consider puddling operation that influences water quality and infiltration rate of soil. The enhanced model, named SWAT-PADDY, was applied to an agricultural watershed in Japan as a case study. The modified model succeeded in representing paddy cultivation in the study area. However, SWAT-PADDY underestimated base flow in irrigation period. The cause of this is inferred that the modified model doesn’t represent return flow of excess withdrawal of river water. In conclusion, addition of the models of impoundment and management practices in paddy fields to SWAT improved field scale simulation of water balance and irrigation in paddy fields. However, further improvement of the model on irrigation return flow process is needed to better predict hydrology of watersheds dominated by paddy irrigation.
PROJECT REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0026.v1
Online: 7 September 2016 (11:32:32 CEST)
This research project was funded by the Masterplan for Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia's Economic Development (MP3EI). The objective of this study was to examine the role of indigenous people of Marind in the agricultural development of rice cultivation in Merauke. A survey was conducted in three villages in Merauke using stratified random sampling. The finding suggest that indigenous people of Marind have a crucial role in the agricultural development of rice cultivation in Papua.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0085.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: thermal remote sensing; EKC theory; urban development
Online: 16 December 2016 (08:00:59 CET)
This study investigates the land surface temperature (LST) distribution from thermal infrared data for analyzing the characteristics of surface coverage using the Vegetation-Impervious-Soil (VIS) approach. A set of ten images, obtained from Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper, between 2001 and 2010, were used to study the urban environmental conditions of 47 neighborhoods of Porto Alegre city, Brazil. Porto Alegre has had the smallest population growth rate of all 27 state capitals in the last two decades in Brazil, with an increase of 11.55% in inhabitants from 1,263 million in 1991 to 1,409 million in 2010. We applied the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) theory in order to test the influence of the economically-related scenario on the spatial nature of social-environmental arrangement of the city at neighborhood scale. Our results suggest that the economically-related scenario exerts a non-negligible influence on the physically driven characteristics of the urban environmental conditions as predicted by EKC theory. The linear inverse correlation R2 between household income (HI) and LST is 0.36 and has shown to be comparable to all other studied variables. Future research may investigate the relation between other economically-related indicators to specific land surface characteristics.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: green infrastructure; sustainable urban development; urban planning; landscape representations
Online: 11 January 2017 (07:44:52 CET)
In the quest for more sustainable urban landscape development, the concept of ‘green infrastructure’ (GI) has become central in policy documents and as a multifunctional general planning tool. GI is not however a simple and unambiguous solution. While there in policy documents are claims for more and connected GI, actual urban development takes another direction. The densifying imperative is hard to combine with an increased and more connected GI. This paper argues for a critical and diversified approach to the concept of GI, to facilitate its implementation in urban planning and management. While GI most often is seen as a common asset and a public good, the actual land use negotiations and management responsibilities cannot be limited to a public service discourse, but should address more clearly a variety of actors. Linguistic as well as spatial definitions of the two relevant dichotomies of ‘green-grey’ and ‘public-private’ are crucial in GI location, design, construction and management, it is argued. Overarching representations of GI will be needed, but also – and linked to it – a spatial storm water plan and an overall plan for public space. The development over time will need an intersectorial implementation and management program. Thus some of the GI intentions may be implemented in planning processes, some through reorganisation and redesign of public space, and some by agreements with landowners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0169.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: China; sustainability development; carbon emissions; carbon flow; sectoral analysis
Online: 21 March 2017 (04:28:01 CET)
Reducing carbon emissions is a major ways to achieving green development and sustainability for China’s future. This paper elaborates the detailed feature of China's carbon flow for 2013 with the carbon flow chart and gives changing characteristics of China's CO2 flow from the viewpoint of sector and energy during 2000 and 2013. The results show that (1) during 2000 to 2013, China's CO2 emissions with the approximately growth portion of 9% annually, while the CO2 intensity of China diminishes at different rates. (2) The CO2 emissions from secondary industry are prominent from the perspective of four main sectors accounting for 83.5%. The manufacturing play an important part in the secondary industry with 45%. In which the "smelting and pressing of metal" takes up a large percentage as about 50% in manufacturing. (3) The CO2 emissions produced by coal consumption is keep dominant in energy-related emissions with a contribution of 65%, while it will decrease in the future. (4) From the aspect of sector, the CO2 emissions mainly come from the "electricity and heating" sector and the "smelting and pressing of metals" sub-sector. While it is essential and urgent to propose concrete recommendations for CO2 emissions mitigation. Firstly, the progression of creative technology is inevitable and undeniable. Secondly, the government should make different CO2 emissions reduction policies among different sectors. For example, the process emission plays an important role in "non-metallic mineral" while in "smelting and manufacturing of metals" it is energy. Thirdly, the country can change the energy structure and promote renewable energy for powering by wind or other low-carbon energy. Besides it, the coke oven gas can be a feasible substitution. Finally, policy maker should be aware of the emissions from residents have been growing in a fast rate. It is effective to involve the public in the activity of energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction such as reducing the times of personal transportation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0183.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: biocultural resources; biocultural design; alternative food networks; sustainable rural development; local food systems; Bolivia
Online: 8 September 2016 (10:19:43 CEST)
Biocultural heritage-based products, including regional specialty foods, are increasingly part of sustainable rural development strategies. While export-oriented biocultural products are often the most visible, we examine the role of campesino gastronomic heritage in the Central Valley of Tarija, Bolivia, as a case study of a local market-centered biocultural resource-based development strategy reflected in an alternative agri-food network. We develop a biocultural sustainability framework to examine this network from ecological, economic and sociocultural perspectives. Data are drawn from interviews (n=77), surveys (n=89) and participant observation, with primary and secondary producers of traditional and new products, as well as restaurant owners, market vendors and local consumers. We find that campesino biocultural heritage and the alternative agri-food network surrounding it represent an influential territorial project that underpins many household economies, particularly for women. We conclude that the relatively small investments by local governments to promote campesino gastronomic heritage are having positive ripple effects on small-scale producer livelihoods and on biocultural sustainability. We suggest that further support to increase market access and reduce other barriers to participation in alternative food networks will likely increase the options and benefits available to small-scale producers mobilising campesino gastronomic heritage within the local economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0104.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: Capsicum annuum L.; capsaicinoid synthesis; gene expression; fruit development; MeJA
Online: 10 August 2016 (10:11:50 CEST)
Background: Capsaicinoid are a group of compounds and widely used in the food, medical, and pharmaceutical industries. Capsaicinoid are unique synthesized and accumulated in the pepper fruits. MeJA can enhance the capsaicinoid production. Temporal and spatial expression of capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes are helpful to understand the molecular mechnism of capsaicinoid biosynthesis in the fruits of pepper. Although some of the capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes in pepper have been identified, the expression of these genes at different developing stages of fruit has not been systemically investigated, and little is known about the molecular basis of MeJA inducing capsaicinoid biosynthesis. Results: HPLC study revealed that the capsaicinoid accumulation in the developing fruit of pepper initially appeared at 24 DAP (day after pollination), was actively development at 36 DAP and peaked at 48 DAP. 11 genes that encoded enzymes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis were isolated and characterized. Gene expression with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that the CaCS was unique expressed in placenta and the other 10 genes were expressed in all selected tissues and 9 of 11 genes (except CaCa4H and CaCa3H) were strongly expressed in placenta tissue. Spatial expression analysis demostrated that the 11 gene could be collectively grouped into four categories based on the patterns of relative expression of the genes during fruit development. Category I has 2 and they displayed a bell-shaped expression pattern with the peak expression at 24 DAP, Category II contains 5 genes and expression of the 5 genes was constantly increased from 0 to 36 DAP and peaked at 36 DAP. Category III comprises of 2 genes and both genes reached the peak at 48 DAP. Category IV consists of 2 genes and they showed a high expression at 36 and 48 DAF, but unexpressed from 0 to 12 DAP. The gene expressions of the 11 genes were up-regulated by MeJA. 3 genes showed a high expression at 24 h; 4 genes reached the peak at 12 h; the top expression were observed at 18 h; The last one, CaACYase, achieved the highest level at 8 h. Conclusion: The biosynthesis of capsaicinoid in pepper fruit is developmentally regulated. The expression of the majority of capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes is highly consistent with the development accumulation of capsaicinoid in pepper fruit. These results not only provide the initial information on spatial and temporal expression of capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes in pepper developing fruit, but are also valuable to identify the MeJA-induced genes for capsaicinoid biosynthesis and accumulation during pepper fruit development.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0065.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Systems Theory; multi-factor model; sustainable development; DRR; CCA
Online: 17 February 2017 (07:22:56 CET)
This article considers the concepts of sustainability and sustainable development in relation to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. We conceptualize sustainability from a social systemic perspective, that is, from a perspective that encompasses the multiple functionalities of a social system and their interrelationships in particular environmental contexts. The systems perspective is applied in our consideration and analysis of disaster risk reduction (DRR), climate change adaptation (CCA), and sustainable development (SD). Section 1 introduces briefly sustainability and sustainable development, followed by a brief presentation of the theory of complex social systems (Section 2). The theory conceptualizes interdependent subsystems, their multiple functionalities, and the agential and systemic responses to internal and external stressors on a social system. Section 3 considers disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA), emerging in response to one or more systemic stressors. It illustrates these with disaster risk reduction in the cases of food and chemical security regulation in the EU. CCA is illustrated by initiatives and developments on the island of Gotland, Sweden and in the Gothenburg Metropolitan area, which go beyond a limited CCA perspective, taking into account long-term sustainability issues. Section 4 discusses the limitations of DRR and CCA, not only their technical limitations but economic, socio-cultural, and political limitations, as informed from a sustainability perspective. It is argued that DRRs are only partial subsystems and must be considered and assessed in the context of a more encompassing systemic perspective. Part of the discussion is focused on the distinction between sustainable and non-sustainable DRRs and CCAs. Section 5 presents a few concluding remarks about the importance of a systemic perspective in analyzing DRR and CCA as well as other similar subsystems in terms of sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: participatory modelling; causal loop diagram development; structural analysis; systems modelling; construction innovation; Russian Federation
Online: 15 August 2016 (08:56:30 CEST)
This research integrates systemic and participatory techniques to model the Russian Federation construction innovation system. Understanding this complex construction innovation system, and determining the best levers for enhancing it, requires the dynamic modelling of a number of factors such as flows of resources and activities, policies, uncertainty and time. To build the foundations for such a dynamic model, the employed study method utilised an integrated stakeholder-based participatory approach coupled with structural analysis (MICMAC - Matrice d'Impacts Croisés Multiplication Appliquée à un Classement Cross-Impact Matrix). This method identified the key factors of the Russian Federation construction innovation system, their causal relationship (i.e. influence/dependence map) and ultimately a causal loop diagram. The generated model reveals pathways to improving construction innovation in the Russian Federation, and underpins the future development of an operationalised systems dynamic model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0153.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Eco-security; Land use and cover change (LUCC); Sustainability development and assessment
Online: 15 August 2016 (12:41:51 CEST)
Land use and cover change (LUCC) is an important method to investigate the causes of global environment change. We utilized the emergy ecological footprint (EEF) model to construct a land-use change model to be used as a systematic measuring tool for monitoring sustainable development trends. In particular, we estimated the eco-security of the Cing-jing region as a case study so that responsible agencies can use it to maintain a balance between ecological preservation and tourism development. The results indicated the following: First, the ecological environment of the Cing-jing region satisfied the safety standard in 2008–2014; however, the related indices increased considerably. Second, the grey model predicted a decrease in 2015–2024 ecological carrying capacities of Cing-jing and a large increase in capita EFs, resulting in a larger ecological deficit and higher EFI. The eco-security from 2015–2024 was higher compared to 7 years ago and is predicted to reach the Grade 2 intermediate level in 2022; thus the Cing-jing region is gradually becoming ecologically unsustainable. Strengths of our study included the use of EEF theory in a quantitative analysis of slope lands for the effective evaluation of ecological security. Finally, we expanded our research to include ecological security issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0155.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: component-based software development; dependability attributes; availability; reliability; integrity; confidentiality; safety; maintainability
Online: 15 August 2016 (12:21:45 CEST)
The software industry has adopted component-based software development (CBSD) to rapidly build and deploy large and complex software systems with significant savings at minimal engineering effort, cost, and time. However, CBSD encounters issues on security trust, mainly with respect to dependability attributes. A system is considered dependable when it can produce the outputs for which it was designed with no adverse effect on its intended environment. Dependability consists of several attributes that imply availability, confidentiality, integrity, reliability, safety, and maintainability. Dependability attributes must be embedded in a CBSD model to develop dependable component software. Motivated by the importance of these attributes, this paper pursues two objectives: to design a model for developing a dependable system that mitigates the vulnerabilities of software components, and to evaluate the proposed model. The model proposed in this study is labelled as developing dependable component-based software (2DCBS). To develop this model, the CBSD architectural phases and processes must be framed and the six dependability attributes embedded according to the best practice method. The expert opinion approach was applied to evaluate 2DCBS framing. In addition, the 2DCBS model was applied to the development of an information communication technology (ICT) portal through an empirical study method. Vulnerability assessment tools (VATs) were employed to verify the dependability attributes of the developed ICT portal. Results show that the 2DCBS model can be adopted to develop web application systems and to mitigate the vulnerabilities of the developed systems. This study contributes to CBSD and facilitates the specification and evaluation of dependability attributes throughout model development. Furthermore, the reliability of the dependable model can increase confidence in the use of CBSD for industries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0260.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Community Radio; Holistic Development; Integrated Development; Sustainable Development; Community Radio Practices
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:59:05 CET)
Community radios play a paramount role in the development of the community. Community radio stations have been highly engaged in addressing social, economic, cultural, educational, health, environmental, sanitation, and disaster issues effectively and strategically using local languages in context. Community radios are also used to express, and share indigenous views, thoughts, ideas, problems, and perspectives of local people. The purpose of this analysis is to explore the role of community radio for integrated and sustainable development in Ethiopia. It used a systematic narrative review. Nine research works and five assessments report were selected purposively and analyzed in a quantitative approach. Currently, in Ethiopia, there are 50 community radio stations that received broadcast licenses from Ethiopian Broadcast Authority with four types of licensing and broadcasting in 29 local languages. Community radio helps the community to identify their common goals, create holistic plans, monitor the progress of their developmental activities, and guide on sustainable development. It contributes to integrated and sustainable development in a collaborative and creative process that cultivates the social, economic, and political conditions needed for the community to succeed which aimed to improve and sustain the livelihoods of the community. However, the media can’t achieve its target goal to support the development activities and bring holistic development of the community. As a result; this review paper focuses on reviewing how Ethiopians use community radios for holistic development. And it suggested the way how we can use community radios for the prospective holistic development in Ethiopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0648.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: sustainable development; systemic sustainable transport development; systemic development
