ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1755.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Contextuality; Collective Intelligence, Intransitive Decision Making; Social Insects
Online: 8 August 2023 (09:17:33 CEST)
Type I contextuality or inconsistent connectedness is a fundamental feature of both the classical as well as the quantum realms. Type II contextuality (true contextuality or CHSH type contextuality) is frequently asserted to be specific to the quantum realm. Nevertheless, evidence for Type II contextuality in classical settings is slowly emerging (at least in the psychological realm). An example is given here of Type II contextuality involving a simple cooperative game. This arises due to the cooperative nature of the game which results in sign intransitivity for expectation values while individual random variables remain consistently connected. This shows that the conditions attributed uniquely to quantum systems may occur in classical settings as well. Sign intransitivity can be observed in preference relations in the setting of decision making and so intransitivity in decision making may also yield examples of Type II contextuality. Previously it was suggested that a fruitful setting in which to search for such contextuality is that of decision making by collective intelligence systems. An experiment was conducted using a detailed simulation of nest emigration by workers of the ant Temnothorax albipennis. In spite of intransitivity, these simulated colonies came close to but failed to violate Dzhafarov’s inequality for a 4-cyclic system. Further research using more sophisticated simulations and experimental paradigms is required
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0164.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Emergence; Information; Consciousness; Integrated Information Theory; Emergent Information Theory; Connectome; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 2 August 2023 (08:36:05 CEST)
In spite of its remarkable characteristics, consciousness cannot be considered in splendid isolation. It is only one of the remarkable phenomena associated with the brain, the brain is just one of the organs in the body, and computers and brains share many characteristics as information-based systems. On the basis of the ubiquitous hierarchical organization of reality into stacked layers, and the particular importance of strong emergence in living systems, this article argues that the brain must also employ such methods to achieve its advanced functions. This is in line with the prop-osition of Integrated Information Theory (IIT) that consciousness requires a high degree of causal integration in its physical substrate. However, such emergence is also shown to underlie infor-mation processing in computers and the non-conscious functions of the brain. It is also demon-strated that both computers and brains exploit a specific type of information that is correlated to but not synonymous with states and mechanisms in the physical substrate. Emergent Information Theory (EIT) therefore presents consciousness as one member of a large and diverse family of non-physical but real forms of emergent information created by specific types of designed and evolved systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0415.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: emotional regulation; sleep habits; anxiety; children; adolescents
Online: 6 July 2023 (10:56:27 CEST)
Background: Previous research studies have suggested the importance of studying the relationship between emotional regulation and sleep habits. Some investigations have especially focused on how emotional regulation could impact sleep habits in children and adolescents. Therefore, these researchers have stated there exists a two-way direction in this relationship. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the influence of emotional regulation on sleep habits in Spanish children and adolescents, and the mediating role of anxiety in this relationship. Method: Participants were 953 Spanish parents who completed the assessment protocol according to their children and adolescents’ information. Results: The results revealed moderate-strong correlations between emotional regulation problems and sleep habits disturbances (r=0.375, p<0.001), trait (r=0.488, p<0.001) and state (r=0.589, p<0.001) anxiety. Also, emotional regulation showed a direct impact on sleep habits (β=0.011, p=0.005). Trait and state anxiety demonstrated a significant mediating role in the relationship between emotional regulation and sleep habits. Conclusions: Emotional regulation may have an impact on sleep habits during childhood and adolescence, suggesting the importance of early intervention focused on the emotions management and the prevention of sleep habits disturbances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1815.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: neurofeedback; memory enhancement; medial temporal lobe; intracranial electrode; bidirectional control; memory encoding; intracranial electroencephalogram; intractable epilepsy
Online: 28 June 2023 (12:56:15 CEST)
Neurofeedback (NF) shows promise in enhancing memory, but its application to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) still needs to be studied. Therefore, we aimed to develop an NF system for the memory function of the MTL and examine neural activity changes, and memory task score changes through NF training. We created a memory NF system using intracranial electrodes to acquire and visualise the neural activity of the MTL during memory encoding. Twenty trials of a tug-of-war game per session were employed for NF and designed to control neural activity bidirectionally (Up/Down condition). NF training was conducted with three patients with intractable epilepsy, and we observed an increasing difference in NF signal between conditions (Up−Down) as NF training progressed. Similarities and negative correlation tendencies between the transition of neural activity and the transition of memory function were also observed. Our findings demonstrate NF's potential to modulate MTL activity and memory encoding. Future research needs further improvements to the NF system to validate its effects on memory functions. Nonetheless, this study represents a crucial step in understanding NF's application to memory and provides valuable insights for developing more efficient memory enhancement strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0208.v4
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: sleep; memory; consolidation; napping; fatigue
Online: 26 June 2023 (10:56:59 CEST)
Understanding the complex relationship between sleep and memory is a major challenge in neuroscience. Many studies on memory consolidation in humans suggest that sleep triggers offline memory processes, resulting in less forgetting of declarative memory and performance stabilization in non-declarative memory. However, issues related to non-optimal experimental designs, task characteristics and measurements, and inappropriate data analysis practices can significantly affect the interpretation of the effect of sleep on memory. In this article, we discuss these issues and suggest constructive solutions to address them. We believe that implementing these solutions in future sleep and memory research will significantly advance this field by improving the understanding of the specific role of sleep in memory consolidation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0471.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: wayfinding; navigation; decision making; spatial orientation; task demand
Online: 7 June 2023 (03:04:51 CEST)
When following a prescribed route, we need to decide at each intersection which way to proceed. The present work addressed several factors that might influence the difficulty of this decision making process. Participants repeatedly followed a route through a virtual maze with twelve or eighteen intersections, and with two or three choices per intersection. One group performed task S, which promoted decision making by the serial order strategy since all intersections looked alike. Another group performed task SA, which allowed the use of the serial order and the associative cue strategy since unique visual cues were presented at each intersection. We found that in both tasks, participants were more accurate in making decisions on routes with twelve rather than eighteen intersections, and more accurate by a similar amount on routes with two rather than three choices. Reaction time in task SA was reciprocal to accuracy; reaction time in task S was generally lower and route-independent. Accuracy in task SA was similar for participants who experienced smooth transport across intersections and those who experienced abrupt transport, while accuracy in task S was lower for participants who experienced smooth rather than abrupt transport across intersections. We conclude that the number of intersections and the number of choices were equivalent determinants of route following difficulty. We further conclude that optic flow during turns at intersections interfered with anticipatory decision making in task S; hence natural (smooth) transport across intersections did not enhance route following performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1272.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: adult reading; working memory; aphasia; acquired reading disorder
Online: 30 April 2023 (09:36:21 CEST)
(1) Background: Many processes play a key role in how language functions, and these processes are strongly related to reading. The aim of our research was to explore the relationship between reading impairment associated with adult acquired cognitive-linguistic impairment (aphasia) and the components of verbal working memory involved in language functioning. (2) Methods: We measured the reading abilities of a total of twenty-two adults diagnosed with aphasia using the Adult Acquired Reading Assessment. To assess working memory, we applied the measurement procedures available in Hungarian for measuring verbal working memory. Correlation analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between reading and the components of working memory involved in processing verbal information. In order to explore this relationship as comprehensively as possible, the results were analysed quantitatively through group-level analyses and qualitatively through case studies. (3) Results: The results suggest that the functioning of phonological short-term memory and verbal working memory is crucial for the reading of vowels, for certain word reading sub-processes such as reading complex words and pseudowords, and for text comprehension tasks, in particular for the processing of implicit text-level infor-mation. (4) Conclusions: The data support a strong relationship between reading and working memory, but not all mechanisms are related with the same weighting. The data will contribute to the understanding of the relationship between reading and working memory, which is important in order to see which cognitive components are dominant in reading instruction and which other cognitive mechanisms are affected in poor readers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0793.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: autism, humor, semantic joke, idiom, theory of mind
Online: 23 April 2023 (08:25:09 CEST)
Semantic jokes involve resolving an incongruity emerging from wordplay or from violation of world knowledge. Research has shown individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate lower performance on humor tasks involving social situations, but less is known about their semantic joke comprehension. This study examined semantic joke comprehension among adolescents with ASD, and its possible relationship to vocabulary size, theory of mind (ToM), and idiom comprehension. Thirty-two adolescents with ASD and 32 typically developed (TD) peers participated. Semantic joke comprehension was assessed via multiple-choice questionnaire and time-limited computer program. Vocabulary, ToM abilities, and idiom comprehension were also tested. Results revealed that adolescents with ASD were as fast in processing semantic jokes as their age- and vocabulary-matched TD peers but less accurate. Age and idiom comprehension contributed significantly to semantic joke comprehension among both groups. As semantic joke comprehension is based on incongruity resolution, the greater difficulties in comprehension among the adolescents with ASD may be due to deficits in simultaneously retaining two alternative interpretations and selecting the relevant one. Like the TD group, semantic joke comprehension among the ASD group appeared more developed with age. Future neuroimaging studies should test semantic brain region involvement in semantic joke comprehension in ASD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0164.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Synesthesia; Auditory Tactile Synesthesia; Dopamine; Creativity; Savant; Autism; tDCs
Online: 10 April 2023 (10:11:22 CEST)
This review paper explores auditory tactile (AT) synesthesia, a rare neurological condition where sounds evoke tactile sensations. The paper provides a historical overview of the condition and discusses its epidemiology, with a prevalence of less than 1% of the general population. The neurological basis of AT synesthesia is explored, including the role of cross-modal processing and hyperconnectivity within the brain. The paper also describes the phenomenology of the condition, including the range of tactile sensations that can be experienced in response to different sounds. The occurrence of AT synesthesia in the present-day world is discussed, including its relationship to music and art. Various hypotheses surrounding the development and maintenance of AT synesthesia are reviewed, focusing on genetic and environmental factors. The implications for clinical practice are explored, including potential benefits for individuals with sensory processing disorders. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of future directions for research in this field, including the need to explore further the underlying neural mechanisms of AT synesthesia and potential therapeutic interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0160.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Keywords: Developmental dyslexia; attentional dyslexia; Hebrew; migrations between words; phonological output buffer; orthographic-visual analyzer; reading
Online: 9 February 2023 (08:46:01 CET)
Letter migrations between words in reading aloud (e.g., reading "cane love" as "lane love" or "lane cove") are known to result from a deficit in the visual-orthographic analysis and characterize at-tentional dyslexia. In spontaneous speech, individuals with impairment in the phonological output buffer may show migrations of phonemes between words. The purpose of this study was to examine whether migrations between words in reading aloud can also result from a deficit in the phonological output buffer, to explore the characteristics of migrations resulting from ortho-graphic input and from phonological output deficits, and to examine methods to distinguish these two sources. Using tasks of reading aloud of 92-182 word pairs, we identified 18 adults and ad-olescents with developmental dyslexia who made between-word letter migrations in reading aloud, significantly more than age-matched controls (372 adults and 26 7th-graders). To distin-guish between orthographic-input and phonological-output sources for these migrations, we administered a test assessing orthographic-input without spoken-output (writ-ten-semantic-decision on 140 migratable word pairs) and a test of repetition of 36 auditori-ly-presented migratable word pairs, assessing spoken output without orthographic-input (and word span tests). These tests indicated that the migrations of ten of the participants with dyslexia resulted from an orthographic-input deficit, and for the other eight participants, migrations re-sulted from a phonological-output deficit. We identified several differences between the two types of between-word errors: first, whereas the individuals with attentional dyslexia made omissions of a letter that appeared in the same position in the two words, the phonological output buffer group did not make such omissions. In addition, the groups differed in the origin of mi-gration: orthographic input migrations involve letters that are orthographically adjacent, whereas phonological output migrations involve phonemes that have just been spoken or that are pre-pared together in the phonological buffer for production. This was manifested in that migrations from the line below and from two lines above occurred only in the orthographic input deficit group, and migrations occurred from a word vertically close to the target in the orthographic input group but from a word that has just been spoken (placed diagonally to the target) in the phonological output group. This study thus indicates that between-word migrations in read-ing-aloud can result not only from attentional dyslexia, but also from a phonological output buffer deficit, and offers ways to distinguish between the two.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0403.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: visual perception; emotion; emoji; emoticon; sex differences; anger; fear; emotional communication; texting
Online: 23 January 2023 (08:43:06 CET)
Emojis are colorful ideograms resembling stylized faces commonly used for expressing emotions in instant messaging, in social network sites and in email communication. Notwithstanding their increasing and pervasive use in electronic communication, they are not much investigated in terms of their psychological properties and communicative efficacy. Here we presented 112 different human facial expressions and emojis (expressing neutrality, joy, surprise, sadness, anger, fear and disgust) to a group of 96 female and male university students engaged in the recognition of their emotional meaning. Both Analysis of Variance and Wilcoxon tests showed that men were significantly better than women at recognizing emojis (especially negative ones) while women were better than men at recognizing human facial expressions. Quite interestingly, men were better at recognizing emojis than human facial expressions per se. These findings are in line with more recent evidences suggesting how men may be more competent and inclined to use emojis to express their emotions in messaging (especially sarcasm, tease and love) than previously thought. Finally, the data indicate how emojis are less ambiguous than facial expressions (except for neutral and surprise emotions), possibly because of the limited number of fine-grained details, and the lack of morphological features conveying facial identity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0434.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Consciousness; Simulation; Discrete; Memory; Perception; Computation
