CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: leiomyoma; angioleiomyoma; head & neck; tongue base; laryngoscopy; transoral robotic surgery
Online: 7 December 2023 (03:14:00 CET)
Abstract. Leiomyoma is a benign tumour of smooth muscle cells classified into three groups: solid leiomyoma, angioleiomyoma and leiomyoblastoma. Angioleiomyoma arises from the tunica media of veins and arteries of vascular smooth muscle.Nasal cavity, paranasal sinus and oral cavity are the most frequent locations in Head and Neck region. Here we present the case of a tongue base angioleiomyoma with an emphasis on clinical data, pathologic findings and surgical approach. The patient complained about a one-month of globus sensation, dysphagia and hemoptysis without other systemic symptoms. Laryngoscopy revealed the presence of a 2 cm solitary submucosal mass located on the left tongue base covered with normal mucosa. The patient underwent direct laryngoscopy to perform a biopsy for the purpose of achieving the conclusive diagnosis. Treatment options were discussed, included surgical resection. Transoral robot-assisted resection was performed without complications. Clearly the description of our case does not want to have a purpose in terms of indications but wants to describe the possibility of considering TORS in the case of benign tumours of the tongue base, especially in cases like this where a standard technique can difficulty be achieved. Current literature review was provided and discussed.
INTERESTING IMAGES | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0176.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: primary hyperparathyroidism; papillary thyroid carcinoma; ectopic parathyroid
Online: 4 December 2023 (10:19:54 CET)
The frequency of concurrent thyroid cancer in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) varies. While the pathological association between thyroid and parathyroid disorders is frequently noted, the co-occurrence of parathyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid cancer is exceptionally rare. Furthermore, the occurrence of an ectopic parathyroid adenoma in the retropharyngeal space is exceedingly rare. Ectopic parathyroid glands present considerable complexities in both diagnosis and surgical management, especially within the realm of surgical intervention. The potential inability to accurately identify and excise ectopic parathyroid adenomas during the initial surgery may lead to an increased morbidity and recurrence, requiring high-risk reoperations. Therfore, the evaluation of anatomical variations through the utilization of relevant diagnostic tools plays a crucial role in guiding decisions pertaining to clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods, surgical interventions, and operative strategies for parathyroid tumors. We present the case of a 51-year-old female patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma in the right thyroid lobe and an ectopic parathyroid adenoma in the retropharyngeal space confirmed through surgical intervention. This case sheds light on the unusual occurrence of an ectopic parathyroid adenoma in the retropharyngeal region within a thyroid cancer patient, providing valuable insights within the realm of thyroid malignancies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1437.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: metabolomics; metabolites; precision medicine; laboratory medicine; residual dizziness; benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; vertigo
Online: 22 November 2023 (14:35:38 CET)
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) represents the most frequent cause of peripheral vertigo. In most cases it is successfully treated by canalith repositioning procedure (CRP), but it is often followed by a continuous lightheadedness in absence of vertigo or nystagmus (residual dizziness, RD). Our aim is to describe the clinical effectiveness and the urine metabolomics profile treating these patients by a polyphenol compound supplementation. We enrolled 30 patients reporting RD after BPPV successfully treated using CRP. A supplementation with a Polyphenol compound was administered for 60 days, and patients were evaluated after 30 and 60 days of treatment by a self-administered questionnaires (Visual Analog Scales for Dizziness and Nausea, Dizziness Handicap Inventory, DHI) and by urine metabolomics analysis performed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy and multivariate followed by univariate analysis. Most patients reported an excellent or good efficacy of RD with a significant decrease for VAS and DHI values. The metabolomics analysis identified six significant metabolites related to the treatment: 1-methylnicotinamide, anserine, Hippurate, lysine, methyl succinate, and urea indicating an inflammatory activities and antioxidant properties of the polyphenol compound. These preliminary data suggest that supplementation with a polyphenol compound cold induces some metabolic changes that can help recover RD. However, the future steps will require confirmation with a more significant cohort of patients and an extension of the metabolomic evaluation to other problems concerning the different clinical aspects of BPPV, such as the high relapse found in a high percentage of patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0817.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Single-sided deafness (SSD); cochlear implants (CI); contra-lateral-routing-of-signal (CROS) devices; bone conduction devices (BCD)
Online: 13 November 2023 (11:38:36 CET)
Single-sided deafness (SSD) refers to a condition where there is severe to profound Sensorineural hearing loss in one ear, while the other ear has normal or near-normal hearing. SSD can significantly impact an individual's ability to localize sounds, understand speech in noisy environments, and maintain spatial awareness, often resulting in a reduced quality of life and increased social isolation. In children with unilateral deafness, it can impede spoken language development and potentially impact cognitive abilities. Historically, there was a misconception that the unaffected ear could adequately support speech development in early cases and provide acceptable hearing function in adults. Consequently, SSD was frequently undertreated. However, advances in technology and a deeper understanding of the psychological and developmental impact of SSD have led to a shift in management strategies. Various treatment options are available for addressing SSD, but ongoing debate surrounds the most effective approach. These options include cochlear implants (CI), contra-lateral-routing-of-signal (CROS) devices, and bone conduction devices (BCDs). The aim of this study is to review the scientific evidence on different treatment options for SSD and compare their impact on the quality of life of individuals with this condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0270.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: adenoid hypertrophy; breastfeeding; snoring; open mouth breathing, acute otitis media
Online: 5 November 2023 (17:28:39 CET)
Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between breastfeeding duration and adenoid size, snoring and acute otitis media (AOM). Methods: We analyzed the medical history, reported symptoms, ear, nose and throat (ENT) examination, and flexible nasopharyngoscopy examination of 145 children aged 3-5 years. Results: Breastfeeding duration of 3 and 6 months or more had a significant effect on the reduction of snoring (p = 0.021; p = 0.039). However, it had no effect on the adenoid size, mucus coverage and sleeping with an open mouth. Snoring was correlated with open mouth sleeping (p < 0.001), adenoid size with a 75% A/C ratio or more (p < 0.001), and adenoid mucus coverage in the Mucus of Adenoid Scale by Nasopharyngoscopy Assessment - MASNA scale (p = 0.009). Children who were breastfed for less than 3 months had more than a 4-fold greater risk of snoring. There was a statistically significant correlation between AOM and gender (p = 0.033), breastfeeding duration in groups fed 1, 3 or 6 months or more (p = 0.018; p = 0.004; p = 0.004) and those fed with mother’s breast milk 3 or 6 months or more (p = 0.009; p = 0.010). Moreover, a correlation was found between adenoid size and mucus coverage, tympanogram, and open-mouth sleeping (p < 0.001). Independent factors of snoring in 3- to 5-year-old children were breastfeeding duration of less than 3 months (p = 0.032), adenoid size with an A/C ratio of 75% or more (p = 0.023) and open mouth sleeping (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Children breastfed for 3 and 6 months or more exhibited reduced rates of snoring. There was no effect of breastfeeding duration on adenoid size in children aged 3 to 5 years, suggesting that the link between breastfeeding duration and snoring is primarily associated with craniofacial development and muscle tone stimulation. A breastfeeding duration of 1 month or more plays a key role in reducing the rate of AOM. The mother’s milk plays a protective role against AOM. The presence of mucus might be responsible for snoring in preschool children. A medical history of breastfeeding should be taken into consideration when snoring children are suspected of adenoid hypertrophy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1905.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Somatosensory Tinnitus; Feldenkrais; online treatment
Online: 30 October 2023 (10:24:38 CET)
In a pre-post-treatment design, this feasibility study examines the effects of twelve weekly online Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement (ATM) lessons on somatosensory tinnitus (ST), which is often associated with physical issues like neck pain. Two professional Feldenkrais teachers led online ATM lessons in two groups for a total of seventeen participants. Before and after treatment, we assessed tinnitus distress (using the Tinnitus Questionnaire, TQ), interoceptive awareness, and the short WHO quality-of-life questionnaire. We collected weekly changes in tinnitus severity (using the Tinnitus Functional Index, TFI) and neck pain (using the Neck Bournemouth Questionnaire), and assessed state anxiety and perceived tinnitus intensity directly before and after each ATM. Importantly, we found a significant reduction in tinnitus distress along with significant individual differences. Linear mixed-model analyses further suggest an overall decrease in tinnitus severity and neck pain over time. Notably, individual reductions in TFI correlated with reduced neck pain, and reductions in TQ correlated with increased interoceptive awareness. Although this study is limited in patient number, it provides valuable information about the characteristics of patients with ST and suggests a new method to reduce neck pain and perceived tinnitus in the comfort of patients’ homes. However, further studies are necessary to verify these results and to compare the effectiveness with conventional therapy approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1908.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: frontal sinus cell; agger nasi; sinusitis; rhinosinusitis; classification
Online: 30 October 2023 (10:09:42 CET)
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) can have a significant impact on quality of life. With persistent symptoms and the failure of initial medical treatments, surgical management is indicated. Despite the excellent results of endoscopic sinus surgery for persistent CRS, it is quite a challenging procedure for frontal sinusitis given the complex anatomy and location of the frontal sinus. Frontal sinus cells significantly contribute to the complexity of the frontal sinus, and numerous studies have sought to establish their association with sinusitis. This review offers a comprehensive understanding of the frontal sinus cells, their different classifications, their prevalence among different populations, and their relationship to sinusitis. After an extensive review of the current literature, the International Frontal Sinus Anatomy Classification (IFAC) is the most recent classification method and a preferred practical preoperative assessment tool. Although the Agger Nasi Cell is the most prevalent cell among all reported populations, ethnic variations are still influencing the other cells' distribution. Studies are inconsistent in reporting a relationship between frontal sinus cells and sinusitis, and that is mainly because of the difference in the classification method used. More research using a standardized classification method is needed to understand the association between frontal sinus cells and sinusitis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1638.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: autoimmune inner ear disease; sensorineural hearing loss; Meniere’s disease
Online: 25 October 2023 (10:21:22 CEST)
Background: Autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED) is a rare autoimmune condition characterized by progressive sensorineural hearing loss with hearing fluctuations over weeks to months, presenting significant challenges in both diagnosis and treatment. Due to its rarity, treatment responses and prognosis in AIED remain poorly understood. Methods: This study reviewed medical records from Taipei Medical University Hospital documented between August 2016 and August 2021. Among 67 patients experiencing fluctuating hearing loss, 11 met the diagnostic criteria for AIED and underwent regular follow-up assessments within a 5-year timeframe. ROC curve was used to discriminate the power of these prognostic parameters. Results: In this study, several factors including younger age, milder initial hearing loss, meeting criteria for bilateral Meniere's disease (MD), having an ascending audiogram pattern, longer time interval between hearing impairment attacks in contralateral ears and responding well to steroids were associated with better prognosis. ROC curve demonstrated the diagnostic value of specific parameters such as the presence of bilateral MD (AUC 0.825, 95% CI 0.640–1.000), pretreatment HI ≤ 45 dB HL (AUC 0.808, 95% CI 0.610–1.000), response to steroids (AUC 0.800, 95% CI 0.595–1.000), and ascending audiogram (AUC 0.858, 95% CI 0.683–0.858). Conclusions: This study identified key prognostic factors for AIED, providing valuable insights for predicting AIED prognosis and facilitating personalized patient management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1389.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: genetics; genomics; deafness; inner ear; cochlea; delivery; editing