Online: 26 September 2020 (16:23:05 CEST)
The concept of sustainability and sustainable development, especially systemic sustainable development, still raises controversy in literature. The article makes an attempt to re-examine these concepts from a systems perspective, seeking foundations and applications in the selected sector. It is becoming increasingly clear that sustainability and sustainable development are aimed at integrated economic, social, cultural, political, and ecological factors [1[, (pp.641-642). This causes that the constructive approach to the issue is required, taking into account all the actors, areas and dimensions involved in the pursuit of systemic sustainable development. As a result, both local and global dimensions and the way they interact must be explored in a multi-faceted manner in order to offer a perspective more useful than other analytical approaches, because the systems view is a way of thinking in terms of connectedness, relationships, and context . The article aims to review selected publications and studies so as to form the general idea of systemic sustainable development and define the systemic development of sustainable transport, including in particular the perspective of the actors of the sector, transport providers (passenger, urban) and transport development program, implemented both by local governments and on the European scale. An attempt was made to identify elements of the systemic sustainable development model, setting it in the reality of the following subcategories: “Society”, “Economy” and “Environment” in sectoral terms. It is supposed that, systemic sustainable development is a conglomerate of public administration entities, companies operating in the sector, individual and corporate customers, acting in certain conditions for economic, social and environmental well-being, and a number of their initiatives of major or minor significance, grouped in six sub-areas, undertaken to achieve systemic value in the examined sector, with a positive or negative business/economic, social and environmental impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0490.v2
Online: 1 February 2022 (12:50:50 CET)
Simple Learning Motivations Hierarchy Model (SLMHM) is a theory that attempts to structure the path of learning “growth” with 16 levels where each next level corresponds to higher aims, motives, results, and satisfaction of needs. The SLMHM has been developed to simplify design, control, and evaluate the learning processes. The SLMHM was first presented at IES-2020 Conference (Gakh, 2020). More detailed research including analysis of internal structure shows that the model should be corrected. The “Plan-Do-Check-Act” cycle (PDCA Cycle) is popular in management. This paper describes the SLMHM improvements based on analyses of its similarities with the PDCA Cycle. The description of this research makes SLMHM more comprehend.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0260.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: sustainable development; SMEs; competitiveness, enterprises development; innovation; emerging economy
Online: 30 March 2018 (06:29:48 CEST)
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are the biggest group of enterprises in the European Union (EU); they are also characteristic for emerging economies. Given this situation, there is a need to provide instruments such as processes, which allows them to realize a model of sustainable development. The ability to classify processes and occurrences happening inside these processes often affects the condition of the enterprises. The implementation of innovations, as identified process, enables the directions of SME development towards sustainable development. The purpose of this article is to find out if the identification of processes such as innovations, have any influence on the competitiveness and sustainable development of SMEs. This study was based on pilot research, which examined small and medium enterprises at the regional level, at the example of Polish emerging economy region. It was researched under the angle of the identification of processes and changes happening inside enterprises in terms of understanding the sustainable development concept. Research composition allows to present an understanding by the SMEs of the problems analyzed. The novelty was in the new questionnaire, the definition of sustainable development, and matching those processes identified by the enterprises analyzed with the particular sustainable development dimensions suggested by the authors. In light of the analysis of the literature and the results of this research the important contributions of this study are as follows. This approach pointed the understanding and practical meaning of the identification of processes to be understood. The most important finding was that there is a need to make entrepreneurs aware of the fact that innovations are also processes in themselves, which often constitutes the sum of other supporting processes occurring in the enterprise. Support in the form of knowledge transfer from experts to SMEs would also be recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0256.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: Education; Mozambique; Quality; Development; Millennium Development Goals.
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:39:48 CEST)
In order to meet the Millennium Development Goals set forth by the United Nations’ Millennium Summit that took place in 2000, in New York, particularly in the area of education, the Mozambican Government decided that, from 2003 onwards, during their primary school formation, students should be passed automatically even if they do not have enough intellectual capacities that justify their progress. In fact, this decision was made during a period when there were many pupils being failed, due to various reasons. After more than 15 years of its implementation, this paper aims to analyzing the results acquired from this decision, from the point of view of the quality of education. This will be done taking into account the prevailing situation of education in Mozambique. Having considered these aspects, the paper will move on to presenting some of the challenges and opportunities that the country should consider in the area of education, as a way to bring about better outcomes and promote development, in the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0484.v1
Online: 29 June 2018 (12:13:05 CEST)
The striving for sustainable development has become the goal of actions undertaken not only by representatives of public authorities and institutions representing this sector, but also representatives of private entities who are increasingly recognizing the benefits and sources of long-term development based on the principles and objectives of sustainable development. These are mainly based on the pursuit of synergy in the three basic areas of activities, i.e., in the economic, social, and environmental dimensions as well as in the maintenance of natural resources. The implementation of these activities is connected with the necessity of incurring financial expenditures, which the government (public sector) does not have in the required value. Therefore, in the process of sustainable development for which the government is responsible, the active participation of the financial sector (banks) is necessary. Achieving results within the alliance of the concept of sustainable development requires the setting of a kind of contract, the parties of which are the government, society, and financial institutions. The purpose of the conducted research is to indicate by which means the government can stimulate economic growth towards its sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0614.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: sustainability; sustainable development; education for sustainable development; sociology of education; sustainability literacy; higher education; sustainable development goals
Online: 25 October 2018 (16:31:16 CEST)
Sustainability, sustainable development and education for sustainable development are increasingly central concepts, both in social practice and in the field of scientific knowledge. Sociology, and in particular Sociology of Education as a specialised Sociology, can provide relevant contributions in its promotion. This article aims to explore the importance of Sociology of Education in promoting sustainability literacy in higher education, using the Sustainable Development Goals and key competencies (United Nations and UNESCO) as the central reference in this field, and intends, thus, to become an added contribution for this discussion. The article seeks to demonstrate that the learning of sustainability literacy would benefit from the use of a sociological stance throughout this whole process that considers dimensions that are often not directly emphasised and articulated between each other, such as: interconnection of scale levels, sociological imagination, multi-paradigmatic nature, heuristic interdisciplinarity, reflexivity and use of Sociology for action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0152.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: entrepreneurship; employees; Romanian rural area; development
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:27:24 CET)
The economic activities in the romanian rural areas have started to know new horizons with Romania's accession to the European Community. The rural society was and is focused on the level of entrepreneurial behavior strictly on agriculture, with all its derivatives. At present there is a variety of sectors of activity that are found in the rural society, which are waiting to know new dimensions. The higher the number of entrepreneurs, the more job vacancies will be created across different fields of activity. In these circumstances, the number of jobs will increase, and the society in the romanian rural area can enjoy a diversity of the population determined by the various professions of people, but also by the new dimension offered by the entrepreneurial area. This way, it will be done later the repopulation of the Romanian countryside, a national interest issue, after the great majority of the population went to work in the countries of the European Community, having to be forced by the poverty of the romanian rural area, determined by the lack of jobs to ensure a decent standard of living.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0207.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Green Initiatives; Economic Growth; Social Development; Green Economic Development Plan; Financial Performance
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:25:02 CET)
This study was conducted to propose the Green Economic Development Plan for Manufacturing S.M.E.s based on financial performance and operations thru Green Initiatives. The descriptive survey method used to gather data to determine the green initiative's implementation of small and medium (S.M.E.s) manufacturing enterprises. Green initiatives use as a basis for crafting a green economic development plan. Document analysis was also employed to obtain data from any available printed materials and records provided by the respondents. Such methods of gathering information used to validate data gathered from local and foreign-related literature. The observation also employed to survey the assets owned and validate any green initiatives practiced, including their implementation. The study's findings show that among the green initiatives implemented by SMMEs, which resulted in the reduction of total costs and expenses, were the proper disposal and segregation of waste materials, water management by recycling wastewater and using water-efficient equipment, natural resources, and raw materials management. SMMEs should encourage active participation and support of suppliers and customers in achieving G.E.D.'s objectives by developing incentive schemes.Furthermore, SMMEs should continue to benchmark with G.E.D. Practitioners are operating locally and abroad to adopt best greening strategies and regularly network with concerned government agencies for continuous updating on G.E.D. Initiatives that may benefit the firm. Further research may be conducted on green initiatives implemented by small and medium enterprises in other industry sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0347.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: local economic development (LED) index; basic infrastructure; rural development; Romania; impact assessment
Online: 20 August 2018 (08:01:18 CEST)
This article investigates if public investments in rural basic infrastructure represent the best strategy for boosting the local economy of rural communities from Romania. The article focuses on one specific program implemented under the Cohesion policy in the framework of the National Plan for Rural Development called Measure 322. Geographically, the research included a sample of rural communes from the North-Western Region of Romania. Moreover, the study also looks at other determinants of local economic development (LED) than infrastructure investments, with a focus on certain feature characterizing Romanian rural communities such as population size, isolation from urban centers, connection with European and national roads networks, educational stock, etc. The research included three steps, namely the construction of the LED Index, a cvasi-experimental research, and a regression model. Our main findings seem to suggest that while investments in infrastructure help the development gap between beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries remains relatively the same. In terms of determinants of LED, percentage of population with a university degree and connection to a European road are the most significant in the Romanian rural context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0554.v1
Subject: Keywords: Pilot; competency; competency development; competency development model; Indonesian Naval Aviation Center
Online: 21 November 2020 (10:44:23 CET)
The Indonesian Navy's military condition in facing the globalization era of the industrial revolution 4.0 underwent many significant changes, both in policies and coaching practices that were implemented in regulating developments over the past decade. The competency model was an important basis of human resource functions such as recruitment, training and development, and performance management. The purpose of this study was to identifying and analyzing the pilot competency development model in the Naval Aviation Center. This research was a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. The results of this study concluded that the pilot of the Indonesian Naval Aviation Center requires the development of competency models that were quite significant in various areas of competence such as 1.) Interpersonal Pilot Communication Competencies; 2.) Competence of Aviation Security Personnel; 3.) Competency Constraint Satisfaction Optimization Problem; 4.) Competency of Flight Control Systems that have been tested, licensed, and well implemented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0628.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Sustainable Development; Sustainable Development Goals; Public Policy; Agrarian Policy; Ecuador
Online: 2 February 2021 (10:29:00 CET)
This study reviews how policy and agricultural laws relate to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2 and 12, sustainability and rural development, in Ecuador. Policy aligns itself with goals 2 in terms of increased productivity and income (target 2,3) to interna-tional markets (targets 2b y 2c), rural infrastructure, research, agricultural extension and technological development (target 2a), agrobiodiversity and traditional knowledge (target 25). It is related with SDG 12 to sustainable production and consumption targets 12.1, 12.2 and 12a). Laws highlight public procurement, research, seeds, and efficient resource management through sustainable practices. It is concluded that policy is aligned with SDGs 2 and 12 but is necessary to establish others that surpass the emphasis on produc-tivity towards export markets that leave AFC production and achieve a transition to sus-tainable production and consumption. The study of laws indicates that it is necessary to strengthen local governance for food sovereignty, including the peasant sectors within the framework of existing laws with participation in spaces of debate and formulation of ac-tions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0170.v1
Online: 8 August 2018 (15:02:58 CEST)
That form and function relates, is the maxim to anatomy and physiology. Yet form-function relations can be difficult to establish. Human subjects with excessive trabeculated myocardium in the left ventricle, for example, are diagnosed with non-compaction cardiomyopathy, but the extent of trabeculations may be without relation to ejection fraction. Rather than rejecting a relation between form and function, we may ask whether the salient function is assessed; is there a relation to electrical propagation, mean arterial blood pressure, propensity to form blood clots, or all? And how should extent of trabeculated muscle be assessed? While reviewing literature on trabeculated muscle, we applied Tinbergen’s four types of causation - how does it work, why does it work, how is it made, and why did it evolve - to better parse what is meant by form and function. The paper is structured around cases that highlight advantages and pitfalls of applying Tinbergen’s questions. It further uses the evolution of lunglessness in amphibians to argue lung reduction can impact on chamber septation, and it considers the evolution of an arterial outflow in fishes to argue that reductions in energy consumption may drive structural changes with little consequences to function. Concerning trabeculations, we argue they relate to pump function in the embryo in the couple of weeks before the onset of coronary circulation. In fetal and postnatal stages, a spectrum of trabeculated-to-compact myocardium makes no difference to cardiac function and in this period form and function may appear unrelated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0292.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: development; time perception; neuropsychological assessment; zone of proximal development; duration of an event
Online: 11 December 2020 (16:12:41 CET)
We aimed to investigate the ability of children aged 5–14 years old (preschoolers, primary schoolers, and preteens) to assess and anticipate time intervals. 287 Russian children aged 5–14 years old and 26 adults of control group participated in our study. The neuropsychological assessment, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and a battery of time-related tests were applied. All groups of children overestimated the event’s duration, although the accuracy of the second estimations increased among the participants aged 6–8 years after a prompt was offered. A zone of proximal development for time anticipation task was detected for children aged 9-11 years, when the prompt could significantly improve the accuracy of time perception. The participants overestimated the duration of both upcoming and past events, with the degree of overestimation being found to be negatively correlated with age. Further, a higher degree of accuracy in terms of time estimation was found to be correlated with higher scores on the attention and memory tests, and accuracy of time anticipation was associated with scores of praxis test.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0042.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: Bad Behavior; Institutions; Heterodox Economics; Development
Online: 5 October 2022 (12:43:21 CEST)