Online: 23 November 2022 (07:00:10 CET)
The current theories of consciousness do not address the two major problems:What is the solution to the hard problem of consciousness or What is the experience of self-existence? and How is conscious perception computed? We address these questions using our hypothesized theory:The Self Simulation theory and propose a model of computation of consciousness.The components of the model are an interconnected network of auxiliary processors or Auxiliary Neural Networks(AN) which receives input from the external sensory modalities,computes a representation of the information and relays it to the NCC(Neural Correlates of Consciousness), the NCC – a processing unit which can be neuro anatomically distributed in location but computationally connected to each other and to the Auxiliary Networks,and a working memory which the NCC references for further computation of information.Computation of conscious perception is achieved via the decoding of the content of the memory by the NCC.The self simulation theory accounts not only for the various phenomenal experiences but also experimentation paradigms conducted in the past.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0142.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Bayesian Inference; Cognitive Development; Learning; Prediction; Pupil Dilation; Science Learning; Surprise
Online: 8 November 2022 (03:10:17 CET)
Bayesian models allow us to investigate children’s belief revision alongside physiological states like “surprise”. Recent work finds that pupil dilation (or the “pupillary surprise response”) following expectancy-violations may be predictive of belief revision. How can probabilistic models inform interpretations of “surprise”? Shannon Information considers the likelihood of an observed event, given prior beliefs – suggesting stronger surprise occurs following unlikely events. In contrast, Kullback-Leibler divergence considers the “dissimilarity” between prior beliefs and updated beliefs following observations – with greater surprise indicating more change between belief states to accommodate information. To assess these accounts under different learning contexts, we use Bayesian models that compare these computational measures of “surprise” to contexts where children are asked to either predict or to evaluate the same evidence during a water displacement task. We find correlations between the computed Kullback-Leibler divergence and children’s pupillometry responses only when children actively make predictions, and no correlation between Shannon Information and pupillometry. This suggests that when children attend to their beliefs and make predictions, pupillary responses may signal the degree of divergence between a child’s current beliefs and updated, more accommodating beliefs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0007.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: high variability phonetic training (HVPT), categorical perception (CP), cochlear implant (CI), lexical tone, Mandarin-speaking kindergarteners, training-induced gains
Online: 1 November 2022 (01:41:59 CET)
Objectives: Although pitch reception poses a great challenge for individuals with cochlear implants (CIs), formal auditory training (e.g., high variability phonetic training, HVPT) has been shown to provide direct benefits in pitch-related perceptual performances such as lexical tone recognition for CI users. As lexical tones in spoken language are expressed with a multitude of distinct spectral, temporal, and intensity cues, it is important to determine the sources of training benefits for CI users. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a rigorous fine-scale evaluation with the categorical perception (CP) paradigm to control the acoustic parameters and test the efficacy and sustainability of HVPT for Mandarin-speaking pediatric CI recipients. The main hypothesis was that HVPT-induced perceptual learning would greatly enhance CI users’ ability to extract the primary pitch contours from spoken words for lexical tone identification and discrimination. Furthermore, individual differences in immediate and long-term gains from training would likely be attributable to baseline performance and duration of CI use. Design: Twenty-eight prelingually deaf Mandarin-speaking kindergarteners with CIs were tested. Half of them received five sessions of HVPT within a period of three weeks. The other half served as control who did not receive the formal training. Two classical CP tasks on a tonal continuum from Mandarin Tone 1 (high-flat in pitch) to Tone 2 (mid-rising in pitch) with fixed acoustic features of duration and intensity were administered before (pretest), immediately after (posttest), and 10 weeks post training termination (follow-up test). Participants were instructed to either label a speech stimulus along the continuum (i.e., identification task) or determine whether a pair of stimuli separated by zero or two steps from the continuum was the same or different (i.e., discrimination task). Identification function measures (i.e., boundary position and boundary width) and discrimination function scores (i.e., between-category score, within-category score, and peakedness score) were assessed for each child participant across the three test sessions.Results: Linear mixed-effects (LME) models showed significant training-induced enhancement in lexical tone categorization with significantly narrower boundary width and better between-category discrimination in the immediate posttest over pretest for the trainees. Furthermore, training-induced gains were reliably retained in the follow-up test 10 weeks after training. By contrast, no significant changes were found in the control group across sessions. Regression analysis confirmed that baseline performance (i.e., boundary width in the pretest session) and duration of CI use were significant predictors for the magnitude of training-induced benefits. Conclusions: The stringent CP tests with synthesized stimuli that excluded acoustic cues other than the pitch contour and were never used in training showed strong evidence for the efficacy of HVPT in yielding immediate and sustained improvement in lexical tone categorization for Mandarin-speaking children with CIs. The training results and individual differences have remarkable implications for developing personalized computer-based short-term HVPT protocols that may have sustainable long-term benefits for aural rehabilitation in this clinical population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0316.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: ; Social interaction; Self-organization; Imitation; Coordination dynamics; Group normalization; Interpersonal symmetry
Online: 13 September 2022 (15:59:57 CEST)
I present an experimental paradigm to explore the interpersonal dynamics generating a collective mind. I hypothesized that collective organization is based on dual interpersonal modes: (1) symmetrical and (2) anti‑symmetrical. I specified the geometric topology of these modes by detecting the spatiotemporal patterns that embed cooperative agents in a three‑dimensional matrix. I found that the symmetrical mode is executed automatically and without guidance. Conversely, the anti‑symmetrical mode required explicit direction and recruited attention for execution. I demonstrate that self‑other mirror‑symmetry stabilized group dynamics, enabled fast and efficient symmetrical imitation that optimized information transmission, whereas anti‑symmetrical imitation was comparatively slow, inefficient, and unstable. I determined that the anti‑symmetrical mode spontaneously transitioned to the symmetrical mode under perturbations. Crucially, this renormalization mechanism never transitioned from symmetrical to anti‑symmetrical. These self-organizing dynamics speak to interpersonal symmetry‑breaking. In the present work, spontaneous group choice mandated that agents synchronize cooperative cycles in symmetrical space under internal or external perturbations. I provide examples to illustrate that this self-regulating pullback attractor manifests in invertebrates and vertebrates alike. I conclude by suggesting that inter‑agent symmetry provides the social stability manifold through which attention-driven interactions enable intrapersonal and interpersonal change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0346.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: ambient light; reliability; take-over request; mental workload; electroencephalography (EEG); transition of control
Online: 18 August 2022 (11:02:56 CEST)
Drivers of L3 automated vehicles (AVs) are not required to continuously monitor the AV system. However, they must be prepared to take over when requested. Therefore, it is necessary to design an in-vehicle environment that allows drivers to adapt their levels of preparedness to the likelihood of control transition. This study evaluates ambient in-vehicle lighting that continuously communicates the current level of AV reliability, specifically on how it could influence drivers' take-over performance and mental workload (MW). We conducted an experiment in a driving simulator with 42 participants who experienced 10 take-over requests (TORs). The experimental group experienced a four-stage ambient light display that communicated the current level of AV reliability, which was not provided to the control group. The experimental group demonstrated better take-over performance, based on lower vehicle jerks. Notably, perceived MW did not differ between the groups, and the EEG indices of MW (frontal theta power, parietal alpha power, Task-Load Index) did not differ between the groups. These findings suggest that communicating the current level of reliability using ambient light might help drivers be better prepared for TORs and perform better without increasing their MW.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0092.v4
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Cognitive psychology; determinism; materialism; new physics; theoretical hypothesis; thought ex-periment; ultraquantum particles
Online: 16 August 2022 (03:40:03 CEST)
To date, no scientific study has found evidence of an afterlife, and the mechanism of consciousness is two of the most challenging questions. Here, I show a hypothesis for consciousness and the probability of an afterlife through three simple thought experiments and theoretical evidence. More studies are needed to understand the mechanism precisely. I found that consciousness can be discussed based on a new theory. Here, I hypothesize that when a person or animal dies, the selection of a new nervous system's characteristic of a new life might depend on the characteristics of the final evolved yet unknown particle. Here, I suggest that the positive or adverse evolution of the said particle depends on the natural evolution of the materialistic brain's cognition, including intelligence. The fittest intellectuals, those who have a higher potential scan mind virus, may survive happier and help more for others to improve psychological well-being. Here, I suggest that when a brain dies, the two microparticles might emit at infinite speed from the dead brain and simultaneously bond with a naturally select suitable zygote or early nervous system somewhere in the universe/s, forming a new life with the impact of new nurture.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0369.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Dopaminergic Pathways; Symmetry; Memory; NG Bosons; Addiction
Online: 25 July 2022 (09:38:50 CEST)
Human addiction, as a learned behaviour, has and is constantly being treated psychologically, with specific and timely interventions from Neuroscience. We endorse that human addiction can receive further boost as regards treatment, when we firmly understand how it works from a quantum scale. This is majorly because the dopaminergic pathway (DP) that is well elaborated in the brain of every addict is connected to the memory pathway. This further implies that the recall process in the brain of the addict, as regards his/her addiction is fully functional in line with the pleasure that arises from the element of his/her addiction. This dopamine-led pathway shows itself as prominent in what pertains to addiction, this is because of the role it plays in reward. As a neurotransmitter, dopamine flickers when reward is in the offing. It should be noted that a full understanding of the dimensions of addiction in the human person has not be attained to, therefore, we seek to add to this ongoing research, by considering excerpts arising from Quantum Field Theory. We are introducing excerpts from QFT, because DP, is an attendant element in the process of reward and motivation. In clear terms, we are alluding that it all begins with the memory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0319.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: dual-task; Trail-Walking Test; gait disorder; diagnosis; motor-cognitive interference; Parkinson's disease
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:57:20 CEST)
Background and Aims. Most research on Parkinson's disease (PD) focuses on describing symp-toms and movement characteristics. Studies rarely focus on the early detection of PD and the search for suitable markers of a prodromal stage. Early detection is important, so treatments that may potentially change the course of the disease can be attempted early on. While gait disturb-ances are less pronounced in the early stages of the disease, the prevalence, and severity increase with disease progression. Therefore, postural instability and gait difficulties could be identified as sensitive biomarkers. The aim was to evaluate the discriminatory power of the Trail-Walking Test (Schott, 2015) as a potential diagnostic instrument to improve the predictive power of the clinical evaluation concerning the severity of the disease and record the different aspects of walking. Methods. 20 older healthy (M = 72.4 years, SD = 5.53) adults and 46 older adults with PD and the motor phenotypes postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD; M = 69.7 years, SD = 8.68) and tremor dominant (TD; M = 68.2 years, SD = 8.94) participated in the study. The participants performed a motor-cognitive dual task (DT) of increasing cognitive difficulty in which they had to walk a given path (condition 1), walk to numbers in ascending order (condition 2), and walk to numbers and letters alternately and in ascending order (condition 3). Results. With an increase in the cognitive load, the time to complete the tasks (seconds) become longer in all groups, F(1.23, 73.5) = 121, p < .001, ɳ2p = .670. PD-PIGD shows the longest times in all conditions of the TWT, F(2, 60) = 8.15, p < .001, ɳ2p = .214. Mutual interferences in the cognitive and motor domain can be observed. How-ever, clear group-specific patterns cannot be identified. A differentiation between the motor phenotypes of PD is especially feasible with the purely motor condition (TWT-M; AUC = . 685, p = 0.44). Conclusions. PD patients with PIGD must be identified by valid, well-evaluated clinical tests that allow a precise assessment of the disease's individual fall risk, the severity of the dis-ease, and the prognosis of progression. The TWT covers various aspects of mobility, examines the relationship between cognitive functions and walking, and enables differentiation of the motor phenotypes of PD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0316.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: acute injury; antioxidant; behavior; mitochondria; mitoquinone; neuroinflammation; oxidative stress; repeated mild TBI
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:17:28 CEST)
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion accounts for the bulk of all head injuries and represents a major health concern. Although an mTBI event may not manifest in neurobehavioral impairment, repeated injuries, known as repeated mTBI (rmTBI), can result in a cumulative effect that may progress to long-term cognitive and functional deficits. To date, there is no FDA-approved drug for TBI in general and rmTBI in particular. In previous studies, we have demonstrated the neuroprotective role of mitoquinone (MitoQ), a mitochondrial antioxidant, in an open head injury model and a model of repeated mild TBI (rmTBI) at a chronic time point (30 days). In this work, we set out to assess the neuroprotective potential of MitoQ at acute (3 days) and subacute time points (7 days) post-injury in a controlled cortical impact model of rmTBI. C57BL/6 male mice were injected intraperitoneally with MitoQ (5 mg/kg) one hour after the first mTBI, and three days after the first injury in both the 3-day and 7-day MitoQ + rmTBI subgroups, with an additional injection four days after the second injection in the 7-day group. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) while gross and fine motor functions were evaluated by the pole climbing, grip strength, and ladder rung tests. Dihydroethidium (DHE) staining was performed to evaluate oxidative stress while qRT-PCR was used to measure the gene expression of different antioxidant enzymes. Also, immunofluorescence staining was performed on brain tissue to assess the degree of microgliosis and astrocytosis. Our results showed that MitoQ conferred significant protection on days 3 and 7 post-injury against fine motor function impairment induced by rmTBI. Moreover, MitoQ enhanced cognitive function and reduced astrogliosis, microgliosis, and levels of oxidative stress on day 7 post-injury. However, antioxidant gene expression generally remained unaffected. In light of our results, MitoQ administration may be considered a preventive approach that helps to alleviate the neurological manifestations associated with rmTBI early before symptoms progress to long-term deficits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0246.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: complex problem solving; microworlds; personality; investment traits; within-individual variabil-ity; performance trajectories
