ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1792.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: forestry worker; climate change; heat-related illness; hot temperature; outdoor worker; slow-onset disaster
Online: 25 May 2023 (10:08:19 CEST)
Forestry workers play a crucial role in implementing forest management programs, but their outdoor work exposes them to rising temperatures caused by global climate change, which poses potential health risks related to heat. This study focuses on Indonesian forestry workers and examines the relationship between their knowledge of heat-related issues, risk perception, and precautionary behavior in dealing with increasing workplace heat exposure. Developing effective precautionary behavior is essential for preventing heat-related health disorders and promoting health protection programs. To facilitate a comprehensive comparison of the three variables, interviews were conducted with two groups of outdoor workers, comprising 210 forestry workers and 215 paddy farmers. The findings indicate that increasing knowledge about heat-related issues promotes precautionary behavior, and risk perception acts as a mediator between knowledge and behavior. Additionally, the study highlights that the emotion of "dread" intensifies perceived risk and predicts positive behavior change. To enhance heat-related knowledge, exploring the potential use of a "fear" tone is important. In conclusion, comprehensive strategies need to be implemented to promote precautionary behavior among vulnerable forestry workers, particularly manual laborers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1295.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Social commerce; Social media; Personified communication; E-commerce
Online: 18 May 2023 (08:01:47 CEST)
The development of mobile internet technology has enabled companies to use social media for E-commerce. Some companies use personified images and languages to communicate with consumers in this context. How does personified communication affect consumer behavior in social commerce? Are consumers willing to accept this new form of communication under social commerce? To answer these questions, this paper explores consumers' willingness to take per-sonified communication in the context of social commerce. It investigates the role of cognitive needs in regulating the internal mechanism and proposes some suggestions for enterprises to improve social media communication. Specifically, this paper presents an improved model based on the TAM model. In our model, perceived interaction is introduced as a new independent variable, and cognitive need is added as a regulatory variable, which is more suitable for social commerce. We conduct a questionnaire survey on the Internet and analyze data using AMOS and SPSS. The results show that perceived usefulness and perceived interaction positively im-pact attitude, which influences consumers' willingness to purchase. Furthermore, the cognitive need as the regulatory variable significantly affects the influencing path from perceived use-fulness to attitude and purchase intention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1224.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: virtual concert; audiences’ attitude; player experience; technology acceptance
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:13:58 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to investigate and validate the influencing factors of audiences’ attitude toward virtual concerts. To address this issue, the current study proposes a conceptual model integrating player experiences’ factors (autonomy, relatedness, and engagement) and the technology acceptance model (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived enjoyment). An online questionnaire on virtual concert experiences was distributed to Chinese audiences who had attended virtual concerts. Structural equation modeling was then used to establish the relationship between variables. The results suggested autonomy, relatedness and engagement positively impacted perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived enjoyment. Furthermore, the perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived enjoyment were significant predictors of audiences’ attitude. The findings of this study can provide a reference for relevant virtual entertainment providers and can also serve as a point of development and exploration for technology acceptance model and player experience in the field of virtual concerts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1148.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: antecedent-based intervention; function-based intervention; children of deaf adults; pre-session pairing; independent group contingency
Online: 16 May 2023 (10:11:00 CEST)
This study was designed to extend the literature on multicomponent interventions for the children of deaf adults (CODA) population. This study used two evidence-based behavior intervention strategies: pre-session pairing (PSP) and independent group contingency (GC). These strategies have been successfully used to decrease off-task behavior in elementary school children with various abilities and diverse backgrounds. However, the research on multicomponent interventions has yet to examine their effects on the CODA population in inclusive classrooms. This study used a concurrent multiple baseline design across participants with an ABC sequence to examine teacher-implemented PSP with independent GC in reducing the off-task behavior of three CODAs in an inclusive classroom at a public elementary school. The results show that the intervention successfully decreased off-task behavior for all participating CODAs. The results suggest that CODAs can adapt to classroom rules and expectations when PSP and independent GC are systematically applied to them in classrooms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0717.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: opinion formation models; influence networks; online social networks; the effects of non-opinion characteristics; assimilative influence; bounded confidence
Online: 10 May 2023 (08:58:32 CEST)
The opinion dynamics literature argues that the way people perceive social influence depends not only on the opinions of interacting individuals, but also on the individuals’ non-opinion characteristics, such as age, education, gender, or place of residence. The current paper advances this line of research by studying longitudinal data that describe the opinion dynamics of a large sample (~30,000) of online social network users, all citizens of one city. Using these data, we systematically investigate the effects of users’ demographic (age, gender) and structural (degree centrality, the number of common friends) properties on opinion formation processes. We revealed that females are less easily influenced than males. Next, we found that individuals that are characterized by similar ages have more chances to reach a consensus. Besides, we report that individuals who have many common peers find an agreement more often. We also demonstrated that the impacts of these effects are virtually the same, and despite being statistically significant, are far less strong than that of opinion-related features: knowing the current opinion of an individual and, what is even more important, the distance in opinions between this individual and the person that attempts to influence the individual is much more valuable. Next, after conducting a series of simulations with an agent-based model, we revealed that accounting for non-opinion characteristics may lead to not very sound but statistically significant changes in the macroscopic predictions of the populations of opinion camps, primarily among the agents with radical opinions (≈ 3% of all votes). In turn, predictions for the populations of neutral individuals are virtually the same. Besides, we demonstrated that the accumulative effect of non-opinion features on opinion dynamics is seriously moderated by whether the underlying social network correlates with the agents’ characteristics. After applying the procedure of random shuffling (in which the agents and their characteristics were randomly scattered over the network), the macroscopic predictions have changed by ≈ 9% of all votes. What is interesting, the population of neutral agents was again not affected by this intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1144.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Waze Mobile Application; Technology Acceptance Model; Structural Equation Modeling
Online: 28 April 2023 (08:24:25 CEST)
The study aims to investigate Gen Z's intentions to utilize the Waze mobile application as a solution for sustainable traffic management in Meto Manila. The extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used to define user behavior and technology usage to determine the factors influencing Filipino drivers' application acceptance of Waze. The study’s data results have revealed that the System Quality, Perceived Location Accuracy, Perceived Usefulness, and Perceived Ease of Use affect Filipinos' intentions to use traffic navigation applications, particularly Waze. The study utilized a survey and was given to 300 Filipino drivers traveling within the National Capital Region to accurately measure the factors and their connections to usage intention and actual use. The analytical approach used for this investigation was partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The study's results can be applied as a theoretical framework for future researchers of Waze mobile applications, Waze route accuracy, and Waze overall application performance, as well as the features of the Waze application, to evaluate how the use of the Waze mobile application could help in the effective management of traffic situations in Metro Manila. The study was able to assess the effectiveness of the Waze navigation app as a platform for efficiently managing traffic situations in Metro Manila. Moreover, this study also highlighted the application performance of Waze and its acceptance by Filipino drivers in Metro Manila. Furthermore, the study implores a critical review of Waze's application performance. The study recommends that similar future studies must consider samples from a more diverse geographic background to obtain a more accurate representation of Filipinos traveling. Future researchers are also advised to adopt a qualitative research design to gain more detailed insights of Filipinos regarding their experience with the Waze application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Alcohol addiction; substance addiction; self-awareness; rehabilitation; scale development; tertiary prevention; dangerous and harmful use; positive psychotherapy in addiction
Online: 13 April 2023 (08:19:34 CEST)
Alcohol and substance addiction is a type of brain disease that damages many areas of life of the individual and has psychological components. Since questioning alcohol use alone is not sufficient in the diagnostic evaluation process, self-awareness and the individual's long-term psychological well-being are important in the rehabilitation process. Since investigating alcohol use alone is not sufficient in the diagnostic evaluation process, self-awareness and the individual’s long-term psychological well-being are important in the rehabilitation process. Primary prevention is used to prevent disease in healthy people, and secondary prevention is used for early diagnosis to people at risk. Tertiary prevention is important to prevent recurrence of the disease in the treated person. In addiction, which is a chronic problem, a need has emerged for tertiary prevention, that is, rehabilitation standards. If people are uncertain about the harm perception and the natural result of their behavior, they easily slip into the substance. Therefore, as a positive psychotherapy technique, harm perception and result awareness levels should be clarified. For this reason, scales were developed. The inclusion of new psychology perspectives and therapy techniques, such as positive psychology, in the treatment process requires setting new standards. In this study, it was aimed to develop result awareness and harm perception scales to determine the awareness levels and rehabilitation standards of alcohol and substance addicted individuals, and to compare awareness in normal and addicted groups. The study group consisted of 1134 participants, 41 of whom were addicts. Among the two scales developed in the study, the Uskudar Result Awareness Scale (USRAS) consisting of 25 items and 6 factor, explained 58.4% of the total variance. The Uskudar Harm Perception Scale (USHPS), consisting of 36 items and 10 factors, explained 56.3% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis of the two scales resulted in acceptable goodness-of-fit values. (X2/df<3; RMSEA<.08; NFI>.90; NNFI>.95; CFI>.95; GFI>.90; AGFI>.85). In the comparisons made, the result awareness of the normal group was moderate (X=3,81); whereas the addicted group had a low result awareness (X=3,20); The effect size of the difference between the two groups was found to be high (d=1,45; >0,8). In the other measure, the harm perception of the normal group was found in the low-risk group (X=3,78); the harm perception of the addicted group was found in the moderate-risk group (X=3,43). According to Cohen d calculations, the effect size of the difference between the two groups is high (d=1,43; >0,8). It has been concluded that the two scales that emerged in the research are valid and safe, can be included in the rehabilitation studies and the creation of self-awareness, and their effectiveness should be tested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0064.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: opinion formation models; information cascades; ranking algorithms; social media
Online: 5 April 2023 (12:56:21 CEST)
Information cascades (tree-like structures formed by posts, comments, likes, replies, etc.) constitute the spine of the public online information environment, reflecting its various trends, evolving with it and, importantly, affecting its development. While users participate in online discussions, they display their views and thus contribute to the growth of cascades. At the same time, users’ opinions are influenced by cascades’ elements. The current paper aims to advance our knowledge regarding this social phenomenon by developing an agent-based model in which agents participate in a discussion around a post on the Internet. Agents display their opinions by writing comments on the post and liking them (i.e., leaving positive assessments). The result of these processes is dual: on the one hand, agents develop an information cascade; on the other hand, they update their views. Our purpose is to understand how agents’ activity, openness to influence, and cognitive constraints (that condition the amount of information individuals are able to proceed with) affect opinion dynamics. We also control for social contagions (when people’ perception of a message may depend not only on the message’s opinion, but also on how other individuals perceive this object, with more positive evaluations increasing the probability of adoption) and ranking algorithms that steer the order in which agents learn new messages. Among other things, we demonstrated that replies to disagreeable opinions are extremely effective for promoting your own position. In contrast, likes have a tiny effect on this issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0291.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: state-dependent valuation learning; self-control; delay-discounting; impulsivity
Online: 15 March 2023 (16:03:51 CET)
If a subject learns about the properties of an alternative under a high state of food deprivation, it will prefer this alternative over a similar one in a later choice test, although the subject is currently under a relative state of satiety. In this experiment, we probe this effect in a delay-discounting task, where the reward of the experienced alternative is progressively delayed. Eight male Wistar rats were trained to respond to an alternative under a high state of deprivation and eight rats under a relative state of satiety. After 20 sessions, their weight was recalibrated to a state of relative satiety. Then, they were exposed to a delay-discounting task where the long-larger alternative was the one used during training. The group that experienced the alternative under a higher level of food deprivation preferred more this alternative, and its preference stayed across time. On the contrary, the group that experienced the alternative under a lower level of food deprivation systematically preferred the small-shorter alternative. Our results support that the reinforcement value may be sensitive to the organism's state at the moment an alternative is experienced for the first time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0264.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: post-stroke; community intervention; stroke survivors; caregivers; diet; fruits; vegetables; social participation
Online: 15 March 2023 (01:47:14 CET)
Informal caregivers are essential in supporting stroke survivors' recovery, but it is unclear whether community interventions can promote healthy eating behaviors and social participation among stroke survivors and their caregivers. The Train-Your-Brain (TYB) program's impact on adherence to national dietary guidelines and social participation among informal caregivers and stroke survivors were assessed in a quasi-experimental study. The TYB program had nine sessions, with one focusing on healthy lifestyle. Participants were prompted to discuss the topics covered, leading to social participation. Dietary habits were assessed using fruits and vegetables consumption questions, while social participation was measured using the Social Impact Measurement Framework. Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test were utilized to analyze the data. Eighteen informal caregivers and 27 stroke survivors participated in the program. Results showed a significant increase in fruit and vegetable intake and social participation in informal caregivers after the program, but there were no significant changes in stroke survivors. Informal caregivers play a crucial role in stroke survivors' lifestyle habits and in encouraging social connections with other stroke survivors. Thus, healthcare professionals should prioritize caregiver support and education to facilitate long-term dietary and social changes that can positively impact stroke survivor's recovery and quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Consumer Sleep Technologies; Wearables; Sleep-Tracking; Behavioral Economics; Demand Curve Analysis
Online: 9 March 2023 (02:18:22 CET)
The goal of this report was to examine the behavioral economic demand for consumer sleep technologies with different levels of validation and endorsement. The value or importance consumers place in different validation methods and the organizations conducting the evaluations was also assessed. Survey data were collected from 113 participants on Amazon mTurk. Participants indicated their likelihood of purchasing devices that varied in level of validation across a series of increasing prices. Demand curves were analyzed to determine the relative value of each watch type. Participants also reported how valuable or important different aspects of device validation were to them. Devices that were both evaluated against laboratory measures and endorsed by sleep researchers had the most value, followed by those only evaluated against laboratory measures, and then those not evaluated against any laboratory measures. The unit price at which there was 50% probability of purchase was increased by $25 or $44 for evaluation or endorsement, respectively. Respondents indicated the most valuable features were a measure of sleep duration, that it was most important that devices were validated against measures of sleep from a laboratory or hospital, and that they would put a high value on sleep tracker endorsements from a university or academic institution. Consumer demand is greatest for a device that has been evaluated by an independent laboratory for accuracy in measuring sleep and is endorsed by an academic, medical, or government institution. These results indicate a role for scientific evaluation and endorsement in consumer preference for sleep trackers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0155.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Sleep; Substance Use; Insomnia; Anxiety; Depression; Students; Stress
Online: 9 February 2023 (06:03:39 CET)
This study examined the prevalence of illegal drug use in UK students and motivators behind such behaviour. Additionally, we explored possible relationships between substance use, psychosocial motivators, and psychiatric distress. N=543 students completed online measures of substance use, anxiety, depression, perceived stress, insomnia. A series of reasons behind their use were ranked based on importance. Reported cannabis, cocaine, nitrous oxide, ketamine and MDMA use were most prevalent based on lifetime, past year, and month assessments. The experience of anxiety, depression, perceived stress, and insomnia were related to increased reports of substance use. Poor self-confidence and self-medication were key motivators of illicit drug use in those presenting greater psychiatric distress. These outcomes add to the sparse body of literature concerning illicit substance use in relation to psychiatric distress amongst UK students. Furthermore, we provided novel insight into the psychosocial motivators of such use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0448.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: non-invasive brain stimulation; sequence learning; statistical learning; repetitive TMS; DLPFC