How important are institutions for the development of nations? Are there any existing measures which quantify the behavior of institutions? Is there any theoretical justification for measuring their behavior? This paper introduces a framework influenced by Plato’s needs theory to provide justification for measuring the behavior of institutions. This involves introducing the humanization hypothesis which states that the behavior of institutions can be measured as they, similar to human beings, are living entities with similar hierarchical needs which are essential for their survival. The paper employs an explanatory and descriptive research design which is highly theoretical in nature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0480.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: architecture; sustainability; sustainable development; sustainable design
Online: 25 November 2021 (14:43:15 CET)
Sustainability is a concept shrouded in abstraction. While we have definitions in existence, it is often difficult to explain the concept itself. The current definition of ‘sustainable development’ was given by the Brundtland Commission’s report in 1987. The Earth Summit at Rio in 1992 gave us Agenda 21, an action plan to achieve sustainable development. Now in the 21st century, philosophers, academicians, and researchers across the globe are paving the way for a new understanding of the term ‘sustainability’, its contextual nature, and its relation to humans, politics, and ecology. This article investigates the origins of the term ‘sustainability’, its derivatives, and the concept of sustainable development. A semantical analysis is carried out to understand the differences between ‘sustainability’ and ‘sustainable development’. Next, the development of the three pillars of sustainability and the application of these concepts in the field of architecture and design is also investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0227.v1
Online: 12 January 2023 (10:51:17 CET)
The paper presents a theoretical and empirical assessment of this social phenomenon. The achieved scientific solution-result (Main Finding) is presented a theoretical model of the develop-ment of public citizenship in a sustainable environment has been created for the case of Lithuania. First of all, the paper discusses the conceptual issues of the expression of modernisation of civil society, highlighting and justifying the interaction of social changes and sustainable environment in economic, social, political, environmental and cultural aspects, presenting the case of Lithuania (The Case of Lithuania). On the other hand, following the United Nations Sustainable Development Strategy document, the field of progress and resilience of Lithuanian society in modern society is discussed, identifying and analysing various criteria that have been empirically tested. The authors noted that the democratic cube model was used to create a theoretical model of the development of public citizenship in a harmonious environment, and the HDI (human development index model) was also integrated. The model created by the authors systematically explains the analysis of the relationship between the expression of modernisation changes identified in the research and the formation of civil society; secondly, it substantiates the process of interaction between modernisation changes and public citizenship, discussing four fields of expression. Practical applicability of the model: it will help researchers to conceptually analyse and empirically study public citizenship; will help public policymakers and implementers to manage effectively, ensuring quality changes in society and managing new challenges, and it will also contribute to the conceptual formation of the country's long-term development strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0077.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: European Energetic Law; Development; Resilience; Sustainability
Online: 2 June 2021 (12:24:19 CEST)
The paper will examine in detail (a) the norms that can be featured under the category "Green Deal" connected to the European Commission, (b) their application to Spain and (c) the different patterns of action and development models that have been shaped by this framework over the last 20 years. These patterns are particularly relevant currently, as the Covid crisis has highlighted the importance of advancing towards new patterns of local sustainability endowed with higher resilience. The notion of cognitive sustainability will be one of the added value to current reflections on sustainability in general and energetic sustainability in particular.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0064.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: digital transit; sustainable development; labor market; professional employment; economic sustainability; pace of development; artificial intelligence (AI); corporate social responsibility.
Online: 4 October 2021 (15:36:30 CEST)
This article explores the question of the rate of digital progress in the context of the labor market. Specific features of the current situation are indicated: temporality of socio-technological transformations, which is becoming less and less compatible with the harmonious development of man and society; the pace at which machines acquire intelligence; total devaluation of mental labor; unresolved issue of the role of man in the world of intelligent machines; the criticality of the problem of the labor market, due to its global nature, social significance and the rate of socio-technological changes. It is emphasized that these circumstances in the short term threaten the sustainable development of the global society, whose reactions to the transformation of technological and socio-economic infrastructure are significantly lagging behind. It is concluded that there is an urgent need to strengthen social responsibility, determined by the new ethics of relations between humans and machines with AI, supplemented by the primacy of the dignity of the social role of humans. The authors point out the urgent need to revise ideas about work as the main purpose of a person and about realization in the profession as the main factor that determines the self-esteem of an individual and his social status.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: definition of agritourism; comparative studies; rural development; sustainable tourism; mountain development; alpine regions, Chinese mountains
Online: 30 April 2019 (11:25:21 CEST)
After World War II, the economic recovery of Western Europe implied a swift economic transition for all regions, including the area of the Alps, although affecting various parts at different pace and stages. The resulting out-migration led to population decline in some mountain valleys and regions already since the 1950s. A similar out-migration movement began in China after its rural reform started in the 1970s. The effect was in some cases even more significant than in the Alps, with the first village being deserted in the 1980s. Current estimations report of about 380,000 abandoned rural villages in China between 2000 and 2016, particularly in its mountain regions. While lower population densities might alleviate the pressures on ecology and contribute to environmental benefits, these movements aggravate a spiraling-down process of local economies and culture. In the Alps many regions facing challenges of out-migration and economic changes elaborated agritourism schemes that provided both economic incentives and stability to involved mountain farmers, and continuation of local land management systems. In contrast, in China hardly any comparable trends of rural tourism developed. However, in recent years China's interest for tourism-oriented farm diversification increased and a range of rural tourism and agricultural tourism initiatives emerged. This paper focuses on the analysis of successful initiatives, problems and development prospects in the Alps and China's rural areas, redefining agritourism as a systematic integrated activity. Agritourism might therefore be assessed as a core element of the future sustainable development of the Alps and the Chinese countryside.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0120.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: teachers’ training; teachers’ competences; intercultural dialogue; education for sustainable development; professional development.
Online: 6 October 2020 (10:58:25 CEST)
The present research is embedded in the professional development and research line and in the needs of secondary education and first-year university teachers. We focussed on evidencing the importance of teachers’ professional training to include some specific adaptation and skills in intercultural dialogue and understanding -often called Intercultural Competence- because of its direct impact on the sustainable development of human beings, groups, and ecosystems. We investigated the role played by each of the main competencies linked to the following intercultural dimensions: Professional Identity, Ethics and Axiology, Methodology, and Inclusive Education. We used an integrated methodology and a cross-study of data, performed after the obtention of a three-cornered evaluation of results collected in focus groups, interviews, and questionnaires. We were able to show the impact of intercultural dialogue and understanding in the education for a sustainable development pattern. This is fundamental to set up a new ecology of forms, knowledge, attitudes, and educational meanings, further used to update teachers and students’ training in sustainable ecology and cultural diversity. Progress made in these complementary competencies -Professional Identity, Ethics and Axiology, Methodology- were appraised by teachers participating in the present study; the latter showing an increased interest and demand for the intercultural competence, after increasing their proficiency in the other complementary competencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0473.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: team development; society development; maturity models
Online: 7 November 2022 (03:45:56 CET)
There are different Maturity, Motivation, and Development models. The models can be applied to the development of organizations, businesses, information technology infrastructure, human resources, and so on. This paper discusses society patterns that can be used in modeling society and team development. The model discussed has many advantages over existing ones. It assumes the Age of Creativity and the Creative Society Pattern as the upmost level of development. The patterns are juxtaposed with the 16 levels Simple Learning Motivation Hierarchy Model that allow modeling of dynamic processes with Expansion and Totality as the upmost levels. This approach eliminates the limitations of existing models and allows detailed modeling and planning. Explanation of the future development of humanity (up to the Age of Creativity) is one of the advantages of the model. The paper contains the description of the main peculiarities of society patterns and creates a basis for practical implementation of the model for society and team development. Organizations and teams can benefit from this model through its implementation in consulting and coaching processes. The model can be used in regional/organizational development and investment planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0550.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: “Borghi”; Tourism development; Rural Area; Sustainable tourism
Online: 20 April 2021 (14:21:48 CEST)
The paper comes from the need to search for criteria useful for the valorization of heritage towns, located in rural and/or inland areas of Italy, now affected to depression and depopulation process. To this end, the authors point out how territorial identity can constitute the theoretical foundation to influence the development policies and, in particular, the tourism development for sustainability process It was therefore decided to interview a number of stakeholders who could contribute with their professionalism and expertise to identify possible paths and processes for the enhancement of these areas for tourism development. The methodology was based on be to be interviews with open questions, which allowed to identify a SWOT analysis, offering a guideline for a correct governance of these rural areas for their tourist enhancement, in terms of sustainability of development and tourist attractiveness. The study is an observatory that will monitor the implementation of sustainable tourism enhancement of the borghi, heritage town
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: cybernetics; complex systems; new drug development; human system
Online: 5 January 2020 (15:38:27 CET)
Specialized, reductionist, and linear approaches are applied in clinical research; they are based on linear logic and used towards therapeutic molecule-based targets. However, those approaches do not consider a systemic vision that describes the remote cause of the pathogenic activation. We propose new theoretical and practical methods for the next drug generation development. Self-organization, network structure, hierarchical organization, non-linearity, feedback circuits, reactions to information, and the view of drugs as information clarify the existing pharmacological methods. We suggest a perspective and hierarchical vision of the human organism based on six levels (mechanic and structural; metabolic; bodily dynamic; emotional, cognitive, spiritual). The therapy should restore the self-organization of every level using the “intelligent” modulation of the network responses. Multi-targeted drugs should act on the remote cause of the pathogenic cascade and be administered based on personal variability and networks. This approach may help the development of individualized, precise, and integrated medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0475.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: sustainable development goals, urban sustainable development, indicators, evolution of sustainability assessment
Online: 28 June 2018 (15:20:59 CEST)
With growing urbanisation the sustainability of cities has become increasingly important. Although cities have been using indicators for a long time it is only in the last decades that attempts have been made to collate indicators into indicator sets with the aim of reflecting the many different aspects that need to be covered to assess the sustainability of a city. The aim of this paper is to review how indicators for monitoring sustainable urban development have evolved over time and compare them to the indicators suggested by the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The review reveals that previous indicator sets emphasised environmental sustainability, health and economic growth. It is also shown that indicator sets that pre-date the SDGs lacked dimensions such as gender equality and reduced inequalities. In all, the SDG indicators provide the possibility of a more balanced and integrated approach to urban sustainability monitoring. At the same time, a methodology is needed to facilitate the adaptation process of localising the SDGS, targets and indicators. Challenges of local application include their large number, their generic characteristics and the need to complement them with specific indicators that are more relevant at the city level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0082.v1
Online: 24 August 2017 (18:10:45 CEST)
Sustainable development is inconceivable without healthy real estate market. A housing project can be regarded as sustainable only when all the dimensions of sustainability (environmental, economic, and social) are dealt with. There has been an increased interest in using sustainability indicators for evaluating the impacts of the new development projects. Past and recent experiences have shown that sustainability indicators can be useful tools for measuring the outcomes of new construction, when used appropriately and adequately. The aim of this article is to propose an integrated, hierarchically structured system of sustainability indicators to be used for assessment of the new housing development projects in the Baltic States. This aim is achieved through accomplishing three objectives. First, based on a review of literature related to assessing building project performance and sustainable development in construction, the paper proposes a hierarchically structured system of sustainability indicators. Second, based on a survey of experts from the Baltic States, significances of criteria are estimated by the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Finally, paper proposes recommendations to government authorities and real estate developers as to how to enhance the performance of new residential projects according to the principles of sustainability.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0296.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: competency framework; professional competency; competency development; CBME
Online: 8 November 2021 (13:17:06 CET)
Competency frameworks are developed for a variety of purposes, including describing professional practice and informing education and assessment frameworks. Despite the volume of competency frameworks developed in the healthcare professions, guidance remains unclear and is inconsistently adhered to (perhaps in part due to a lack of organising frameworks), there is variability in methodological choices, inconsistently reported outputs, and a lack of evaluation of frameworks. As such, we proposed the need for improved guidance. In this paper we outline a six-step model for developing competency framework that is designed to address some of these shortcomings. The six-steps comprise  identifying purpose, intended uses, scope, and stakeholders;  theoretically informed ways of identifying the contexts of complex, ‘real-world’ professional practice, which includes  aligned methods and means by which practice can be explored;  the identification and specification of competencies required for professional practice,  how to report the process and outputs of identifying such competencies, and  built-in strategies to continuously evaluate, update and maintain competency framework development processes and outputs. The model synthesizes and organizes existing guidance and literature, and furthers this existing guidance by highlighting the need for a theoretically-informed approach to describing and exploring practice that is appropriate, as well as offering guidance for developers on reporting the development process and outputs, and planning for the ongoing maintenance of frameworks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0117.v1
Subject: Keywords: development process, high-rise, condominium, development control, city sustainability, Planning Authority, planner
Online: 12 January 2018 (15:57:05 CET)
This paper presents an experimental scenario aimed at bridging the gap between the cities we have and the cities we need, not only in the 21st century but also beyond, using the integrated tools of development control and holistic land development model to achieve a planner-led vision of city sustainability. Due to scathing criticisms against the development control system, the paper contends that planners as development approving officers and public interest specialists are better positioned than allied professionals to increase city sustainability through a holistic development process that benefits from the concept of strong sustainability posited by ecological economists. The paper adopts a seven-stage, 56-cell land development matrix (model) to simulate the development of the typical high-rise residential condominium in Ontario, supported with secondary data and the author’s ground experience as a planner and realtor with condominium customer service experience across Toronto and Mississauga cities between 2008 and 2017. Findings reveal that planners can seize the opportunity of being leaders of the development team to synergize the risks and value creation in land development that are key drivers of strong sustainability. The paper suggests some policy implications for averting disasters like fire hazards and terror attacks in high-rise residential buildings.