Online: 23 October 2023 (10:52:29 CEST)
Hearing loss stands as the most prevalent sensory deficit among humans, posing a significant global health challenge. Projections indicate that by 2050, approximately 10% of the world's population will grapple with disabling hearing impairment. While approximately half of these cases have a genetic etiology, traditional interventions such as hearing aids and cochlear implants do not completely restore normal hearing. The absence of biological treatment has prompted significant efforts in recent years, with a strong focus on gene therapy to address hereditary hearing loss. Although several studies have exhibited promising recovery of common forms of genetic deafness in mouse models, existing challenges must be overcome to make gene therapy applicable in the near future. Herein, we summarize the primary gene therapy strategies employed over past years, provide an overview of the recent achievements in the preclinical studies for genetic hearing loss, and outline the current key obstacles to cochlear gene therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1237.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: objective measurement; cochlear implant; differential diagnostics
Online: 19 October 2023 (13:20:43 CEST)
Background: By using outcome prediction scores, it is possible to distinguish between good and poor performers with cochlear implants (CI) after CI implantation. The reasons for poor performance, despite good basic conditions, can be manifold. On the one hand, the postoperative fitting may be inadequate; on the other, neurophysiological disease processes may impair speech understanding with a CI. These disease processes are not yet fully understood. In acoustics, it is known that the auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and their latencies and amplitudes allow differential diagnosis based on reference values for normal-hearing individuals. The aim of this study was to provide reference values for electrically evoked brainstem responses (EABRs) in terms of rate-dependent latencies and amplitudes. Methods: 20 experienced adult CI recipients with a predicted and measured good postoperative word recognition score were recruited from the clinic’s patient pool. In the same stimulation mode and intensity we measured latencies and interpeak-latencies of EABRs and electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs). With a defined supra-threshold stimulation intensity above the individual ECAP threshold, we applied stimulation at several rates between 11 and 91 stimuli per second. Results: We found rate dependences for EABR latency t3 and t5 in the order of 0.19 ms and 0.37 ms respectively, while ECAP was not affected by rate. Correspondingly, the interpeak intervalls’ rate dependences for t5-t1, t5-t3 and t3-t1 were of the order of 0.37 ms, 0.18 ms and 0.19 ms. Comparing the EABR amplitudes between the stimulation rates 11/s and 81/s, we found that at 81/s the amplitudes were significantly reduced down: to 73% for A3 and 81% for A5. These rate dependences of latency and amplitude in EABR have characteristics comparable to those of acoustic ABR. Conclusions: These data may serve to provide reference values for EABR and ECAP latencies, interpeak intervals and amplitudes with respect to stimulation rate. Altered response patterns of ECAPs and EABRs to normalised stimulation modes could be used in the future to describe and classify neuropathological processes in a better-differentiated way.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1186.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: VEMP; otoliths; compound action potential; CAP; CNQX; resistive coupling,; synapse; sound; vibration
Online: 19 October 2023 (02:47:34 CEST)
Both auditory and vestibular primary afferent neurons can be activated by sound and vibration. This review relates differences between them to the different receptor/synaptic mechanisms of the two systems as shown by indicators of peripheral function – cochlear and vestibular compound action potentials (cCAPs and vCAPs) to click stimulation as recorded in animal studies. Sound and vibration sensitive type 1 receptors at the striola of the utricular macula are enveloped by the unique calyx afferent ending which has three modes of synaptic transmission. Glutamate is the transmitter for both cochlear and vestibular primary afferents, however blocking glutamate transmission has very little effect on vCAPs but greatly reduces cCAPs. We suggest that the ultrafast non-quantal synaptic mechanism called resistive coupling is the cause of the short latency vestibular afferent responses and related results – failure of transmitter blockade, masking, and temporal precision. This “ultrafast” non-quantal transmission is effectively electrical coupling dependent on the membrane potentials of the calyx and the type 1 receptor. The major clinical implication is that decreasing stimulus rise-time increases vCAP response, corresponding to the increased VEMP response in human subjects . Short rise-times are optimum in human clinical VEMP testing, whereas long rise-times are mandatory for audiometric threshold testing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1068.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea; head and neck cancer; hypermetabolic syndrome; cardiovascular deases; stroke
Online: 17 October 2023 (10:37:05 CEST)
Introduction and objectives Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is defined as a cause of daytime sleepiness, as well as a clinical manifestation of sleep-disordered breathing. In the literature, there are numerous controversial studies regarding the etiology of this condition, but it is universally accepted that a significant role in its onset is played by the reduced activity of the upper airway muscles. Additionally, OSA has been associated with a series of comorbidities, such as type II diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular and pulmonary conditions, as well as head and neck tumors, especially oropharyngeal and laryngeal tumors. The purpose of this review is to examine and demonstrate the prevalence of OSA in patients with associated pathologies, especially in patients with head and neck tumors, as well as the role of surgical and non-surgical therapeutic methods in improving the quality of life. Material and methods Taking into consideration the stated objective, a systematic analysis of the available literature was conducted, encompassing PubMed, Medline and Scopus databases. The evaluation was based on several keywords, including head and neck cancer, diabetes, diabetic, overlap syndrome, cardiovascular conditions, laryngeal neoplasm, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, as well as the concept of quality of life in laryngectomized patients and patients with OSA. Results Our results demonstrate the involvement of OSA in the presence of comorbidities and also, an increased incidence of OSA in patients with laryngeal cancer. It is important to note that surgical and post-surgical treatment can play a significant role in triggering OSA in these patients. Conclusions The clinician must recognize the increased prevalence of OSA in patients with head and neck cancer, as well as the coexistence of OSA with certain comorbidities. They should actively engage in early diagnosis and establish optimal treatment methods to improve the quality of life for patients with associated conditions such as head and neck tumors or cardiovascular pathology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1060.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: cochlear implant, computer tomography , cochlea width, cochlea length