Online: 18 July 2022 (03:43:39 CEST)
Complex problem-solving (CPS) tasks have become an increasingly popular tool for understand-ing and assessing cognitive ability. These tasks have been repeatedly shown to be predictors of academic and workplace success above and beyond traditional measures of general intelligence and fluid intelligence. To date, there has been little exploration of the underlying mechanisms that drive this additional predictive utility. In this study, we examined the role of a variety of non-cognitive personality and investment traits that could drive performance on CPS tasks. Adult participants (n = 152) were recruited via M-Turk and completed a battery of personality and in-vestment trait measures, a measure of general mental ability, and a 61-trial microworlds-style CPS task. Generalised linear mixed-effects models revealed a wide variety of personality and in-vestment traits influenced task performance above and beyond general mental ability. Specifical-ly, two clusters of traits emerged as important determinants of performance: one cluster that in-fluenced the capacity to deal with the introduction of system randomness (Conscientiousness and Extraversion) and one cluster that influenced the capacity to deal with the introduction of system delays (NFC, Learning Goal Orientation, and Intellect). These findings suggest that CPS tasks do capture more than just general mental ability and may be good predictors of academic and workplace success because they tap into both cognitive ability and the motivation and willingness to engage in cognitive exploration and mental effort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0351.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: cadres; children; growth; development; monitoring; IYCF; home visits
Online: 27 June 2022 (06:09:14 CEST)
Abstract: Background: Stunting is primarily a public health concern in LMIC. The involvement of Integrated Service Post cadres is one of the strategies to combat stunting in Indonesia. Objective: This study aimed to determine the effect of a short course on cadres knowledge. Method: A single group pre-post test design was conducted in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, from March to May 2022. Thirty cadres were selected based on the following criteria: willingness to participate, the number of stunted children in their Integrated Service Post (Posyandu), and full attendance at short course. The knowledge scores were measured by a structured questionnaire after short course (post-test 1) and 4 weeks later (post-test 2). We apply STATA 16 to calculate the mean difference (MD) using a t-test and Generalized Estimated Equation (GEE). Furthermore, the adequacy of the short course was evaluated with in-depth interviews. Result: On post-tests 1 and 2, cadres' knowledge of IYCF, children growth monitoring (CGM) and children development monitoring (CDM) significantly improved. The GEE analysis showed that a short course significantly improves cadres' knowledge after age control, education, occupation, and years of experience. Conclusion: Short course in-creased their affection, self-efficacy, and confidence, hence, they are capable of assisting children through home visits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0204.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: sonification evaluation, auditory display evaluation, visualization
Online: 14 June 2022 (11:10:46 CEST)
Comparing sonification with visualization is like comparing apples and oranges. While visualizations are ubiquitous to the public and have established names, principles, application areas, and sophisticated designs, sonifications tend to be unique, self-made and completely new to users. In this study we developed a rudimentary visualization that is related closely to the principle of the sonification designs that we want to evaluate. In addition, we implemented a prototypical sonification that uses the most common mapping principles. Experiment results show that participants perform similarly well using the rudimentary visualization and the prototypical sonification, which is much better than chance but significantly worse than using our new sonification results. We therefore argue that both rudimentary visualization and prototypical sonifications can serve as a suitable benchmark to evaluate new sonifications designs against.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0108.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Triple X syndrome; Adults; Neurocognitive functioning; Sex Chromosomal Disorders; Attention; Psychomotor speed; Executive functioning
Online: 7 June 2022 (11:26:18 CEST)
Triple X syndrome (TXS, also known as trisomy X or 47,XXX) has been associated with impaired overall neurocognitive functioning in children and relatively young adults. However, neurocognitive functioning in adults with TXS is poorly understood. The aim of this study was, therefore, to examine cognitive functioning in adults with TXS. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data were collected from 34 adult women with TXS (mean age = 32.9; SD = 13.1) and 31 controls (mean age = 34.9; SD = 13.7). General intellectual functioning, semantic/verbal memory, visual/episodic memory, psychomotor speed, and attention and executive functioning were then compared between these two groups. Results: We found that general intellectual functioning was significantly lower in the TXS group compared to the control group. In addition, women with TXS had more attention problems and lower psychomotor speed, particularly motor processing speed. When the analyses were adjusted for IQ, the strength of these associations decreased. The women in the TXS group also scored significantly lower at free recall in the verbal memory test, but not in immediate or delayed recognition. Finally, visual/episodic memory and executive functioning did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions: Our analysis revealed that women with TXS score lower in general intellectual functioning and have impairments in motor processing speed and attention compared to controls, but do not differ with respect to executive functioning. These results offer new insights for improving the support of adults with TXS both at school and in the workplace.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0326.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: consumer acceptance; functional foods; knowledge
Online: 24 March 2022 (07:55:47 CET)
Inconsistent results published in previous studies make it difficult to determine the precise effect of consumer knowledge on their acceptance of functional foods, which were developed to improve consumers’ health status by providing adequate nutrition. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis by identifying and collecting relevant literature from three databases. Of the 1050 studies we reviewed, we included 40 in the systematic review and 18 in meta-analysis. Based on the focus of each included study, we operationally defined knowledge as knowledge of the functional food concept, nutritional-related knowledge, and knowledge of specific functional products. Results from the systematic review indicate that most participants from the included studies had a low level of knowledge, especially nutrition-related knowledge associated with consuming functional foods, and they were generally not familiar with the concept of functional foods. It is possible that participants’ level of knowledge was influenced by their demographic characteristics (e.g., age, gender, educational level, marital status, nationality). Results from the meta-analysis generated a summary effect size (r = 0.14, 95% CI [0.05; 0.23]), measured by the correlation coefficient r, which indicates that a small positive relationship exists between consumers’ level of functional foods knowledge and their acceptance of functional foods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0387.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Early diagnosis; behavior; illness; malaria; Mwanza; treatment-seeking; Tanzania
Online: 23 December 2021 (11:50:15 CET)
Early diagnosis of malaria and treatment seeking behavior play key role in controlling and preventing further complication related to malaria disease. Aim of this study was to determine the responses on early malaria diagnosis and treatment seeking behavior among outpatient clients attending at Sekou toure regional referral hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among outpatient client at Sekou-Touré regional referral hospital, convenient simple random sampling used and self-administered questionnaire were used to collect data and data was entered into Microsoft excel and then exported to SPSS version 25.0 for further analysis and presented on the percentages and table. The analysis of strength of relationships between categorical variables was conducted using the Chi-square test. A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A total of 192 respondents completed the study with a response rate of 97.6%. The study revealed that Most of the respondents about 90.6% stated they would seek treatment from health facility when symptoms appear. However, only 6.3% seek treatment within 24 hours of onset of illness (p= 0.017). Half of respondents (50.5%) experienced malaria symptoms in the past six months and only 30% seek for treatment at health facility. Preference of health facility, (51%) respondents were going direct to pharmacy to buy medicine for self-treatment. Overall, cost of service, time consumed and distance of health facility especially health center shows significant with such delay. Conclusion: A low proportion of malaria-suspected patients sought treatment within 24 h of fever onset compared to the national target. Distance from the health facility, cost of service and time consumed were found to be predictors of early treatment-seeking behavior for malaria. Strengthening strategies tailored to increasing awareness for communities about malaria, importance of going hospital and early treatment-seeking behavior is essential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0302.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: overimitation; dogs; affiliation; relationship; dog-human interaction
Online: 20 December 2021 (10:07:01 CET)
Overimitation, the copying of causally irrelevant or non-functional actions, is well-known from humans but completely absent in other primates. Recent studies from our lab have provided evidence for overimitation in canines. Previously, we found that half of tested pet dogs copied their human caregiver's irrelevant action, while only few did so when the action was demonstrated by an unfamiliar experimenter. Therefore, we hypothesized that dogs show overimitation as a result of socio-motivational grounds. To test this more specifically, here we investigated how the relationship with the caregiver influenced the eagerness to overimitate. Given the high variability in the tendency to overimitate their caregiver, we hypothesized that not only familiarity, but also relationship quality influences whether dogs faithfully copy their caregiver. For this purpose, we measured on the one hand the overimitation tendency (with the same test as in the two studies before) and on the other hand the relationship quality between the dogs and their caregivers. Although not significant, results revealed that dogs who overimitated seemed to show more referential and affiliative behaviours towards the owner (like gazing, synchronization and greeting) than dogs who showed less or no copying of the irrelevant action. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0185.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Mild Cognitive Impairment; Ageing; Elderly; Executive Functions; Higher-Level Executive Functions; Planning; Reasoning; Fluid Intelligence; Problem Solving
Online: 10 December 2021 (13:37:48 CET)
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a moderate decline in one or more cognitive functions with a preserved autonomy in daily life activities . MCI exhibits cognitive, behavioral, psychological symptoms . The executive functions (EFs) are a set of key functions for everyday life and physical and mental health; and allow adapting the behavior to external changes [3-5]. Higher-level executive functions develop from basic EFs (inhibition, working memory, attentional control, and cognitive flexibility). They are planning, reasoning, problem- solving, and fluid intelligence (Gf) . This systematic review investigates the relationship between higher-level executive functions and healthy and pathological aging, assuming the role of executive functions deficits as a predictor of cognitive decline. The systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA Statement [6-7]. A total of 73 studies were identified. The results indicate that 65.8% of the studies confirm significant EFs alterations in MCI (100% problem solving, 71.4% fluid intelligence, 56.8% planning, 50% reasoning). These results seem to highlight a strong prevalence of higher-level executive functions deficits in MCI elderly than in healthy elderly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0091.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Sweet taste; hedonics; individual differences; methodology; sugar
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:59:17 CET)
Sweetness drives consumption of added sugars, so understanding how individuals differ is important for developing strategies to lower sugar intake. However, methods to assess hedonic response to sweetness vary, making results across studies difficult to integrate. We compared methods to measure optimal sucrose concentration in 21 healthy adults (1) using paired-comparison preference tracking vs. ratings of liking, (2) with participants in the laboratory vs. at home, and (3) using aqueous solutions vs. vanilla milk. Tests were replicated on separate days to assess test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliability was similar between laboratory and home testing, but tended to be better for vanilla milk and preference tracking. Optimal sucrose concentration was virtually identical between laboratory and home, slightly lower when estimated via preference tracking, and about 50% lower in vanilla milk. However, individual optimal sucrose concentration correlated strongly between Methods, test Locations, and Stimuli. More than 50% of the variability in optimal sucrose concentration could be attributed to consistent differences among individuals while much less variability was attributable to differences in Methods, test Locations or Stimuli. These results demonstrate convergent validity between measures of preference and liking, support testing at home to lower participant burden, and suggest that aqueous solutions can be useful proxies for some commonly consumed beverages for measuring individual differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0379.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: core affect; emotion; semantics; process cycle; quantum cognition; qubit
Online: 22 November 2021 (11:04:58 CET)
The paper describes model of human affect based on quantum theory of semantics. The model considers emotion as subjective representation of behavioral context relative to a basis binary choice, organized by cyclical process structure and an orthogonal evaluation axis. The resulting spherical space, generalizing well-known circumplex models, accommodates basic emotions in specific angular domains. Predicted process-semantic structure of affect is observed in the word2vec data, as well as in the previously obtained spaces of emotion concepts. The established quantum-theoretic structure of affective space connects emotion science with quantum models of cognition and behavior, opening perspective for synergetic progress in these fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0080.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Foreign Language effect; decision-making; native language; second language; risk-taking
Online: 6 September 2021 (09:47:03 CEST)
Decision-making is a complex process of selecting an option from the given choices by analyzing the background information like risk, loss, and gain within the alternative options presented. It has been observed in earlier studies that people are prompt to make less rational decisions when choices are given in a language less known to them. Therefore, to understand the effect of languages on decision-making, we have questioned native Hindi speakers in French and English. French being the foreign language, and English as their second language. Thus, this effect of a non-native language brings to light the important role that the native language plays routinely in judgment and decision-making. In this paper, we developed a Neuropsychological assessment to decipher the effects on decision-making between choices when given in foreign language and second language in comparison with the native language of an individual, which is termed as foreign language effect(Fle). We have explored various possible situations to understand the foreign language effect(Fle) in decision-making and does this change translates when the decision is to be made in the second language. Our study concludes that the Foreign language is least affected by the intuitive biases, followed by the second language, and the native language is most affected by it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0569.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: visual short-term memory; repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; visual memory precision; serial memory effects
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:43:33 CEST)