COMMENTARY | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0150.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Environmental Assessment Report (EAR); environmental health; Environmental Management/Environmental Management Systems (EM/EMS) Model; Environmental Management Plan (EMP); Multinational oil companies (MOCs); Niger Delta; Ogoni; Ogoniland; Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC); United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP)
Online: 30 December 2016 (07:39:30 CET)
In August 4 2011, United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) submitted an unprecedented, scientific, groundbreaking Environmental Assessment Report (EAR) of Ogoniland, to the Nigerian government. This was the outcome of a 14–month intensive evaluation of the extent of pollution. It was intended that UNEP’s recommendations would be implemented to restore the devastated environment, on the one hand, and on the other, counteract the numerous environmental health issues that have for decades, plagued Ogoniland. However, five years post EAR, and, despite the seriousness of the situation, no significant resolution has occurred, both on the part of the government, and on the part of Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) or Shell. To date, millions of Niger Delta residents, particularly those living in the oil-bearing communities, continue to suffer severe consequences. Although, the assessment was conducted in Ogoniland, other communities in the Niger Delta are also affected. This article explores prevailing issues, using Ogoniland (a microcosm of the Niger Delta) as an example. A multidisciplinary approach for sustainable mitigation of environmental health risks in the Niger Delta is paramount, and Environmental Management tools offer valuable strategies. Adopting UNEP’s recommendations for addressing environmental health problems requires implementing the Environmental Management/Environmental Management System (EM/EMS) model.
Online: 7 March 2020 (02:38:25 CET)
Muslim countries witnessed outstanding intellectual and socio-economic prosperity up to the 18th century when they fell into a period of regression following the Ottoman’s global decline. Currently, economically Muslim societies lags behind the modern western world. Scholars hold different views, including the radical notion that Islam is inherently anti-development and thus resists progress. This study discusses the Islamic philosophy and principles of development in the context of institutional economics. The basic principles of Islamic economic development drawn from the Islamic sources and historical experiences will be explored for a better understanding of Muslims’ current condition. This study addresses questions including whether basic religious precepts caused Muslims’ economic underdevelopment, while examining the development process according to Muslim perspectives. The institutions, the organizations, rules, and applications will also be explored in addition to the impact of those institutions on development. The context of development will also be evaluated according to Western value perspective. A model of Islamic economic development will be discussed in addition to the discussions of institutions that contributed to the early development of the Islamic world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0004.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: sustainable regional development; knowledge economy; regional innovation policy
Online: 1 October 2017 (08:21:30 CEST)
The paper explores different models of innovation management at the regional level and reasons for the best model considering the specific features of St. Petersburg as the innovative region of Russia. The authors, on the base of their long-time experience in studies of innovative enterprises and elaborating the regional innovation policy in St. Petersburg, propose the tool of creation and measuring the results of the regional innovation policy that promotes the life quality improvement and regional sustainable development. The balanced scorecard is used as a method, based on the methodology of knowledge economy development and adjusted to the specific needs of St. Petersburg innovation eco-system. The authors pay special attention to the implementation of principles of green economy into the realization of the regional innovation policy and the proposed balanced scorecard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0091.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: cidb; contractor development; entrepreneur; growth; management; sustainability; time
Online: 31 July 2017 (11:57:32 CEST)
The focus of research has mainly been on the life cycle approach to project development, while limited attention has been given to the ageing construction companies that make all these activities/processes happen. This paper examines the organisational factors determining the sustainability and growth of building and civil engineering contractors in South Africa. The paper explores whether there are specific organisational factors that aid the sustainable development and growth of contractors in the South African construction industry. The paper analyses data gathered from face-to-face interviews conducted with four established and twelve upgraded and successful building and civil engineering contractors listed on the Construction Industry Development Board’s (cidb) Register of Contractors. The aim of the study is to identify the organisational factors critical for sustainable contractor development and growth in South Africa. The study found that organizational factors responsible for the sustainable development and growth of construction contractors include the size of the founding team members, management capabilities, strategic decisions made by founders/leaders and the ability of the company to constantly evolve, adapt and respond effectively to threats/challenges whenever they surface, amongst other findings. Capacity to generalise the results of the study to the large cidb registered contractor group is limited by the smallness of the sample size. Future research should make use of a larger sample size to obtain more general findings. The results of the study imply that the founding team size, experience, entrepreneurial and managerial capabilities, capacities and organisational structures that enable the efficient response of companies to external and internal challenges are key components of the definable arrangements that will support the sustainability and growth of construction organisations. The paper is of value to government departments and agencies such as the cidb and contracting firms in the construction industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0150.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: China; Electric vehicle; Development bottleneck; French Standardization; Enlightenment
Online: 8 November 2022 (09:18:21 CET)
The problems of operating range and costs are the two most critical bottlenecks restricting the extensive application of electric vehicles at home and abroad. There are also some prominent problems in China's electric vehicles, such as slow improvement of electric vehicle's operating range, difficulty in charging, slow charging, low utilization efficiency of charging resources, and high battery cost for electric vehicles, which lead to poor competitiveness of electric vehicles compared with traditional internal combustion engine (I.C.E.) vehicles. This paper analyzes the key factors restricting the development and popularization of electric vehicles in China from the aspects of strategic policy, sales situation and self problems. Through summarizing the experience and lessons of French standardization development strategy and electric vehicle development mode, this paper puts forward the hypothesis leading the development of electric vehicles through standardization to enhance their competitiveness, gives the specific suggestions, and briefly analyzes the feasibility from the aspects of product situation. The research content of this paper provides a certain basis and ideas for the future research work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0478.v1
Subject: Keywords: Software development; SDLC; Secure software development challenges; security development lifecycle
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:48:42 CEST)
The main focus of this paper is to analyze and discuss the secure software development practices currently being adopted in the industry along with their significance, as well as to identify the challenges faced by developers when undertaking measures and techniques in writing secure software. It is a well-known fact that software security has been the top priority of many software companies such as Google and Facebook to thwart attackers and protect user data in this world full of cybercriminals. Understanding how most software companies in the industry operate to ensure security helps developers to identify strengths and weaknesses in their current security frameworks. Hence, by researching into previous literature and papers that are relevant to the topic and by conducting an interview with a professional in the field, this paper provides insights on the most popular secure software development framework and practices in the world as well as problems faced by companies when adopting these practices. Several security practices and activities that are required to create secure software are discovered alongside the problems that arise when companies are trying to apply these practices. This paper also proposes a few solutions that can be used to resolve these problems, which can be easily understood and implemented by software companies to transition into a truly secure software development environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0211.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Tourism industry; sports tourism; entrepreneurship; institutional factors; development
Online: 7 April 2021 (15:28:25 CEST)
The aim of this study is to identify the effective institutional factors on the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities of the sports tourism industry in developing countries. This research is a qualitative study, the systematic method of Strauss and Corbin (1990) has been used to analyze the data. Interviewing is the main method of collecting data in this research, which semi-structured interviews were done with 45 members of the research community. According to Shane and Venkataraman individual-opportunity nexus framework (2000), interview questions were drafted and simultaneously with data collection from interviews, data analysis was performed. Based on the research results, 75 indicators affecting the exploitation of entrepreneurship opportunities in sports tourism were identified. Our research findings show that the necessary institutional arrangements in regulatory/legal/administrative dimensions (rule of law, government policies), normative/cultural (social norms, values and beliefs), cognitive/educational (promotion of elite knowledge, promotion of social knowledge) and guidance measures/supporter (public sector support, private sector support, complementary attraction and information technology) can improve the rate of entrepreneurial behavior in this area by increasing the ability and willingness of entrepreneurs to take advantage of entrepreneurial opportunities in the field of sports tourism. Finally, according to the research results, it can be suggested that for the growth of the sports tourism industry in developing countries, The existence of a legal, normative, supportive and educational environment will affect the ability and desire of market participants to identify and exploit the entrepreneurial opportunities of this emerging industry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0014.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Trophic factors; nervous system; development; plasticity; axotomy
Online: 7 October 2016 (09:51:38 CEST)
Neurotrophins play a principal role in neuronal survival and differentiation during development, but also in the maintenance of appropriate adult neuronal circuits and phenotypes. In the oculomotor system, we have demonstrated that neurotrophins are key regulators of developing and adult neuronal properties, but with peculiarities depending on each neurotrophin. For instance, the administration of NGF, BDNF or NT-3 protects neonatal extraocular motoneurons from cell death after axotomy, but only NGF and BDNF prevent the downregulation in ChAT. In the adult, in vivo recordings of axotomized extraocular motoneurons have demonstrated that the delivery of NGF, BDNF or NT-3 recovers different components of the firing discharge activity of these cells, with some particularities in the case of NGF. All neurotrophins have also synaptotrophic activity, although to different degrees. Accordingly, neurotrophins can restore the axotomy-induced alterations acting selectively on different properties of the motoneuron. In this review we summarize these evidences and discuss them in the context of other motor systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0591.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: regional development; periphery; socioeconomic index; academy; university
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:45:08 CEST)
MIGAL – Galilee Research Institute is a regional R&D center in the northeast peripheral region of Israel. An internationally recognized applied research institute, MIGAL specializes in biotechnology and computational sciences, plant sciences, precision agriculture and environmental sciences, as well as food, nutrition and health. Most of MIGAL’s researchers serve as the core faculty at Tel Hai Academic College (TH). Despite the country’s small surface area, socioeconomic inequality in Israel is high by OECD standards, with wage differences between rich and poor regions reaching up to 400%. The aims of this study are to identify possible socioeconomic impacts of MIGAL–TH on the peripheral northeast’s development. We discuss the effects of academic research and institutions of higher education on mitigating differences between the center and periphery of the country. Data for MIGAL, TH and the northeastern peripheral region were collected from the yearly reports of the two institutions and the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. MIGAL was found to serve as a link between research, academic teaching and socioeconomic development in the northeast periphery. Several variables related to this link and describing MIGAL–TH and northeastern periphery development were analyzed over time: MIGAL’s budget, total number of employees and number of employees with PhDs; number of TH graduate students; socioeconomic index (SEI) of the northeastern periphery and its position on the Israeli list of regional SEIs. The signs and significance levels of their trends indicate a potential socioeconomic impact of academic research and higher education on peripheral development in the northeast of the country. Research budgets and the creation of jobs for academics living in the region are just a few examples of this impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0047.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: sustainable development goals; land consumption; population growth; urban area
Online: 31 January 2020 (09:58:57 CET)
Demographic and socio-economic developments couple with other requirements to satisfy human needs result in rapid urban expansion sometimes with increasing rate of surface extent greater than the rate of growth of population, that result in continuous sealing of ground surface thereby affecting ecosystem services. This study applied remote sensing toward achieving the progress of SDGs and stage to determine the ratio of the rate of land consumption to the rate of population growth of Gombe metropolis. QGIS 2.18 was used for the image processing and classification analysis for the key Landsat ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper), Impervious Surface Indices and population data to inform on the urban trend and LCR/PGR for the periods 2000-2005, 2005-2010, and 2010-2015. The result appears that the LCR/PGR for the periods of study show split trends. During 2000-2005 the result shows that the study area expanded outward with LCR/PGR of 1.2. The result also indicate that during 2005-2010, the study area densified with little expansion with the LCR/PGR of 0.8. The result further reveals that during 2010-2015 the LCR/PGR reached 1.8. Pointing that the study area expanded outward with the rate of ground sealing getting high.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0103.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: manufacturing; world city; sustainable development; Guangzhou China
Online: 11 January 2018 (16:16:02 CET)
In the world city theory, most researchers focus on the service sector in the urban economy and less discuss the role of manufacturing. However, the path of only emphasizing financial and corporate service could not fit the sustainability concept. Compared to Anglo-American world city, Global South’s world cities have distinct pathway to be industrialization, tertiarization and globalization. This paper adopted dynamic historic perspective with first-hand materials including in-depth interviews with managers and government officers and second-hand data including yearbook statics and economic census to closely examine the emerging world city-- ‘World Factory’ in Global South, Guangzhou in China, from 1949 to 2015, to emphasize how manufacturing affects the urban globalization through three dimensions, economic, social and spatial dimensions. To make the confirmation of the role of manufacturing in Guangzhou as sustainable world city, we find manufacturing in Guangzhou builds up the basic foundation of export-oriented economy and makes positive effects on urban economic transformation. In addition, manufacturing remains important source of employment and foreign immigration. Along with urbanization and industrialization, urban spatial expansion and aggregation changes with different urban development concept. We provide new insights on multiple globalization on manufacturing for sustainable world city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: rural revitalization; poverty caused by education; economic development
Online: 2 October 2019 (03:37:01 CEST)
The sample data are used from Shaanxi Statistical Yearbook （1999-2018）and poverty population in X County of Southern Shaanxi in 2018. By using Eviews and Excel, this report focuses on analyzing the relationship between education investment and economic growth, education for poverty population, per capita income and poverty caused by education in X county, which can explain reasons for the phenomenon of poverty caused by education. The countermeasures are proposed to solve the phenomenon of poverty caused by education, including establishing scientific education view, correctly understanding education investment and benefit, and improving the aid mechanism for poor students to realize the effective connect among poverty alleviation through education, accurate poverty alleviation and rural revitalization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0342.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy; Sustainable Development Goal 7; Sustainable Development Goals; Paris Agreement; 2030 agenda.