Online: 9 February 2023 (02:41:04 CET)
Predictive processes and numerous cognitive, motor, and social skills depend heavily on sequence and statistical learning. The visuomotor Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT) can measure these fundamental cognitive processes. In this review, we sought to answer whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is suitable for modulating visuomotor sequence learning and which factors mediate its efficacy. We systematically analyzed the eligible records (n = 17) that attempted to modulate the performance of the SRTT with rTMS. The purpose of the analysis was to determine how the following factors affected SRTT performance: (1) stimulated brain areas, (2) rTMS protocols, (3) stimulated hemisphere, (4) timing of the stimulation, (5) SRTT sequence properties, and (6) other methodological features. The primary motor cortex (M1) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) were found to be the most promising stimulation targets. Low-frequency protocols over the M1 usually weaken performance, but the results are less consistent for the DLPFC. These inconsistencies (at least in part) may be due to the current frequency-based heuristics of rTMS effects developed for explaining local stimulation effects in the motor cortex. Although this review cannot provide an ultimate answer about the optimal stimulation and task parameters, it comprehensively discusses the behavioral effects of six factors that are crucial for designing future studies to modulate sequence learning with rTMS. Moreover, we conclude that synergistically combining functional neuroimaging with rTMS could adequately link the rTMS-induced network effects with the behavioral findings that are crucial to develop a unified cognitive model of visuomotor sequence learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0131.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: foreign mental contents; human sclera; reception of pointing gestures; self-conscious emotions; Theory-of-Mind; vicarious expectations
Online: 7 February 2023 (11:24:52 CET)
Abstract. Can we nowadays keep a qualitative difference between the primitive and advanced Theory-of-Mind? The old criteria have become blurry. In addition, it is clear that in ‘apes’ lifestyle’ it is not necessary to use the communicative-cognitive basic abilities which became indispensable in ‘the new lifestyle’. Thus, it is usual to conclude that apes would have to some degree such abilities. However, this article tries to reformulate and defend that qualitative difference. Thus, after underlining the contrast between two kinds of mental states (‘contents’ and ‘expectations’), I apply it to the detection of foreign mental states as well. Then, three points are proposed: First, ‘vicarious expectations’ sustain the primitive ToM; second, a subject can have no expectation of inner states which are intrinsically impossible for him; third, the state of interacting with ourselves as with a different person –e.g., the thinking what others think of us– cannot be a vicarious expectation of ours, but it requires the estimation of foreign contents. From this hypothesis, I deduce that vicarious expectations are unable to sustain self-conscious emotions or the really effective reception of pointing gestures. These abilities could appear only when ‘the estimation of foreign contents’ –i.e., the origin of the advanced ToM– arose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Borderline personality disorder; machine learning; data fusion; child trauma; symptoms severity
Online: 6 February 2023 (08:47:40 CET)
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a severe personality disorder whose neural bases are still unclear. Indeed, previous studies reported inconsistent findings concerning alterations in cortical and subcortical areas. In the present study we applied for the first time an unsupervised machine learning approach known as mCCA+jICA, in combination with a supervised machine learning approach known as Random Forest, to possibly find covarying GM-WM circuits that separate BPD from controls and that are also predictive of this diagnosis. To this aim, we analyzed the structural images of patients with BPD and matched HCs. Results showed that two GM-WM covarying circuits, including basal ganglia, amygdala, and portions of the temporal lobes and of the orbitofrontal cortex, correctly classified BPD against HC. Notably, these circuits are affected by specific child traumatic experiences (emotional and physical neglect, and physical abuse) and predict symptoms severity in the interpersonal and impulsivity domains. These results support that BPD is characterized by anomalies in GM and WM circuits related to early traumatic experiences and specific symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0565.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: food rewards; children; sport; motivation; participation
Online: 31 January 2023 (02:32:29 CET)
(1) Background: Children who are physically active and involved in organized sport report having the unhealthiest diets. Research suggests excessive calories may be attributed to the prevalence of fast food and candy which are often provided as rewards in sport. This study explored the use of food as a reward in youth sport and the perceived impact it has on children’s motivation to participate in recreational soccer and ice hockey; (2) Methods: A multiple instrumental case study approach was utilized. Children aged 4-12 (n = 64), parents (n = 30), and coaches (n = 18) were recruited within central and northeastern Ontario, Canada to participate in focus groups and individual interviews. Transcribed audio recordings underwent inductive thematic analysis; (3) Results: Key themes included: Fun and fast: The culture of food in youth soccer and hockey; (Un)importance of food rewards: The how and why of motivating children in sport; and Youth sport is expensive: Gratitude for sponsorship in youth sport; (4) Children’s participation and effort would continue without food rewards; however, they continue to be offered food to motivate and celebrate performance in youth sport. Findings highlight the need to increase knowledge and awareness among parents and coaches on what truly motivates children to help foster healthier strategies for celebrating success and supporting lifelong physical activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0542.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Passive drinking; perceived health status; mental health; family wellbeing; adolescents; Hong Kong Chinese
Online: 30 January 2023 (06:51:39 CET)
Background: Passive drinking is prevalent in adolescents worldwide, but its prevalence and harm are understudied. Methods: Secondary students (n=5840, grades 7-12) from 23 selected schools in Hong Kong participated in the survey from 2015-16. Students reported the harm of passive drinking, perceived health status, Patient Health Questionnaire-2, Perceived Stress Scale-4, perceived happiness, family health, happiness, and harmony in the questionnaire. The associations were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression (odds ratio, OR) and linear regression (unstandardized coefficient, b), adjusted for confounders. Results: 29.1% (95% CI 27.8 to 30.5%) of students experienced passive drinking in the past 30-day. Past 30-day parental passive drinking was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms (AOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.10), stress (adjusted b 0.76, 0.42 to 1.10), and lower level of perceived happiness (adjusted b -0.52, -0.72 to -0.33). Past 30-day parental passive drinking was associated with a lower level of family health (adjusted b -1.39, 95% CI -1.66 to -1.11), family happiness (adjusted b -1.36, -1.64 to -1.08), and family harmony (adjusted b -1.40, -1.70 to -1.10). Conclusion: Passive drinking was associated with poorer mental health, family wellbeing, and lower level of happiness among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0070.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: decision-making; human-autonomous systems interaction; human performance; intelligent machines; overreliance; situational awareness
Online: 23 January 2023 (13:19:41 CET)
Autonomous systems and intelligent machines are involved in almost all areas of human activity and they are now more and more present in our everyday life. The reason for this extensive use certainly resides in all the benefits these machines offer to the users. In experimental settings, numerous studies have demonstrated the positive effects that the introduction of autonomous systems have on human decision-making and performance. However, studies have shown in addition that the introduction of these systems can have important negative effects as well. Considering that autonomous systems are now introduced in sensitive domains like the military or medicine, we need more than ever a comprehensive understanding of the effects they cause on human performance and decision-making, and particularly in tasks and contexts with a social or moral dimension. The aim of this narrative review is threefold. First, we will provide an overview of the main effects on a human agent’s decision-making and performance produced by the introduction of autonomous systems. Second, we will review the conditions identified as underlying factors of these effects, and see how current models of human – autonomous systems interaction integrate those conditions. Third, we will conclude this review by highlighting new directions for future investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0405.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Suicide; risk factor; polymorphism; CYP46A1; depression.
Online: 23 January 2023 (09:37:54 CET)
Background: Currently, completed suicide, suicide ideation, suicide behavior, and suicide attempts are major public health problems worldwide. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most common mental disorders associated with an increased risk of suicide. Since the relationship between suicide and cholesterol levels is still controversial, in this study, we explore the association between SNPs rs754203 and rs4900442 of CYP46A1 with suicide risk in Mexican patients with major depressive disorder. Methods: We evaluated 188 unrelated suicide completers and compared them to 144 non-suicidal individuals (controls) and 126 MDD patients. Genotypes were analyzed using the Real Time-polymerase chain reaction method and two allele-specific probes to detect specific SNP targets. A chi-square test was used to identify a possible risk genotype or allele type for suicide. Results: Statistical analysis showed significant differences between completed suicide and controls in their allelic and genotypic frequencies in rs754203 SNP. The genotype G/G of CYP46A1 rs754203 was significantly associated with suicide. Also, the G allele was associated with an increased risk of suicide (OR= 1.370, 95% CI= 1.002-1.873). No differences in either genotype distribution or allele frequencies of CYP46A1 rs4900442 were observed. Conclusions: The results of the current study report the first association between G allele carriers (A/G + G/G) of rs754203 and increased risk for suicide, especially in males.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0016.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: rural; mental health; adolescents; access; service user experience; interventions
Online: 16 January 2023 (02:04:32 CET)
Background: Mental health difficulties during teenage years e are common and are a risk factor for later mental and physical health problems. Rural young people are at greater risk for mental health difficulties and have less access to services than their urban counterparts. The purpose of this study was to explore young people and their carers’ experiences of mental health support provided by a rural mobile service, and to identify access enablers from the service users’ perspective. Methods: A qualitative descriptive approach was used to analyse twelve interviews with current service users and eight interviews with family members of young people who had accessed the service.Results: Three main themes were identified: (a) Access and flexibility, (b) Clinicians’ qualities and strategies, and (c) Experiences of change. The mobile service was perceived to be effective in producing positive change in mental health, relationships and attainment of life goals. Key enablers to access included the flexibility of the mobile service, the variety of service delivery modes and therapeutic methods offered, the ease of access facilitated by location in schools, and young people’s autonomy in how they chose to utilise the service. Conclusion: This study provides information about what is important to rural young people and their families in mental health service provision. The findings have implications for changing the way services are organized and operated. Healthcare policy and services could support user-led model design that incorporates the access and use enablers and removes the barriers to rural mental health support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0222.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: plant movement; circumnutation; machine learning; classification; kinematics
Online: 12 January 2023 (09:34:31 CET)
Climbing plants require an external support to grow vertically and enhance light acquisition. Climbers that find a suitable support have greater performance and fitness than those that remain prostrate. Support search is characterized by oscillatory movements (i.e., circumnutation), in which plants rotate around a central axis during their growth. Numerous studies have elucidated the mechanistic details of circumnutation, but how this phenomenon is controlled remains unclear. Here, we use supervised machine learning algorithms to generate models that learn to discriminate between the presence/absence of a support in the environment. Results indicate that there is a difference in the pattern of circumnutation, depending on the presence of a support, that can be learned and classified rather accurately. We also identify distinctive kinematic features that contribute to the classification tasks. Overall, machine learning approaches appear to be powerful tools for understanding the movement of plants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0197.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Biomarkers; Genetic; Suicidal behavior; Suicide; Mexican; Genomic.
Online: 11 January 2023 (10:34:57 CET)
Suicide is defined as the action of harming oneself with the intention of dying. It is estimated that worldwide one suicide occurs every 40 seconds, making it a major health problem. Studies in families have suggested that suicide has a genetic component, around the world studies have been carried out in search of genetic variants associated with suicidal behavior, these variants could be useful as potential biomarkers to identify people at risk of suicide. In this area in Mexico, some studies of variants in genes related to neurotransmission and other important pathways have been carried out and a possible association of variants located in genes has been suggested: SLC6A4, SAT-1, TPH-2, ANKK1, GSHR, SCARA50, RGS10, STK33, COMT, and FKBP5. This systematic review shows the genetic studies on the Mexican population. This article contributes by compiling the existing information on genetic variants and genes associated with suicidal behavior, said variants in the future could be used as potential biomarkers to identify people at risk of suicide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0095.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Anxiety; cysteamine HCl; histamine,; ranitidine,; elevated plus maze; microglia
Online: 5 January 2023 (03:26:50 CET)
Elevated levels of histamine cause the secretion of gastric hydrochloric acid (HCl), leading to gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and anxiety. While aberrant levels of histamine mediate neuroinflammation, pathogenic alterations in the hippocampus of the brain have been linked to anxiety. Eventually, antihistamine drugs that are used against GI disorders appear to be anxiolytic agents. Ranitidine is a widely used antihistamine drug to manage GI disorders as it works by blocking the histamine (H)-2 receptors in oxyntic cells thereby, reducing the HCl production in the stomach. Though some reports indicate the neuroprotective effects of ranitidine, its role against GI disorders related to anxiety remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of ranitidine against anxiety-related behaviors, neuronal density, and signs of microglia activation in the hippocampal CA3 region of cysteamine HCl-induced mouse model of GI disorder. Results obtained from the open field test (OFT), light and dark box test (LDBT), and elevated plus maze (EPM) revealed that ranitidine treatment reduces anxiety-like behaviors in experimental animals. Nissl staining and immunohistochemical assessment of Iba-1 positive microglia in the cryosectioned brains revealed that the ranitidine treatment enhances the density of pyramidal neurons in association with reduced activation of microglia in the CA3 region of the hippocampus of experimental mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0042.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: self-conscious emotions; shame; embarrassment; guilt; moral emotions; anterior insula
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:30:53 CET)
Self-conscious emotions, such as shame and guilt, play a fundamental role in regulating moral behavior and in promoting the welfare of the society. Despite their relevance, the neural bases of these emotions are uncertain. In the present meta-analysis, we performed a systematic literature review in order to single out functional neuroimaging studies on healthy individuals specifically investigating the neural substrates of shame, embarrassment and guilt. Seventeen studies investigating the neural correlates of shame/embarrassment, and seventeen studies investigating guilt brain representation met our inclusion criteria. The analyses revealed that both guilt and shame/embarrassment were associated with the activation of the left anterior insula, involved in emotional awareness processing, and arousal. Guilt specific areas were located within the left temporo-parietal junction, which is thought to be involved in social cognitive processes. Moreover, specific activations for shame/embarrassment involved areas related to social pain (dorsal anterior cingulate, insula, thalamus), behavioral inhibition (premotor cortex) networks. This pattern of results might reflect distinct action tendencies associated with the two emotions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0387.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: emotion discrimination; voice; frequency-tagging; EEG
Online: 21 December 2022 (06:07:12 CET)
Successfully engaging in social communication requires efficient processing of subtle socio-communicative cues. Voices convey a wealth of social information, such as gender, identity and the emotional state of the speaker. We tested whether our brain can systematically and automatically differentiate and track a periodic stream of emotional utterances among a series of neutral vocal utterances. We recorded frequency-tagged EEG responses of 20 neurotypical male adults while presenting streams of neutral utterances at 4 Hz base rate, interleaved with emotional utterances every third stimulus, hence at 1.333 Hz oddball frequency. Four emotions (happy, sad, angry, and fear) were presented as different conditions in different streams. To control the impact of low-level acoustic cues, we maximized variability among the stimuli and included a control condition with scrambled utterances. This scrambling preserves low-level acoustic characteristics but ensures that the emotional character is no longer recognizable. Results revealed significant oddball EEG responses for all conditions, indicating that every emotion category can be discriminated from the neutral stimuli, and every emotional oddball response was significantly higher than the response for the scrambled utterances. These findings demonstrate that emotion discrimination is fast, automatic, and is not merely driven by low-level perceptual features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0286.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: ICT; EMI; worker well-being; perceived stress; ecological study
Online: 15 December 2022 (15:05:30 CET)