Online: 17 October 2023 (09:36:46 CEST)
Backround Cochlear implant is the first approved cranial nerve stimulator that works by directly stimulating the cochlear nerve. Various attempts have been made to evaluate the dimensions of the cochlea related to cochlear implantationThe preoperative computed tomographic examination is essential in assessing the anatomical aspect of the cochlea, but also in determining its dimensions, in order to choose an appropriate electrode, in order to obtain the best possible audiological performance. Method In the present paper, we aimed to carry out an observational study, regarding the role of cochlear measurements in the preoperative evaluation of patients proposed for cochlear implant. The purpose of the study was to measure the cochlea and to establish the existence of a correlation between the size of the cochlea and the age and gender of the patients. Results From the group of 35 examined patients, 54% (n= 19) were male and 46% (n=16) female. The average length of the cochlea in the age group 0-4 years is 7.82 mm in the left ear and 7.86 in the right ear, in the age group 4-7 years it is 7.82 mm and 7.94 mm respectively, for the age group 7-14 years the dimensions increase to 8.48 and 8.77 mm respectively, and after 14 years these dimensions reach 9.12, respectively 9.18 mm. Comparative measurements of the length of the cochlea by age groups show an increase in length with the patient's age, but this increase does not exceed 1.5 mm for both the right and left ears. The measurements of the width of the cochlea, by age group, start from 6.84 mm left ear and 6.81 mm right ear at 0-4 years, 6.94 mm and respective 6.97 mm at the group 4-7 years, 7.71 mm and respective 7.55 mm at 7-14 years , and reaching 8.19 mmm and 8.12 mm at the age of over 14 years. Conclusions From the study carried out it can be concluded that the evaluation of the dimensions of the cochlea is important for cochlear implantation, the size variables, although small, are still an element to be considered in correlation with the age of the patient and the implanted ear. This increase is statistically insignificant, but it still exists, even if from a theoretical point of view, it is considered that the dimensions of the cochlea remain constant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0978.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: paranasal sinus; chronic rhinosinusitis; CRS; epithelial cell; eosinophil; oncostatin M; OSM; OSM receptor; OSMR
Online: 17 October 2023 (08:05:36 CEST)
ABSTRACT: Objectives: Oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the interleukin (IL)-6 family of cytokines, is known to elicit pathogenic effects involving disruption of the epithelial barrier function as a part of immunological response networks. It is not yet known how these integrated cytokine signals influence inflammation and other physiological processes in the pathology of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We investigated the expression and distribution of OSM and OSM receptor (OSMR) in sinonasal specimens of CRS patients, and we compared the results with a panel of inflammatory cytokine levels and clinical features. Materials and Methods: We classified CRS patients as eosinophilic (ECRS, n=36) or non-eosinophilic (non-ECRS, n=35) based on the Japanese Epidemiological Survey of Refractory Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis (JESREC) phenotypic criteria, and we compared their cases with those of 68 non-CRS subjects. We also examined stimulatory effects of OSM on the expression levels of cytokine receptors by using the human bronchial epithelium cell line BEAS-2B. Results: An RT-PCR showed that the OSM mRNA levels were significantly increased in the ethmoid sinus mucosa of the CRS patients. The OSM mRNA levels were positively correlated with those of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-13, and OSMR-β. In BEAS-2B cells, OSM treatment induced significant increases in the OSMR-β, IL-1R1, and IL-13Ra mRNA levels. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that OSM is involved in the pathogenesis of CRS in both type 1 and type 2 inflammation, suggesting the OSM signaling pathway as a potential therapeutic target for modulating epithelial stromal interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1710.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: hearing loss; GJB2 variants; p.V37I; c.235delC; audiogram shapes
Online: 26 September 2023 (13:51:51 CEST)
Background: this study aimed to describe the distribution of the genotype and allele frequencies of GJB2 variants in the Chinese population of the Dongfeng Tongji cohort and to analyze the features of the hearing phenotype. Methods: we used data from 9910 participants in the Dongfeng Tongji cohort in 2013 and selected nine GJB2 variants. Pure-tone audiometry was employed to measure hearing. Differences in genotype and allele frequencies were analyzed by chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test. Results: of the 9910 participants, 5742 had hearing loss. The genotype frequency of the GJB2 variant p.V37I was statistically significantly distributed between the normal and impaired hearing groups, but not for the variant c.235delC. A higher frequency of the p.V37I homozygous genotype was found in the hearing loss group (0.5%) than in the normal hearing group (0.1%). Patients with p.V37I and c.235delC homozygous mutations exhibited varying degrees of hearing loss, mainly presenting sloping and flat audiogram shapes. Conclusions: a significant difference was found in the genotype frequency of the GJB2 variant p.V37I between the case and control groups, but not for the variant c.235delC. Different degrees of hearing loss and various audiogram shapes were observed in patients with p.V37I and c.235delC homozygous mutations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1756.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: facial nerve; degeneration; regeneration; autophagy
Online: 26 September 2023 (10:30:29 CEST)
Objective: There are currently no known treatment methods for ensuring complete recovery from facial nerve damage. Thus, various basic and clinical studies continue to be conducted to achieve this end. As part of this research, autophagy is being investigated for its role in nerve regeneration. Here, we review the existing literature regarding the involvement and signifi-cance of autophagy in facial nerve injury and regeneration. Methods: A comprehensive litera-ture review was conducted to assess the induction and role of autophagy in facial nerve injury and subsequent regeneration. Results: Studies conducted on rats and mice have demonstrated activation of autophagy and expression of related factors in facial and sciatic nerves. Among the most studied of these factors in relation to degeneration and regeneration of facial and sciatic nerves are LC3II/I, PI3K, mTOR, Beclin-1, ATG3, ATG5, ATG7, ATG9, and ATG12. Conclusion: This analysis indicates that autophagy is involved in the process of nerve regeneration follow-ing facial and sciatic nerve damage. Inadequate autophagy induction or failure of autophagy re-sponses can result in regeneration issues after facial or sciatic nerve damage. Animal studies suggest that autophagy plays an important role in facial and sciatic nerve degeneration and re-generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1346.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: electrode array insertion; robot-assisted implantation; hearing outcome; scala translocation