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:50:10 CEST)
Accessing energy in the world is crucial nowadays. Energy is an essential factor to achieve other SDGs including SDG7. However, the determination and evaluation of the relationship between different energy scenarios to achieve SDG 7 and other SDGs have not done yet. This paper seeks to fill this gap by investigating how energy seniors can contribute to achieving SDG 7 and other SDGs. Web of Science, ScienceDirect and Scopus databases were utilized for conduction a systematic review. A total finial 25 from 249 papers were filtered from 2015 to December 2020 via inclusion and exclusion criteria. This review involves six seniors of energy which primary linked to achieving the SDG 7 and other SDGs: modern energy 20% (n = 5/25), energy access 16% (n = 4/20), energy efficiency 8% (n= 2/16), renewable energy 28% (n= 7/14), energy services 8% (n= 2/7), and miscellaneous energy 20% (n= 5/5). This systematic review explores the opportunities, constraints and limitations, recommendations, and new directions. The results show that different energy scenarios contribute to achieving mainly (SDG7) and other SDGs. The outcomes from this systematic review provide a sense of direction for future researchers for future studies in this domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0417.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: sustainable development goals; university; institutional policy; learning strategy; indicators
Online: 17 December 2020 (07:57:34 CET)
This paper presents a practical case illustrating how the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda have been designed and articulated in the context of the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU). Even though there is a widespread formal adherence of universities to the SDGs, there is a lack of solid commitment to go beyond the compartmentalization of their implementation and to contribute to a holistic approach. The EHUagenda 2030 is a roadmap to move towards an integrated, verifiable and pragmatic contribution to this international agenda. It describes the UPV/EHU's contribution to 12 of the 17 SDGs, with the addition of its own commitment to linguistic and cultural diversity (SDG 17 + 1), along with the three sectoral plans: the Equality Campus, the Inclusion Campus and the Planet Campus. It also describes the refocus of its education model IKD i3; i3 is ikaskuntza x ikerketa x iraunkortasuna, Basque for learning x research x sustainability. Additionally, it includes the UPV/EHU’s Panel of Sustainable Development Indicators, which addresses the technical aspects of monitoring the implementation of the SDGs. The systematic methodology used in this process (mapping; mainstreaming; diagnosis and definition and, finally, estimation) and presented in this paper could be replicated in other universities yet to embark on this integration. The steps and findings presented here can also be applied to other organizations and help the integration process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0456.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: Bibliometric Analysis; Bad Behavior; Unethical Behavior; Composite Index; Development.
Online: 28 October 2022 (12:14:41 CEST)
Objective. Political instability, corruption, exclusive institutions et al. are some of the hypotheses backed by literature as to why some nations are more developed than others. One hypothesis which has not been intensively studied is the culpability of individual and institutional behavior and its impact on development. To examine the validity of such a hypothesis, a composite index which quantifies such development hindering behavior must be developed. The prelude to developing this index is to investigate whether such a quantitative measure exists to begin with. To achieve this objective, a bibliometric analysis of Scopus and Web of Science databases will be conducted. Method. A bibliometric and content analysis of Scopus and Web of science databases using Excel, VOSviewer, and R software. Results. The findings of the bibliometric analysis indicate the absence of such measure particularly within the scope of ‘bad behavior’, ‘unethical behavior’, and ‘development’. Conclusions. The study findings provide the greenlight to proceed with the construction of the ‘Bad Behavior Index’. Contribution. The practical contribution of this study is that it provides researchers with an improved methodology on how to conduct a bibliometric analysis to identify the absence of knowledge and provide a justification for the creation of such knowledge by integrating and analyzing two journal databases instead of one, using three mediums: Excel, VOSviewer, and R software.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0227.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: remote areas; solar home system; sustainable development
Online: 16 May 2018 (08:48:58 CEST)
The fact that Thailand’s energy policy has set a new renewable energy target of 30% of total final energy consumption by 2036. It also has the potential of solar energy and community demands in remote areas. However, most of the renewable energy technology will still be able to achieve renewable energy goals, similar to the case of the national policy that promotes Solar Home System (SHS) in remote areas, lack of good handling. Therefore, achieving the goal of the renewable energy policy should be in position using the right strategy. This article presents the result of a case study in the Akha upland community, northern Thailand, where we used the mixing method and factor analysis to analyze strategies for SHS related criteria. The key scopes and challenge included bottom-up planning concepts and subsidies from expert persons, while contributions to factors have an impact on developing sustainable SHS, include the creating approval of SHS technologies, developing of SHS management, promoting of SHS technologies, and supporting of SHS policies, respectively. Mainly, social factors provide positive effects, which thus influence the sustainable development of process SHS in terms of the creation of approval. Furthermore, there should be managed appropriately for each community, for the positive imagery of solar power.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0074.v1
Online: 5 October 2020 (11:39:50 CEST)
As we embrace the new normal in the aftermath of Covid-19, the year 2020 also marks the decade of action as we start the 10-year countdown to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. In this paper, we attempt to explore the extent to which the hardly won development gains over the last years could be reversed due to the unfolding COVID-19 global pandemic, how do we reboot the global response to accelerate the SDGs in times of uncertainties, and most importantly how to turn the recovery into an opportunity to build back better and more resilient economies. To do so, we examine the case of blockchain as one of the emerging innovative work-streams in development practices that could lead the way forward and pave the path for new developmental narratives as we all navigate the uncharted territories of the new digital age.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0311.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Parenting; brain; development; fmri; child development
Online: 14 October 2020 (15:22:41 CEST)
Parenting has been robustly associated with offspring psychosocial development, and these effects are likely reflected in brain development. However, the claim that parenting influences offspring brain development in humans, as measured by structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), is subject to numerous methodological limitations. To interpret the state of the parenting and brain development literature, we review these limitations. Four limitations are common. First, most literature has been cross-sectional. Where longitudinal, studies rarely included multiple assessments of brain structure or function, precluding measurement of actual brain development. Second, parenting has largely been measured via selfor parent-report, as opposed to observational assessment. Third, there has been a focus on extreme forms of developmental adversity which do not necessarily lie on a continuum with normative parenting. Fourth, although not a limitation per se, studies have generally focused on negative as opposed to positive parenting behaviours. While not all studies are subject to all these limitations, the study of parenting in relation to offspring brain development is in its infancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0022.v1
Online: 3 January 2019 (13:14:42 CET)
Advances in genetic engineering have placed synthetic biology at a prime position to develop new products, materials, and services that could contribute to the 2030 UN Sustainable Development goals. These include novel materials for water purification, new bio-based products to replace toxic industrial chemicals, and engineered organisms for bioremediation. Supporting the development of synthetic biology initiatives in developing countries is needed to ensure these benefits are open to all.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0194.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: Children; Growth; Development Modeling; Role Modeling; Stunting
Online: 14 June 2022 (05:28:12 CEST)
Stunting, during the Covid-19 pandemic, is increasingly becoming a big problem in the world, especially in poor and developing countries. Observational studies have shown that stunting is associated with poor nutrition, especially a plant-based diet, inflammation, caused by infection, enteric dysfunction, an environment with clean water, inadequate sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and endogenous inflammation associated with excess adiposity. This causes nutritional interventions to be often unsuccessful (Kemenkes RI, 2018).The government intervenes to reduce stunting to the target party, which is divided into two categories. The first category is specific nutrition intervention, namely monitoring children under five at the posyandu, giving immunizations, giving vitamin A, giving Supplementary Foods (PMT), and others. The second category is sensitive nutrition interventions, namely the provision of drinking water and proper sanitation, postnatal family planning (KB) services, providing information related to stunting, food social assistance, conditional cash assistance, and others. (KEMEN-PMK, 2018). WHO states, that the impact of stunting can be divided into short-term and long-term impacts. The short-term impacts are; increased incidence of morbidity and mortality; cognitive, motor, and verbal development in children is not optimal; and increased healthcare costs. While the long-term impact; Posture that is not optimal as an adult (shorter than usual); Increased risk of obesity and other diseases; The decline in reproductive health; Less than optimal learning capacity and performance during school years; and Low productivity and work capacity (Kemenkes RI, 2018). The nursing goal is to help people achieve quality, holistic health. Implementation of Modeling and Role Modeling Theory is an option in implementing nursing care for children with stunting. “Modeling” is gaining an understanding of the client’s world from the client’s perspective. That is to build a “model” of the client’s worldview. “Role‑Modeling” is based on the assumption that all humans want to interact with others, they want to carry out selected roles in society. Role-Modeling is using the client’s model of the world to plan interventions that meet his or her perceived needs, grow, develop and heal. Role-Modeling requires that we aim to build trust, promote a positive orientation and a sense of control, affirm strengths and set specific mutual goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0309.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: psoriasis; cutaneous nervous system; axon development; myelination
Online: 17 November 2021 (12:54:23 CET)
An increasing amount of evidence indicates the critical role of the cutaneous nervous system in the initiation and maintenance of psoriatic skin lesions by neurogenic inflammation. However, molecular mechanisms affecting cutaneous neurons are largely uncharacterized. Therefore, we reanalyzed a psoriatic RNA sequencing dataset from published transcriptome experiments of nearly 300 individuals. Using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, we associated several hundreds of differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) to nervous system development and functions. Since neuronal projections were previously reported to be affected in psoriasis, we performed an in-depth analysis of neurite formation-related processed. Our in silico analysis suggests that SEMA-PLXN and ROBO-DCC-UNC5 regulating axonal growth and repulsion are differentially affected in non-lesional and lesional skin samples. We identified opposing expressional alterations in secreted ligands for axonal guidance signaling (RTN4/NOGOA, NTNs, SEMAs, SLITs) and non-conventional axon guidance regulating ligands, including WNT5A and their receptors, modulating axon formation. These differences in neuritogenesis may explain the abnormal cutaneous nerve filament formation described in psoriatic skin. The processes also influence T cell activation and infiltration, thus highlighting an additional angle of the crosstalk between the cutaneous nervous system and the immune responses in psoriasis pathogenesis, in addition to the known neurogenic pro-inflammatory mediators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0359.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Circular economy; Sustainable development; EU countries; Ranking; Classification
Online: 12 November 2020 (18:10:48 CET)
In this paper, we have analysed the level of advancement in circular economy (CE) in the EU-28 countries. Firstly, we used a synthetic measure to examine CE advancement in EU countries in each of the Eurostat CE distinguished areas, i.e. production and consumption, waste management, secondary raw materials, and competitiveness and innovation. For the empirical analysis, we applied 17 Eurostat indicators to the CE areas. To find the synthetic measure in 2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016, we used multidimensional comparative analysis, i.e. a zero unitarisation method. Secondly, based on the synthetic measures of the CE areas, we created a general synthetic measure of the CE advancement of the EU-28 countries as well as the countries’ rankings. Thirdly, we classified the countries into groups according to their level of advancement in CE, i.e. high level, medium-high level, medium-low level, and low level groups. Finally, we applied a similarity measure to evaluate the correlation between obtained rankings in two most extreme moments in the period of analysis (2010, 2016). Our analysis covers all EU member states, as well as "old" and "new" EU countries separately. Our results confirm that highly developed Benelux countries, i.e. Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Belgium, have the highest CE advancement level. Malta, Cyprus, Estonia, and Greece are the least advanced in CE practice. Apart from that, on average, there is some progress in CE implementation, significant disproportions between the EU countries were observed, especially among the "new" member states.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0281.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Technology finance; Quality of economic development; Spatial econometric model
Online: 27 August 2019 (10:28:53 CEST)
(1) Background: Most of the existing studies focus on the evaluation of technology finance; the relationship between technology finance and technology innovation. But there are few studies on the development of technology finance and the quality of economic development in our country; (2) Methods: Based on the panel data of 30 provinces in China, this paper constructs an index system to measure the development of technology finance through the improved entropy method, and tests the spatial correlation of the development of technology finance in China by Moran'I index. According to the test results, this paper constructs a spatial econometric model to empirically analyze the promoting effect of scientific, technological and financial development on high-quality economic development, and analyzes its promoting effect in different regions and different time periods; (3) Results: The results show that the quality of China's economic growth is spatially dependent, and the development of science, technology and finance can significantly promote the quality economic development in China. And the promotion coefficient of the central region is the largest, as well as the coefficient of the eastern region is the smallest. The promotion coefficient was small and not significant before 2015, and was significantly positive after 2015; (4) Conclusions: this paper puts forward the corresponding policy recommendations according to the research results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0317.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: marketing concept; cultural institutions; sustainable development; cultural offer diversity; culture consumer