Based on ICT, specifically smartphones and their mobile apps, this exploratory study questions the impact of EMIs on employees’ perceived stress during work days. A sample of 15 workers, working at least 3 days a week - divided into one control groups (n=5) and one experimental group (n=10) - have used an EMI application “Mon Sherpa” for one-week length. Participants responded to two questionnaires at the beginning of the study: a sociodemographic questionnaire and the PSM-9 (Psychological Stress Measure). They completed the PSM-9 once again in the middle and at the end of the experiment, to compare the score’s evolution depending on the formed groups. Additionally, semi-structured interviews have been conducted with participants of the experimental group (n=9) to identify their application’s perception. Statistics results indicate no effects of the EMIs. However, interviews indicated somatic, behavioral, and cognitive evolutions throughout the experiment in the field of stress, anxiety, and invasive thoughts. These conflicting results might be explained by an immediate but not lasting effect of EMI’s on work-related stress. It may also be partly explained by some limitations of the study. More cross-disciplinary and larger research is required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0199.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Open defecation; rural women; Ghana; Environmental Health; Demographic and Health Survey
Online: 12 December 2022 (10:03:35 CET)
The study investigated determinants of open defecation among rural women in Ghana. The study extracted data from the female’s file of the 2003, 2008 and 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). A total of 4,284 pooled sample size of rural women aged 15-49 with complete information about the variables analyzed in the study. The outcome variable was “open defecation” (i.e., defecating in an open space rather than a toilet facility) whilst fourteen (14) key explanatory variables were used. Two regression models were built, and output reported in odds ratio. Descriptively, 42 in every 100 women aged 15-49 practised open defecation (n=1811, 95’CI=49-52). Open defecation significantly correlated with educational attainment, wealth status, religion, access to mass media, partner's education, and zone of residence. The likelihood to practice open defecation reduced among those with formal education [aOR=0.69, CI=0.56-0.85], those whose partners had formal education [aOR=0.64, CI=0.52-0.80], women in the rich wealth quintile [aOR=0.12, CI=0.07-0.20], the traditionalist [aOR=0.33, CI=0.19-0.57], and those who had access to mass media [aOR=0.70, CI=0.57-0.85]. Residents in the Savannah zone were over 21-fold higher to defecate openly [aOR=21.06, CI=15.97-27.77]. The prevalence of open defecation is disproportionately pro-poor indicating that impoverished rural women are more likely to perform it.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0086.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Information; resources; coronary heart disease; digital health; education; cardiac rehabilitation; secondary prevention; text message; sensors; cardiovascular risk
Online: 6 December 2022 (02:09:28 CET)
A critical aspect of coronary heart disease (CHD) care and secondary prevention is ensuring patients have access to evidence-based information. The purpose of this review is to summarise the guiding principles, content, context and timing of information and education that is beneficial for supporting people with CHD and potential communication strategies including digital interventions. We conducted a scoping review involving searching four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, CINAHL, Medline) for articles published from January 2000 to August 2022. Literature was identified through title and abstract screening by expert reviewers. Evidence was synthesised according to the review aims. Results demonstrated that information-sharing, decision-making, goal-setting, positivity and practicality are important aspects of secondary prevention and should be patient-centred and evidenced based with consideration of patient need and preference. Initiation and duration of education is highly variable between and within people, but hence communication and support should be regular and ongoing. In conclusion, text messaging programs, smartphone applications and wearable devices are examples of digital health strategies that facilitate education and support for patients with heart disease. There is no one size fits all approach that suits all patients at all stages and hence flexibility and a suite of resources and strategies is optimal.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0469.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: diabetes knowledge; diabetes; prediabetes; prevention; health promotion; awareness
Online: 25 November 2022 (06:02:45 CET)
We aimed to study the knowledge of diabetes among high-risk individuals for diabetes in the Indian state of Kerala. The baseline data collected from 1007 participants of the Kerala Diabetes Prevention Program were analyzed. Diabetes knowledge was assessed using a scale adapted from a large nationwide study conducted in India. The composite score of the scale ranges from 0 to 8. The mean age of participants was 46.0 (SD: 7.5) years, and 47.2% were female. The mean diabetes knowledge score was 6.9 (SD: 2.1), with 59.5% having the maximum possible score of 8. Of 1007 participants, 968 (96.1%) had heard the term diabetes, and of them, 84.7% know what diabetes is, 87.2% think more and more people are getting diabetes nowadays, 79.6% know that diabetes can cause complications in organs, and 75.9% know that diabetes can be prevented. While the level of diabetes knowledge was high among our participants, a quarter of them (24.1%) were not aware that diabetes can be prevented. Thus, there is a need for health promotion programs to increase the knowledge of diabetes prevention among high-risk individuals in Kerala.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0463.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Neuroscience; Education; Learning; Brain activity; Heart activity; Skin Conductance; Neuroimaging; Wearable devices
Online: 25 November 2022 (02:40:05 CET)
Nowadays, fostered by technological progress and contextual circumstances such as economic crisis and pandemic restrictions, remote education is living a growing deployment. However, this growth generated widespread doubts about the actual effectiveness of remote/online compared to face-to-face education. The present study aimed at comparing face-to-face and remote education through a multimodal neurophysiological approach. It involved forty students at a driving school, during a real classroom, experiencing both the modalities. Wearable devices to measure brain, ocular, heart and sweating activities were employed in order to analyse the students’ neurophysiological signals to obtain insights about their cognitive dimension. In particular, four parameters were considered, the Eye Blink Rate, the Heart Rate and its Variability and the Skin Conductance Level. Also, the students filled a questionnaire at the end to obtain an explicit measure of their learning performance. Data analysis showed a higher cognitive activity, in terms of attention and mental engagement, in presence with respect to remote modality. On the other hand, students by remote felt more stressed, in particular during the first part of the lesson. Analysis of questionnaires demonstrated worst performance by remote, thus suggesting a common “disengaging” behaviour when attending remote courses, thus undermining their effectiveness. In conclusion, neuroscientific tools could help to obtain insights about mental concerns, often «blind», such as attentional decreasing and stress increasing, as well as their dynamics during the lesson itself, so allowing to define proper countermeasures to emerging issues when introducing new practices into daily life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0431.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: adventitious reinforcement; induction; noncontingent reinforcement; response-independent schedules; superstition
Online: 23 November 2022 (03:34:03 CET)
In 1948, Skinner described the behavior of pigeons under response-independent schedules as “superstitious,” and proposed that the responses were reinforced by contiguous, adventitious food deliveries. Subsequently, response-independent schedules have been of interest to both basic and applied researchers, first to understand the mechanisms involved, and later, as “noncontingent reinforcement” (NCR) to reduce undesirable behavior. However, the potential superstitious effects produced by these schedules have been challenged, with some researchers arguing that antecedent variables play a significant role. This paper examines the evidence for adventitious reinforcement from both laboratory and applied research, the results of which suggest that antecedent, non-operant functions may be important in fully understanding the effects of NCR. We propose an applied-basic research synthesis, in which attention to potential non-operant functions could provide a more complete understanding of response-independent schedules. We conclude with a summary of the applied implications of the non-operant functions of NCR schedules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0342.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: neuroethology; methodology; sexual differences; aging; Alzheimer’s disease; marble burying test; burrowing test; repetitive behavior
Online: 18 November 2022 (01:08:33 CET)
Burying and burrowing are promising rodent-typical behaviors to model neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). However, the original tests could be insufficient to conclude which NPS are modeled. Here, we propose methodological modifications such as the two-zone configuration and dual analysis in the Marble Burying Test (MB). Also, a new Brief Burrowing Test (BB), a 20 min brief version of the Deacon’s Burrowing Test (DB). We comprehensively studied these behaviors in 12-month-old male and female mice with normal and Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-pathological aging. The results: 1) confirm our precedent report of sexual dimorphism, with enhanced burying in male 3xTg-AD mice; 2) describe for the first time burrowing behavior in 3xTg-AD mice and its sex dependence; 3) regardless of the pattern, MB and BB reflected a goal-directed rather than an indiscriminate digging; 4) using the MB and BB to model anxiety-like behavior it’s not recommended; 5) burying and burrowing represent a repetitive rather than a stereotyped-like or perseverative behavior. In addition: 1) burying and burrowing behavioral patterns are alike, connected by several correlations; 2) the two-zones configuration is a useful tool to assess the intentionality of the burying and burrowing behaviors and to perform a more accurate screening of the NPS modeled by them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0319.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Disposable E-cigarettes Youth Young Adult Prevalence
Online: 17 November 2022 (02:29:42 CET)
Background: In the 2022 National Youth Tobacco Survey disposable e-cigarette devices are shown to be the most widely used e-cigarette devices amongst U.S. youth. In this paper we report the results of research designed to estimate the prevalence of use of BIDI® Stick branded e-cigarettes amongst youth (aged 13 to 17), and under-age young adults (aged 18 to 20) in the U.S. Methods: Cross sectional online survey of a nationally representative sample of 1,215 youth (13 17 years) recruited via the IPSOS probability-based KnowledgePanel and 3,370 young adults aged 18 to 24 - amongst whom 1,125 were aged 18 to 20. Results: Amongst youth aged 13 to 17, 0.91% [95% CI: 0.44-1.68] or 190,000 [95% CI: 90,000-350,000] youth reported having ever used a BIDI® Stick branded product and 0.04% [95% CI: 0.00-0.38] or less than 10,000 youth reported currently using a BIDI® Stick branded product. Amongst those young adults aged 18 to 20, 3.90% [95% CI: 2.49-5.81] or 470,000 [95%CI: 300,000-700,000] reported having ever used a BIDI® Stick product whilst 0.60% [95% CI: 0.17-1.55] or 70,000 [95% CI: 20,000-180,000] reported they now use a BIDI® Stick product “every day” or “some days”. Conclusions: The low prevalence of youth and underage adult current use of the BIDI® Stick e cigarette suggests that this product is not responsible for the recent growth in the use of disposable e-cigarettes by youth within the U.S. as demonstrated by the 2022 National Youth Tobacco Survey.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0280.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: animal welfare; animal training; applied animal behavior; behavior analysis; behavioral engineering; environmental enrichment; zoos
Online: 15 November 2022 (07:20:08 CET)
The field of applied behavior analysis has been directly involved in both research and applications of behavioral principles to improve the lives of captive zoo animals. Thirty years ago, Forthman and Ogden (1992) wrote one of the first papers documenting some of these efforts. Since that time, considerable work has been done using behavioral principles and procedures to guide zoo welfare efforts. The current paper re-examines and updates Forthman and Ogden’s original points, with attention to the five categories they detailed: (1) promotion of species-typical behavior, (2) reintroduction and repatriation of endangered species, (3) animal handling, (4) pest control, and (5) animal performances. In addition, we outline three current and future directions for behavior analytic endeavors: (i) experimental analyses of behavior and the zoo, (ii) applied behavior analysis and the zoo, and (iii) within-subject methodology and the zoo. The goal is to provide a framework that can guide future behavioral research in zoos, as well as create applications based on these empirical evaluations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0082.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; vaccination; nationalism; conspiracy theories; mandatory vaccination
Online: 4 November 2022 (01:06:55 CET)
A large body of research has examined people’s attitudes toward mandatory vaccination to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. However, studies have yet to explore how Chinese people view the COVID-19 vaccine mandates, let alone placing such views in the country’s highly politicized context. On the other hand, facing the high pressure of loosening its zero-COVID policies amidst the worldwide practices of co-existing with the COVID-19 virus, the country has to improve its vaccination coverage quickly. In this situation, it is more than necessary to systematically investigate the Chinese public’s attitude to mandatory vaccination against the virus and the underlying determinants. The current study utilizes data from a national survey adopting quota sampling to analyze the Chinese public’s medical and non-medical considerations when judging compulsory COVID-19 vaccination. The study reveals that thanks to China’s successful lockdown policies, personal risk, and benefit perceptions did not dominate their views regarding vaccination mandates. Instead, conspiracy beliefs regarding the pandemic outbreaks, conspiratorial thinking, and nationalism more strongly predicted their willingness to accept mandatory vaccination. Given the potentially massive impacts of the COVID-19 infection, if China opens its door and loosens its strict quarantine restrictions, the Chinese public needs to be educated with more medically valuable and relevant information to improve their vaccination protection against COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0439.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: executive function; early childhood; fNIRS; working memory; cognitive shifting; inhibitory control
Online: 28 October 2022 (07:02:39 CEST)
This study examined the relationship among the three domains of executive function (EF; cognitive shifting, inhibitory control, and working memory) to test the applicability of the unity-diversity model in preschoolers using both behavioral and fNIRS approaches. Altogether 58 Chinese preschoolers (34 boys, 24 girls, Mage = 5.86 years, SD = 0.53, Age range = 4.83-6.67 years) were administered the Dimensional Card Change Sort (DCCS), go/no-go, and missing scan task. Their brain activations in the prefrontal cortex during the tasks were examined using fNIRS. First, the behavioral results indicated that the missing scan task scores (working memory) correlated with the DCCS (cognitive shifting) and go/no-go tasks (inhibitory control). But the latter two did not correlate with each other. Second, the fNIRS results demonstrated that the prefrontal activations during the working memory task correlated with those in the same regions during the cognitive shifting and inhibitory control tasks. Still, the latter two did not correlate. The behavioral and neuroimaging evidence jointly indicates that the unity-diversity model of EF does apply to Chinese preschoolers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0437.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: methamphetamine; mice; neural oscillations; gamma power; sensitisation
Online: 28 October 2022 (02:34:58 CEST)
Dysregulation of high-frequency neuronal oscillations has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Chronic methamphetamine (METH) use can induce psychosis similar to paranoid schizophrenia. The current study in mice aimed to determine the effect of chronic METH treatment on ongoing and evoked neuronal oscillations. C57BL/6 mice were treated with METH or vehicle control for three weeks and implanted with extradural recording electrodes. Two weeks after the last METH injection, mice underwent three EEG recording sessions to measure ongoing and auditory-evoked gamma and beta oscillatory power in response to an acute challenge with METH (2mg/kg), the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.3mg/kg), or saline control. A separate group of mice pretreated with METH showed significantly greater locomotor hyperactivity to an acute METH challenge, confirming long-term sensitisation. Chronic METH did not affect ongoing or evoked gamma or beta power. Acute MK-801 challenge reduced ongoing beta power whereas acute METH challenge significantly increased ongoing gamma power. Both MK-801 and METH challenge suppressed evoked gamma power. Chronic METH treatment did not modulate these acute drug effects. There were minor effects of chronic METH and acute METH and MK-801 on selected components of event-related potential (ERP) waves. In conclusion, chronic METH treatment did not exert neuroplastic effects on the regulation of cortical gamma oscillations in a manner consistent with schizophrenia, despite causing behavioural sensitisation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0429.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Adolescents; passive drinking; forced drinking; alcohol misuse; interactive video-based education; pre-post intervention study
Online: 27 October 2022 (08:50:37 CEST)
Passive and forced drinking harm was prevalent but less recognized in Chinese adolescents. We educated adolescents on such harm to reduce their intention to drink. Students (n=1244) from 7 secondary schools in Hong Kong participated in a video-based health talk on passive and forced drinking harm. Paired t-test was used to assess their change in knowledge of passive and forced drinking, health and social harm of drinking after the health talk. McNemar's chi-squared test and adjusted multivariable logistic regression (AOR) were used to assess their change in intention to drink and intention to quit. Students were less likely to drink (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.19-0.42) and more likely to quit drinking (OR 3.50, 1.10-14.6) after the health talk. Increased knowledge of passive drinking was associated with less intention to drink (AOR 0.93, 0.90-0.97), increased knowledge of health harm (adjusted b 0.06, 0.05-0.08), and social harm of drinking (adjusted b 0.12, 0.10-0.16). Similar associations were observed in forced drinking (intention to drink: AOR 0.87, 0.79-0.96; health harm: adjusted b 0.16, 0.12-0.19; social harm: adjusted b 0.36, 0.28-0.43). We showed preliminary evidence that the health talk on passive and forced drinking reduced the intention to drink in adolescents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0130.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: evolution; consciousness; nervous systems; feelings; reflexes; instincts; amniotes; behavioral decisions; neuronal algorithms
Online: 10 October 2022 (14:49:33 CEST)
Definition: Most multicellular animals have a nervous system that is based on the following three components: 1) Sensory cells gather information and send it to processing units; 2) the processing units use the information to decide on what action to take; and 3) effector neurons activate the appropriate muscles. Due to the importance of making the right decisions, evolution made profound advances in the processing units. I shall review present knowledge regarding the evolution of neurological tools for making decisions, here referred to as strategies or algorithms. Consciousness can be understood as a particularly sophisticated strategy. It may have evolved to allow for the use of feelings as a ‘common currency’ to evaluate behavioral options. The advanced cognitive capacity of species such as humans further improved the usefulness of consciousness, yet in biological terms it does not seem to be an optimal, fitness-enhancing strategy. A model for the gradual evolution of consciousness is presented. There is a somewhat arbitrary cutoff as to which animals have consciousness but based on current information it seems reasonable to restrict the term to amniotes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0110.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; Confidence; Health services; Basic health Unit; Hospital; Public policy.