We investigated the role of the human medio-temporal complex (hMT+) in the memory encoding and storage of a sequence of four coherently moving RDKs by applying repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) during an early or late phase of the retention interval. Moreover, in a second experiment we also tested whether disrupting the functional integrity of hMT+ during the early phase impaired the precision of the encoded motion directions. Overall, results showed that both recognition accuracy and precision were worse in middle serial positions, suggesting the occurrence of primacy and recency effects. We found that rTMS delivered during the early (but not the late) phase of the retention interval was able to impair not only recognition of RDKs, but also the precision of the retained motion direction. However, such impairment occurred only for RDKs presented in middle positions along the presented sequence, where performance was already closer to chance level. Altogether these findings suggest an involvement of hMT+ in the memory encoding of visual motion direction. Given that both position sequence and rTMS modulated not only recognition but also precision of the stored information, these findings are in support of a model of visual short-term memory with a variable resolution of each stored item, consistent with the assigned amount of memory resources, and that such item-specific memory resolution is supported by the functional integrity of area hMT+.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0659.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Timing Deficits; Magnocellular Deficits; Remediating Cognitive Skills; Cortical Plasticity; Reading, Attention, Memory, and Executive Control Networks; Perceptual Learning
Online: 27 May 2021 (08:09:31 CEST)
(1) Background: Substantial evidence that neural timing deficits are prevalent in developmental disorders, aging, and concussions resulting from a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) is presented. We show that if timing deficits are remediated using low-level movement discrimination training, then high-level cognitive skills, including reading, attention, processing speed, and working memory improve substantially. (2) Methods: Two case studies are presented using MEG source imaging on an adult dyslexic, and a healthy older adult observed before and after training on movement discrimination two times/week for 8 weeks for adult dyslexic. (3) Results: We found improvements in reading, attention, processing speed, and working memory on neuropsychological tests. Substantial MEG signal increases in visual Motion Networks (V1, V3, MT, MST), Attention Networks (ACC, dlPFC, vlPFC and precuneous/ PCC areas) and Memory Networks (dlPFC). (4) Conclusions: Improving neural timing deficits before cognitive exercises to improve specific cognitive skills provides a rapid and effective method to improve cognitive skills. Improving the timing and sensitivity of low-level dorsal pathways, improving feedforward and feedback pathways, is essential to improve high-level cognitive skills. This adaptive training with substantial feedback shows cognitive transfer to tasks not trained on, significantly improving a person’s quality of life rapidly and effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0640.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Fitts' law; information theory; index of difficulty; SQRT_MT model
Online: 23 April 2021 (13:02:07 CEST)
Fitts' law predicts the human movement response time for a specific task by a simple linear formulation, in which the intercept and the slope are estimated from the task's empirical data. This research was motivated by our pilot study, which found that the linear regression's essential assumptions are not satisfied in the literature. Furthermore, the keystone hypothesis in Fitts' law, that the movement time per response will be directly proportional to the minimum average amount of information per response demanded by the particular amplitude and target width, has never been formally tested. Therefore, this study developed an optional formulation derived from fusing the findings in psychology, physics, and physiology for fulfilling the statistical assumptions. An experiment was designed to test the hypothesis in Fitts' law and validate the proposed model. To conclude, our results indicated that movement time could be related to the index of difficulty underlying the same constant amplitude. The optional formulation accompanies the index of difficulty in Shannon form robustly performs the prediction better than the traditional model across studies. Finally, a new approach to modeling movement time prediction is deduced from our research results
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0280.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: depression, virtual reality (VR), virtual reality therapy (VRT), long-term care facility (LTCF), mood disorder, place attachment, neuro-architecture
Online: 12 April 2021 (11:51:41 CEST)
Virtual reality (VR) describes a family of technologies which immerse users in sensorily-stimulating virtual environments. Such technologies have increasingly found applications in the treatment of neurological and mental health disorders. Depression, anxiety, and other mood abnormalities are of concern in the growing elderly population – especially those who reside in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). The transition from the familiar home environment to the foreign LTCF introduces a number of stressors that can precipitate depression. However, recent studies reveal that VR therapy (VRT) can promote positive emotionality and improve cognitive abilities in the elderly, both at home and in LTCFs. VR thus holds potential in allowing elderly individuals to gradually adapt to their new environments – thereby mitigating the detrimental effects of place attachment and social exclusion. Nevertheless, while the current psychological literature is promising, the implementation of VR in LTCFs faces many challenges. LTCF residents must gain trust in VR technologies, care providers require training to maximize the positive effects of VRT, and decision makers must evaluate both the opportunities and obstacles in adopting VR. Here, we concisely review the implications of depression related to place attachment in LTCFs, and explore the potential therapeutic applications of VR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0309.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Tacit knowledge; organizational communication; call-center; responders
Online: 12 February 2021 (14:50:09 CET)
This article aims to understand the role of tacit knowledge in call center organizations with the objective of understanding how call center representatives use tacit knowledge in their job roles and functions. Extant literature has focused on explicit knowledge but the research on tacit knowledge is still underdeveloped. The complexities and difficulties of the call center job role and the usage and transfer of knowledge is reviewed. Also, it takes into considerations past literature on tacit knowledge, how these respondents employ tacit knowledge in efficiently handling customers, responding to their queries, and engaging this form of knowledge in problem solving. The article concludes with discussion and implications for call center organizations and responders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0592.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: learning theory; symbolic conditioning; direct realism; valence transfer
Online: 28 January 2021 (15:40:55 CET)
Semantically meaningless strings that are associated with affective attributes (US) can become emotionally valenced CS. Jurchiș et al (2020) recently demonstrated CS-US associations may influence evaluations towards previously-unseen letter strings if the latter share grammar construction rules with CS. We replicated those authors' findings in a modified extension (Experiment 1; N1 = 108), where happy/angry faces (US) were differentially associated with letter strings (CS) constructed using familiar (English) or non-familiar (Phoenician) alphabets. CS-US sequences were sandwiched by evaluations of strings that never appeared as CS, but shared grammar construction rules. However, post-hoc tests indicated valence effects were restricted to participants classified as 'high awareness' or those who had been exposed to longer stimulus durations, suggesting resource-intense deliberations were central during evaluations. Qualitative awareness checks additionally showcased many participants had attributed valences to recurring elements across conditioned and evaluated exemplars. These limitations were collectively addressed in Experiment 2 (N2 = 140), where participants viewed Phoenician (/English) CS during conditioning but viewed English (/Phoenician) strings during evaluations, meaning no strings nor elements recurred between phases. We found credible valence effects across English and Phoenician strings, with the latter observed across all awareness categories. Because participants were unable to consciously specify any evaluative strategies while evaluating Phoenician strings, we speculate grammar construction rules (organizing relations) may have been non-consciously acquired during conditioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0729.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: disability; ARW2; ARST; tilt angle; trajectory
Online: 29 December 2020 (14:26:10 CET)
The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the kinematic characteristics of the upper limb segments during the archery shooting of Paralympic Wheelchair Class archers (ARW2 - second wheelchair class – paraplegia or comparable disability) and Paralympic Standing Class archers (ARST - standing archery class – loss of 25 points in the upper limbs or lower limbs), where archers are classified according to their disability grade among elite disabled archers. The participants of this study were selected as seven elite athletes with disabilities, 4 ARW2, and 3 ARST. The analysis variables were 1) the time required for each phase, 2) the angle of inclination of the body center, 3) the change of trajectory of body center, and 4) the change of movement locus of bow center by phase when performing six shots in total. The ARW2 group showed a longer time than the ARST group, and the angle of the body did not show a significant difference between the two groups. Although there was no significant difference in the mean score between the two groups, it was judged that kinematic performance according to each group was, in that there was a measurable variation in kinematic variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0338.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Semantics and meaning; Context representation; Quantum cognition; Subjectivity; Quantum phase; Behavioral modeling; Qubit
Online: 22 December 2020 (11:58:16 CET)
The paper describes an algorithm for semantic representation of behavioral contexts relative to a dichotomic decision alternative. The contexts are represented as quantum qubit states in two-dimensional Hilbert space visualized as points on the Bloch sphere. The azimuthal coordinate of this sphere functions as a one-dimensional semantic space in which the contexts are accommodated according to their subjective relevance to the considered uncertainty. The contexts are processed in triples defined by knowledge of a subject about a binary situational factor. The obtained triads of context representations function as stable cognitive structure at the same time allowing a subject to model probabilistically-variative behavior. The developed algorithm illustrates an approach for quantitative subjectively-semantic modeling of behavior based on conceptual and mathematical apparatus of quantum theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0562.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Personal; personal characteristics; performance; pilot; Indonesian Naval Aviation Center
Online: 23 November 2020 (08:47:46 CET)
Facing the tasks and challenges going forward, a pilot of the Indonesian Naval Aviation Center was required to be brave in taking risks, especially in carrying out its main tasks, so it was expected that a pilot of the Indonesian Naval Aviation Center had intelligence, especially in finding appropriate solutions and alternatives to address every task challenges dynamics in situations that often changed quickly. The purpose of this study was to identify the personal character and performance that should be owned by the pilot of the Indonesian Naval Aviation Center. This research used a qualitative approach with a contextual and constructional meta-analysis study method. The results of this meta-analysis study concluded that in line with the essence of personal character that is defined as the personal aspects of a work that allows workers to achieve superior performance. These personal aspects include nature, emotive-motives, value systems, attitudes, knowledge, and skills, where the personal character would produce an optimal performance on a pilot of the Indonesian Naval Aviation Center.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0554.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Pilot; competency; competency development; competency development model; Indonesian Naval Aviation Center
Online: 21 November 2020 (10:44:23 CET)
The Indonesian Navy's military condition in facing the globalization era of the industrial revolution 4.0 underwent many significant changes, both in policies and coaching practices that were implemented in regulating developments over the past decade. The competency model was an important basis of human resource functions such as recruitment, training and development, and performance management. The purpose of this study was to identifying and analyzing the pilot competency development model in the Naval Aviation Center. This research was a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. The results of this study concluded that the pilot of the Indonesian Naval Aviation Center requires the development of competency models that were quite significant in various areas of competence such as 1.) Interpersonal Pilot Communication Competencies; 2.) Competence of Aviation Security Personnel; 3.) Competency Constraint Satisfaction Optimization Problem; 4.) Competency of Flight Control Systems that have been tested, licensed, and well implemented.
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: amplitude spectrum; image statistics; complexity; aesthetics; phase
Online: 23 October 2020 (20:47:00 CEST)
Within the spectrum of a natural image, the amplitude of modulation decreases with spatial frequency. The speed of such an amplitude decrease, or the amplitude spectrum slope, of an image affects the perceived aesthetic value. Additionally, a human observer would consider a symmetric image more appealing than they do an asymmetric one. We investigated how these two factors jointly affect aesthetic preferences by manipulating both the amplitude spectrum slope and the symmetric level of images to assess their effects on aesthetic preference on a 6-point Likert scale. Our results showed that the preference ratings increased with the symmetry level but had an inverted U-shape relation to amplitude spectrum slope. In addition, a strong interaction existed between symmetry level and amplitude spectrum slope on preference rating, in that symmetry can amplify the amplitude spectrum slope’s effects. Such effects can be described by a quadratic function of the spectrum slope. That is, preference is an inverted U-shape function of spectrum slope whose intercept is determined by the number of symmetry axis. In addition, the interaction between the two factors is manifested as the modulation depth of the quadratic function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0431.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: hand tracking; virtual reality; leap motion; oculus; user experience; interaction; immersion
Online: 21 October 2020 (10:51:05 CEST)
Hand tracking enables controller-free interaction with virtual environments, which can, compared to traditional handheld controllers, make virtual reality (VR) experiences more natural and immersive. As naturalness hinges on both technological and user-based features, fine-tuning the former while assessing the latter can be used to increase usability. For a grab-and-place use case in immersive VR, we compared a prototype of a camera-based hand tracking interface (Leap Motion) with customized design elements to the standard Leap Motion application programming interface (API) and a traditional controller solution (Oculus Touch). Usability was tested in 32 young healthy participants, whose performance was analyzed in terms of accuracy, speed and errors as well as subjective experience. We found higher performance and overall usability as well as overall preference for the handheld controller compared to both controller-free solutions. While most measures did not differ between the two controller-free solutions, the modifications made to the Leap API to form our prototype led to a significant decrease in accidental drops. Our results do not support the assumption of higher naturalness for hand tracking but suggest design elements to improve the robustness of controller-free object interaction in a grab-and-place scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0314.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: creative thinking; mathematical creativity; response processes; digital learning environment; online learning platform
Online: 15 October 2020 (08:42:55 CEST)
Creative thinking is increasingly recognised as an essential ability that should be part of school curricula. Given the move towards online learning and assessment, we investigate whether mathematical creativity can be assessed at-scale in the Numbers game, an arithmetic game in Math Garden, a popular online math practice platform. In the Numbers game, a generalisation of the 24 Game, children are asked to figure out how to compute a target number using basic arithmetic operations and a given set of numbers. We argue that creative thinking is required when the search space is complex, and propose that the base-pattern, i.e., the sequence of the operations needed to solve a Numbers game item, indicates search space complexity. We then demonstrate that items with disordered base-patterns are more likely to require mathematical creativity to figure out. Specifically, our analysis shows that for items with only one solution sequence, those with disordered base-patterns are more difficult and take longer to solve compared to items with ordered base-patterns. For items where multiple solution sequences are possible, nine times out of ten children choose ordered over disordered base-patterns. We conclude that the Numbers game has potential for assessing mathematical creativity at-scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0443.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: learning disorders; working memory; school-age children; EEG power spectral density; source localization; sLORETA
Online: 18 September 2020 (18:54:54 CEST)