Online: 28 April 2019 (11:39:21 CEST)
Development of both marketing and culture sector has a multi-directional nature showing relationships with the concept of sustainable development that should be considered on various levels of management of cultural sector, i.e. on the level of cultural policy of the state or region, and on micro-scale – in cultural institutions. This is because not only natural environment, economy and technology, but also society and culture constitute the area of sustainable development. Considering the assumptions of sustainable development by cultural institutions is related to implementing in this sphere the marketing concepts that are the expression of adoption of market orientation (on culture participant). The objective of the paper is to show the role of marketing in cultural institutions in the context of assumptions of sustainable development concept. The paper is based on literature studies and results of empirical research of quantitative character, which was conducted on a sample of 451 people managing cultural institutions in Poland. The research included general managers, managers and artistic directors, managers of marketing, promotion and sales departments, as well as owners of cultural institutions. Analysis of research results shows that culture participant has the highest position among groups of consumers of actions conducted by cultural institutions and development of offer diversity, comprised in the concept of sustainable development, emerges as factor stimulating development of culture market that is closely related to growth of the quality of cultural institution offer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0264.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: factors; suspected delayed language development; early childhood
Online: 18 March 2022 (07:34:39 CET)
Many children have suspected delayed language development and need extensive support from parents and the health care team. This study aimed to investigate suspected delayed language development and factors associated with suspected delayed language development among early childhood in Southern Thailand. Children aged 24 to 60 months were recruited as study samples using stratified random sampling conducted in 23 districts and simple randomized seven sections (425 children). Instruments comprised demographic data of the children and families, The preschool temperament questionnaire, and the Language Development Screening questionnaire using developmental surveillance and promotion manual. I was collecting data from July 2020 to January 2021. Data analysis used descriptive statistics and logistic regression. The results showed that 40.9 percent suspected delayed development. Daily screen time exceeding 2 hours per day (A.O.R. = 17.30, 95% CI: 7.35-40.72), and regarding a child's temperament, moderate-to-difficult temperament (A.O.R. = 9.56, 95% CI: 5.12-17.85) were significantly associated with a suspected delay of language development. The study suggested two-way communication and appropriate responses will help develop children's language.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: Ischaemia/reperfusion injury; Development; Mitochondria; Immature Heart
Online: 10 January 2022 (13:38:07 CET)
Metabolic and ionic changes during ischaemia predispose the heart to the damaging effects of reperfusion. Such changes and the resulting injury differ between immature and adult heart. Therefore, cardioprotective strategies for adults need to be tested in immature heart. We have recently shown that simultaneous activation of PKA and EPAC confers marked cardioprotection in adult hearts. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of this intervention in immature hearts and determine whether the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is involved. Isolated perfused Langendorff hearts from both adult and immature rats were exposed to global ischaemia and reperfusion injury (I/R) following control perfusion or perfusion after an equilibra-tion period with activators of PKA and/or EPAC. Functional outcome and reperfusion injury were measured and in parallel, mitochondria were isolated following 5 min reperfusion to determine whether cardioprotective interventions involved changes in MPTP opening behaviour. Perfusion for 5 minutes preceding ischaemia of injury- matched adult and immature hearts with 5 µM 8-Br (8-Br-cAMP-AM), an activator of both PKA and EPAC, led to significant reduction in post-reperfusion CK release and infarct size. Perfusion with this agent also led to a reduction in MPTP opening propensity in both adult and immature hearts. These data show that immature hearts are innately more resistant to I/R injury than adults, and that this is due to a reduced ten-dency to MPTP opening following reperfusion. Further, simultaneous stimulation of PKA & EPAC causes cardioprotection which is additive to the innate resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0106.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: sustainability; sustainable development; sustainable marketing
Online: 9 October 2019 (11:20:24 CEST)
The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the challenges faced by business organizations implementing sustainable solutions in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the wider Gulf Coast Countries (GCC) region. To this end, our study examines an academic theory supporting the implementation of responsible solutions to the market. Ultimately, the authors hope to inspire the reader to consider what he or she can do to ameliorate the existing challenges encountered by sustainable businesses. The analysis presented in this article implies that in recent markets, the implementation of the sustainability theory is essential for further development. The research project contributes to the increase of knowledge about corporate and organizational challenges related to running a responsible business, as well as challenges related to the application of environmental, social and economic aspects of sustainable business practices. The research is currently limited to conceptual analysis, literature review and a survey conducted during the Sustainability Week 2019 in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Nevertheless, this is the first stage of the research project conducted by the research team in cooperation with enterprises that implement responsible solutions in many global markets, and in UAE market. The scope of the first stage of the study was limited to the analysis of data clarifying the concept of the model specified in the research. To prove the validity of the model it will be implemented and tested in cooperation with organizations participating in the research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0161.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: cognitive development; number; numerical cognitionindividual differences; variability
Online: 22 December 2017 (04:11:45 CET)
Some cognitive functions, shared by humans and certain animals, were acquired early in the course of phylogeny and, in humans, are operational in their primitive form shortly after birth. This is the case for the quantification of discrete objects. The further phylogenetic evolution of the human brain allows such functions to be reconstructed in a much more sophisticated way during child development. Certain functional characteristics of the brain (plasticity, multiple cognitive processes involved in the same response, interactions and substitution relationships between those processes) provide degrees of freedom that open up the possibility of different pathways of reconstruction. The within- and between-individual variability of these developmental pathways offers an original window on the dynamics of development. Here, I will illustrate this theoretical approach to cognitive development—which can be called “reconstructivist” and “pluralistic”—using children's construction of number as an example.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0071.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; precision medicine; new treatment; drug development; method development
Online: 25 May 2022 (04:59:01 CEST)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, abnormal inflammatory immune response. It is characterized by the involvement of the synovium and multiple organs and the destruction of joints and articular cartilage. Over the past 30 years, several promising novel compounds and antibodies have been developed for the treatment of RA. The introduction of new drugs and precision medicine for all forms of RA raises several issues related to access to novel treatments by patients, optimal regimen selection, cost-effectiveness, prognosis monitoring and outcome surveillance, particularly with regarding to the development of low drug response rates, drug resistance and adverse side effects. Tremendous attention has been given to the identification of optimized drug combinations for the treatment of RA, particularly in early high-risk vulnerable and early individuals. Addressing these issues requires novel therapeutic approaches with new mechanisms and the establishment of accurate guidelines for drug selection, drug recombination, and non-chemical therapeutic efforts. In this study, we reviewed the most exciting recently established or ongoing novel drugs and methods according to the clinical trial database maintained by the United States National Library of Medicine and discussed the trends in RA drug development and challenges in the treatment, providing a reference significant for the accurate treatment of RA and the research direction in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0044.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Circular Economy; Social Aspects; Systematic Review; Sustainable Development
Online: 2 September 2020 (11:42:04 CEST)
Circular Economy (CE) is a growing topic among scholars, industry and government aiming at decoupling economic growth and development from the consumption of finite resources. CE incorporates different meanings, from reduce, reuse and recycle activities to environmental degradation or resource scarcity, and supported by specific indicators to attain sustainable development. However, so far, there has been no agreement to measure how effective an industry/product is in making the transition from linear to circular approaches, particularly those affected the society. This research work aims to perform a systematic literature review (n=60) to analyze and discuss how social aspects have been considered and integrated in the CE research so far. Moreover, this review provides and overview of the literature on social impact within CE, that resulted in three main outputs: a knowledge map of the CE, an analysis of social aspects within CE, and the theories/frameworks used to evaluate social impact of CE. Finally, this study brings to light how CE implementation can affect society and highlights the importance of social dimension in the domains of CE and policy-making community, which could help moving CE towards a sustainable development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0494.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: internet; Society 5.0; sustainable development; automated content analysis
Online: 22 August 2020 (09:57:13 CEST)
(1) Background: The importance of this article is to analyze the technological developments in the field of the Internet and Internet technologies and to determine their significance for the sustainable development which will result in the emergence of the Society 5.0; (2) The authors used automated content analysis for the analysis of 552 articles published in 306 scientific journals indexed by SCII and/or SCI - EXPANDED (Web of Science (WOS) platform) between the years 1996 and 4/2020. The goal of the research was to present the relationship between the internet and sustainable development. (3) Results: The results of the analysis show that the top four most important themes in the selected journals were “development”, “information”, “data”, and “business and services”. (4) Conclusions: Our research approach emphasizes the importance of the culmination of scientific innovation with the conceptual, technological and contextual frameworks of the internet and internet technology usage and its impact on sustainable development and emergence of the Society 5.0
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: sustainability, innovation, local agri-food system, rural development
Online: 3 July 2019 (09:09:02 CEST)
Sustainability, as well as a concept related to a development model, is becoming a real guide to drive the governance choices of value chains. A sustainable policy has the objective of perpetuating production models over time while maintaining the environmental, economic and social dimensions that characterize a given production process. It is therefore important to measure the sustainability of a production system in its environmental, social and economic components and to understand the ongoing trends under the pressure of agricultural policies, market dynamics and innovation pattern introduced along the time in a production system. The purpose of the article is to assess the evolution of the level of sustainability of Parmigiano Reggiano production system under the effect of 20 years of innovation mechanism which impact on product quality, value chain performance and rural development. To this aim the paper discuss a holistic framework that allows the representation of stakeholder’s role considering the value chain and the territorial dimension. The paper discus also the use of dimensional indicators and propose a use of synthetic indexes to provide an overall picture of the evolution of sustainability of specific production system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0384.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Trypanosoma brucei; surface proteome; endomembrane system; endocytosis; drug development
Online: 25 June 2018 (11:33:03 CEST)
African trypanosomes are an early branch in eukaryotic evolution and developed a unique endomembrane system as an adaptation to their parasitic life style. The key virulence mechanism of many pathogens is successful immune evasion to enable survival within the host, which is a feature requiring both genetic events and membrane transport in African trypanosomes. Intracellular trafficking not only plays a role in immune evasion, but also in homeostasis of intracellular and extracellular compartments and interactions with the environment. Significantly, historical and recent work has unravelled some of the connections between these processes and highlighted how immune evasion mechanisms associated with adaptations in membrane trafficking may have, paradoxically, provided specific sensitivity to drugs. Here we explore these advances in understanding the membrane composition of the trypanosome plasma membrane and organelles and provide a perspective for how transport could be exploited for therapeutic purpose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0303.v1
Online: 11 June 2021 (08:23:02 CEST)
This article aims to examine the concept of historical thinking by looking at the development of historical learning from colonialism to reformation, as well as some examples of innovations in history learning through technology media. The development of history learning in Indonesia has a long story from the colonialism era to the reformation that changed from time to time. However, changes and reforms in the education system do not make students more interested in history. The 21st century, known as the digital century, makes students' attention more focused on the present and the development of the times. Therefore, there are many innovations that are in line with technological media to support and maintain history learning in this era. The question from this research is how is history learning not favored by students when technological innovations to support this learning have developed? By using the literature review method and a qualitative approach, this article provides a new perspective through existing data. Because innovation cannot run effectively before it is accompanied by historical thinking, so the results of the research are historical thinking must be instilled from the start to support innovations that develop and attract students' interest. Based on the study, it is recommended that have historical thinking to further optimize technology develops innovation more effectively and ask for more interest in history. Keywords: 21st Century, Historical Development, Paradigm
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: decision-making; tourism; sustainable development goals; Iceland; synergies; trade-offs
Online: 1 July 2019 (12:10:11 CEST)