Online: 20 September 2023 (09:57:50 CEST)
Cochlear implantation (CI) allows rehabilitation for patients with severe to profound hearing impairment. Although the use of a robotic assistant provides technical assistance to the surgeon, the assessment of the impact of its use on auditory outcomes remains uncertain. We aim to com-pare the hearing results of patients who underwent bilateral cochlear implantation, one side was performed with manual insertion and the other side with robot-assisted insertion. The electrode array intrascalar positioning and the surgery duration were also studied. This retrospective intra-individual study involved 10 patients who underwent bilateral cochlear implantation. The study included 2 infants and 8 adults. The unique composition of this cohort enabled us to utilize each patient as their own control. Regarding speech disyllabic recognition, pure tone average, ECAP, ratio of array translocation, basilar membrane rupture, percentage of translocated electrodes there was no difference between manual and robot-assisted CI groups. This study is the first to compare intra-individual hearing performance after cochlear implantation either manually or robot-assisted. The number of patients and the time delay between manual and robotic implantation may have led to a lack of power, but there was no apparent difference in hearing performance between manual and robotic implantation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0912.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: middle ear; ossicular replacement prosthesis; titanium; extrusion; dislocation; complication; hearing
Online: 14 September 2023 (03:47:04 CEST)
Titanium middle ear prostheses are widely used in surgical practice due to their acoustic properties. However, they present a significant drawback shared by all synthetic materials currently in use for middle ear reconstruction: they can be rejected by the organism of the host. In this study, we aim to review the current literature on titanium TORP and PORP extrusion and dislocation. Eighty-one articles were analysed after full article review based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The most common indication for reconstruction was chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma. The average extrusion or dislocation rate was 5.1%, ranging from 0 to 35%. The average improvement in air-bone gap was 12.3 dB (1.6 dB to 25.1 dB) and 13.7 (-0,5 dB to 22.7 dB) for PORP ad TORP groups, respectively. The data reported on this topic are highly variable, demonstrating the functional outcomes are difficult to predict in clinical practice. We believe the current limitations could be overcome with technological developments, including bioengineering research focused on promoting the prothesis adaptation to the ME environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0484.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Eustachian tube dysfunction; ETDQ7 questionnaire; validation; cultural adaptation
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:41:03 CEST)
Eustachian Tube Dysfunction is considered a common condition among ENT patients and requires careful history, clinical examination and appropriate investigations to obtain a diagnosis. The ETDQ-7 questionnaire is a useful tool to subjectively score severity of symptoms that are related to this pathology (Appendix A). This study aimed to adapt and validate the ETDQ-7 questionnaire in Greece to ensure correct and efficient use in the outpatient setting (Appendix B). The ETDQ-7 was translated into the Greek language following appropriate methodology. Data for the main study were collected from a sample of 75 Greek patients diagnosed with ETD as well as 25 patients that did not have ETD and who served as a control group. The participants completed the adapted ETDQ-7 questionnaire and underwent a clinical examination that was statistically correlated with their ETDQ-7 answers. Face and content validity were confirmed and the questionnaire was found easy to administer and to be completed by our patients. Test-retest reliability revealed similar internal consistency for the questions and good correlation between individual items and total score. Discriminative validity confirmed statistically significant difference between the two patient groups to ensure that the Greek version of ETDQ-7 is useful to confirm the diagnosis. The Greek version of the ETDQ-7 is safe and efficient to use among a variety of investigation methods for the diagnosis of ETD in the Greek speaking population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0505.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: cochlear implant; patient-reported outcomes; pure tone average; speech in noise; music perception
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:22:04 CEST)
Electric stimulation via a Cochlear Implant (CI) enables people with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss to regain speech understanding and music appreciation and thus allowing them to actively engage in social life. Three main manufacturers (Cochlear, MED-EL and Advanced Bionics “AB”) have been offering CI systems, thus challenging CI recipients and Otolaryngologists with a difficult decision, as currently no comprehensive overview or meta-analyses on performance outcome following CI implantation is available. The main goal of this scoping review is to provide evidence that data and standardized speech and music performance tests are available for performing such comparisons. To this end, a literature search was conducted to find studies that address speech and music outcomes in CI recipients. From a total of 1592 papers, 188 paper abstracts were analyzed and 147 articles were found suitable for examination of full text. From which, 42 studies were included for synthesis. A total of 16 studies used the consonant-nucleus-consonant (CNC) word recognition test in quiet at 60db SPL. We found that aside from technical comparisons, only very few publications compare speech outcomes across manufacturers of CI systems. Evidence suggests though, that these data are available in large CI centers in Germany and US. Future studies should therefore leverage large data cohorts to perform such comparisons that could provide critical evaluation criteria and assist both CI recipients and Otolaryngologists to make informed performance-based decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0479.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: episodic vertigo; imbalance; acute vertigo; vestibular migraine; Menière’s disease; otoneurologic examination; vestibular tests; benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.