Online: 10 October 2022 (02:12:08 CEST)
Objective: to assess level of trust in health services during COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study, carried out between 2020 and 2021, among Brazilians over 18. A non-probabilistic sampling was used. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied, using the Local Bivariate Moran’s technique was used to verify the existence of spatial dependence between the incidence and mortality of COVID-19 and trust in health services. Furthermore, multinomial regression was also used to analyze the factors associated with the confidence level, with the calculation of the Odds Ratio and with a confidence interval of 95%. Results: 50.6% reported trust in hospital services while 41.4% did not trust Primary Health Care services. With the application of the Local Bivariate Moran, both for the incidence and mortality of COVID-19, the trust in tertiary care and primary care services showed a statistically significant spatial association predominant in the Midwest (High-Low) and North (Low-High) regions of Brazil. The level of trust was associated with education, religion, region of the country and income. Conclusions: The level of trust in hospital services, more than Primary Health Care services, may be related to the population's culture of prioritizing the search for hospital care at the detriment of health promotion and disease prevention
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0451.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: HIV; tobacco; electronic cigarettes; inflammation; biomarkers
Online: 29 September 2022 (03:54:56 CEST)
People with HIV (PWH) experience higher rates of cardiovascular events (CVEs) compared with the general population. A substantial body of evidence supports that select biomarkers of inflammation (soluble CD14 [sCD14], soluble CD163 [sCD163], highly sensitive C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6]), and coagulation (D-dimer) are elevated in PWH and related to increased rates of CVEs. Our previous work showed that smoking compared with nonsmoking was associated with significantly elevated sCD14, a biomarker of monocyte activation. We aimed to explore the effect of electronic cigarette (EC) provision on inflammatory biomarkers in PWH who smoked daily and then switched to an EC. Nineteen PWH were enrolled in a pilot study in which an EC and e-liquid were provided weekly or 8 weeks. Blood specimens for inflammatory biomarker analysis were obtained at baseline (BL) and at week 8. Biomarker levels were high at BL and did not differ significantly at week 8. There were small nonsignificant reductions in sCD163 and CRP levels. Non-significant increases in IL-6, D-dimer and sCD14 levels were also noted. Use of ECs for 8 weeks does not appear to significantly increase or decrease inflammatory biomarker levels in SWH. Further research with larger samples and a control group is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0355.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Neck Muscle Vibration; Proprioception; Body Schema
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:45:37 CEST)
Upper limb control depends on accurate internal models of limb position relative to the head and neck, accurate sensory inputs, and accurate cortical processing. Transient alterations in neck afferent feedback induced by muscle vibration may impact upper limb proprioception. This research aimed to determine the effects of neck muscle vibration on upper limb proprioception using a novel elbow repositioning task (ERT). 26 right-handed participants aged 22.21 2.64 performed the ERT consisting of three target angles between 80-90 (T1), 90-100 (T2) and 100-110 (T3). Controls (CONT) (n=13, 6F) received 10 minutes of rest and the vibration group (VIB) (n=13, 6F) received 10 minutes of 60Hz vibration over the right sternocleidomastoid and left cervical extensor muscles. Task performance was reassessed following experimental manipulation. Significant time by group interactions occurred for T1: (F1,24 = 25.330, p < 0.001, p2 = 0.513) where CONT improved by 26.08% and VIB worsened by 134.27%, T2: (F1,24 = 16.157, p < 0.001, p2 = 0.402) where CONT improved by 20.39% and VIB worsened by 109.54%, and T3: (F1,24 = 21.923, p < 0.001, p2 = 0.447) where CONT improved by 37.11% and VIB worsened by 54.39%. Improvements in repositioning accuracy indicates improved proprioceptive ability with practice in controls. Decreased accuracy following vibration suggests that vibration altered proprioceptive inputs used to construct body schema, leading to inaccurate joint position sense and the observed changes in elbow repositioning accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0322.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; physical activity; mental health; wellbeing, outdoor space
Online: 21 September 2022 (10:08:45 CEST)
Background Several quantitative studies have found a decline in physical activity in response to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions. The aim of the present study was to use large-scale free text survey data to qualitatively gain a more in-depth understanding of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity, then map barriers and facilitators to the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, and Behaviour (COM-B) Model of Behaviour to aid future intervention development. Methods 17,082 participants provided a response to the free text module, and data from those who mentioned physical activity in any context were included. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and key themes identified. Results 5396 participants provided 7490 quotes related to physical activity. The sample were predominately female (84%), white (97%) and aged <60 years (57%). Seven key themes were identified: the importance of outdoor space, changes in daily routine, impact of COVID-19 restrictions, perceived risks or threats to participation, the importance of physical health, the importance of physical activity for mental health and the use of technology. Conclusion Future physical activity interventions could encourage people to walk outdoors, which is low cost, flexible, and accessible to many. Developing online resources to promote and support physical activity provides a flexible way to deliver quality content to a large audience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0217.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: decision making; dynamic activation; fMRI; visualization; deconvolution
Online: 15 September 2022 (03:46:46 CEST)
Decision making is a complex process involving various parts of the brain which are active during different times. It is challenging to measure externally the exact instance when any given region becomes active during the decision-making process. Here we try to extract and visualize the dynamic functional brain activation information from the observed fMRI data. We propose the use of a regularized deconvolution model to simultaneously map various activation regions within the brain and track how different activation regions changes with time. Thus, providing both spatial and temporal brain activation information. The activation information can then be further analyzed as per need and requirements. The proposed technique was validated using simulated data and then applied to a simple decision-making task for identification of various brain regions involved in different stages of decision making. The visualization aspect of the algorithm allows us to actually see the flow of activation (and deactivation) in form of a motion picture. The dynamic estimate may aid in understanding the causality of activation between various brain regions in a better way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0148.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: oveweight; obesity; public policy; nutrition education; malnutrition; school
Online: 12 September 2022 (12:26:50 CEST)
Being overweight or obese is a public health problem. This work evaluated a food and nutrition education (EAN) intervention against overweight schoolchildren in four schools in the West Panama Province. A quasi-experimental before-and-after study that implemented a 34-week EAN intervention through workshops with didactic material to 403 children between 8 and 13 years old. The knowledge and attitude survey was used as an evaluation tool before and after the educational intervention. The prevalence of excess weight (40%) did not report differences after the intervention. No differences were reported in the median level of attitude, although higher levels of knowledge were reported in students of both sexes. EAN in schoolchildren can be effective in acquiring knowledge and maintaining a positive attitude towards food.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0212.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Education; effectiveness; intervention; food and nutrition education; knowledge; schoolchildren
Online: 9 September 2022 (07:43:19 CEST)
School-aged children may benefit from education interventions focused on healthy eating and physical activity to improve their quality of life. This article aims to review scientific evidence on food and nutrition education (FNE) in Spanish-speaking countries for the prevention of overweight and obesity in school-aged children (6-12 y). Articles were searched between April and August 2021. The searches were conducted using MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and SciELO. The primary search for articles focused on the experience of FNE interventions in Spanish-speaking countries. Overall, 518 articles were found and 33 studies were eligible for data extraction. Forty-two percent of the studies had a focus on FNE and 64% were focused on describing the eating habits of schoolchildren. Nutritional assessments (anthropometric) were found frequently with 91% and 30% of the studies focused on physical activity. All interventions focused on preventing or reducing overweight and obesity in school-age children. Educational, cognitive, dietary, and physical activity practices were described, whit being educational the most frequent intervention. Interventions reported positive effects of FNE interventions to improve knowledge and practices of healthy lifestyles in school-age children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0010.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: neuromodulation; baroreflex sensitivity; dmNTS; pain inhibition; fibromyalgia
Online: 1 September 2022 (07:32:51 CEST)
The study presents a novel approach of programing pain inhibition in chronic pain patients based on the hypothesis that pain perception is modulated by dysfunctional dorsal medial nucleus tractus solitarii (dmNTS) reflex arcs that produce diminished baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) resulting from a conditioned response. This study tested whether administration of noxious and non-noxious electrical stimuli synchronized with the cardiac cycle resets BRS, reestablishing pain inhibition. 30 pain-free normotensives controls (NC) and 32 normotensives fibromyalgia (FM) patients received two, ≈8 minute-epochs of cardiac-gated, peripheral electrical stimuli. Non-painful and painful electrical stimuli were synchronized to the cardiac cycle as the neuromodulation experimental protocol (EP) with 2 control conditions (CC1, CC2). BRS, heart-rate-variability (HRV), pain threshold and tolerance, and clinical pain intensity were assessed.Reduced BRS in FM at baseline increased by 41% during two, ≈8 minute-epochs of stimulation. Thresholds in FM increased significantly during the experimental protocol (all Ps<0.001) as did HRV. FM levels of clinical pain significantly decreased by 35.52% during the experimental protocol but not during control stimulations (P<0.001). Baroreceptor training may reduce FM pain by BRS-mediated effects on intrinsic pain regulatory systems and autonomic pain modulation. These processes seem to be linked by classical and operant conditioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0550.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: stigma; cancer patients; Malaysia; Malay version of the Shame and Stigma Scale; reliability; validity
Online: 31 August 2022 (15:49:35 CEST)
Assessment of stigma among cancer patients is of utmost importance as stigma may lead to various psychological sequelae and lower quality of life. This study aimed to translate the English version of the Shame and Stigma Scale (SSS) into Malay and validate the Malay version of the SSS (SSS-M) among cancer patients in Malaysia. Initially, concurrent translation and back translation of the SSS-M was performed, and face and content validity were assessed. Then, the SSS-M was administered to a total of 234 patients of mixed types of cancer to assess its reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability), construct validity (convergent and discriminant validity), exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The SSS-M total score registered good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α of 0.886) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.846, p < 0.001). EFA and CFA confirmed that the SSS-M consisted of 20 items in 5 domains. Its convergent and discriminant validity were achieved. Hence, the SSS-M demonstrated good psychometric properties and is available for use to assess stigma among cancer patients in Malaysia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0548.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: lipopolysaccharide; minocycline; memantine; medial prefrontal cortex; locomotor deficit; anxiety-like behaviour
Online: 31 August 2022 (13:37:35 CEST)
Introduction: Neuroinflammation following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration induces locomotor deficit and anxiety-like behavior. In this study, minocycline was compared to memantine, the NMDA receptor antagonist, for its effects on LPS-induced locomotor deficit and anxiety-like behavior in rats. Methodology: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were administered either two different doses of minocycline (25 or 50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) or 10 mg/kg/day of memantine (i.p.) for 14 days four days prior to LPS (5 mg/kg, i.p.) injection. The locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior were assessed using the open field test (OFT). The phosphorylated tau protein level was measured using ELISA while the expression and density of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) protein in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were measured using immunohistochemistry and western blot, respectively. Results: In the mPFC, minocycline treatment reduced the locomotor deficit and anxiety-like behavior, reduced phosphorylated tau protein level, and upregulated BDNF/CREB protein expression comparable to memantine, with the higher dose of minocycline having better benefits. Conclusion: Minocycline treatment attenuated LPS-induced locomotor deficit and anxiety-like behavior in rats, possibly via a decrease in phosphorylated tau protein levels and an increase in the expression of the BDNF/CREB proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0541.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Traditional practitioners; maternal health; roles; challenges; rural
Online: 31 August 2022 (08:59:55 CEST)
Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) are considered as the entry level of care in African societies and play an important role in the delivery of health services to the population. A phenomenological qualitative study was carried out among pur-posefully selected THPs in Mthatha to understand their roles and the challenges they face in providing maternal health services. The study included a focus group discussion with seven participants, which yielded three themes and seven sub-themes. The content analysis of descriptive data from the focus group discussion revealed threats posed by unregistered and counterfeit THPs to the lives of pregnant women in rural settings. THPs' wide range of services allowed pregnant women to receive prenatal, antenatal, and postnatal care in close proximity. This level of care, however, was characterized by high levels of secrecy and counterfeit practitioners who used human body parts, which jeopardized the practice and made it unpopular. Traditional health practice must be protected through registration of THPs and the establishment of functional referral pathways between THPs and conventional health services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0148.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Chinese smartphone brands; Decision trees; e-stores subscribers; consumer learning
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:24:54 CEST)
Introduction. Until now, the impact of learning variables on consumers' choices concerning Chinese product brands in the international online shopping framework remains unknown. Accordingly, this study aims to examine the effect of those learning variables on global consumers' choices of Chinese product brands. Method. A total of 44,704 transactions related to the buying process have been collected from a programming language and the Octopus Software within a Chinese International Online Shopping platform. Analysis. The 44,704 transactions have been analyzed through a Decision Tree. Results. The study points out that the number of e-retailers' subscribers reinforces the international consumers' trust online. At the same time, the pricing levels and quantity of product availability are used by global online consumers to assess the originality of Chinese product brands. Conclusions. First, this study extends the existing literature on consumer learning by going beyond the learning variables considered. Second, the study boosts consumer learning literature by elucidating the most significant learning variables guiding international online consumers' choices and purchases. The application of the results will enable brands and e-retailers to understand (1) the stages of the international online consumers' choice; (2) the buying strategies of global consumers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Serotonin; Chemical imbalance theories of psychopathology; Circular causality; Biocultural psychopathology; Critical neuroscience
Online: 3 August 2022 (11:24:47 CEST)
Serotonin (5-HT) show important relations to stress, and this relationship is crucial to understanding the psychobiology of common mental disorders. Environmental stressors regulate phasic and tonic serotonin levels, which are related to valence and outcome probabilities. This regulation takes place at smaller timescales, but also at the level of gene expression regulation. Moreover, genes related to the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of 5-HT are also involved in this regulation. Genetic variations in these genes modulate how stressors can lead to mental distress, but stressors also modulate gene expression in a genotype-dependent manner. As a result, the relationship between psychosocial stress and the regulation of the expression of 5-HTergic genes is bidirectional. This suggests a “circular causality” in which gene variations control tonic and phasic 5-HT signals (“upward causality”), while configurations and functions of the entire organism determine which genes are up- or downregulated, or which gene products are actually relevant in each situation (“downward causality”). The highly important role of social factors in human psychopathology is highlighted, and factors such as attachment and socioeconomic status modulate how the circular vertical causality between genes, neurotransmitters, and behavior is organized, representing circular horizontal causality. These complex interrelationships also suggest that more refined epistemologies are needed to fully grasp the relationship between 5-HT and common mental disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: International Online Shopping; One Belt One Road Initiative; Chinese Bands; Brand Preference; International Online Consumers
Online: 1 August 2022 (08:41:02 CEST)