The development of major economic sectors can provide the bedrock on which long-lasting national economic prosperity is formed. Iceland’s tourism sector is an example of a rapidly expanded industry in recent years, to the extent that it has become the largest sectoral contributor to the nation’s economy. The growth of the sector has led to a number of sustainability impacts, thus presenting opportunities and challenges in terms of meeting the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations. Using the case study of Iceland, this paper aims to advance conceptual understanding of the synergies and trade-offs between a nation’s tourism sector and performance across the 169 targets of the SDGs. Empirical results were derived from four theme-based focus groups, comprised of expert participants, who were tasked with completing scoresheets concerning their perception of the extent of synergies and trade-offs for each target. The majority (126 in number) of the mean scoresheet outcomes for the SDG targets revealed neither synergies nor trade-offs. However, 32 synergies and 11 trade-offs were identified. Many of the target synergies related to new economic opportunities, such as jobs, employment and training for young people. Target trade-offs tended to be environmental and social. In particular, concern was voiced about the greenhouse gas emissions of the Icelandic tourism sector, which derives from international aviation, cruise ships and rental car usage. The outcomes of this study are of particular relevance to tourism companies, policy-makers and governance institutes, all of whom are increasingly endeavouring to link their activities with the fulfilment of the SDGs, maximising synergies, mitigating the extent of any potential trade-offs, and potentially transforming trade-offs into synergies. Furthermore, the results are likely of interest to academics focused on researching the broad sustainability impacts of economic sectors and their contribution to meeting the visionary goals of the SDGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0618.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: digital community engagement; social media; cultural heritage management; sustainable urban development
Online: 24 December 2020 (12:34:36 CET)
During the last 20 years, with the development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), an emerging interest has appeared in Digital Community Engagement (DCE) in the process of cultural heritage management. Due to a growing need to involve a broader community in the Historic Urban Landscape approach, social media are considered one of the most important platforms to promote the public participation process of urban heritage conservation in the context of rapid urbanization. Despite the growing literature on DCE, which has delivered a general overview of different digital technologies and platforms to enhance heritage conservation, little research has been done on taking stock of the utilization of social media in this process. This study aims to fill the research gap by providing a more comprehensive picture of the functionalities of social media platforms and impacts on sustainable urban development through a systematic literature review. As a result, 19 out of 248 DCE relevant articles are selected as objects to illustrate the contribution of social media. The study identified the characteristics of these applied social media tools, explores their roles and influences in cases. The article concludes with directions for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0351.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: cadres; children; growth; development; monitoring; IYCF; home visits
Online: 27 June 2022 (06:09:14 CEST)
Abstract: Background: Stunting is primarily a public health concern in LMIC. The involvement of Integrated Service Post cadres is one of the strategies to combat stunting in Indonesia. Objective: This study aimed to determine the effect of a short course on cadres knowledge. Method: A single group pre-post test design was conducted in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, from March to May 2022. Thirty cadres were selected based on the following criteria: willingness to participate, the number of stunted children in their Integrated Service Post (Posyandu), and full attendance at short course. The knowledge scores were measured by a structured questionnaire after short course (post-test 1) and 4 weeks later (post-test 2). We apply STATA 16 to calculate the mean difference (MD) using a t-test and Generalized Estimated Equation (GEE). Furthermore, the adequacy of the short course was evaluated with in-depth interviews. Result: On post-tests 1 and 2, cadres' knowledge of IYCF, children growth monitoring (CGM) and children development monitoring (CDM) significantly improved. The GEE analysis showed that a short course significantly improves cadres' knowledge after age control, education, occupation, and years of experience. Conclusion: Short course in-creased their affection, self-efficacy, and confidence, hence, they are capable of assisting children through home visits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Factor Analysis, Statistical; Premature birth; Psychometrics; Scale development
Online: 4 January 2023 (11:41:59 CET)
AbstractPurpose: This study aimed to perform a psychometric evaluation of the preliminary preterm birth risk assessment scale (PBRAS-K) of 32-item. Method(s): There were 299 subjects, 167 in the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) group and 132 in the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) group, who delivered before 37+0 weeks after having preterm symptoms and were admitted to high-risk pregnancy maternal-fetal intensive care units (MFICU). After an item reduction process in EFA, the psychometric property scales were assessed using SPSS 26, and CFA was accomplished using AMOS 27. Results: The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure (KMO) and Bartlett’s χ2 test of sphericity confirmed the adequacy of the sample for factor analysis (KMO = .81 (> .80), χ2 = 1841.38, p < .001). The final version of the PBRAS-K was comprised of 23 items within seven dimensions. Factor analysis identified items explaining 65.9% of the total variance. The PBRAS-K had a mean score of 35.58 (±10.35) and showed a high internal consistency and satisfactory reliability with a Cronbach’s alpha of .85. The PBRAS-K had a low correlation with risk scoring of preterm delivery (RPD) for discriminant validity (r = .45, p < .001), a positive, high correlation with the Somatic Awareness Scale with Spontaneous Preterm Labor (SPL-SAS) for criterion validity (r = .65, p < .001), and with pregnant stress for convergent validity (r = .57, p < .001). RPD and SPL-SAS were moderately correlated (r = .53, p < .001). Conclusion(s): The PBRAS-23-K is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing pregnant women’s risk of preterm birth. Clinical nurses are encouraged to apply and obtain information for effective interventions in MFICU. This scale has meaningful results and reflects the voices of women who had a preterm birth. The scale should be evaluated for standardization and cut-off scores using larger subject sizes in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0185.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: bioeconomy; bio-based products; GDP; policy measures; sustainability assessment; sustainable development
Online: 16 April 2018 (04:54:19 CEST)
Developments in technology have enabled envisioning the derivation of materials and products from renewable biomass, as an alternative to finite fossil-based resource consumption. Therefore, bioeconomy is regarded as an opportunity for sustainable economic growth. Countries are formulating strategies in accordance with their goals to attain from bioeconomy. Proper measurement, monitoring and reporting of the outcomes of these strategies is crucial for long-term success. This study aims to critically evaluate the national methods used for the measurement, monitoring and reporting of bioeconomy contribution to the total economy. For this purpose, research and surveys have been conducted on selected countries (Argentina, Germany, Malaysia, the Netherlands, South Africa and the United States). The results reveal that the bioeconomy targets set up in the strategies often reflect country’s priorities and comparative advantages. However, comprehensive approaches to measure and monitor bioeconomy progress are frequently lacking. Most countries only measure the contribution to gross domestic product (GDP), turnover and employment of the sectors included in their bioeconomy definition, which may provide an incomplete picture. In addition, this study identifies the mismatch between the targets and measurement methods, as the environmental and social impacts of bioeconomy are often foreseen, but not measured. It is concluded that existing global efforts towards a sustainable bioeconomy monitoring can be strengthened and leveraged to measure progress towards sustainable goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0282.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Project management; geothermal; co-benefits; sustainable development; innovation, operationalization
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:08:41 CET)
Despite knowledge concerning stakeholders and the economic advantages of consultation, collaboration and innovation, analysis of the sustainability implications of the geothermal industry has tended to take a high-level or systemic overview of national performance. This study seeks to begin to fill this gap in the academic and grey literature, investigating the following research question: how do projects in the Icelandic geothermal energy sector create co-benefits with stakeholders and reflect the integration of sustainable energy development (SED)? The focus of its analysis is on identifying who are the stakeholders, what are the sustainability benefits co-created with stakeholders, and when in the project lifecycle do these occur. Based on eleven semi-structured interviews with project managers in Iceland’s geothermal industry, the study identifies a broad array of stakeholders in the sector, including national and municipal governments and public sector institutions, businesses, the public, employees and landowners. The sustainability co-benefits of Iceland’s geothermal power projects are broad and cut cross all six themes of SED and multiple phases of the project lifecycle. Although the sustainability benefits are very apparent, trade-offs are reported between the pursuit of an economically efficient energy system and nature conservation. This relates to unsustainable utilization of the resources and the environmental externalities of power production and consumption. Efforts to mitigate these effects are ongoing and the further pursuit of SED is likely in Iceland given its recognition within the nation’s new energy policy and to meet ambitious greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets in the government’s climate action plan. These are issues that are prominent in other nations seeking to decarbonize energy systems through increased utilization of geothermal resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0548.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Community; Human Capital; Socio-Cultural; Mobilization; Partnership; Development
Online: 26 January 2021 (16:24:22 CET)
Community is a veritable ingredient for social change and development in a society. The potentials of individuals and groups in the community are a great source or resource for promoting unity, development and patriotism. The general objective of this study is to examine the influence of diversity in community composition, on the operation of community policing style in Nigeria. The study adopted qualitative research approach to collect and analyze data. In-depth interview is the instrument of data collection while content analysis is the method of data analysis. The study took place in Kwara State, North central Nigeria. Twenty community leaders and youth groups heads were purposefully selected through snowball sampling method. Where this great resource or human capital is adequately galvanized by the leaders and community heads, the community becomes formidable and capable of solving her social problems together. However, these benefits of community are hampered by other socio-cultural and economic variables in its members. Community on its own cannot achieve much until members are mobilized to support and partner with government in any developmental projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0190.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: sustainable development; alliance; financial institution; banking sector; public finance
Online: 12 June 2018 (11:53:17 CEST)
The striving for sustainable development has become the goal of actions undertaken not only by representatives of public authorities and institutions representing this sector, but also representatives of private entities who are increasingly recognizing the benefits and sources of long-term development based on the principles and objectives of sustainable development. These are mainly based on the pursuit of synergy in the three basic areas of activities, i.e., in the economic, social, and environmental dimensions as well as in the maintenance of natural resources. The implementation of these activities is connected with the necessity of incurring financial expenditures, which the government (public sector) does not have in the required value. Therefore, in the process of sustainable development for which the government is responsible, the active participation of the financial sector (banks) is necessary. Achieving results within the alliance of the concept of sustainable development requires the setting of a kind of contract, the parties of which are the government, society, and financial institutions. The purpose of the conducted research is to indicate by which means the government and the financial sector can stimulate economic growth towards its sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0128.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: research-based training; methodological characteristics; development of research skills.
Online: 26 September 2017 (08:10:13 CEST)
The purpose of the article is to determine the peculiarities of using of teaching elements of research-based training at the Institute of Human Sciences of Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University. Based on the focus group methodology, the authors identify the key methodological characteristics of research-based training, which have been put into basis of analysis of educational programs for the purpose of determining the application of tasks that contribute to the development of research skills of students. The study used a method of focus group. Its purpose was to obtain the necessary information from the participants to describe the methodological basis and justification of methods, forms, indicators, etc. of research-based training system among people who are competent, have experience in this field. After that, the method of "theoretical sampling" was used, which enabled to formulate generalized characteristics according to the results of focus groups. The practical value of the study is determination of the methodological characteristics of research-based training which is the basis for the application of tasks by university teachers that promote the development of research competence of students. The research is one of the first attempts to determine the methodological characteristics of research-based training in Ukraine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0203.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; Social Psychology; scientific publications; Spain
Online: 17 February 2022 (08:17:58 CET)
This study analyses the papers published by Spanish social psychologists to determine whether they address topics related with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Publications by Spanish institutions indexed by the Web of Science in the thematic category of “Social Psychology” were subjected to bibliometric analysis. The publications were classified by their relationship with the SDGs using OSDG, an open-source labelling tool, and an in-depth content analysis was performed to validate the results. A corpus of 1632 papers published by Spanish institutions between 1980 and 2020 was identified. Thirty-four percent of the papers address matters related with the SDGs; 23 % concern matters related with Goal 3 (good health and well-being), and 5 %, with Goal 5 (gender equality). Only 3 % are interventions to modify behaviour or change social environments. Conclusions: The review of these papers allows detecting to what extent the research conducted in Social Psychology contributes to achieving the goals proposed in each of the SDGs. Also, the content analysis of this publications identifies several factors (cognitive, emotional, social or cultural) which should be investigated to improve knowledge on how to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0038.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: Positive youth development, youth sport, realist evaluation, life skills, personal development, psychosocial development.