Online: 7 September 2023 (08:42:39 CEST)
(1) Background: Usually, the majority of patients suffering from vertigo and dizziness can be identified in four major categories: acute spontaneous vertigo, episodic (recurrent) vertigo, recurrent positional vertigo, chronic imbalance. Our purpose is to retrospectively evaluate the main causes of episodic vertigo and to find indications for a reliable clinical suspicion useful for a definitive diagnosis, comparing patients affected by different presenting symptomatology (acute vertigo, recurrent episodic vertigo, and imbalance) (2) Methods: we retrospectively evaluated the clinical records in a population of 249 consecutive patients observed for vertigo in our tertiary referral center in the period 1 January 2019 – 31 January 2020. On the basis of the reported clinical history, patients were divided into three groups: patients with first ever attack of vertigo, patients with recurrent vertigo and dizziness; patients with chronic imbalance. (3) Results: On the basis of the results of the instrumental examination, we arbitrary divided (for each type of symptoms) the patients in a group with a normal vestibular instrumental examination and a group of patients in which the clinical-instrumental evaluation showed some pathological results; a highly significant difference (p: 0.157) was found between recurrent and acute vertigo and between recurrent vertigo and imbalance. (4) Conclusions: patients with recurrent vertigo more frequently exhibit a negative otoneurological examination since they are often examined in the intercritical phase. A precise and in-depth research of the patient's clinical history is the key to suspect or make a diagnosis together with the search for some instrumental or clinical hallmark, especially in cases where the clinical picture does not fully meet the international diagnostic criteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: High resolution computed tomography; cholesteatoma surgery; very good correlation
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:20:17 CEST)
Conclusions: HRCT is a valuable tool in preoperative assessment of cholesteatoma, helping in making surgical decisions. It can accurately predict the extent of disease and is helpful for detecting unapparent dangerous situations. However it is not very accurate in detecting Fallopian canal and stapes erosion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0068.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: head and neck neoplasms; head and neck cancer; head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; radiotherapy; radiochemotherapy; salvage surgery; time interval; body composition; skeletal muscle; computed tomography scan; radiomics
Online: 4 September 2023 (02:41:55 CEST)
Patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) frequently require primary radiochemotherapy (RCT). Despite intensity-modulation, desired radiation-induced effects observed in HNSCC, may also be observed as side-effects in healthy tissue e.g. the sternocleidomastoideus muscle (SCM). These side-effects (e.g. tissue fibrosis) depend on the interval between completion of RCT and restaging-CT. For salvage surgery, the optimal time window for surgery is currently postulated between 6 and 12 weeks after completion of RCT. Thus, no extensive tissue fibrosis is to be expected. This interval is based on studies exploring surgical complications. Studies directly exploring radiation-induced changes of the SCM in HNSCC-patients are sparse. The present study quantifies tissue alterations in SCM and paravertebral musculature (PVM) after RCT applying radiomics to determine the optimal time window for salvage surgery. Three radiomic key parameters 1) volume, 2) mean positivity of pixels (MPP) and 3) uniformity were extracted with mint lesionTM in the staging-CTs and restaging-CTs of 98 HNSCC-patients. Of these, 25 were female, the mean age was 62 (±9.6) years and 80.9% were UICC Stage IV. The mean restaging-interval was 55 (±28; range29-229) days. Only the mean volume significantly decreased after RCT from 9.0 to 8.4 and 96.5 to 91.9 ml for SCM and PVM, respectively (both p=0.007, both Cohen’s d=0.28). In addition, the mean body mass index (BMI) decreases from 23.9 (±4.2) to 21.0 (±3.6) kg/m² (p<0.001); Cohen's d = 0.9). The mean BMI-decrease significantly correlated with the volume decrease for SCM (r=0.27; p=0.007) and PVM (r=0.41; p<0.001). If t-test p-values were adjusted for the BMI-decrease, no significant change in volumes for SCM and PVM was observed (both p>0.05). The present data supports the postulated optimal interval for salvage surgery of 6 to 12 weeks. Irrespective of the remaining risk-benefit ratio of salvage surgery, the risk of additional surgical complications due to fibrosis is not supported by the present observations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2179.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: middle ear; ossicular replacement prosthesis; titanium; bone trasplantation; tissue engineering; hearing loss
Online: 31 August 2023 (12:14:05 CEST)
Tissue bioengineering has been assuming a pivotal role in implementing alternatives to conven-tional ossicular middle ear replacement prostheses to overcome extrusion while preserving acoustic properties. This in vitro study aims to explore for the first time in current literature the feasibility of a biohybrid middle ear prosthesis composed of titanium surrounded by bone ex-tracellular matrix as bio-coating. We have hereby studied the adhesion and proliferation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASC) on titanium scaffolds in vitro. Moreover, we identified the osteogenic differentiation of hASC using immunofluorescence assay to analyze osteoblasts gene expression profile (Alp, Runx2, Col1a1, Osx, and Bglap) and we accounted the presence of collagen as a marker of hASC ability to secrete extracellular matrix. We utilized scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the presence of extracellular matrix on the scaffolds. Our preliminary data demonstrated the titanium ability to support human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell colonization, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation, to obtain a biohybrid device. Our experience seems encouraging, we advocate further in vivo research to corroborate our results towards bone transplantation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1727.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: third window effect; otosclerosis; osteogenesis imperfecta; cavitating otosclerosis; cavitating osteogenesis imperfecta; pseudo-CHL; internal auditory canal diverticulum; double ring effect; cochlear implant