Since the advent of the OBORI, it was subjected to numerous studies. However, most previous studies investigated only the potential impact of the OBORI on the Chinese economy and geopolitics. Therefore, its real effect on Chinese international commerce in OBORI countries is not evaluated yet. Accordingly, this study intends to model the OBORI effect on Chinese product brand purchases across country members. The assessment is made on 18362 purchases of the International Online Consumers (IOCs) from a Chinese international online selling platform. The Data was obtained from a programming language and the octopus software. The OBORI policy's effect on Chinese brands' purchases was examined through a Different In Different Model (DIDM). Results show that the impact of OBORI is weak in the real market. However, it could be significant if OBORI includes more developed and economically strong countries. To Chinese brands and policymakers, we show how the inclusion in the OBORI project of developed countries could contribute more to Chinese product brands' purchases. Thus, the study enables decision-makers to understand the current impact of OBORI on the real market and its potential effect if more developed and economically strong countries are included.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0397.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Familial hypercholesterolemia; Neuropsychological outcomes; Cognition; Health literacy; Quality of Life; Affective ranges; HADS; WHO-QOL BREF; Oman; Famiilial hypercholesterolemia; Neuropsychological outcomes; Cognition; Health Literacy; Affective ranges; HADS; Oman
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:16:04 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest to view the diagnosis of Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) through the lens of the biopsychosocial model. However, other than a few epidemiological surveys, there is a dearth of studies from emerging economies that have examined FH using the biological, psychological and socio-environmental facets of the aforementioned model. AIM. The three aims of the current study were as follows: (i) to examine the psychosocial status among patients with genetically confirmed FH, (ii) to compare the intellectual capacity and cognitive outcomes with a reference group, and (iii) to examine the relationship between health literacy and cognitive functioning. METHOD: Consecutive FH patients referred to the lipid clinic at a tertiary care center for an expert opinion were recruited into this study, conducted from September 2019 to March 2020. Information regarding psychosocial functioning, health literacy, quality of life, and affective ranges were surveyed. Indices of current reasoning ability (attention and concentration, memory, and executive functioning) were compared with an age-matched reference group. The current hypothesis also explored the impact of FH on health literacy and cognition. RESULT: A total of 70 participants out of 106 (response rate: 66.0%) initially agreed to participate. However, 18 out of 70 dropped out of the study, yielding a final total of 52 FH patients. With 27 (51.9%) males and 25 (48.1%) females, the mean participant age stood at 37.2 years (SD=9.2), ranging from 21 to 52 years of age. In the psychosocial data, thirty-two percent (n=17) of them had anxiety (HADS≥ 8), and twenty-five percent (n=13) had depressive symptoms (HADS≥ 8). The performance of the FH patients was significantly impaired compared to the control group on the indices of current reasoning ability and all domains of cognitive functioning. In univariate analysis conducted to compare cognitive functioning with health literacy status, only indices of attention and concentration emerged as being significant. CONCLUSION: To date, there are only a few studies employing the biopsychosocial paradigm to investigate the FH population. The current study indicates that the FH population is marked by an impediment in almost all of the core features that are characteristically assessed by the biopsychosocial approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0326.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Frontal Cortex; PFC; Self-enhancement; Self-deception; SE
Online: 21 July 2022 (10:55:56 CEST)
Self-enhancement (SE) is often overlooked as a fundamental cognitive ability mediated via the Pre-Frontal Cortex (PFC). Here we present research that establishes the relationship between the PFC, SE, and the potential evolved beneficial mechanisms. Specifically, we believe there is now enough evidence to speculate that SE exists to provide significant benefits and should be considered a normal aspect of the self. Whatever the metabolic or social cost, the upside of SE is great enough that it is a core and fundamental psychological construct. Furthermore, though entirely theoretical, we suggest that a critical reason the PFC has evolved so significantly in Homo sapien is to, in part, sustain SE. We therefore elaborate as to its proximate and ultimate mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Helmholtz-Kohlrausch effect; luminance; brightness; saturation; contraception; menstrual cycle; hormones
Online: 12 July 2022 (03:53:09 CEST)
Saturated lights appear brighter than white lights of the same luminance. This phenomenon is known as the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (H-K) effect and can be estimated by modeling achromatic luminance and saturation to total brightness. These models have been shown to differ between women and men and are more variable in women. The variation in brightness models among women may be due to hormonal changes across the menstrual cycle. To test this, total brightness and achromatic luminance were measured across blue, green, yellow-green, yellow, and red hues. These data were measured along with salivary hormone levels for nine cycling women at points representing the menstrual, peri-ovulation, and luteal phases. These data were also collected for seven oral contraceptive (OC) users. There were no main effects of OC use nor menstrual cycle phase on B/L ratios, but ratios were higher for the red stimulus in cycling women than OC users. Red B/L ratios were also higher for cycling women than OC users during the luteal phase. Estrogen, progesterone, and their interaction predicted 18% of the variation in brightness for cycling women. These models could not be fit for OC users, and estrogen only accounted for 5% of brightness variance with progesterone terms omitted. These findings and potential mechanisms are discussed in the context of previous results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0154.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: post-stroke aphasia; pharmacotherapy; cholinergic treatment
Online: 11 July 2022 (08:58:05 CEST)
Despite the relative scarcity of studies focusing on pharmacotherapy in aphasia, there is evidence in the literature indicating that remediation of language disorders via pharmaceutical agents could be a promising aphasia treatment option. Among the various agents used to treat chronic aphasic deficits, cholinergic drugs have provided interesting results. In the current review, we focused on published reports investigating the impact of acetylcholine on language and further cognitive disturbances. It has been suggested that acetylcholine plays an important role in neuroplasticity and is related to several aspects of cognition, such as memory and attention. Moreover, cholinergic input is diffused to a wide network of cortical areas, which have been associated with language sub-processes. This could be a possible explanation for the positive reported outcomes of cholinergic drugs in aphasia recovery, and specifically in distinct language processes, such as naming and comprehension, as well as overall communication competence. However, evidence with regard to functional alterations in specific brain areas after pharmacotherapy is rather limited. Finally, despite the positive results derived from the relevant studies, cholinergic pharmacotherapy treatment in post-stroke aphasia has not been widely implemented. The present review aims to provide an overview of the existing literature in cholinergic pharmacotherapy interventions in post-stroke aphasia, following an integrated approach by converging evidence from neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuropsychology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0132.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: developmental stuttering; attention; auditory feedback
Online: 8 July 2022 (05:24:28 CEST)
It has been known for a long time that many people who stutter are immediately fluent in certain conditions, for instance, when they speak in unison with others, in sync with the clicking of a metronome, or when they hear themselves speak in an altered manner. To understand why stuttering is reduced or even eliminated in such conditions is desirable because it may help understand why stuttering occurs in normal speaking conditions. However, empirical findings in this area appear conflicting and confusing, especially with regard to the role of auditory feedback. The article gives an overview of the variety and diversity of fluency-enhancing conditions and of theories proposed to explain their effect. These theories are evaluated in the light of recent empirical findings. A new hypothesis is proposed, based on findings showing that speech processing is limited without attention to the auditory channel. It is assumed that fluency-enhancing conditions draw the speaker’s attention to the auditory channel and, thereby, improve the processing of auditory feedback and its use in speech control. Implications of this account for a causal theory of stuttering and for the treatment of the disorder are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0092.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Heavy metals; Risk assessment; Source analysis; Surface sediment; Qinjiang River
Online: 6 July 2022 (08:57:28 CEST)
Heavy metals are toxic, persistent and non-degradable. After sedimentation and adsorption, they accumulate in water sediments. The aim of this study was to understand the heavy metal pollution of Qinjiang River sediments on the ecological environment and apportioning sources. The mean total concentrations of Mn, Zn, Cr, Cu, and Pb are 3.14, 2.33, 1.39, 5.79, and 1.33 times higher than the background values, respectively, except for the Co, Ni, and Cd, which are lower than the background values; Fe, Co, Ni, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb are all primarily in the residual state, while Mn and Zn are primarily in the acid-soluble and oxidizable states, respectively. Igeo, RI, SQGs and RAC together indicate that the pollution status and ecological risk of heavy metals in Qinjiang River sediments are generally moderate; among them, Fe, Co, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Pb are not harmful to the ecological environment of the Qinjiang River. Cu is not readily released because of its higher residual composition, depicting that Cu is less harmful to the ecological environment. Mn and Zn, as the primary pollution factors of the Qinjiang River, are harmful to the ecological environment. This heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Qinjiang River primarily comes from manganese and zinc ore mining. Manganese carbonate and its weathered secondary manganese oxide are frequently associated with a significant amount of residual copper and Cd, as a higher pH is suitable for the deposition and enrichment of these heavy metals. Lead-zinc ore and its weathering products form organic compounds with residual Fe, Co, Cr, and Ni, and their content is related to salinity. The risk assessment results of heavy metals in sediments provide an important theoretical basis for the prevention and control of heavy metal pollution in Qinjiang River.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0418.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: transformational leadership; workplace engagement; education; meta-analysis; endogeneity; causal studies
Online: 30 June 2022 (07:43:16 CEST)
One of the major areas of research in a business setting has been the effect of the transformational leadership style on workplace engagement. Much debate has taken place on the definitions of both constructs but in recent years, general agreement appears to have been reached on the Multi-Factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) (Avolio and Bass, 2004) as the measure of transformational leadership, and on workplace engagement measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) (Schaufeli et al, 2006). However, in the education setting, there is much less agreement on the definition of transformational leadership. Furthermore, there is less of a focus on workplace engagement than in the business field even though available evidence suggests that workplace engagement worldwide is in crisis. This study sought to address both the lack of agreement on the transformational leadership definition and the lack of focus on workplace engagement in educational research by means of a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis resulted in a significant pooled effect size although due recognition is given to the endogeneity problem in causal studies. The endogeneity issue together with the results of the meta-analysis are discussed with a view to furthering educational leadership research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0386.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Emerging economies; Economic development; Renewable and sustainable energy
Online: 28 June 2022 (10:43:23 CEST)
The last few years have witnessed an explosion of research on Sustainable development. Most of this research is concentrated on the developed countries related to the issues not compatible with developing countries. This paper fills the gap and reviews the literature related to developing and emerging economies and their environmental and social constraints under Renewable energy and sustainable development (RESD). It also investigates how RESD can be implemented in the presence of serious issues pertaining to population increase, shortage of energy supply, lack of transportation, shortage of clean water, less food production and bad environmental systems and these are coupled with war, and hunger and political instability. The main contribution of this paper is to present extensive discussion in the context of hypotheses of economic growth and its association with energy consumption, and renewable energy options for sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0185.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Sitting; intervention; feasibility; office workers; behaviour change wheel; police; QR codes; activity breaks; cardiometabolic risk; behaviour change; wellbeing
Online: 13 June 2022 (10:45:43 CEST)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a theory-derived sedentary workplace intervention (single arm, pre-post design) for police office staff. Twenty-four staff participated in an 8-week intervention incorporating an education session, team competition with quick response (QR) codes, team trophy, and weekly leaderboard newsletters, a self-monitoring phone app, and electronic prompt tools. The intervention supported participants to reduce and break up their sitting time with three minutes of incidental movement every 30 minutes at work. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed using mixed methods via the RE-AIM QuEST and PRECIS-2 frameworks. The intervention was highly pragmatic in terms of eligibility, organisation, adherence, outcome, and analysis. It was slightly less pragmatic on recruitment and setting. Delivery and follow-up were more explanatory. Reach and adoption indicators demonstrated feasibility among police staff, across a range of departments, who were demographically similar to participants in previous office-based multi-component interventions. The intervention was delivered mostly as planned with minor deviations from protocol (Implementation fidelity). Participants perceived the intervention components as highly acceptable. Preliminary results showed improvements in workplace sitting and standing, as well as small improvements in weight and positive affect. Evaluation of the intervention in a fully powered randomised controlled trial to assess behaviour and health outcomes is recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0359.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: emotion；conceptualization；interoception；afferent；efferent
Online: 26 May 2022 (08:57:02 CEST)
Empirical and theoretical advances in human neuroscience have led to a reappraisal of the relationships between mind, brain and body, the implications of which are particularly relevant to understanding emotions, which is revealed to be embodied owing to the facts that they are on the one hand primarily arise from the internal bodily states controlled by interoceptive system, on the other they give rise to physiological reactions and physical action evoked by autonomic nervous system. More specifically, when considering the ‘embodied mind’ (i.e., how mental processes are inescapably contextualized by their location within the body), the brain, instead of the ‘master’ of the body, is increasingly revealed to function as the ‘servant’, with its primary goal to maintain the body’s homeostatic integrity. This is achieved through the control of interoceptive information concerning body’s physiological state, initially as ‘simple’ organ-level homeostatic reflexes and then through higher-order coordination across organ-systems allowing ‘allostatic policies’ to predict and maintain future health of the integrated whole ‘biological-self’. In this context, motivational and emotional feelings arise from interoceptive signals that accompany (motivational and emotional) internally-directed physiological responses, and externally-directed behaviors. Emotion concepts are thus the categorized embodied outcomes of bidirectional brain-body interactions and may arguably be differentiated into afferent interoceptive processes, i.e., from body to brain, and efferent/autonomic processes, i.e., from brain to body. When comparing emotion words used in Chinese and English languages, afferent/interoceptive processes seem to dominate conceptualization of embodied emotions in Chinese, while the efferent processes feature more commonly in English. The presence of distinct conceptual systems relating to emotions may, according to the linguistic relativity hypothesis as well as the theory of constructed emotion, significantly shape the distinct values and ‘national character’ of Chinese and English–speaking cultures. Correspondingly, it is argued that, in the expression of affective traits, Chinese-speaking people are biased towards being more receptive, reflective and adaptive, whereas native English speakers may tend to be more reactive, proactive and interactive. These patterns also encompass functions historically ascribed to bodily organs by traditional Chinese and ancient Greek medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0176.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: colorectal cancer screening; breast cancer screening; BC; CRC; cancer prevention; cancer screen-ing; FOBT; mammography; Flanders
Online: 20 May 2022 (12:03:16 CEST)
Despite the recognized benefits of fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and mammography screenings, participation in breast (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs is still suboptimal. This study investigates municipal characteristics associated with their BC/CRC screening uptake profiles among women aged 55–69 years. Using data from 308 municipalities of Flanders from 2014 to 2017, a profile for each municipality based on its BC/CRC screening uptake compared with the median screening uptake was created. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to assess the associations between municipal characteristics and BC/CRC screening uptake profiles. The overall median uptake of cancer screening was higher for CRC (57.4%) than for BC (54.6%). The following municipal characteristics were associated with worse performance in terms of only CRC, only BC, or both CRC and BC screening uptake, respectively: foreign nationality, self-employment rate, (early) retirement rate, diabetes, disabilities; (early) retirement rate; age group 65–69, foreign nationality, self-employment rate, (early) retirement rate, wage-earners, diabetes. The following municipal characteristics were associated with better performance in terms of only CRC, only BC, or both CRC and BC screening uptake respectively: residential stability, having a partner, having children, jobseeker rate, GP visits, preventive dental visits; having children, GP visits; age group 55–59, residential stability, having a partner, having children, jobseeker rate, higher education, GP visits, preventive dental visits. This study’s results regarding the interrelation between the BC and CRC screening could be used to tailor interventions to improve the participation of the target population in both programs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: HPV self-sampling; cervical cancer; women living with HIV; low- and middle-income coutries
Online: 20 May 2022 (03:40:58 CEST)