Online: 5 January 2022 (12:39:46 CET)
Sport has the potential to support psychosocial development in young people. However, extant studies have tended to evaluate purpose-built interventions, leaving regular organised sport relatively overlooked. Moreover, previous work has tended to concentrated on a narrow range of outcomes. To address these gaps, we conducted a season-long ethnography of a youth performance sport club based on a novel Realist Evaluation approach . We construed the club as a social intervention within a complex system of agents and structures. In this - Part 1 - account we detail the perceptions of former and current club parents, players and coaches, using them to build a set of programme theories. The resulting network of outcomes (i.e. self, emotional, social, moral and cognitive) and generative mechanisms (i.e., the attention factory, the greenhouse for growth, the personal boost, and the real-life simulator) spanning across multiple contextual layers provides a nuanced understanding of stakeholders’ views and experiences. This textured perspective of the multi-faceted process of development provides new insights for administrators, coaches and parents to maximise the developmental properties of youth sport, and signposts new avenues for research in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0083.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Focus group discussion; sustainability; renewable energy development; Indonesia; geothermal
Online: 5 October 2020 (12:17:09 CEST)
The study describes in this paper uses direct evidence from processes applied for the developing economy of Indonesia, as it defines the trajectory for its future energy policy and energy research agenda. The paper makes explicit the process undertaken by key stakeholders in assessing and determining the suitability, feasibility and dynamics of the renewable energy sector. Barriers and enablers that key in selecting the most suitable renewable energy sources for developing economies for the renewable energy development have been identified from extensive analyses of research documents alongside qualitative data from the focus group discussions (FGD). The selected FGD participants encompass the collective views that cut across the political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental aspects of renewable energy development in Indonesia. The information gained from the FGD gives insights to the outlook and challenges that are central to energy transition within the country, alongside the perceptions of renewable energy development from the influential stakeholders contributing to the process. It is notable that the biggest barriers to transition are centred on planning and implementation aspects, as it is also evident that many in the community do not adhere to the same vision.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: World structure; Politics and economics; Reform and development
Online: 14 April 2021 (17:39:10 CEST)
This paper analyzes the political and economic changes in the world after the drastic changes in eastern Europe, starting with Chinese President Xi Jinping's viewpoint "the biggest change in a century". Also, the new international situation and new development in the post-epidemic as well as the development path and direction of China in the post-epidemicera are expected.
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Parkinson's disease; development; dopamine neurons; substantial migration
Online: 22 December 2019 (13:16:16 CET)
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative disorder that is coupled to both widespread protein aggregation and to loss of substantia nigra dopamine (DA) neurons, resulting in a wide variety of motor and non-motor signs and symptoms. Recent findings suggest that the PD process is triggered several years before there is sufficient degeneration of DA neurons to cause onset of overt motor symptoms. According to this concept, the number of DA neurons present in the substantia nigra at birth could influence the time from the molecular triggering event until the clinical diagnosis with lower number of neurons at birth increasing the risk to develop the disease. Conversely, the risk for diagnosis would be reduced if the number of DA neurons is high at birth. In this commentary, we discuss the genetic and epigenetic factors that might influence the number of nigral DA neurons that each individual is born with and how these may be linked to PD risk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0126.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Development, handedness, lateralization, hemispheric specialization, interhemispheric coordination, embodiment
Online: 7 May 2021 (09:07:37 CEST)
The author presents his perspective on the character of science, development, and handedness and relates these to his investigations of the early development of handedness. After presenting some ideas on what hemispheric specialization of function might mean for neural processing and how handedness should be assessed, the neuroscience of control of the arms/hands and interhemispheric communication and coordination are examined for how developmental processes can affect these mechanisms. The author’s work on the development of early handedness is reviewed and placed within a context of cascading events in which different forms of handedness emerge from earlier forms but not in a deterministic manner. This approach supports a continuous rather than categorical distribution of handedness and accounts for the predominance of right-handedness while maintaining a minority of left-handedness. Finally, the relation of the development of handedness to the development of several language and cognitive skills is examined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0087.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Cranial neural crest cells; embryogenesis; development; cell migration
Online: 2 March 2021 (12:28:49 CET)
A recent study from our lab revealed that inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 exclusively reduces the level of PGE2 amongst the prostanoids and hamper the normal development of several structures, strikingly the cranial vault, in chick embryos. In order to unearth the mechanism behind the deviant development of cranial features, the expression pattern of various factors that are known to influence the cranial neural crest cell (CNCC) migration were checked in chick embryo after inhibiting the COX-2 activity using etoricoxib. The compromised level of cell adhesion molecules and their upstream regulators, namely CDH1, CDH2, MSX1, and TGF-β, observed in the etoricoxib treated embryos indicate that COX-2, through its downstream effector PGE2, regulates the expression of these factors perhaps to aid the migration of CNCC. The histological features and levels of FoxD3 as well as PCNA further consolidates the role of COX-2 in migration and survival of CNCC in developing embryo. The results of the current study indicate that the COX-2 plays a pivotal role in orchestrating the proliferation and migration of CNCC during embryonic development of chick.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0195.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Executive functions; music education; cognitive development; planning; inhibition; decision making; working memory
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:44:19 CET)
In recent years, music education in Ibero-America has been losing ground within the school environment in favor of the development of curricular systems that benefit academic results in standardized tests. Despite this, several studies in the field of cognitive neurosciences have found evidence of great relevance and in which it can be observed how music education can favor cognitive development and performance in practically all stages of human development, with important results in language tasks, attention, and executive functions such as planning, inhibition, cognitive flexibility and working memory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0210.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: coordinated development degree; agricultural water resources; socio-economy development; Shanxi Province
Online: 20 August 2019 (10:20:33 CEST)
Conflict between agricultural water resources and socio-economy development is a global problem. Accurate evaluation of coordinated development of agricultural water resources and socio-economy and risk mitigation is necessary for sustainable development. An evaluation method, including selection of criteria, data collection, determination of weight, evaluation of coordinated development, prediction of parameters, and judgment of coordinated development state, has been proposed to study coordinated development degree. To deal with uncertainties, Monte Carlo method and fuzzy set method were used. The method is demonstrated to solve a real-world evaluation problem in Shanxi Province in the middle of China. Results show that coordinated development degrees were (0.7, 0.8) for most of the cities of Shanxi in 2015, indicating that coordinate development state was intermediate coordinate. To achieve balanced development, more attention should be put on socio-economic development in Taiyuan and Yanquan, and agricultural water resources utilization in Jinzhong, Yuncheng and Xinzhou. The average coordinated development degree is 0.758, and coordinate development state was intermediate coordinate from 2006 to 2015. Coordinated development degree has a trend of decreasing markedly, coordinate development state will be barely coordinated, and agricultural water resources utilization lags behind socio-economic development in 2020. The study demonstrates the practicability of the improved method, by evaluating coordinated development degree under uncertainty and forecasting future risks, which will conduce to promote sustainable development of agricultural water resources and socio-economy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0056.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; Impacts; Nurturing Care; Early Childhood Development (ECD); Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health; Child Growth Development; Early Brain Development; Vulnerable Children and Families
Online: 3 September 2020 (04:54:37 CEST)
In Kenya, millions of children have limited access to nurturing care. With the COVID-19 pandemic, it is anticipated that vulnerable children will bear the biggest brunt of the direct and indirect impacts of the pandemic. This review aimed to deepen understanding of the effects of COVID-19 on nurturing care from conception to four years of age, a period where the care of children is often delivered through caregivers or other informal platforms. The review has drawn upon the empirical evidence from previous pandemics and epidemics, and anecdotal and emerging evidence from the ongoing COVID-19 crisis. Multifactorial impacts fall into five key domains: direct health; health and nutrition systems, economic, social and child protection, and child development and early learning. The review proposes program and policy strategies to guide the re-orientation of nurturing care, prevent the detrimental effects associated with deteriorating nurturing care environments, and support the optimal development of the youngest and most vulnerable children. These include the provision of cash transfers and essential supplies for vulnerable households, and strengthening of community-based platforms for nurturing care. Further research on COVID-19 and the ability of children’s ecology to provide nurturing care is needed, as is further testing of new ideas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0144.v1
Online: 13 March 2019 (09:36:39 CET)
This lecture aims to survey the existing literature on the dynamic urban growth. Theapplication in this lecture is a small step in the long iterative process between theconstruction of a model and its use for practical purposes. In this lecture, we follow thenotion of urban development and conduct an analysis of conceptual modeling phases ofurban development by Paeliuck (1970).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0727.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: city marketing; sustainable development; resillience; image
Online: 29 December 2020 (11:24:13 CET)
The focus of this study is to identify whether resilience and sustainable development can be used as an image for strategic planning of the city marketing. Resilience is about building and planning for future proof the cities. How urban challenges and crisis have the lowest impact and the maximum of bounce back and evolution. Resilience is part of the sustainable development. Thus, it is important for the decision-makers to define the mission on their strategic planning in a holistically way taking into consideration the basic assets of a city, the environment, the economy and the society and how can all of them can be combined to marketing the city and take into consideration the internal and external environment. As the past few years’ city marketing has become an important tool for the urban development. The main goal is to show how city marketing can be applied on a city that tries to be more resilient and more sustainable by using strategic urban planning to set the vision, to identify the challenges and the problematic areas and to set new goals and objectives in order to plan and build to future proof the complexity of an urban system. For answering the questions of this article we use two case studies Rotterdam (Netherlands) and Thessaloniki (Greece), using a literature review and researches conducted alongside with a benchmarking of their resilient strategies as both of the cities are members of the Resilient Cities Network. From a different perspective of resilient thinking, both of the cities have managed to use resilience as a marketing image for further sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0143.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: expectations convergence; NAFTA; sustainable development; technological transfer; youth awareness
Online: 13 May 2019 (08:01:33 CEST)
Relying on the USA, Canada and Mexico extract from the cross-national data sample on the environmental affection and cognition of adolescent students (Niankara, 2019), along with seemingly unrelated bivariate weighted ordered probit regression modeling (Niankara and Zoungrana, 2018), this study reports on the convergence of technological awareness and expectations within the context of international trade. We achieve this by adopting a regional perspective in investigating the effects of affective, cognitive and situational factors on youth's awareness and expectations about genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and nuclear power technology (NPT) within the North American free trade block. Identification of model parameters is achieved using maximum simulated likelihood methods. The findings show that although it has been over 20 years as of 2015 that USA, Canada, and Mexico ratified the north American free trade agreement (NAFTA), the diffusion of technology and information within the trade block has not succeeded in homogenizing awareness and expectations about GMOs and Nuclear power technology, as observed in the youth population across the three countries. Indeed, with regards to technological awareness, compared to youth from the USA, those from Canada show 15% (GMOs) and 7.1% (NPT) more awareness respectively; while those in Mexico are respectively 34.4% and 19.5% less aware about GMOs and NPT. With respect to technological expectations, compared to youth from the USA, those from Canada and Mexico are respectively 34.4% and 39.9% more optimistic about GMOs, while 15% and 49.7% more optimistic about NPT. Overall, youth within NAFTA country members are respectively 2.5% and 6.7% more optimistic about GMOs and NPT for every level increase in their awareness about the two technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0104.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Sustainable rural development; EAFRD; LEADER Approach; GIS; Principal Component Analysis
Online: 28 February 2017 (12:16:38 CET)
The European Commission has been striving to achieve sustainable development in its rural areas for more than 25 years through funds aimed at modernizing the agricultural and forestry sectors, protecting the environment and improving the quality of life. But is sustainable rural development really being accomplished? This study sets out to answer this question in the case of Extremadura, a Spanish territory with Low Demographic Density and a Gross Domestic Product still below 75 % of the European average. Both qualitative and quantitative methodology have been employed, using a Principal Component Analysis the result of which has provided us with a model which shows how various behaviors coexist in the region in view of the distribution of current funding from the EAFRD. The most dynamic areas have received the largest amounts of funding and these are linked to the agricultural sector and to the protection of the environment, leaving aside the more depressed areas and the implementation of the LEADER Approach as well. Therefore, we have come to the conclusion that the current rural development in Extremadura is not sustainable enough.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0592.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: caspase-3; cell death; apoptosis; cell proliferation; neurons; glia; cerebellum; development
Online: 26 November 2018 (11:48:00 CET)
Caspase-3, onto which there is a convergence of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, is the main executioner of apoptosis. We here review the current literature on the intervention of the protease in the execution of naturally occurring neuronal death (NOND) during cerebellar development. We will consider data on the most common altricial species (rat, mouse and rabbit), as well as humans. Among the different types of neurons and glia in cerebellum, there is ample evidence for an intervention of caspase-3 in the regulation of NOND of the post-mitotic cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) and Purkinje neurons as a consequence of failure to establish proper synaptic contacts with target (secondary cell death). It seems possible that also the GABAergic interneurons undergo a similar type of secondary cell death, but the intervention of caspase-3 in this case still remains to be clarified in full. Remarkably, CGCs also undergo primary cell death at the precursor/pre-migratory stage of differentiation, in this case without the intervention of caspase-3. Glial cells as well undergo a process of regulated cell death, but it seems possible that expression of caspase-3, at least in the Bergmann glia, is related to differentiation rather than death.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0210.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Obesity; gut microbiota; placenta; brain development; fatal development
Online: 14 October 2022 (10:15:21 CEST)
Obesity in pregnancy induces metabolic syndrome, low-grade inflammation, altered endocrine factors, placental function, and the maternal gut microbiome. All these factors impact fetal growth and development, including brain development. The lipid metabolic transporters of the maternal-fetal-placental unit are dysregulated in obesity. Consequently, the transport of essential long-chain PUFAs for fetal brain development is disturbed. The mother’s gut microbiota is vital in maintaining postnatal energy homeostasis and maternal-fetal immune competence. Obesity during pregnancy changes the gut microbiota, affecting fetal brain development. Obesity and a high-fat diet in pregnancy can induce placental and intrauterine inflammation and thus influence the neurodevelopmental outcomes of the offspring. Several epidemiological studies observed an association between maternal obesity and adverse neurodevelopment. This review discusses the effects of maternal obesity and gut microbiota on fetal neurodevelopment outcomes. In addition, the possible mechanisms of the impacts of obesity and gut microbiota on fetal brain development are discussed.