Online: 25 August 2023 (04:57:24 CEST)
There are several pathologies that can change the anatomy of the otic capsule and that can distort the bone density of the bony structures of the inner ear, but otosclerosis is one of the most frequent. Similar behavior has been shown in patients affected by osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), a genetic disease due to a mutation in the genes coding for type I (pro) collagen. In particular, we note that otosclerosis and OI can lead to bone resorption creating pericochlear cavitations in contact with the internal auditory canal (IAC). In this regard, in our experience we have collected 5 cases presenting this characteristic and their audiological data and clinical history were analyzed. This feature can be defined as a potential cause of a third-window effect, because it causes an energy loss during the transmission of sound waves from the OW away from the basilar membrane.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0627.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: open partial horizontal laryngectomy; laryngeal cancer; laryngeal preservation; laryngectomy free survival; disease specific survival; total laryngectomy
Online: 8 August 2023 (10:25:24 CEST)
In recent years, the number of open preservation surgeries for treatment of laryngeal Cancer has increased. The purpose of this surgery is to avoid the highly mutilating intervention of a total laryngectomy (TL) and to maintain laryngeal function while ensuring oncological radicality. The aim of this study was to assess the oncologic results of OPHL I and II and to identify prognostic factors that could impact patient survival and local failure rates. This study was conducted on 182 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with OPHLs between 2005 and 2015. The survival rates of a group of patients treated with TL between 2004 and 2014 were taken into con-sideration to compare survival outcomes. The DSS in pT2 and pT3 tumors in relation to the type of surgery showed no statistically significant difference between OPHLs and TL (p=0.54 and p=0.63 respectively). The 5-years T-recurrence free survival showed that pT4 tumors, perineural/vascular positive invasion and OPHL IIb + ARY treated tumors were associated with a higher risk of tumor recurrence (p<0.0001, p=0.0005 and p=0.016 respectively). OPHLs represent an excellent alterna-tive to TL considering the characteristics of the tumor and the general conditions of the patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0553.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: thyroidectomy; bilateral vocal folds paralysis; voice therapy; arytenoidectomy; NIM
Online: 8 August 2023 (03:38:16 CEST)
Bilateral recurrent nerve damage following total thyroidectomy in thyroid surgery represents severe complications. These complications have almost low incidence thanks also by using the Nerve Intraoperative Monitoring. The aim of this observational retrospective study is to evaluate the inception mode and the recovery time for different clinical laryngeal pictures that arise from this surgery. We enrolled 25 patients with bilateral vocal folds mobility deficit between October 2017 and October 2022, diagnosed in ENT Unit of University of Campania “L. Vanvitelli”, out of a total of 1417 patients undergoing total thyroidectomy. The 25 patients (23F,2M) aged from 24 to 78 years old (average age 51.7) presented a bilateral vocal folds motility deficit (occurring in about 0.1% of cases). All patients underwent 9 months diagnostic/therapeutic process, which started approximately 30 days after thyroid surgery. There are several outcomes of these complications with functional laryngeal defects being mainly related to respiratory and phonatory activities. These clinical manifestations evolve in different ways within a context of a wide range of possibilities, from spontaneous bilateral or monolateral recovery to functional or surgical restoration. This study allowed the acquisition of useful information about prognostic indications and an adequate therapeutic process, based on the specific clinical characteristics.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: barbed pharyngoplasty; lighting system; surgical vision; oral cavity: klaro
Online: 4 August 2023 (10:18:08 CEST)
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) surgery is now a viable solution in selected patients and the “remodelling” palatopharyngeal surgery is the most common one. Recently it becomes less in-vasive with the introduction of Barbed Sutures (BS). An optimization of surgical technique is represented by Barbed pharyngoplasty (BP), that requires surgical precision and needs efficient and precise oropharyngeal visualization. Consequently, the lighting system is of pivotal im-portance in BP. The aim of this work is to describe the first experience on the use of a new light-ing system, called KlaroTM in BP for OSA. We evaluated the Klaro™ system in 15 consecutives BP for OSA in comparison with conventional headlamp illumination. The visualization of pala-topharyngeal muscle in the bottom of the tonsillar fossa, entry and exit needle, such as needle tip were statistically better with KlaroTM than headlamp illumination both for surgeon and resi-dent (p<0.05). No significant differences for the visualization of the posterior pharyngeal wall and uvula were reported. The KlaroTM lighting system allows a satisfied illumination of oral cavity and oropharynx in the majority of cases. We encourage to use of KlaroTM not only in BP for OSA, but also in all oral and pharyngeal surgeries, including tonsillectomy and oncological surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2045.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Word Recognition; CI Outcome; prediction; generalised linear model; adults
Online: 31 July 2023 (11:47:35 CEST)