Introduction. Self-sampling has the potential to increase cervical cancer screening (CCS) among women living with HIV (WLWH) in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, our understanding of how HPV self-collection studies have been conducted in WLWH is limited. The purpose of this scoping review was to examine the extent to which the HPV self-sampling has been applied among WLWH in LMICs. Method: We conducted multiple searches in several databases for articles published between 2000 and January 2022. With the combination of keywords relating to HPV self-sampling, LMICs, and WLWH, we retrieved over 9,000 articles. We used pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria to select relevant studies for this review. Once a study met the inclusion criteria, we created a table to extract each study’s characteristics and classified them under common themes. We used a qualitative descriptive approach to summarize the scoping results. Results: A total of 12 articles were included in the final review. Overall, 3,178 women were enrolled in those studies and 2,105 (66%) of them were WLWH. The self-sampling participation rate was 92.6%. The findings of our study show that 43% of the WLWH in 8 of the studies reviewed tested positive for high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) genotypes, indicating 4 out of 10 WLWH in the studies are at risk of cervical cancer. The prevalence of the hr-HPV in WLWH was 18% higher than that of HIV-negative women. Most women in the study found the self-sampling experience acceptable, easy to use, convenient, and comfortable. Self-sampling performance in detecting hr HPV genotypes is comparable to clinician-performed sampling. However, limited access (i.e., affordability, availability, transportation), limited knowledge about self-screening, doubts about the credibility of self-sampling results, and stigma remain barriers to wide acceptance and implementation of self-sampling. In conclusion, the findings of this review highlight that (a) cervical cancer is a threat to every sexually active woman but for WLWH the threat increases, (b) self-sampling laboratory performance is similar to clinician performed sampling, (c) self-sampling is associated with an increase in cervical cancer screening uptake and (d) WLWH reported a positive experience with self-sampling. However, personal, environmental, and structural barriers challenge the application of self-sampling in LMICs, and these need to be addressed. Keywords: keyword 1; keyword 2; keyword 3 (List three to ten pertinent keywords specific to the article yet reasonably common within the subject discipline.)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: environmental behavior; financial industry; employee survey; behavioral acceptance; intention-behavior-gap
Online: 19 May 2022 (11:39:40 CEST)
The financial sector, too, is developing innovative services and products that have the potential to make a more positive impact on global environmental goals. However, research sheds little light on environmental attitudes and behavioral patterns of employees in this sector. There are multiple factors promoting or inhibiting environmental behavior. Those factors may be rooted in individual or subjective norms, but also social influence and to some extent financial incentives and benefits. A survey concerning the intention to improve and actually show ‘green behavior’ was developed based on widely used acceptance models which differentiate between desirable behavior and the intention to show such behavior. Employees are predominately responsive towards environmental behavior: 20% are convinced of the need to act in a “green” and sustainable manner, only 5% are hard to win over or are not accessible at all. Financial loss or benefits combined with social motives contribute to sustainable living whereas financial benefits alone actually hinder such behavior. The study underlines the existence of a intention-behavior gap: The intention to behave sustainably is built somewhat separately from various influences. There are moderating factors like sex, age and family status that influence the decisions. This then leads to a gap between intention and actual behavior.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0181.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Teevra cells; Komal cells; medial septum; freely behaving animals; ripples; delta; theta
Online: 13 May 2022 (07:52:48 CEST)
Hippocampus plays a crucial role in spatial and episodic memory. The acquisition of new memories is impossible without participation of the hippocampus. There are two main functional states or “modes” of the hippocampal activity, theta and non-theta state. They have different behavioral correlates and clearly different spectral content of the LFPs and neuronal spiking. Hippocampal theta state is present under active exploratory behavior, locomotion, cognitive situations requiring attention and REM sleep. Slow-wave sleep and quiet wakefulness (immobility, eating, grooming) represent the non-theta hippocampal state. The nodal point for the regulation of hippocampal activity is the MS. The activation or suppression of different types of MS cells appears to be responsible for controlling hippocampal theta and non-theta states. Functional coupling between MS neurons and hippocampal interneurons varies in a state-dependent manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0080.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: One Health; shelter dog; dog adoption; dog well-being; dog behavior
Online: 6 May 2022 (13:55:36 CEST)
Today, the kennel is considered one of the crucial concerns of the human-animal relationship, since it is very often regarded as animal dump where dogs exile, thus representing a burden on society. Therefore, drawing up strategies for a new “kennel conception”, as an added value for human society, environment, and dogs is still an unmet need. Here, we described the activities of a shelter dog in southern Italy, which faithfully meets criteria aimed at One Health perspective. It normally relies on an initial careful assessment by veterinary behaviorist, in order to guarantee the most suitable life conditions for the animals in the kennels, increase the chances of adoption and enroll them in projects tailored to their predispositions. Accordingly, dogs housed there are normally included in training courses to increase the skills to be used in different human social contexts, like support to the inmates, rescue in the rubble, animal-assisted interventions, as well as zooanthropology educational programs. The main strength for this groundbreaking shelter relies on the environmental protection schedule, where the purposes, employing technically and economically sustainable tools, point towards the continuous improvement and minimization of the environmental impact, promoting joint integrative projects for a sustainable One Health framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0075.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: nap; sleep; motor adaptation; learning; consolidation
Online: 6 May 2022 (10:36:15 CEST)
Daytime napping offers benefits for motor memory learning and is used as habitual countermeasure to improve daytime functioning. A single napping is shown to ameliorate motor memory learning, although the effect of consecutive napping on motor memory consolidation remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the effect of daytime napping over multiple days on motor memory learning. Twenty university students were divided into the napping group and no-nap (awake) group. Napping group performed motor adaption tasks before and after napping for three consecutive days, whereas no-nap group performed the task on the similar time schedule as the napping group. In addition, a subsequent retest was conducted one week after the end of the intervention. The speed to complete the task of the napping group was significantly shorter than that of the awake group in the retention test. No significant difference was confirmed for trajectory length to complete the task. Thus, consecutive napping may facilitate motor learning and motor memory consolidation in the long term.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0186.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Habituation; Genelist; Molecular pathway; Cognition; Neurodevelopmental disorders
Online: 6 May 2022 (08:58:50 CEST)
Habituation is the most ancient and fundamental form of learning. As a firewall that protects our brain from sensory overload, it is indispensable for higher cognitive processes. Studies in humans and animal models provide a growing body of evidence that habituation is affected in autism and related monogenic neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). An integrated application of habituation assessment in NDDs and their animal models has currently unexploited potential for fundamental neuroscience and medical care.With the aim to gain mechanistic insights, we systematically retrieved genes that have been demonstrated in the literature to underlie habituation. We identified 258 evolutionarily conserved genes across species, describe the biological processes they converge on, and highlight regulatory pathways and drugs that may alleviate the habituation deficits associated with their dysregulation. We also summarize current habituation paradigms and extract the most decisive arguments from the literature that support the crucial role of habituation for cognition in health and disease. We conclude that habituation is a conserved, quantitative, cognition- and disease-relevant process that can connect preclinical and clinical work, and hence is a powerful tool to advance research, diagnostics,’’ and treatment of NDDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: warning labels; Health Star Rating; Nutriscore; GDA; food policy; obesity prevention; non-communicable diseases
Online: 6 May 2022 (04:23:49 CEST)
Policies to require front-of-package labels (FOPLs) on foods may help Indian consumers better identify foods high in nutrients of concern including sugar, saturated fat, and sodium, and discourage their consumption, outcomes critical for preventing rises in diet-related non-communicable disease. The objective was to test whether FOPLs helped Indian consumers identify ‘high-in’ foods and reduce intentions to purchase them. We conducted an in-person randomized experiment (n=2,869 adults between ages 18 and 60 years old) in six states of India in 2022. Participants were randomized to one of five FOPLs: a control label (barcode), warning label (octagon with “High in [nutrient]”), Health Star Warning (HSR), Guideline Daily Amount (GDA), or traffic light label. Participants then viewed a series of foods high in sugar, saturated fat, or sodium with the assigned FOPL, and rated product perceptions and label reactions. Fewer than half of participants in the control group (39.1%) correctly identified all products high in nutrient(s) of concern. All FOPLs led to an increase in this outcome, with the biggest differences observed for the warning label (60.8%, p<0.001) followed by the traffic light label (54.8%, p<0.001), GDA (55.0%, p<0.001), and HSR (45.0%, p<0.01). Relative to the control, only the warning label led to a reduction in intentions to purchase the products. The results suggest that warning labels are the most effective FOPL to help Indian consumers identify and avoid unhealthy foods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0007.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: IPA; Covid-19; Health Perceptions; Korean & Japanese Adolescents
Online: 4 May 2022 (12:26:53 CEST)
This study aims to comparatively analyse the importance and performance of the health of Korean and Japanese adolescents during the prolonged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Data were collected from 1,341 sampled Korean and Japanese adolescents in September 2021 through online and offline surveys. The collected data were analysed with frequency analysis, reliability testing, t-test, and importance-performance analysis (IPA). The following results were obtained. First, adolescents in the two countries perceive various factors about health as important during the COVID-19 pandemic, but their performance is weak compared to their perceived importance. Second, Korean adolescents had greater perceived importance for all factors of health perception compared to their Japanese counterparts. Third, the difference in performance between Korean and Japanese adolescents was especially evident for ‘hygiene management’, and there were significant differences in performance in ‘disease management’ and ‘physical activity’. Fourth, in quadrant 4 of the IPA matrix, there were similarities and differences in a particular factor of health perception between Korean and Japanese adolescents. Based on these results, we proposed measures to emphasise the importance of health and enhance performance among Korean and Japanese adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0242.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: CBT; obesity; mobile health; executive function; EEG
Online: 26 April 2022 (12:34:42 CEST)
Executive functioning is a key component involved in many of the processes necessary for effective weight management behavior change (e.g., setting goals). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and third-wave CBT (e.g., mindfulness) are considered first-line treatments for obesity, but it is unknown to what extent they can improve or sustain executive functioning. This pilot randomized controlled trial examined if a CBT-based generalized weight management intervention would affect executive functioning and executive function-related brain activity in individuals with obesity or overweight. Participants were randomized to an intervention condition (N=24) that received the Noom Weight program or to a control group (N=26) receiving weekly educational newsletters. EEG measurements were taken during Flanker, Stroop, and N-back tasks at baseline and months 1 through 4. After 4 months, the intervention condition evidenced greater accuracy over time and, to some extent, neural markers of executive function (error-related negativity and beta and gamma band powers) compared to the control group on the Flanker and Stroop tasks. The intervention condition also lost more weight than controls (-7.1 pounds vs. +1.0 pounds). Given mixed evidence on whether CBT-based interventions can change markers of executive function, this study contributes preliminary evidence that a multicomponent CBT-based weight management intervention (i.e., that provide both support for weight management and is based on CBT) can help individuals sustain executive function compared to controls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0155.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: cardiac-brain interaction; context-familiarity; naturalistic paradigm; mixed effect modelling; emotional film; emotional arousal; introception
Online: 18 April 2022 (05:43:25 CEST)
Our brain continuously interacts with the body as we engage with the world. Although we are mostly unaware of internal bodily processes, such as our heartbeats, they may be influenced by and in turn influence our perception and emotional feelings. While there is a recent focus on understanding cardiac interoceptive activity and interaction with brain activity during emotion processing, the investigation of cardiac-brain interactions with more ecologically valid naturalistic emotional stimuli is still very limited. We also do not understand how an essential aspect of emotions like context familiarity influences affective feelings and is linked to cardiac-brain interactions. Hence to answer these questions, we designed an exploratory study by recording ECG and EEG signals for the emotional events while participants were watching emotional movie clips. Participants also rated their familiarity with the stimulus on the familiarity scale. Linear mixed effect modelling was performed in which the ECG power and familiarity were considered as predictors of EEG power. We focused on three brain regions, including prefrontal (PF), frontocentral (FC) and parietooccipital (PO). The analyses showed that cardiac-brain interaction is dependent on familiarity such that the interaction is stronger with high familiarity. In addition, the results indicate that arousal is predicted by cardiac-brain interaction, which also depends on familiarity. The results support emotional theories that emphasize context dependency and interoception. Multimodal studies with more realistic stimuli would further enable us to understand and predict different aspects of emotional experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0131.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Air quality; Geolife; Olympics; Traffic demand; Transport planning; Transport regulation
Online: 14 April 2022 (10:25:45 CEST)
Over the years, researchers have been studying the effect of weather and context data on the transport mode choice. The majority of these works are based on survey data, however the accuracy of their findings relies on how respondents give accurate and honest answers. In this paper, the potential of using GPS trajectories as an alternative to travel surveys in studying the impact of weather and context data on transport mode choices is investigated in Beijing city. In the analysis, we apply both descriptive and statistical models such as the MNL and MNP models. Our findings indicate that temperature has the most prominent effect among weather conditions. For instance, for temperatures greater than 25 °C, the walking share increases by 27% and the bike share reduces by 21%, which is line with the results from several survey studies. In addition, the evidence of government policy on transport regulation is revealed when the air quality becomes hazardous as people are encouraged to use environmentally friendly travel mode choices such as the bike instead of the bus and car, which are known CO2 emitters. Moreover, due to a series of traffic restrictions introduced by the Beijing government during the 2008 summer Olympics, a decrease of 17.5% in the car share and an increase of 13% and 10% in the walking and bus shares, respectively are observed. These findings provide a scientific basis for effective transport regulation and planning purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0062.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Chemobrain; Cancer; Cognitive function; Insomnia
Online: 7 April 2022 (14:08:49 CEST)
Abstract: Background: Of the many side effects suffered by cancer patients, those related to cognitive performance have become increasingly prominent in clinical practice. We know that chemotherapy generates a series of side effects, such as nausea and vomiting, alopecia, and so on, which can be counteracted by complementary medication. However, in the case of post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment, or chemo brain, these cannot be controlled with drug therapies. However, before any intervention can be considered, it is necessary to know exactly what cognitive impairment is being triggered. For this reason, we decided to study the cognitive status of breast cancer patients. Methods: analytical, prospective, three-measure longitudinal, intrasubject unifactorial, non-probabilistic and accidental assignment study. The sample came from the Medical Oncology Department at Hospital de Salamanca, in Spain. Cognitive function (Trail Making Test and Stroop Test) was established as the primary variable; the presence of sleep disorders (Insomnia Severity Index, ISI) and anaemia (haemoglobin levels in blood) were analysed as secondary variables, in addition to sociodemographic variables (age, stage, type of carcinoma, radiotherapy, menopause, social support network, marital status, years of schooling and employment status). Results: We recruited 151 individuals according to the selection criteria. We can confirm that factors including anaemia, menopause, patient support network and marital status, years of schooling, and employment status did affect the cognitive performance of the patients in active chemotherapy treatment in the study. In contrast, sleep disorders, age, radiotherapy treatment, stage of disease, and type of carcinoma did not affect the cognitive performance of the cancer patients. Conclusions: Chemotherapy does impact the cognitive performance of breast cancer patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0372.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: HIV; stigmatizing attitudes; women migrant workers; industrial zones; Vietnam
Online: 29 March 2022 (03:36:48 CEST)