Learning disorders (LD) are diagnosed in children whose academic skills of reading, writing or mathematics are impaired and lagged according to their age, schooling and intelligence. Children with LD experience substantial working memory (WM) deficits, even more pronounced if more than one of the academic skills is affected. We compared the task-related EEG power spectral density of children with LD (n= 23), with a control group of children with good academic achievement (n= 22), during the performance of a WM task. sLoreta was used to estimate the current distribution at the sources, and 18 brain regions of interests (ROIs) were chosen with an extended version of the eigenvector centrality mapping technique. In this way, we lessen some drawbacks of the traditional EEG at the sensor space by an analysis at the brain sources level over data-driven selected ROIs. Results: The LD group showed fewer correct responses at the WM task, an overall slower EEG with more theta activity in all ROIs, less upper-alpha power at posterior areas, and less high-frequency beta activity in frontal areas. We explain these EEG patterns in LD children as indices of an inefficient neural resource management related with a delay in the neural development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0139.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Cognitive load theory; dynamic visualizations; design techniques; learning; team sports
Online: 5 September 2020 (10:41:11 CEST)
Dynamic visualizations have been developed to exchange information that transforms over time across a broad range of professional and academic contexts. However, these visual tools may impose substantial demands on the learner’s cognitive resources that are very limited in current knowledge. Cognitive load theory has been used to improve learning from dynamic visualizations by providing certain design techniques to manage learner cognitive load without adding any oral/written explanations. This systematic review examined a series of experimental studies assessing the roles of these design techniques in learning tactical scenes of play through dynamic visualizations. Electronic databases PubMed and Google Scholar were used to search relevant articles. Eleven studies were eventually included for the systematic review based on the eligibility criteria. The present review revealed that adapting design techniques to the level of learners’ expertise, type of depicted knowledge, and level of content complexity is a crucial part of effective learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0711.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Empathy; comparative thanatology; cognitive biases; animal ethics; mentaphobia; primates; elephants; birds; robot
Online: 31 August 2020 (06:13:03 CEST)
In this study, we asked participants to answer an online questionnaire about videos showing animal epimeletic behaviours: an individual (a sparrow, an elephant and a macaque) displayed behaviours towards an inanimate conspecific who suddenly got back to conscious at the end of the footage. A fourth video showed a dog-robot kicked by an engineer to demonstrate its stability. After each video, questions were asked to score the degree of anthropomorphism of participants, from mentophobia (no attribution whatever the species) to full anthropomorphism and to measure how close participants are to biological reality (actual scientific knowledge). A first important result is that there is a negative correlation (about 61%) between the anthropomorphism score (AS) and the biological reality one (BRS) showing a wrong statement. The heterogeneity of responses proved that all levels of anthropomorphism are covered from mentaphobia to full anthropomorphism. However, the scores participants attributed to animals differ according to the species shown in the video and to human characteristics. Understanding how one can play with these factors can conduct to better relationships with animals as encourage human-robot interactions. Finally, such reflective anthropomorphism can lead to an increase of human empathy and sociality, finally increasing our humanity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0707.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Anxiety; Audio-Visual stimulation; COVID-19; Environmental enrichment; Forest environments; Forest therapy; Lockdown; Mental health; Stress; Quarantine
Online: 31 August 2020 (05:20:50 CEST)
The prolonged lockdown imposed to contain the COVID-19 pandemic prevented many people from direct contact with nature and greenspaces, raising alarms for a possible worsening of mental health. This study investigates the effectiveness of a simple and affordable remedy for improving psychological well-being, based on audio-visual stimuli brought by a short computer video showing forest environments, with an urban video as a control. Randomly selected participants were assigned the forest or urban video, to look at and listen early in the morning, and filled questionnaires. In particular, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) Form Y, collected in baseline condition and at the end of the study, and the Part II of the Sheehan Patient Rated Anxiety Scale (SPRAS), collected every day immediately before and after watching the video. The virtual exposure to forest environments showed effective to reduce perceived anxiety levels in in people forced by lockdown in limited spaces and environmental deprivation. Although significant, the effects were observed only in the short term, highlighting the limitation of the virtual experiences. The reported effects might also represent a benchmark to disentangle the determinants of health effects due to real forest experiences, for example, the inhalation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0614.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: multimodal experiment; multisensory experiment; automatic device integration; open-source; PsychoPy; Unity; Virtual Reality (VR); Lab Streaming Layer; LabRecorder; LabRecorderCLI; Windows command line (cmd.exe)
Online: 27 August 2020 (12:06:13 CEST)
The human mind is multimodal. Yet most behavioral studies rely on century-old measures of behavior—task accuracy and latency (response time). Multimodal and multisensory analysis of human behavior creates a better understanding of how the mind works. The problem is that designing and implementing these experiments is technically complex and costly. This paper introduces versatile and economical means of developing multimodal-multisensory human experiments. We provide an experimental design framework that automatically integrates and synchronizes measures including electroencephalogram (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), eye-tracking, virtual reality (VR), body movement, mouse/cursor motion and response time. Unlike proprietary systems (e.g., iMotions), our system is free and open-source; it integrates PsychoPy, Unity and Lab Streaming Layer (LSL). The system embeds LSL inside PsychoPy/Unity for the synchronization of multiple sensory signals—gaze motion, electroencephalogram (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), mouse/cursor movement, and body motion—with low-cost consumer-grade devices in a simple behavioral task designed by PsychoPy and a virtual reality environment designed by Unity. This tutorial shows a step-by-step process by which a complex multimodal-multisensory experiment can be designed and implemented in a few hours. When conducting the experiment, all of the data synchronization and recoding of the data to disk will be done automatically.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0329.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: ageing; simulated driving; attention; switching costs; neural oscillations
Online: 4 August 2020 (10:57:24 CEST)
We recently reported that refocusing attention between temporal and spatial tasks becomes more difficult with increasing age, which could impair daily activities such as driving (Callaghan et al., 2017). Here we investigated the extent to which difficulties in refocusing attention extend to naturalistic settings such as simulated driving. 118 participants in five age groups (18-30; 40-49; 50-59; 60-69; 70-91 years) were compared during simulated driving, where they switched from a spatially focal yet temporally complex task (braking due to traffic ahead) to a spatially more distributed task (reading a motorway road sign). Sequential-Task (switching) performance was compared to Single-Task performance (road sign only) to calculate age-related switch-costs. Electroencephalography was recorded in 34 participants (17 in the 18-30 and 17 in the 60+ years groups) to explore age-related changes in the neural oscillatory signatures of refocusing attention while driving. We indeed observed age-related impairments in attentional refocusing, evidenced by increased switch-costs in response times and by deficient modulation of theta and alpha frequencies. Our findings highlight virtual reality (VR) and Neuro-VR as important methodologies for future psychological and gerontological research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0077.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Second Language Learning; Word Learning; Cognate Effect; Synonymy; Picture Word Association
Online: 5 July 2020 (15:00:57 CEST)
The effects of cognate synonymy in L2 word learning are explored. Participants learned the names of well-known concrete concepts in a new fictional language following a picture-word association paradigm. Half of the concepts (set A) had two possible translations in the new language (i.e., both words were synonyms): one was a cognate in participants’ L1 and the other one was not. The other half of the concepts (set B) had only one possible translation in the new language, a non-cognate word. After learning the new words, participants’ memory was tested in a picture-word matching task and a translation recognition task. In line with previous findings, our results clearly indicate that cognates are much easier to learn, as we found that the cognate translation was remembered much better than both its non-cognate synonym and the non-cognate from set B. Our results also seem to suggest that non-cognates without cognate synonyms (set B) are better learned than non-cognates with cognate synonyms (set A). This suggests that, at early stages of L2 acquisition, learning a cognate would produce a poorer acquisition of its non-cognate synonym, as compared to a solely learned non-cognate. These results are discussed under the light of different theories and models of bilingual mental lexicon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0054.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: COVID-19; Knowledge; Perception of Risk; Pandemic Outbreak; Disease Control; Cross-sectional Study
Online: 5 July 2020 (08:10:36 CEST)
COVID-19 is an infectious disease spreading through human touch. This study explored the risk perception and knowledge towards COVID-19 infection among Bangladeshi adult participants. Two self-administered online surveys were administered at two different time points from 26-31 March 2020 (Early lockdown) and 11-16 May 2020 (Late lockdown) through social media on 1005 respondents (322 and 683 participants, respectively) during COVID-19 lockdown period in Bangladesh. Univariate and multiple linear regression models were used to examine factors associated with risk perception and knowledge towards COVID-19. The mean knowledge (8.4 vs. 8.1, P=0.022) and risk perception (11.2 vs. 10.6, P < 0.001) scores differ significantly between early and late lockdown. Compared to the early lockdown period, the scores for perceived risk of contracting COVID-19 decreased significantly while public knowledge about COVID-19 was lower but not statistically significant. Female participants who practiced high quarantine particularly those who did so at the public health order during the lockdown reported increased knowledge towards the spread of COVID-19 and perceived high risk of contracting COVID-19. Education intervention using awareness to increase public knowledge and perception towards COVID-19 in Bangladesh should target male participants who practiced low quarantine and are less worried about the spread of such novel coronavirus even as the physical distancing persists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0370.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Awareness; Readiness; Covid-19; Bangladesh; Knowledge; Attitude; Practice
Online: 25 June 2020 (15:57:11 CEST)
Bangladesh has adopted some special steps to control the quick spread of the COVID-19 pandemic situation. However, the local residents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards the disease have a direct impact on the success of the controlling measures taken by the state. This article explores knowledge (K) about preventions, attitude (A) to the disease, and practices (P) of preventing COVID-19 situation of the young age groups residing in Bangladesh. Quantitative data were collected online using a KAP questionnaire from 932 participants. Results show the population is generally aware of the symptoms, keeping social distance by staying home and are concerned about re-spreading after the lock-down period. However, they are quite unsure about the possible medicines frequently talked about in the media and the necessity of avoiding animal protein. One of the major limitations is, these findings should not be generalized due to the low number of participants compared to the total population in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0398.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: COVID-19; Perception-based questionnaire; principal component analysis (PCA); Linear regression model; social panic; social conflict
Online: 22 April 2020 (09:55:38 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic situation, disease intensity, weak healthcare facilities, unawareness, and misinformation led people to fear and anxiety in Bangladesh. This study intended to get peoples’ perception on psychosocial, socio-economic and environmental crisis amidst the pandemi. An online questionnaire was surveyed nationwide (respondents no.1066). Datasets were analyzed through the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), hierarchical Cluster Analysis (CA), Pearson’s correlation matrix (PCM), Linear regression analysis (LRA), and psychometric characteristics were included in the Classical Test Theory (CTT) analysis. There were good associations among the psychosocial, socio-economic and environmental parameters. A significant association between fear of COVID-19 with struggling healthcare system (p<0.05) was found. Also, negative association between fragile health system and government’s ability to deal with the pandemic (p<0.05) revealing poor governance. Again, a positive association of shutdown and social distancing with fear of losing life, and due to lack of health treatment (p<0.05) reveals that shut down hampers normal activities which may lead to mental and economic stress. However, a positive association of socio-economic impact of the shutdown with poor people’s suffering, the price hike of basic need, hamper of formal education (p<0.05) may lead to severe socio-economic and health crisis. There is a possibility of climate-induced disaster during/after the pandemic, which will create severe food insecurity (p<0.01). Daily wage earners and poors will suffer most by food and nutritional deficiency, and the country may face huge economic burden. Proper risk assessment and communications is needed to alleviate fear and anxiety. Thus, financial support and mental boosting is required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0069.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: CSERP; OERP; EEG; Spectra power; 3M syndrome; rare disease
Online: 4 March 2020 (14:56:14 CET)
3M syndrome is a rare disorder that involves the gene CUL7. CUL7 modulates odour detection, conditions the olfactory response (OR) and plays a role in olfactory system development. Despite this involvement, there are no direct studies on olfactory functional effects in 3M syndrome. The purpose of the present work was to analyse the cortical OR, through chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERP) and power spectra calculated by electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded in 3M infants: two twins (3M-N) and an additional subject (3M-O). The results suggest that olfactory processing is diversified. Comparison of N1 and LPC components indicated substantial differences in 3M syndrome that may be a consequence of a modified olfactory processing pattern. Moreover, the presence of delta rhythms in 3M-O and 3M-N clearly indicates their involvement with OR, since the delta rhythm is closely connected to chemosensory perception, in particular to olfactory perception.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0067.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: CSERP; OERP; EEG; spectra power; olfactory system; 3M syndrome; rare disease
Online: 4 March 2020 (11:38:24 CET)
3M syndrome is a rare disorder that involves the gene CUL7. CUL7 modulates odour detection, conditions the olfactory response (OR) and plays a role in olfactory system development. Despite this involvement, there are no direct studies on olfactory functional effects in 3M syndrome. The purpose of the present work was to analyse the cortical OR, through chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERP) and power spectra calculated by electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded in 3M infants: two twins (3M-N) and an additional subject (3M-O). The results suggest that olfactory processing is diversified. Comparison of N1 and LPC components indicated substantial differences in 3M syndrome that may be a consequence of a modified olfactory processing pattern. Moreover, the presence of delta rhythms in 3M-O and 3M-N clearly indicates their involvement with OR, since the delta rhythm is closely connected to chemosensory perception, in particular to olfactory perception.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0159.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Bicycle; Bicyclist; Behavior; Safety; Crash Prevention
Online: 12 February 2020 (12:26:51 CET)
The primary purpose of this investigation was to identify safety-oriented bicycling practices commonly used by adult riders in an urban setting (Brooklyn, New York), and to explore whether there are any differences between the safety-oriented practices of men and women riders. Methods: 24 adult riders (14 men, 10 women) in Brooklyn were interviewed concerning their perceptions of bicycling hazards and their safety-oriented practices. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through thematic analysis. Fisher’s Exact Test was employed to test for gender differences. Results: Participants identified a variety of hazards, mainly due to motor vehicles but also pedestrians and roadway conditions. The analysis distilled twenty-one bicycling practices to summarize prevalent views of the participants about safe riding practices. Related items were grouped under broader categories, generating seven safety-oriented bicycling strategies. Few differences based on gender were found in the analysis; however, women in this study were more likely than men to say that they felt disrespected by other road users. Conclusion: Seven strategies may be important for safe urban bicycling: minimizing exposure to other road users (especially motor vehicles) while riding, being vigilant and anticipating what others might do, riding in a predictable fashion, making one’s presence known to other road users, making sure it is safe before proceeding, obeying traffic rules, and riding at a safe speed. Future studies could develop these concepts further and test whether they are associated with involvement in traffic crashes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: creativity; consciousness; energy-efficiency; Kahneman System 1 and 2; counterfactual worlds
Online: 9 February 2020 (17:02:28 CET)
It is proposed that both human creativity and human consciousness are (unintended) consequences of the human brain’s extraordinary energy efficiency. The topics of creativity and consciousness are treated separately, though have a common sub-structure. It is argued that creativity arises from a synergy between two cognitive modes of the human brain (which broadly coincide with Kahneman’s Systems 1 and 2). In the first, available energy is spread across a relatively large network of neurons. As such, the amount of energy per active neuron is so small that the operation of such neurons is susceptible to thermal (ultimately quantum decoherent) noise. In the second, available energy is focussed on a small enough subset of neurons to guarantee a deterministic operation. An illustration of how this synergy can lead to creativity with implications for computing in silicon are discussed. Starting with a discussion of the concept of free will, the notion of consciousness is defined in terms of an awareness of what are perceived to be nearby counterfactual worlds in state space. It is argued that such awareness arises from an interplay between our memories on the one hand, and quantum physical mechanisms (where, unlike in classical physics, nearby counterfactual worlds play an indispensable dynamical role) in the ion channels of neural networks. As with the brain’s susceptibility to noise, it is argued that in situations where quantum physics plays a role in the brain, it does so for reasons of energy efficiency. As an illustration of this definition of consciousness, a novel proposal is outlined as to why quantum entanglement appears so counter-intuitive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0026.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: mind-wandering; video lecture; self-caught method; oculomotor data; eye movements
Online: 3 February 2020 (08:34:54 CET)
The purpose of this study was to detect mind-wandering experienced by pre-service teachers while learning video lecture on physics. The lecture was videotaped and consisted of a live lecture in a classroom. The lecture was about Gauss's law on physics. We investigated whether oculomotor data and eye movements could be used as a marker to indicate the learner’s mind-wandering. Each data was collected in a study in which 24 pre-service teachers (16 females and 8 males) reported self-caught mind-wandering while learning physics video lecture during30 minutes. A Tobii Pro Spectrum (sampling rate: 300Hz) was used to capture their eye-gaze during learning Gauss's law course video. After watching video lecture, we interviewed pre-service teachers about their mind-wandering experience. We first used the self-caught method to capture the mind-wandering timing of pre-service teachers while learning from video lectures. We detected more accurate mind-wandering segments by comparing fixation duration and saccade count. We investigated two types of oculomotor data (blink count, pupil size) and nine eye movements (average peak velocity of saccades; maximum peak velocity of saccades; standard deviation of peak velocity of saccades; average amplitude of saccades; maximum amplitude of saccades; total amplitude of saccades; saccade count/s; fixation duration; fixation dispersion). The result was that the blink count could not be used as a marker for mind-wandering during learning video lectures among them (oculomotor data and eye movements), unlike previous literatures. Based on the results of this study, we identified elements that can be used as mind-wandering markers while learning from video lectures that are similar to real classes, among the oculomotor data and eye movement mentioned in previous literatures. Also, we found that most participants focused on past thoughts and felt unpleasant after experiencing mind-wandering through interview analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0168.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: fine motor precision; vision; proprioception; sex differences; individual differences; personality
Online: 15 November 2019 (03:46:22 CET)
Previous studies have reported certain sex differences in motor performance precision. The aim of the present study was to analyse sex differences in fine motor precision performance for both hands in different tests conditions. 220 Spanish participants (ages: 12-95) performed fine motor tasks - tracing over the provided models – lines of 40 mm for both hands, two sensory conditions (PV – proprioceptive-visual; P – proprioceptive only) and three movement types (F – frontal, T – transversal and S - Sagittal). Differences in line length (the task focused on precision) were observed through MANOVA analysis for all test conditions, both sexes and different age groups. Sex differences in precision were observed in F and T movement types (statistically significance level and higher Cohens’ d was observed in condition with vision). No any statistically significant differences were observed in both hands and sensory conditions in sagittal type. Sex differences in fine motor precision were more frequently observed in the PV sensory condition in the frontal movement type and less in the sagittal one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0217.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: cognitive function; pet insects; animal-assisted therapy; Wisconsin Card Sorting Task; functional magnetic resonance imaging; elderly women
Online: 20 August 2019 (15:46:32 CEST)
Background: Animal-assisted therapy has positive effects on cognitive function, depression, performance ability, and social functioning in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of rearing pet insects on the cognitive function of healthy elderly participants, with fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) being used for this purpose. Methods: Community-dwelling elderly women (≥60 years) with normal cognitive function were enrolled during April 2015. They were randomized at a 1:1 ratio into two groups: insect-rearing and control (n=16) groups, with the insect-rearing group being further classified into two groups for analysis according to the subjects’ scores in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, WCST) at the first fMRI: insect-rearing group I with a relatively high score (n=13), and insect-rearing group II with a relatively low score (n=6). All subjects were educated on a healthy lifestyle for better cognitive function at every visit, and the insect-rearing groups received and reared crickets as pet insects. The fMRI was performed at baseline and after 8 weeks using the WCST as a stimulus. The WCST consisted of two variations, a high level baseline (HLB) and semi-WCST version. Results: There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics among the three groups. There was a significant difference accuracy of the HLB–semi-WCST (p<0.05) in insect-rearing group II after 8 weeks from the baseline test. In the fMRI analysis involving the WCST reaction test, increased activation was observed in the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex in insect-rearing group II when the semi-WCST, rather than the HLB, was performed. There were no significant differences in the other groups. Conclusion: The rearing of pet insects as an animal-assisted therapy is cost-effective, easy, and occupies little space. In this study, it showed positive effects on executive functions and performance improvement in elderly women. Further larger studies on the effects of pet insects on cognitive function are warranted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0323.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: biophilia; biophilic design; sustainability; sustainable architecture; built environment; well-being; restorative environment
Online: 28 July 2019 (17:24:11 CEST)
Can ‘restoration and therapy in design’ signify something more than the places like hospitals and healing gardens? Can those restorative environments be brought inside the working and living environments to mitigate the psychological problem at the source? The main objective of this paper is to look at the strategies and developments of Biophilic design with respect to therapy and restoration in order to achieve sustainability in terms of quality of life within the immediate built-environment. The paper explores the mental health issues under the domains of built-environment and indoor environment with respect to their connection with nature. Biophilic design has gained a favourable momentum within the last four decades and is now visualised as a medium that bridges the gap between humans and the nature. Out of a variety of measures of sustainable environmental design, biophilic design focuses on the end-results of naturally nurtured or inspired habitats and workplaces. It embodies strategies of Green and Intelligent buildings, works as a mitigation strategy for foul indoor environment and establishes the vision that veristic sustainability can only be achieved if there is qualitative control over human physiological prosperity and psychological health. In context of work efficiency, preference and productivity within the indoor environment, it is seen as a promoter of constructive thoughts and enhancer of creativity. The paper aims to enlist biophilic design and retrofitting strategies, which can improve cognitive function, reduce stress and provide mental peace within the built environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0301.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: consciousness; information compression; internal representation; QBIT theory; qualia; subjective experience
Online: 26 July 2019 (12:59:02 CEST)
The QBIT theory is an attempt toward solving the problem of consciousness in the light of Quantum mechanics, Biology, Information theory, and Thermodynamics. “Internal representation” is a key concept in the QBIT theory of consciousness. An internal representation is defined as a pack of information (within a cognitive system) that represents an external stimulus.The QBIT theory suggests that when robustness of an internal representation exceeds a certain threshold, a conscious experience (or a quale) is generated. In this paper, the concept of internal representation and its relation with consciousness is explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0122.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: music; language; syntax; attention; comprehension; electroencephalography; event-related potentials
Online: 13 June 2019 (13:13:57 CEST)
Music and language are hypothesized to share neural resources, particularly at the level of syntax processing. Recent reports suggest that attention modulates this sharing of neural resources, but the time-course of the effects of attention, and the degree to which attention operates similarly on music and language, are yet unclear. In this EEG study we manipulate the syntactic structure of simultaneously presented musical chord progressions and garden-path sentences in a modified rapid serial visual presentation paradigm, while varying top-down attentional demands to the two modalities. The Early Right Anterior Negativity (ERAN) was observed in response to both attended and unattended musical syntax violations. In contrast, an N400 was only observed in response to attended linguistic syntax violations, and a P3 only in response to attended musical syntax violations. Results show that top-down allocation of attention indeed affects the processing of syntax in both music and language, with different neural resources acting upon the two modalities particularly at later stages of cognitive processing. However, the processing of musical syntax at an earlier stage of the perceptual-cognitive pathway, as indexed by the ERAN, is partially automatic, and is strongly indicative of separate neural resources for music and language.
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: eyetracking, eye movements, gaze, memory, retrieval, vision, aging
Online: 20 May 2019 (12:25:44 CEST)
Eye movements support memory encoding by binding distinct elements of the visual world into coherent representations. However, the role of eye movements in memory retrieval is less clear. We propose that eye movements play a functional role in retrieval by reinstating the encoding context. By overtly shifting attention in a manner that broadly recapitulates the spatial locations and temporal order of encoded content, eye movements facilitate access to, and reactivation of, associated details. Such mnemonic gaze reinstatement may be obligatorily recruited when task demands exceed cognitive resources, as is often observed in older adults. We review research linking gaze reinstatement to retrieval, describe the neural integration between the oculomotor and memory systems, and discuss implications for models of oculomotor control, memory, and aging.
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: smell sensitivity; olfaction; threshold; staircase; QUEST
Online: 16 May 2019 (10:39:54 CEST)
The ability to smell is crucial for most species as it enables the detection of environmental threats like smoke, fosters social interactions, and contributes to the sensory evaluation of food and eating behavior. The high prevalence of smell disturbances throughout the life span calls for a continuous effort to improve tools for quick and reliable assessment of olfactory function. Odor-dispensing pens, called Sniffin' Sticks, are an established method to deliver olfactory stimuli during diagnostic evaluation. We tested the suitability of a Bayesian adaptive algorithm (QUEST) to estimate olfactory sensitivity using Sniffin' Sticks by comparing QUEST sensitivity thresholds with those obtained using a procedure based on an established standard staircase protocol. Thresholds were measured twice with both procedures in two sessions (Test and Retest). Overall, both procedures exhibited considerable overlap with QUEST displaying slightly higher test-retest correlations, less variability between measurements, and reduced testing duration. Notably, participants were more frequently presented with the highest concentration during the QUEST which may foster adaptation and habituation effects. We conclude that further research is required to better understand and optimize the procedure for assessment of olfactory performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0055.v1
Online: 6 May 2019 (11:09:04 CEST)
Breast cancer is an important disease that threatens the lives of women. The majority of breast screening health education is printed promotional material, which is ineffective in enhancing women’s knowledge on breast screening in Taiwan, and showed low breast cancer screening rate in women. This provided the impetus for us to carry out this study to understand the major barrier of women on breast cancer and screening procedures. This study used quasi-experimental design and purposive sampling. The study participants were 45–69 year-old women. Data collection was carried out before and after intervention. The health belief model was used as a research framework to examine changes in the study participants after multimedia health education intervention for detecting which factors most affect women's breast cancer screening behavior. Then we could make the policy for enhancing women's breast cancer screening in the future. Our study showed that after multimedia health education intervention, the scores of perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy in the experimental group were all significantly higher than the control group. We believe that the effectiveness of multimedia health education is better than traditional health education methods, and can enhance women to receive breast cancer screening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Biophilic architecture; sustainability; perceived restorativeness; Gothic Revival; colonial churches
Online: 11 April 2019 (08:32:41 CEST)
Imperial rule in the Indian sub-continent led to the construction of several European styled churches in the late 19th and early 20th century. St. John in Wilderness, built in 1852 in Mcleod Ganj, and Christ Church built in 1857 in Shimla, are examples of the symposium of extensive natural richness and architectural imperialism carried under the name of ‘The Gothic Revival’. This paper presents a biophilic analysis of these two 19th century churches along with the responses from 238 visitors recorded on the perceived restorativeness scale’s four contributing factors Being Away, Fascination, Extent and Compatibility, to understand the relationship between the human perception of architecture and nature. The study concludes that St. John in Wilderness due to its close connection with nature has greater Perceived Restorativeness in comparison to the Christ Church. The contributing factors of high restorative quality are identified and highlighted so that improved design guidelines for religious buildings can be prepared for future references.
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Validation; Questionnaire Design; Self-Perception; Diabetes Mellitus; Self Care.