Despite intensive HIV education and prevention efforts in the past years, stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH) remain a major barrier to HIV prevention and treatment efforts in Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of stigmatizing attitudes regarding HIV and identifying correlative factors that impact perceptions of PLWH among women migrant workers working in the industrial zones (IZ) in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1061 women migrant workers aged 18 to 29 from January to November 2020 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH were measured using a four-item scale. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with stigmatizing attitudes. Over seventy-six (76.2 %) of the participants reported having at least one of the four stigmatizing attitudes. Greater levels of stigmatizing attitudes toward PLH were significantly associated with lower HIV knowledge, lower education and being Kinh (the ethnic majority in Vietnam). A high level of stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among the study participants suggests that there is an urgent need for the development of appropriate culturally interventions and outreach education activities to reduce stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among women migrant workers working in the IZs in Vietnam.Despite intensive HIV education and prevention efforts in the past years, stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH) remain a major barrier to HIV prevention and treatment efforts in Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of stigmatizing attitudes regarding HIV and identifying correlative factors that impact perceptions of PLWH among women migrant workers working in the industrial zones (IZ) in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1061 women migrant workers aged 18 to 29 from January to November 2020 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH were measured using a four-item scale. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with stigmatizing attitudes. Over seventy-six (76.2 %) of the participants reported having at least one of the four stigmatizing attitudes. Greater levels of stigmatizing attitudes toward PLH were significantly associated with lower HIV knowledge, lower education and being Kinh (the ethnic majority in Vietnam). A high level of stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among the study participants suggests that there is an urgent need for the development of appropriate culturally interventions and outreach education activities to reduce stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among women migrant workers working in the IZs in Vietnam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0313.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: resilience; depression; anxiety; COVID-19; amygdala; hippocampus; burnout; researchers; narrative; ordering memory
Online: 23 March 2022 (08:51:08 CET)
Depression and anxiety are prevalent, persistent and difficult to treat industrialized world mental health problems. These disorders negatively modify an individual’s life perspective through brain function imbalances, notably in the amygdala and hippocampus, and are primarily treated with pharmaceuticals and psychotherapy. Nevertheless, these mental health issues have only increased in the number of individuals affected and the intensity of their suffering—especially as a result of COVID-19 restrictions and fears. An approach to alleviating depression and anxiety in relation to researchers self-identifying as experiencing burnout is promising. Enhancing resilience, the approach considers depression and anxiety as consequences of the particular method people adopt in ordering their memories, and focuses on narrative development. The method encourages accepting of different perspectives as unique and necessary in creating safe protection from research burnout. Moving from an identification of personal character to prompting plot development of memory, the method promotes resilience by encouraging thoughtful reconsideration of the negative assessments by participants of their circumstances that can lead to depression and anxiety. The method of ordering and group members’ feedback are inspected, including during the period of COVID-19 restrictions, and conclusions are offered regarding further research to encourage burnout resilience to diminish depression and anxiety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0221.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: urban mobility; dynamic risk perception; data-driven model; policy analysis
Online: 15 March 2022 (15:56:15 CET)
In many countries, governments have implemented non-pharmaceutical techniques to limit COVID-19 transmission. Restricting human mobility is one of the most common interventions, including lockdown, travel restrictions, working from home, etc. However, due to the strong transmission ability of the virus variants, further rounds of interventions, including a strict lockdown, are not considered as effective as expected. The paper aims to understand how the lockdown policy and pandemics changed human mobility in the real scenario. Here we focus on understanding the mobility changes caused by compliance with restrictions and risk perceptions, using the mobility index from the Google report during three strict lockdown periods in Leeds, the largest city in the county of West Yorkshire, England from March 2020 to March 2021. The research proposed the time-varying z-scores and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to simulate how local people dynamically process and perceive health risk based on multi-dimensional daily COVID-19 reports first. Further modelling highlights exponentially increasing policy non-compliance through the duration of lockdown, probably attributable to factors such as mental anxiety and economic pressures. Finally, the proposed nonlinear regression model examines the mobility changes caused by the population's dynamic risk perceptions and lockdown duration. The case study at Leeds fits data well and shows that the third lockdown policy took effect much slower than the first. At the same time, the negative impact of the epidemic on population mobility decayed 40% in the third lockdown period in contrast with the first lockdown. The risk perception estimation methods could reflect that the local population became increasingly accustomed to the COVID-19 situation, and local people rationally evaluated the risks of COVID in the third lockdown period. The results prove that simulated risk perceptions and policy decay could explain urban mobility behaviour during the mobility well during lockdown periods, which could be a reference for future decision-making processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0208.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: behaviour change; digital intervention; COVID-19; school
Online: 15 March 2022 (11:05:30 CET)
The rapid transmission of COVID-19 in school communities has been a major concern. To ensure that mitigation systems were in place and support was available, a digital intervention to encourage and facilitate infection control behaviours was rapidly adapted and optimised for implementation as a whole school intervention. Using the person-based approach, ‘Germ Defence’ was iteratively adapted, guided by relevant literature, co-production with Patient and Public Involvement representatives, and think aloud interviews with forty-five school students, staff, and parents. Suggested infection control behaviours deemed feasible and acceptable by the majority of participants included handwashing/hand-sanitising and wearing a face covering in certain contexts such as crowded public spaces. Promoting a sense of collective responsibility was reported to increase motivation for the adoption of these behaviours. However, acceptability and willingness to implement recommended behaviours seemed to be influenced by participants’ perceptions of risk. Barriers to the implementation of recommended behaviours in school and at home primarily related to childcare needs and physical space. We conclude that it was possible to rapidly adapt Germ Defence to provide an acceptable resource to help mitigate against infection transmission within and from school settings. Adapted content was considered acceptable, persuasive, and accessible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0064.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Computer vision; Google Street View; Built Environment; Walkability; Micro-scale; Deep learning
Online: 3 March 2022 (13:49:08 CET)
The study purpose was to train and validate a deep-learning approach to detect micro-scale streetscape features related to pedestrian physical activity. This work innovates by combining computer vision techniques with Google Street View (GSV) images to overcome impediments to conducting audits (e.g., time, safety, and expert labor cost). The EfficientNETB5 architecture was used to build deep-learning models for eight micro-scale features guided by the Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes-Mini tool: sidewalks, sidewalk buffers, curb cuts, zebra and line crosswalks, walk signals, bike symbols, and streetlights. We used a train--correct loop, whereby images were trained on a training dataset, evaluated using a separate validation dataset, and trained further until acceptable performance metrics were achieved. Further, we used trained models to audit participant (N=512) neighborhoods in the WalkIT Arizona trial. Correlations were explored between micro-scale features and GIS-measured- and participant reported-macro-scale walkability. Classifier precision, recall, and overall accuracy were all >84%. Total micro-scale was associated with overall macro-scale walkability (r=0.300,p<.001). Positive associations were found between model-detected and self-reported sidewalks (r=0.41,p<.001) and sidewalk buffers (r=0.26,p<.001). Computer vision model results suggest an alternative to trained human raters, allowing for audits of hundreds or thousands of neighborhoods for population surveillance or hypothesis testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Sex-recognition; mate-recognition; sexual orientation; puberty; vomeronasal-organ; VNO; learning sexual behavior; Medial-geniculate-nucleus; MGN; MASH
Online: 24 February 2022 (10:06:07 CET)
A large part of our understanding of the biological substrates of sex-recognition and mate-recognition is derived by studying animal models. In performing those tasks, rodents rely mostly of pheromones and other olfactory cues, whereas humans rely mostly on visual cues. That may hinder the translation of rodents’ biology to humans’ biology, especially at the neural-networks level, where those cues traverse different networks in humans and rodents brains. That may be called the “pheromonal-visual gap”. A theoretical model presented here addresses those issues. The model merges observations from humans and model-animals, as reported in specific scientific reports, and general biological principles that are accepted by the scientific community. The model suggests that the voices of men and women are the innate cues based on which humans learn to use visual cues in sex-recognition and mate-recognition. Children learn the two tasks in associative learning mechanisms, by being immersed in their community, and observing adult role-models in innocuous, non-sexual scenarios. The model proposes that the human medial-geniculate-nucleus (MGN) is the analog of the rodents’ accessory-olfactory-bulb (AOB) and the main-olfactory-bulb (MOB), and that the human MASH pathway (MGN, amygdala, bnST, hypothalamus) is the analog of the rodents’ VNOP (Vomeronasal-organ-pathway). Considering the differences in the pathways should facilitate the translation from rodents’ brain nuclei and tracks to humans’. Also, the model hypothesizes that innate direct and indirect connections between auditory centers, e.g., MGN, and sex-control centers, e.g., hypothalamus, vary across three groups of children, and those variations determine the individual’s mate-recognition that emerges at puberty.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0271.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: mesothelin; ovarian carcinoma; biomarker; mesothelin-targeting therapy
Online: 9 February 2022 (12:59:34 CET)
Mesothelin is a protein that is expressed in the mesothelial cell lining in the pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium. The gene of mesothelin encodes a precursor protein that is processed to yield mesothelin, which is attached to the cell membrane by a glycophosphatidylinositol linkage and a shred fragment named the megakaryocytic-potentiating factor. The biological functions of this substance in normal cells are still unknown. Experimental studies on knockout mice suggest that this substance does not play an important role in development and reproduction. In contrast, it has been observed that mesothelin is produced in abnormal amounts in several malignant neoplasms, such as mesotheliomas and pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Given that mesothelin is overexpressed in many solid tumours and has antigenic properties, this molecule could be considered a tumour marker or an antigenic target for many malignancies. Many molecular studies also have demonstrated that mesothelin is overexpressed in serous ovarian carcinomas and may bind to ovarian cancer antigen Ca-125, favouring the spread of the tumour in the abdominal cavity. 3 Here, we discuss the current knowledge of mesothelin and focus on its role in clinical and pathological diagnoses as well as its impact on the prognosis in serous ovarian carcinomas. We also briefly discuss the latest progress of mesothelin-targeting therapies for this aggressive and lethal neoplasm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0138.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: eHealth; measure; psychometrics; factor analysis; Multiple Sclerosis
Online: 9 February 2022 (11:05:49 CET)
Introduction: This study aimed to validate the psychometric properties of the German eHealth Impact Questionnaire (eHIQ-G), which is divided into two independently administered and scored parts. Methods: 162 people with MS browsed one of two possible websites containing information on MS and completed an online survey. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and structural validity by Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Construct validity was examined by assessing correlations with the eHealth Literacy Questionnaire and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Moreover, the mean difference of the eHIQ-G score between the two websites was investigated. Results: Cronbach’s alpha for the eHIQ-G subscales ranged from .833 to .885. The eHIQ-G part 1 achieved acceptable levels of goodness-of-fit indices, whereas the fit for the eHIQ-G part 2 was poor and likewise for the alternative modified models. The correlations with the reference instruments were 0.08 – 0.62 and as expected. Older age was related with lower eHIQ-G part 1 score, whereas no significant effect was found for education. Although not significant, the website ‘AMSEL’ reached higher mean scores on eHIQ part 2. Conclusion: The eHIQ-G has good internal consistency, and sufficient structural and construct validity. It will facilitate the measurement of the impact of websites providing health information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0077.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: externalizing behavior; adolescence; gray matter volume; white matter integrity; heritability; genetic correlation; longitudinal; magnetic resonance imaging
Online: 4 February 2022 (15:07:45 CET)
Externalizing behavior in its more extreme form is often considered a problem to the individual, their families, teachers and society as a whole. Several brain structures have been linked to externalizing behavior and such associations may arise if the (co)development of externalizing behavior and brain structures share the same genetic and/or environmental factor(s). We assessed externalizing behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist and Youth Self Report, and brain volumes and white matter integrity (FA and MD) with magnetic resonance imaging in the BrainSCALE cohort, consisting of twins and their older siblings from 112 families measured longitudinally at ages 10, 13, and 18 years of the twins. Genes influenced externalizing behavior and changes therein (h2 up to 88%). More pronounced externalizing behavior was associated with higher FA (observed correlation rph up to +0.20) and lower MD (rph up to –0.20); with sizeable genetic correlations (FA ra up to +0.42; MD ra up to –0.33). Cortical gray matter (CGM; rph up to –0.20) and cerebral white matter (CWM; rph up to +0.20) volume were phenotypically but not genotypically associated with externalizing behavior. These results suggest a potential mediating role for global brain structures in the display of externalizing behavior during adolescence that are both partially explained by the influence from the same genetic factor.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0074.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: animal emotions; animal welfare; sensors; animal-based measures; affective states; emotion modelling
Online: 4 February 2022 (12:20:22 CET)
Emotions or affective states recognition in farm animals is an underexplored research domain. Despite significant advances in the animal welfare research, the animal affective computing through the development and application of devices and platforms that can not only recognize but interpret and process the emotions, are in nascent stage. By capitalizing on the immense potential of biometric sensors, the artificial intelligence enabled big data methods substantially offers advancement of animal welfare standards and meet the urgent need of caretakers to respond effectively to maintain the wellbeing of their animals. Farm animals, numbering over 70 billion worldwide, are increasingly managed in large-scale, intensive farms. With both public awareness and scientific evidence growing that farm animals experience suffering, as well as affective states such as fear, frustration and distress, there is an urgent need to develop efficient and accurate methods for monitoring their welfare. At present, there are no scientifically validated ‘benchmarks’ for quantifying transient emotional (affective) states in farm animals, and no established measures of good welfare, only indicators of poor welfare, such as injury, pain and fear. Conventional approaches to monitoring livestock welfare are time consuming, interrupt farming processes and involve subjective judgments. Biometric sensors data enabled by Artificial Intelligence are an emerging smart solution to unobtrusively monitoring livestock, but their potential for quantifying affective states and groundbreaking solutions in their application are yet to be realized. This review provides innovative methods for collecting big data on farm animal emotions, which can be used to train artificial intelligence models to classify, quantify and predict affective states in individual pigs and cows. Extending this to the group level, social network analysis can be applied to model emotional dynamics and contagion among animals. Finally, ‘digital twins’ of animals capable of simulating and predicting their affective states and be-havior in real time are a near-term possibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0433.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: cohousing; stress; CD1 mouse; C57BL/6J mouse; Sprague Dawley rat; fecal corticosterone or cortisol metabolites; dyadic social interaction; conditioned place preference
Online: 28 January 2022 (11:13:58 CET)
Rats, including those of the Sprague Dawley strain, may kill mice. Because of this muridical behavior, it is standard practice in many research animal housing facilities to separate mice from rats (i.e., the predators) to minimize stress for the mice. We therefore tested the effect of cohousing on the stress levels of mice from either the C57BL/6J (BL6) or the CD1 strain and Sprague Dawley (SD rat) by determining their fecal corticosterone or cortisol metabolites (FCM) concentration and investigated how cohousing impacts a behavioral assay, i.e., conditioned place preference for intragenus (i.e., mouse-mouse or rat-rat) dyadic social interaction (DSI CPP) that had been shown be sensitive to social factors, especially to handling by humans. We found that the two delivery batches of BL6 mice or SD rats, respectively, had different stress levels at delivery that were statistically significant for the BL6 mice. Even so, the BL6 mice cohoused with rats had significantly increased FCM concentrations, indicative of higher stress levels, as compared to (1) BL6 mice housed alone or (2) BL6 mice at delivery. In contrast to their elevated stress levels, the attractiveness for contextual cues associated with mouse-mouse social interaction (DSI CPP) even increased in rat-cohoused BL6 mice, albeit nonsignificantly. Thus, cohousing BL6 mice and rats did not impair a behavioral assay in BL6 mice that had proved to be sensitive to handling stress by humans in our laboratory. SD rats cohoused with BL6- or CD1 mice and CD1 mice cohoused with SD rats showed DSI CPP that was not different from our previously published data on SD rats and BL6 mice of the Jackson- or NIH substrain obtained in the absence of cohousing. Our findings suggest that the effect of cohousing rats and mice under the conditions described above on their stress levels as opposed to their behavior might be less clearcut than generally assumed and might be overriden by conditions that cannot be controlled, i.e., different deliveries. Our findings can help to use research animal housing resources, which usually are limited, more efficiently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0385.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Trace amine-associated receptor 5; cognition; decision-making; switch task
Online: 25 January 2022 (14:49:51 CET)
Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors present in mammals in the brain and in several peripheral organs. Apart from its olfactory role, TAAR5 is expressed in the major limbic brain areas and regulates brain serotonin functions and emotional behaviors. However, most of its functions remain undiscovered. Given the role of serotonin and limbic regions in some aspects of cognition, we used a temporal decision-making task to unveil a possible role of TAAR5 in cognitive processes. We found that TAAR5 knock-out (KO) mice showed a generally better performance due to a reduced number of errors and displayed a greater rate of improvement at the task than WT littermates. However, task-related parameters, such as time accuracy and uncertainty have not changed significantly. Overall, we show that TAAR5 modulates specific domains of cognition, highlighting a new role in brain physiology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0314.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: executive functions; executive control; birds; inhibition; working memory; shifting; flexibility
Online: 20 January 2022 (20:52:34 CET)
Executive functions comprise top-down cognitive processes that exert control over information processing, from acquiring information to issuing a behavioural response. These cognitive processes of inhibition, working memory and shifting underpin complex cognitive skills, such as episodic memory and planning, which have been repeatedly investigated in several bird species in recent decades. Until recently, avian executive functions were studied in relatively few bird species, but have gained traction in comparative cognitive research following MacLean and colleagues’ large-scale study (2014). Therefore, in this review paper, relevant previous findings are collected and organized to facilitate further investigations of these core cognitive processes in birds. This review can assist in integrating findings from avian and mammalian cognitive research and further current understanding of executive functions’ significance and evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0227.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Bayesian inference; race and ethnicity imputation; All Payer Claims Database; vital statistics death records; validation
Online: 17 January 2022 (12:40:15 CET)
Background: All Payer Claims Databases (APCD) are a rich source of health information, however, race and ethnicity (R&E) data are largely missing. Bayesian Improved Surname Geocoding (BISG) is a common R&E imputation method, yet, validation of BISG in APCDs is lacking. We used the BISG to impute missing R&E in the Oregon APCD. Methods: BISG imputed R&E for Asian Pacific Islanders (API), Blacks, Hispanics and Whites were contrasted to the gold standard (vital statistics) and sensitivity and specificity improvements were assessed. Logistic regression examined whether missing R&E was random across patient characteristics. Results: Among 85,857 individuals in the study, 32.1% (n=27,594) had missing R&E. Missing R&E was not randomly distributed. There were higher odds of missingness among males, Whites, those age 65 and older, and commercially insured individuals. Differences in the percent missing were also found by co-morbid conditions and mortality causes. Imputing the missing R&E with BISG method improved the sensitivity to identify White, Black, API, and Hispanics. Conclusions: APCDs can benefit from enhancing missing R&E with BISG imputation to perform more robust population-health level analyses and identify inequities according to R&E without losing power or dropping non-random records with missing R&E data.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0222.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Tics; Emotions; Basal ganglia; Tourette's syndrome; dopamine; HPA-axis; Premontory sensory phenomena
Online: 17 January 2022 (12:28:48 CET)
Tics can be associated with neurological disorders and are thought to be the result of dysfunctional basal ganglia pathways. In Tourette Syndrome (TS), excess dopamine in the striatum is thought to excite the thalamo-cortical circuits, producing tics. When external stressors activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, more dopamine is produced, furthering the excitation of tic-producing pathways. Emotional processing structures in the limbic are also activated during tics, providing further evidence of a possible emotional component in motor ticking behaviors. The purpose of the review is to better understand the relationship between emotional states and ticking behavior. We found support for the notion that premonitory-sensory phenomena (PSP), sensory stimulation, and other environmental stressors that impact the HPA-axis can influence tics through dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopamine plays a vital role in cognition and motor control, and is an important neurotransmitter in the pathophysiology of other disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which tend to be comorbid with ticking disorders and are thought to use similar pathways. It is concluded that there is an emotional component to ticking behaviors. Emotions primarily involving anxiety, tension, stress, and frustration have been associated with exacerbated tics, with PSP contributing to these feelings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0210.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: adventure sport; extreme sport; ecological dynamics; transdisciplinary; form of life; skill; skill development; decision-making; freeriding; avalanche education
Online: 14 January 2022 (11:51:24 CET)
The last few decades have witnessed a surge of interest in adventure sports, and an emerging research focus on these activities. However, recent conceptual analyses and scientific reviews have highlighted a major, fundamental question that remains unresolved: what constitutes an adventure sport (and are they ‘sports’ at all)? Despite several proposals for definitions, the field still seems to lack a shared conceptualization. This deficit may be a serious limitation for research and practice, restricting the development of a more nuanced theoretical explanation of participation and prac-tical implications within and across adventure sports. In this article we address another crucial question, how can adventure sports be better understood for research and practice? We briefly summarize previous definitions to address evident confusion and lack of conceptual clarity in the discourse. Alternatively, we propose how an ecological perspective on human behaviors, as in-teractions with the environment, may provide an appropriate conceptualization to guide and enhance future research and practice, using examples from activities such as freeride skiing / snowboarding, white-water kayaking, climbing, mountaineering and the fields of sport science, psychology and avalanche research and education. We draw on ecological dynamics as a trans-disciplinary approach to discuss how this holistic framework presents a more detailed, nuanced, and precise understanding of adventure sports.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder; EEG; optical illusions; alpha oscillations
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:44:14 CET)
Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with imagined defects in appearance. Optical illusions induce illusory effects that distort the presented stimulus thus leading to ambiguous percepts. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated whether BDD is related to differentiated perception during illusory percepts. Methods: 18 BDD patients and 18 controls were presented with 39 optical illusions together with a statement testing whether or not they perceived the illusion. After a delay period, they were prompted to answer whether the statement is right/wrong and their degree of confidence for their answer. We investigated differences of BDD on task performance and self-reported confidence and analysed the brain oscillations during decision-making using nonparametric cluster statistics. Results: Behaviorally, the BDD group exhibited reduced confidence when responding incorrectly, potentially attributed to higher levels of doubt. Electrophysiologically, the BDD group showed significantly reduced alpha power at mid-central scalp areas, suggesting impaired allocation of attention. Interestingly, the lower the alpha power of the identified cluster, the higher the BDD severity, as assessed by BDD psychometrics. Conclusions: Results evidenced that alpha power during illusory processing might serve as a quantitative EEG biomarker of BDD, potentially associated with reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0008.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: functional near-infrared spectroscopy; electroencephalogram; cortico-cerebello-thalamo-cortical loop; transcranial electrical stimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation
Online: 4 January 2022 (14:47:00 CET)
Background: Maladaptive neuroplasticity related learned response in substance use disorder (SUD) can be ameliorated using non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS); however, inter-individual variability needs to be addressed for clinical translation. Objective: Our first objective was to develop a hypothesis for NIBS for learned response in SUD based on competing neurobehavioral decision systems model. Next objective was to conduct computational simulation of NIBS of cortico-cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CCTC) loop in cannabis use disorder (CUD) related dysfunctional “cue-reactivity” – a closely related construct of “craving” that is a core symptom. Our third objective was to test the feasibility of our neuroimaging guided rational NIBS approach in healthy humans. Methods: “Cue-reactivity” can be measured using behavioral paradigms and portable neuroimaging, including functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and electroencephalogram (EEG), metrics of sensorimotor gating. Therefore, we conducted computational simulation of NIBS, including transcranial direct current stimulation(tDCS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation(tACS) of the cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei(DCN), of the CCTC loop for its postulated effects on fNIRS and EEG metrics. We also developed a rational neuroimaging guided NIBS approach for cerebellar lobule (VII) and prefrontal cortex based on healthy human study. Results: Simulation study of cerebellar tDCS induced gamma oscillations in the cerebral cortex while tTIS induced gamma-to-beta frequency shift. Experimental fNIRS study found that 2mA cerebellar tDCS evoked similar oxyhemoglobin(HbO) response in-the-range of 5x10-6M across cerebellum and PFC brain regions (=0.01); however, infra-slow (0.01–0.10 Hz) prefrontal cortex HbO driven(phase-amplitude-coupling, PAC) 4Hz, ±2mA (max.) cerebellar tACS evoked HbO in-the-range of 10-7M that was statistically different (=0.01) across those brain regions. Conclusion: Our healthy human study showed the feasibility of fNIRS of cerebellum and PFC as well as fNIRS-driven ctACS at 4Hz that may facilitate cerebellar cognitive function via the frontoparietal network. Future work needs to combine fNIRS with EEG for multi-modal imaging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0517.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: functional foods; consumer acceptance; scoping review
Online: 31 December 2021 (11:59:35 CET)
Chronic diseases (e.g., heart disease, cancer, diabetes) are of major public concern. Such chronic diseases are often caused by a dietary pattern characterized as relatively high in fat, refined sugar, salt, and cholesterol. Societal interest in consuming healthy foods and the demand for healthy food products has increased significantly. As a result, functional foods have gained significant research attention in the food health and technology innovations field. To date, many studies have investigated the factors that may predict consumer acceptance of functional foods, and a wide range of influential factors have been reported. However, studies conducted in different contexts pose challenges to gaining a clear understanding of the factors influencing consumer acceptance. This scoping review identified 75 articles published with varying populations around the globe that empirically investigated consumers’ acceptance of functional foods. We identified and categorized a wide range of determinants related to consumer acceptance of different types of functional foods. The five categories of determinants were product characteristics, socio-demographic characteristics, psychological characteristics, behavioral characteristics, and physical characteristics. Each of the determinants were more fully described by sub-determinants in our scoping review. These determinants should be considered and used by leaders and scientists in product development to aid decision making and, ultimately, the successful launch of novel functional foods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0449.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: behavioral economics; wearables; consumer sleep technology; Internet of Things; economical survey; expert elicitation
Online: 28 December 2021 (13:58:14 CET)
Global demand for sleep-tracking wearables, or consumer sleep technologies (CSTs), is steadily increasing. CST marketing campaigns often feature a scientific component, but the scientific relevancy and monetary value of CST features within the sleep research community remains unquantified. Sleep medicine experts were recruited through social media and nonprobability sampling techniques to complete a survey identifying sleep metrics and device features that are most desirable to the scientific community. A hypothetical purchase task (HPT) estimated economic valuation for devices with different features by price. Forty-six (N=46) respondents with an average of 10±6 years’ experience conducting research in real-world settings completed the online survey. Total sleep time was ranked as the most important measure of sleep followed by objective sleep quality while sleep architecture/depth and diagnostic information were ranked as least important. Experts preferred wrist-worn devices that could reliably determine sleep episodes as short as 20 minutes. Economic value was greater for hypothetical devices with longer battery life. These data set a precedent to determine how scientific relevance of a product impacts the potential market value of a CST device. This is the first known attempt to establish consensus opinion or economic valuation for scientifically-desirable CST features and metrics using expert elicitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0370.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: dog; anxiety; nutraceuticals; impossible task; C-BARQ
Online: 22 December 2021 (14:13:55 CET)
This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of DìRelaxTM, a nutraceutical formulated to reduce anxiety in dogs. The CBARQ questionnaire, some clinical investigations, and the impossible task test were performed in dogs before and after the treatment. Results showed an ameliorative effect on the performances of treated dogs during the solvable phases, with a significant decrease of the time needed to solve the task. No behavioral difference was found between treated and untreated anxious dogs during the unsolvable phase. According to the results from the C-BARQ questionnaire, some of the behaviors appear improved. In general, this study suggests that DiRelaxTM can be safely administered with no adverse effects and can exercise a beneficial effect on anxious dogs by enhancing their cognitive abilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0484.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Chronic alcohol; Thiamine Deficiency; Disinhibition; Wernicke´s Encephalopathy; Recognition memory; Nitrosative stress; Lipid peroxidation; Apoptosis; Cell damage; Nutritional deficit
Online: 25 November 2021 (16:03:13 CET)
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is induced by thiamine deficiency (TD) and mainly related to alcohol consumption. Frontal cortex dysfunction has been associated to impulsivity and disinhibition in WKS patients. The pathophysiology involves oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and inflammatory responses leading to neuronal death, but the relative contributions of each factor (alcohol and TD, isolate or in interaction) to these phenomena are still poorly understood. A rat model was used by forced consumption of 20% (w/v) alcohol for 9 months (CA), TD hit (TD diet + pyrithiamine 0.25 mg/kg, i.p. daily injections the last 12 days of experimentation; TDD), and both combined treatments (CA+TDD). Motor and cognitive performance and cortical damage were examined. CA caused hyperlocomotion as a possible sensitization of ethanol-induced excitatory effects and recognition memory deficits. In addition, CA+TDD animals showed a disinhibited-like behavior, which appears to be dependent on TDD. Also, combined treatment led to more pronounced alterations in nitrosative stress, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis and cell damage markers. Correlations between injury signals and disinhibition suggest that CA+TDD disrupts behaviors dependent on the frontal cortex. Our study sheds light on the potential disease-specific mechanisms, reinforcing the need for neuroprotective therapeutic approaches along with preventive treatments for the nutritional deficiency in WKS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0126.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: consciousness; catecholaminergic neurons; substantia nigra pars compacta; locus coeruleus; ferritin; electron transport; voluntary action selection
Online: 8 November 2021 (09:33:34 CET)
A newly-discovered physical mechanism involving electron tunneling in layers of the protein ferritin that are found in catecholaminergic neurons (catecholaminergic neuron electron transport or CNET), is hypothesized to support communication between neurons. Recent tests further confirm that these ferritin layers can also perform a switching function (in addition to providing an electron tunneling mechanism) that could be associated with action selection in those neurons, consistent with earlier predictions based on CNET. While further testing would be needed to confirm the hypothesis that CNET allows groups of neurons to communicate and act as a switch for selecting one of the neurons in the group to assist in reaching action potential, this paper explains how that hypothesized behavior would be consistent with Integrated Information Theory (IIT), one of a number of consciousness theories (CTs). While the sheer number of CTs suggest that any one of them is not sufficient to explain consciousness, this paper demonstrates that CNET can provide a physical substrate that is consistent with IIT and which can also be applied to other CTs, such as to conform them into a single explanation of consciousness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: cumulative family risk; child maltreatment; early adversity; DNA methylation; SLC6A4
Online: 25 October 2021 (10:26:29 CEST)
Exploring the contribution of proximal family risk factors on SLC6A4 DNA methylation in children with a history of maltreatment