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:00:07 CET)
Background: Level of perceived competence as a basic psychological need could trigger achievement of diabetes self-management goals. Due to lack of a specific data collection tool to measure level of self-competence among Persian speaking patients with diabetes this study was conducted for cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric assessment of the Persian version of Perceived Competence Scale for Diabetes (PCSD-P). Methods: Standard translation/back-translation procedure was carried out to prepare a preliminary draft of the PCSD-P. Content and face validity of the early draft were checked by an expert panel including 15 scholars in the field of health education and promotion as well as nursing education with experience of working and research on diabetes. The final drafted questionnaire was completed by 177 randomly selected patients with type 2 diabetes. Based on the collected data structural validity of the contrived version was appraised using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA, CFA). Cronbach's alpha and Intraclass Correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to check the scale’s reliability and internal consistency. ; (3) Results: The estimated measures of Content Validity Index (CVI= 0.95) and Content Validity Ratio (CVR= 0.8) were in the range of acceptable recommended limits. The EFA analysis results demonstrated a single factor solution according to the items’ loadings for the component. The model fit indices i.e. RMSEA= 0.000, CFI=1, TLI=1, GFI= 0.998, NFI= 0.999 RFI= 0.995 confirmed consistency of the hypothesized one-factor solution. Values of the internal consistency and reliability coefficients were also in the vicinity of acceptable range (α= 0.892, ICC=0. 886, P= 0.001). Conclusions: The study findings revealed good internal validity and applicability of the PCSD-P to measure degree of self-competence among Persian speaking type 2 diabetes patients to manage the chronic disease. Due to unrepresentativeness of the study sample future cross-cultural test of PCSD-P on diverse and broader Persian speaking populations is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1010012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: adaptation; perception; climate change; Nepal; multivariate probit
Online: 6 March 2019 (00:00:00 CET)
This study assessed farmers’ perception of climate change, estimated the determinants of, and evaluated the relationship among adaptation practices using the multivariate probit model. A survey in 300 agricultural households was carried out covering 10 sample districts considering five agro-ecological zones and a vulnerability index. Four adaptation choices (change in planting date, crop variety, crop type and investment in irrigation) were deemed as outcome variables and socioeconomic, demographic, institutional, farm-level and perceptions variables were deployed as explanatory variables. Their marginal effects were determined for three climatic variables—temperature, precipitation and drought. Age, gender and education of head of household, credit access, farm area, rain-fed farming and tenure, are found to be more influential compared to other factors. All four adaptation-options are found to be complimentary to each other. Importantly, the intensity of impact of dependent variables in different models, and for available adaptation-options, are found to be unequal. Therefore, policy options and support facilities should be devised according to climatic variables and adaptation options to achieve superior results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0038.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: bilingual advantage; bilingualism; cognitive control; individual differences; longitudinal studies; methodology
Online: 4 February 2019 (14:02:53 CET)
Recently, doubts were raised about the existence of the bilingual advantage in cognitive control. The aim of the present review was to investigate the bilingual advantage and its modulating factors. We searched the Medline, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and ERIC databases for all original data and reviewed studies on bilingualism and cognitive control, with a cut-off date of October 31, 2018, thereby following the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) protocol. The results of the 46 original studies show that, indeed, the majority, 54.3%, reported beneficial effects of bilingualism on cognitive control tasks; however, 28.3% found mixed results, and 17.4% found evidence against its existence. Methodological differences seem to explain these mixed results: particularly, the varying selection of the bilingual participants, the use of non-standardized tests, and the fact that individual differences were often neglected, and that longitudinal designs were rare. Therefore, a serious risk for bias exists in both directions (i.e., in favor of and against the bilingual advantage). To conclude, we found some evidence for a bilingual advantage in cognitive control; however, if significant progress is to be made, better study designs, bigger data, and more longitudinal studies are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0180.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Cognitive Presence, Reflective Writing, E-Portfolio, Community of Inquiry, Construction of Knowledge
Online: 17 January 2019 (12:12:27 CET)
Traditionally understood in reference to distance education, cognitive presence may be defined as "the extent to which the participants in any particular configuration of a community of inquiry can construct meaning through sustained communication. The purpose of this paper was to create a blueprint for the reflective ePortfolio as the capstone project for my graduate degree. The blueprint was accomplished by adapting for use cognitive presence as a tool for both analysis and framing, which has never been done to the best of my knowledge. I considered myself to be a participant in a “community of inquiry” model and substituted the result of my interaction with each of the required instructor-course content pairings I took to serve as fellow participants in this community model. The result of my participation was understood to be the knowledge and experience that I have gained, which was reflected in eight of my academic research papers. These selected papers were the artifacts around which my ePortfolio was ultimately developed and demonstrated my participation as an active member in this community of inquiry constructing meaning through sustained communication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0103.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: cognitive science; signal processing; control theory; cultural processes
Online: 11 January 2019 (05:02:32 CET)
Simple patterns often arise from complex systems. For example, human perception of similarity decays exponentially with perceptual distance. The ranking of word usage versus the frequency at which the words are used has a log-log slope of minus one. Recent advances in big data provide an opportunity to characterize the commonly observed patterns of nature. Those observed regularities set the challenge of understanding the mechanistic processes that generate common patterns. This article illustrates the problem with the recent big data analysis of collective memory. Collective memory follows a simple biexponential pattern of decay over time. An initial rapid decay is followed by a slower, longer lasting decay. Candia et al. successfully fit a two stage model of mechanistic process to that pattern. Although that fit is useful, this article emphasizes the need, in big data analyses, to consider a broad set of alternative causal explanations. In this case, the method of signal frequency analysis yields several simple alternative models that generate exactly the same observed pattern of collective memory decay. This article concludes that the full potential of big data will require better methods for developing alternative, empirically testable causal models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0282.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Twice-Exceptional, Interventions, Gifted, Disability
Online: 24 December 2018 (14:49:46 CET)
What began nearly a century ago with the contributions of Hollingworth and Asperger, among others, has developed into a field dedicated to the study of gifted individuals with a disability. These twice-exceptional (2e) people and their unique set of needs differ from those of their once-exceptional counterparts on either end of the spectrum and often remain unaddressed or are discovered very late in life resulting in longterm consequences. For those discovered, effective treatment options to improve their quality of life remain uncertain. The goal of the present paper was to determine whether effective interventions exist to improve domain-specific (i.e., social, emotional, or academic) outcomes for people exhibiting both signs of giftedness and disability. A query was performed using evidence databases TRIP and PDQ in addition to University at Buffalo Libraries holdings for "twice-exceptional," "Giftedness," "Disability," and "intervention." The hits were reduced to the four most relevant, freely available studies in English that were selected for critique. Despite the selected studies being found to share methodological similarities that were their strengths and conducive to comparison, they also had threats to validity that served as potential weakness. Not only can directly effective interventions improve specific domains for 2e individuals, but the effects of domain-specific interventions may carry over into another domain resulting in indirect effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0280.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: phonagnosia, acquired, developmental, apperceptive, associative, voice-identity processing, speaker recognition, core-voice system, extended system
Online: 4 December 2018 (16:31:48 CET)
The voice contains elementary social communication cues, conveying speech, as well as paralinguistic information pertaining to the emotional state and the identity of the speaker. In contrast to vocal-speech and vocal-emotion processing, voice-identity processing has been less explored. This seems surprising, given the day-to-day significance of person recognition by voice. A valuable approach to unravel how voice-identity processing is accomplished is to investigate people who have a selective deficit in recognising voices. Such a deficit has been termed phonagnosia. In the present chapter, we provide a systematic overview of studies on phonagnosia and how they relate to current neurocognitive models of person recognition. We review studies that have characterised people who suffer from phonagnosia following brain damage (i.e. acquired phonagnosia) and also studies, which have examined phonagnosia cases without apparent brain lesion (i.e. developmental phonagnosia). Based on the reviewed literature, we emphasise the need for a careful behavioural characterisation of phonagnosia cases by taking into consideration the multistage nature of voice-identity processing and the resulting behavioural phonagnosia subtypes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: eyewitness identification; feedback; recollection; metacognition; metamemory; recognition
Online: 3 December 2018 (08:36:54 CET)
Little theoretically-informed research investigates how non-standard eyewitness identification tasks or metacognitive instructions might improve identification accuracy. We used a continuous dual-process model of recognition to explain familiarity-based identification errors and design modified lineup tasks and metacognitive instructions that increased eyewitness recollection and discriminability. In four studies we examined identification performance across lineups (standard simultaneous, elimination, delayed-choice) and instructions (task-related, phenomenological, standard). Participants viewed photos of targets and made identification decisions about a lineup for each target. Instructions about memory phenomenology improved discriminability in delayed-choice lineups, while task-related instructions were ineffective. Metacognitive instructions about how to better evaluate memory quality in modified lineup tasks could improve recollection for greater identification accuracy even when memory is poor. While immediate post-decision confidence is a good predictor of identification accuracy, lineup modifications that improve eyewitness memory use would provide better evidence of suspect guilt or innocence. We discuss implications for lineup theory and design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0480.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: social stigma; tuberculosis; knowledge; stigma measurement; Pakistan
Online: 20 November 2018 (05:14:44 CET)
Tuberculosis (TB) associated stigma is well-documented phenomenon that may contribute to sub-optimal TB care in Pakistan. The objective of study was to assess TB related knowledge and perceived stigma among community members. This was cross-sectional survey using convenience sample of 183 individuals recruited between October and December 2017. A validated stigma measurement tool developed by Van Rie et al. was adapted. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. 183 individuals (73% males; n = 134) participated in survey. Eighty-seven percent were aware that TB is curable disease (n = 159) and 91% thought that it could be transmitted by coughing (n = 167). However, respondents also thought that TB was spread through contaminated food (73%; n = 134), sharing meals (55%; n = 100), sharing utensils (53%; n = 96) and by having sexual intercourse with a TB patient (51%; n = 93). Fifty-seven percent (n = 104) associated TB with high levels of stigma. Persons who had less than six years of education (crude OR = 1.2; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.72) and lacked knowledge that TB is curable (crude OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.20, 9.70) were more likely to associate TB with stigma. In addition, females (crude OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 0.87, 2.04) and those who were unemployed (crude OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.74) were also more likely to associate TB with stigma. We found an association between lack of knowledge about TB and perceived stigma. This highlights need for improved education and awareness about TB.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0527.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: implicit prosody; rhythm sensitivity; event related potentials; reading achievement; musical aptitude
Online: 23 October 2018 (08:30:00 CEST)
Recent evidence suggests the existence of shared neural resources for rhythm processing in language and music. Such overlaps could be the basis of the facilitating effect of regular musical rhythm on spoken word processing previously reported for typical children and adults, as well as adults with Parkinson’s disease and children with developmental language disorders. The present study builds upon these previous findings by examining whether musical rhythmic priming also influences visual word processing, and the extent to which such cross-modal priming effect of rhythm is related to individual differences in musical aptitude and reading skills. EEG was recorded while participants listened to a rhythmic tone prime, followed by a visual target word with a stress pattern that either matched or mismatched the rhythmic structure of the auditory prime. Participants were also administered standardized assessments of musical aptitude and reading achievement. ERPs elicited by target words with a mismatching stress pattern showed an increased fronto-central negativity. Additionally, the size of the negative effect correlated with individual differences in musical rhythm aptitude and reading comprehension skills. Results support the existence of shared neurocognitive resources for linguistic and musical rhythm processing, and have important implications for the use of rhythm-based activities for reading interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0530.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: accident, investigation, punishment, language, multiple stories, crime, framing, human error, systems thinking, actions
Online: 3 October 2018 (13:12:44 CEST)
The language we use to describe the past can have a strong influence on the audience’s interpretation of our story. In our experiment, we explore, using 3 different conditions, how the framing and language of an accident report can affect the audience’s proposed solutions to manage the problems found. We find that the approach used to create an accident report can have a powerful influence on the audience’s decision making. Whether we are describing an accident in a similar manner to a crime, using a systems approach or we are accepting of multiple stories which are not linear or coherent, the methods we use to capture and communicate the story have a profound impact on the actions decided upon by the reader.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0523.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: frequency difference limens; blindfold; visual cues; auditory-visual synesthesia; gliding frequencies; perceptual limit, common resource theory; multiple resource model
Online: 30 August 2018 (10:40:28 CEST)
How perceptual limits can be overcome has long been examined by psychologists. This study investigated whether visual cues, blindfolding, visual-auditory synesthetic experience and music training could facilitate a smaller frequency difference limen (FDL) in a gliding frequency discrimination test. It was hoped that the auditory limits could be overcome through visual facilitation, visual deprivation, involuntary cross-modal sensory experience or music practice. Ninety university students, with no visual or auditory impairment, were recruited for this one-between (blindfold/visual cue) and one-within (control/experimental session) designed study. A MATLAB program was prepared to test their FDL by an alternative forced-choice task (gliding upwards/gliding downwards/no change) and two questionnaires (Vividness of Mental Imagery Questionnaire & Projector-Associator Test) were used to assess their tendency to synesthesia. Participants with music training showed a significantly smaller FDL; on the other hand, being blindfolded, being provided with visual cues or having synesthetic experience before could not significantly reduce the FDL. However, the result showed a trend of reduced FDLs through blindfolding. This indicated that visual deprivation might slightly expand the limits in auditory perception. Overall, current study suggests that the inter-sensory perception can be enhanced through training but not though reallocating cognitive resources to certain modalities. Future studies are recommended to verify the effects of music practice on other perceptual limits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0522.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: speech-to-song illusion, auditory illusion, perception, pace, emotion, language tonality
Online: 30 August 2018 (10:37:13 CEST)
The speech-to-song illusion is a type of auditory illusion that the repetition of a part of a sentence would change people’s perception tendency from speech-like to song-like. The study aims to examine how pace, emotion, and language tonality affect people’s experience of the speech-to-song illusion. It uses a between-subject (Pace: fast, normal, vs. slow) and within-subject (Emotion: positive, negative, vs. neutral; language tonality: tonal language vs. non-tonal language) design. Sixty Hong Kong college students were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions characterized by pace. They listened to 12 audio stimuli, each with repetitions of a short excerpt, and rated their subjective perception of the presented phrase, whether it sounded like a speech or a song, on a five-point Likert-scale. Paired-sample t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs were used to analyze the data. The findings reveal that a faster speech pace could strengthen the tendency of the speech-to-song illusion. Neither emotion nor language tonality show a statistically significant influence on the speech-to-song illusion. This study suggests that the perception of sound should be in a continuum and facilitates the understanding of song production in which speech can turn into music by having repetitive phrases and to be played in a relatively fast pace.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0627.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: utility; peak-end rule; smoothing; perception; system dynamics
Online: 31 July 2018 (15:16:00 CEST)
Utility perceived by individuals is believed to be different from the utility experienced by that individual. System dynamicists implicitly categorize this phenomenon as a form of bounded rationality and traditionally employ a simple smoothing function to capture it. We challenge this generalization by testing it against an alternative formulation of utility perception that is suggested by modern theories of behavioral economics. In particular, the traditional smoothing formulation is compared with the peak-end rule in a simple theoretical model as well as in a medium-size model of electronic health record implementation. Experimentation with the models reveals that the way utility perception is formulated is important and might affect behavior and policy implications of system dynamics models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0106.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: auditory-visual speech perception; bipolar disorder; speech perception
Online: 6 July 2018 (05:21:19 CEST)
The focus of this study was to investigate how individuals with bipolar disorder integrate auditory and visual speech information compared to non-disordered individuals and whether there were any differences in auditory and visual speech integration in the manic and depressive episodes in bipolar disorder patients. It was hypothesized that bipolar groups’ auditory-visual speech integration would be less robust than the control group. Further, it was predicted that those in the manic phase of bipolar disorder would integrate visual speech information more than their depressive phase counterparts. To examine these, the McGurk effect paradigm was used with typical auditory-visual speech (AV) as well as auditory-only (AO) speech perception on visual-only (VO) stimuli. Results. Results showed that the disordered and non-disordered groups did not differ on auditory-visual speech (AV) integration and auditory-only (AO) speech perception but on visual-only (VO) stimuli. The results are interpreted to pave the way for further research whereby both behavioural and physiological data are collected simultaneously. This will allow us understand the full dynamics of how, actually, the auditory and visual (relatively impoverished in bipolar disorder) speech information are integrated in people with bipolar disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0272.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: environmental attitudes; social-ecological systems; coral reef; scale development; item-response theory; reliability; generalized structural equation model
Online: 18 June 2018 (15:26:36 CEST)
This study addresses the latent construct of attitudes towards environmental conservation based on study participant’s responses. We measured and evaluated the latent scale based on an 18-item scale instrument, over four experimental strata (N=945) in the US Virgin Islands and the Caribbean. We estimated the latent scale reliability and validity. We further fitted multiple alternative two-parameter logistic (2PL) and graded response models (GRM) from Item-Response Theory. We finally constructed and fitted equivalent structural and generalized structural equation models (SEM/GSEM) for the attitudinal latent scale. All scale measures (composite, alpha-based, IRT-based and SEM-based) were consistently and reliably valid measures of the study participants’ latent attitudes toward conservation. We found statistically significant differences among participant’s attributes relating to socio-demographic, physical and core environmental characteristics of participants. We assert that the nature of relationship between cognitive attitudes and individual as well as social behavior related to environmental conservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0211.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: metacontrast; attention; exogenous attention; endogenous attention; visual masking; masking attention interactions
Online: 13 June 2018 (11:06:02 CEST)
To efficiently use its finite resources, the visual system selects for further processing only a subset of the rich sensory information. Visual masking and spatial attention control the information transfer from visual sensory-memory to visual short-term memory. There is still a debate whether these two processes operate independently or interact, with empirical evidence supporting both arguments. However, recent studies pointed out that earlier studies showing significant interactions between common-onset masking and attention suffered from ceiling and/or floor effects. Our review of previous studies reporting metacontrast-attention interactions revealed similar artifacts. Therefore, we investigated metacontrast-attention interactions by using an experimental paradigm in which ceiling/floor effects were avoided. We also examined whether metacontrast masking is differently influenced by endogenous and exogenous attention. We analyzed mean absolute-magnitude of response-errors and their statistical distribution. Our results support the hypothesis that metacontrast and endogenous/exogenous attention are largely independent with negligible likelihood for interactions. Moreover, statistical modeling of the distribution of response-errors suggests weak interactions modulating the probability of “guessing” behavior for some observers in both types of attention. Nevertheless, our data suggest that any joint effect of attention and metacontrast can be adequately explained by their independent and additive contributions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0213.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Temporal-order judgments; modeling; theory of visual attention; TVA; range of indecision; encoding reset
Online: 8 June 2018 (16:12:09 CEST)
Humans are incapable of judging the temporal order of visual events at brief temporal separations with perfect accuracy. Their performance---which is of much interest in visual cognition and attention research---can be measured with the temporal-order judgment task, which typically produces S-shaped psychometric functions. Occasionally, researchers reported plateaus within these functions, and some theories predict such deviation from the basic S shape. However, the centers of the psychometric functions result from the weakest performance at the most difficult presentations and therefore fluctuate strongly, leaving existence and exact shapes of plateaus unclear. This study set out to investigate whether plateaus disappear if the data accuracy is enhanced, or if we are ``stuck on a plateau'', or rather with it. For this purpose, highly accurate data were assessed by model-based analysis. The existence of plateaus is confidently confirmed and two plausible mechanisms derived from very different models are presented. Neither model, however, performs well in the presence of a strong attention manipulation, and model comparison remains unclear on the question which of the models describes the data best. Nevertheless, the present study includes the highest accuracy in visual TOJ data and the most explicit models of plateaus in TOJ studied so far.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0084.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: qualia; consciousness; emission theories; perception; event-related brain potentials; P600 or late posterior positivity; N400
Online: 6 June 2018 (10:51:03 CEST)
We take what we see, hear, smell and feel for the reality. However, as neuroscientists, we know that this reality, that is, our perceptual world, is in fact made up by the brain from the processing of the nerve impulses coming from receptors. Ancient Greeks used to think that this perceptual world, sometimes called our 3D movie (Chalmers), is emitted and has its own physical nature. Given how real the 3D movie looks to us, it is still difficult today to consider that all we would be dealing with would be patterns of brain activity The present study thus aimed at testing whether the perceptual world could have some physical existence in addition to that of the neural patterns responsible for it. To achieve that goal, we tried to see whether brains could be sensitive to the 3D movie of others. This, admittedly unusual, operational hypothesis was based on two assumptions. First, brains are sensitive to the 3D movie, as our experience includes reactions to our perceptual world. Second, the physicality at stake does not differ across individuals. We recorded the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) evoked by stimuli of the international affective picture system in pairs of closely-related participants. Most importantly, they could neither see the stimuli simultaneously presented to their partners nor their reactions to them. As in Bouten et al. (2015), around 400 ms after the onset of the stimuli, ERPs started being more positive in inconsistent conditions. Namely, when the two subjects of each pair were presented with the same stimulus whereas they were told it would be a different one and vice-versa (i.e., different-stimuli expected to be same). ERPs were less positive when the two subjects of a pair were presented with the same stimuli and were told they were the same and conversely (i.e., different-stimuli expected to be different). The same experiment was then run in pairs of strangers. No significant effect of consistency on ERPs was observed even though participants could, this time, see, in the very periphery of their visual field, the reactions of their partner to the stimuli. We thus use the results of both studies to support a new version of the emission theory of consciousness and to suggest that the sensitivity to the perceptual world of others may depend on their prior familiarity with it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0045.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: caffeine; cognition; motor coordination; memory; social behavior; mice
Online: 4 June 2018 (13:02:34 CEST)
Heavy caffeine consumption is associated with adverse health effects. The effects of moderate and high doses of caffeine mixed with drinking water on the motor coordination, learning and memory and the social behavior in mice were studied in mice. Animals were divided into 3 groups: control group, moderate dose group (Ac MD) and high dose group (Ac HD). The animals were tested after 7 days of caffeine administration. Rota rod test for motor coordination showed that the mice of the moderate dose group could stay more time on the rotating rod before they fall than the control group and the high dose group. Water maze test for learning and memory showed better performance of mice receiving moderate dose of caffeine compared to the other groups. Animals that were administered moderate as well as high doses of caffeine showed no sociability and no preference for social novelty in the three-chamber test used to test the social behavior. In elevated plus maze, control animals showed no anxiety- like behavior while mice administered with caffeine were both showing anxiety-like behaviors. We concluded that acute administration of moderate dose of caffeine to mice could enhance their spatial memory and motor coordination. High doses however caused defects in memory and learning. The social behavior as the level of anxiety and sociability was affected negatively by moderate as well as high dose caffeine administration.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0146.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: growth hormone; cognition; hippocampus; amygdala; parahippocampus; recent memory; PET-SCAN; Alzheimer's disease.
Online: 9 May 2018 (14:34:03 CEST)
1) Background: We analyzed, by PET-SCAN, how growth hormone (GH) might act on the brain of a not GH-deficient elder woman who suspected that she was developing Alzheimer's disease; 2) Methods: After performing a first psychometric study (TAVEC verbal learning test), the metabolic activity of brain structures related to cognition, memory and behavior was analyzed by 18-F Fluorodeoxyglucose PET-SCAN. The patient was then treated with GH (0.4 mg/day) during three weeks and the last day under this treatment a new PET-SCAN was carried out. One month after commencing the treatment with GH a new TAVEC test was performed; 3) Results: GH administration normalized the cognitive deficits observed in the first cognitive test and significantly (p < 0.025) increased (Voxel-Based Morphometry) the metabolic activity in the left hippocampus, left amygdala and left parahippocampus, but also in practically all brain cortical areas; 4) Conclusions: This is the first study in which the effects of GH on the brain have been visualized in images. Our data confirm the positive effects of this hormone on cognition and memories; although they do not allow us to conclude whether GH administration may be useful in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease, they seem to be promising.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0289.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: picture perception; pictorial distance; angular size
Online: 23 April 2018 (11:51:48 CEST)
A picture is a powerful and convenient medium for inducing the illusion that one perceives a real three-dimensional scene. The relative invariance of picture perception across viewing positions has aroused the interest of painters, photographers and visual scientists. Many studies have been devoted to perceptual invariance when pictures are viewed from oblique directions. Invariance across viewing distances has received less attention. This study presents a computational analysis of pictures of perspective scenes taken from different distances between camera and physical objects. Distances and directions of pictorial objects were computed as function of viewing distance to the picture and compared with distances and directions of the physical objects as function of camera position. The computations show that pictorial distance and direction are determined by angular size of the depicted objects. Pictorial distance and direction are independent of camera position, focal length of the lens, and picture size. Ratios of pictorial distances, directions and sizes are constant as function of viewing distance. The constant ratios are proposed as the reason for invariance of picture perception over a range of viewing distances. Reanalysis of distance judgments obtained from the literature shows that perspective space, previously proposed as the model for visual space, is also a good model for pictorial space. The geometry of pictorial space contradicts some conceptions about picture perception.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0283.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: intelligence; cognitive modeling; methods; measurement; practical guidelines
Online: 23 April 2018 (11:18:23 CEST)
Mathematical models of cognition measure individual differences in cognitive processes, such as processing speed, working memory capacity, and executive functions, that may underlie general intelligence. As such, cognitive models allow identifying associations between specific cognitive processes and tracking the effect of experimental interventions aimed at the enhancement of intelligence on mediating process parameters. Moreover, cognitive models provide an explicit theoretical formalization of theories regarding specific cognitive process that may help overcoming ambiguities in the interpretation of fuzzy verbal theories. In this paper, we give an overview of the advantages of cognitive modeling in intelligence research and present models in the domains of processing speed, working memory, and selective attention that may be of particular interest for intelligence research. Moreover, we provide guidelines for the application of cognitive models in intelligence research, including data collection, the evaluation of model fit, and statistical analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0043.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: traditional; local; consumer behavior; principal component analysis
Online: 8 January 2018 (04:17:29 CET)
This study assesses attitudes of young adults' (18-30 years old) consumption on local and traditional products in7 European countries. A clustered sample (n=836) from natives of Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia, Denmark and France was collected, by distributing questionnaires through social media and university mail services. Sample was examined by implementing Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in three different samples; overall and two subgroups, Eastern and Western European countries. Six major factors revealed: consumer behavior, health issues, cost, influence from media and close environment and availability on store. As a result, young adults have a positive attitude to local and traditional food products but they express insecurity for health issues. Cost factor influences less people from Eastern European countries than those from the overall sample (3rd and 5th factor accordingly). Influence of close environment is a different factor in Eastern countries comparing to Western ones that it common with influence from media. Females and older people (25-30 years old) doubt less about TFPs, while media have high influence on consumers’ decisions. Aim of this survey is to create consumer profiles of young adults and create different promotion strategies of local and traditional products among the two groups of countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0094.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: cue-approach; decision making; behavioral change; preferences; emotion
Online: 23 October 2017 (03:42:21 CEST)
Recent findings show that preferences for food items can be modified without external-reinforcements using the cue-approach task. In the task, the mere association of food item images with a neutral auditory cue and a speeded button press, resulted in enhanced preferences for the associated stimuli. Here, in a series of 10 independent samples with a total of 255 participants, we show we can enhance preferences using this non-reinforced method for faces, fractals and affective images as well as snack foods, using auditory, visual and even aversive cues. This change was highly durable in follow-up sessions performed one to six months after training. Preferences were successfully enhanced for all conditions, except for negative valence items. These findings promote our understanding of non-reinforced change, suggest a boundary condition for the effect and lay the foundation for development of novel applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Floods; victims; perception and knowledge; individual characteristic
Online: 1 February 2017 (10:39:55 CET)
This study aims to unravel the paradox of perceptions and knowledge of the flood victims towards the causes of the disaster in both internal and external context. Internal context comprises of a comparison of perceptions and knowledge based on individual characteristics (age, gender, education and income). Whereas, the external context includes the factors of the awareness of the victims towards the amount of rainfall, the impact of land use changes as well as the negligence of the responsible parties. The main objective of this study is to determine the differences of perception and knowledge of December 2014 flood victims in Kelantan towards the factors that lead to the flood. This disaster had resulted in huge amount of money loss as well as traumatize the victims in which can be felt to this day. Since that incident, there were various points of view and different perceptions in finding the cause of the disaster occurred. Besides that, the study found that the level of perception and knowledge as to the cause of the disaster is different in the internal context (individual characteristics). This difference has a significant influence on the awareness of the causes of the floods that occurred in the external context. Significant relationships at the level of p <0.05 has existed between perception and knowledge of the causes of the disaster victims affected by environmental changes in the last 10 years. This indicates that although the victim is aware of the physical environment changes happening around them, but all that is seen as not a major contributing factor to the cause of the floods in Kelantan in 2014.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0025.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: numerical cognition; numerical distance effect; numerical size effect; analogue number system; discrete semantic system
Online: 7 September 2016 (11:29:41 CEST)
Human number understanding is thought to rely on the analogue number system (ANS), working according to Weber’s law. We propose an alternative account, suggesting that symbolic mathematical knowledge is based on a discrete semantic system (DSS), a representation that stores values in a semantic network, similar to the mental lexicon or to a conceptual network. Here, focusing on the phenomena of numerical distance and size effects in comparison tasks, first we discuss how a DSS model could explain these numerical effects. Second, we demonstrate that DSS model can give quantitatively as appropriate a description of the effects as the ANS model. Finally, we show that symbolic numerical size effect is mainly influenced by the frequency of the symbols, and not by the ratios of their values. This last result suggests that numerical distance and size effects cannot be caused by the ANS, while the DSS model might be the alternative approach that can explain the frequency-based size effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0190.v1
Online: 22 August 2016 (11:35:11 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to examine the cognitive processes underlying the listening comprehension section of IELTS and to investigate if they vary in terms of difficulty. For this purpose, a checklist of possible cognitive operations was prepared based on the literature and the candidates’ feedback. The checklist consisted of six cognitive operations. A sample of IELTS listening test was given to 310 upper intermediate and advanced students of English. Linear logistic test model was employed to analyse the data. Findings showed that keeping up with the pace of the speaker and understanding reduced forms were the most difficult operations for the listeners. Altogether, the six operations explained 72% of the variance in item difficulty estimates. Implications of the study for the testing and teaching of listening comprehension are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0046.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: visual symmetry; affine projection; fractals; visual sensation; aesthetics; preference
Online: 5 August 2016 (05:15:32 CEST)
Evolution and geometry generate complexity in similar ways. Evolution drives natural selection while geometry may capture the logic of this selection and express it visually, in terms of specific generic properties representing some kind of advantage. Geometry is ideally suited for expressing the logic of evolutionary selection for symmetry, which is found in the shape curves of vein systems and other natural objects such as leaves, cell membranes, or tunnel systems built by ants. The topology and geometry of symmetry is controlled by numerical parameters, which act in analogy with a biological organism's DNA. The introductory part of this paper reviews findings from experiments illustrating the critical role of two-dimensional design parameters and shape symmetry for visual or tactile shape sensation, and for perception-based decision making in populations of experts and non-experts. Thereafter, results from a pilot study on the effects of fractal symmetry, referred to herein as the symmetry of things in a thing, on aesthetic judgments and visual preference are presented. In a first experiment (psychophysical scaling procedure), non-expert observers had to rate (scale from 0 to 10) the perceived beauty of a random series of 2D fractal trees with varying degrees of fractal symmetry. In a second experiment (two-alternative forced choice procedure), they had to express their preference for one of two shapes from the series. The shape pairs were presented successively in random order. Results show that the smallest possible fractal deviation from "symmetry of things in a thing" significantly reduces the perceived attractiveness of such shapes. The potential of future studies where different levels of complexity of fractal patterns are weighed against different degrees of symmetry is pointed out in the conclusion.