Background: Cochlear implantation is an efficient treatment for postlingually deafened adults who do not benefit sufficiently from acoustic amplification. Implantation is indicated when it can be foreseen that speech recognition with a cochlear implant (CI) is superior to that with a hearing aid. Especially for subjects with residual speech recognition it is desirable to predict CI outcome on the basis of preoperative audiological tests. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to extend and to refine a previously developed model for CI outcome prediction for subjects with preoperative word recognition to include subjects with no residual hearing by incorporat-ing additional results of routine examinations. Results: By introducing the duration of unaided hearing loss (DuHL) the median absolute error (MAE) of the prediction was reduced. While for subjects with preoperative speech recognition the model modification did not change the MAE, for subjects with no residual speech recognition before surgery, the MAE decreased from 23.7% with the previous model to 17.2% with the extended model. Conclusions: Prediction of word recognition with CI is possible within clinically relevant limits. Outcome prediction is particu-larly important for preoperative counselling and in CI aftercare, to support systematic monitor-ing of CI fitting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0577.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: postural imbalance; bilateral vestibulopathy; vibrotactile neurofeedback
Online: 10 July 2023 (11:03:30 CEST)
Patients with bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) suffer from postural imbalance during daily life conditions which in turn leads to a high frequency of falls. Unfortunately, vestibular rehabilitation has only modest and somewhat inconsistent effects in this patient group. Approximately fifty percent of BVP-patients show an improved postural control after conventional vestibular rehabilitation training. New and more promising approaches are required. The individualized vibrotactile neurofeedback training (IVNT) in stance and gait conditions has already been described as highly effective in patients with various vestibular disorders. The purpose of the present multicenter study was to determine the efficacy of the IVNT in improving balance, reducing self-perceived disability, and improving gait in patients with confirmed BVP. In total, 22 patients performed the IVNT with the Vertiguard®-system for 10 daily sessions. The dizziness handicap inventory (DHI), the stance stability score of the sensory organization test (SOT) and the score for everyday life mobility in stance and gait tasks (SBDT) were obtained immediately before and after the rehabilitation training period as well as 3 and 12 months later. All measures improved significantly after the IVNT. Between 77.3 % and 94.4 % of patients showed an individual benefit (depending on outcome measure). The effect was not significantly reduced within the follow-up period of 12 months. The results demonstrate a high efficacy of the IVNT for vestibular rehabilitation in BVP patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0355.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Third window; X-linked gusher; hearing loss; audiovestibular; POU3F4
Online: 6 July 2023 (09:16:03 CEST)
Conductive hearing losses are typically present in disorders of the external/middle ear. However, there is a rare group of inner ear conditions called third windows that can also generate a conductive hearing loss. This is due to an abnormal connection between the middle and the inner ear or between the inner ear and the cranial cavity. X-linked gusher disorder is an extremely rare congenital inner ear dysplastic syndrome with such an abnormal connection due to a characteristic incomplete cochlear partition type 3 and an incomplete internal auditory meatus fundus. The disorder is inherited in an X-linked fashion due to the mutation of the POU3F4 gene. We present 2 siblings diagnosed with the condition and their long term follow ups. They both presented with audiovestibular symptoms and showed progressive mixed losses and bilateral vestibular weakness. They were treated with cochlear implant, digital amplification and with vestibular rehabilitation. Significant others around them were involved in their journey with the medical team and in both, a very favourable outcome was achieved. This is the first time that we are reporting evolving audiovestibular function with vestibular quantification in X-linked gusher disorder and emphasize on the multidisciplinary holistic approach to manage these children effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0232.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Atresia; Cartilage conduction hearing aids; Conductive hearing loss; Infant
Online: 4 July 2023 (12:36:49 CEST)
: Forty-nine children who started wearing cartilage conduction hearing aids (CC-HA) before elementary school graduation (including 17 cases of bilateral hearing loss and 32 cases of unilateral hearing loss) were followed up and examined. The wearing and utilization status of CC-HA, as well as the progress to date, were evaluated. In addition, 33 participants who purchased CC-Has were interviewed to assess the wearing effect. Eleven of the 17 children with bilateral hearing loss and 25 of the 32 children with unilateral hearing loss have continued using CC-HA. In terms of wearing effect, a good wearing effect was reported, even by those with one-sided hearing loss. In cases where it is difficult to wear CC-HAs stably with pasting or ear tips, it is possible to fix them stably using commercially available hair bands and eyeglass vines. In two cases, CC-HAs were worn from the age of 0. With ingenuity and appropriate educational and medical support, it is possible to wear CC-HA from infancy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2165.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: sobrerol; mucolytic agent; respiratory infections
Online: 29 June 2023 (14:42:35 CEST)
Respiratory infections are usually characterized by mucus hypersecretion. This condition may worsen and prolong symptoms and signs. Mucoactive agents include different molecules with different mechanisms of action. Sobrerol is a monoterpene able to fluidify mucus, increase mucociliary clearance, and exert antioxidant activity. Sobrerol is available in various formulations (granules, syrup, nebulized, and suppository). Sobrerol has been on the market for over 50 years. Several studies investigated its efficacy and safety in acute and chronic respiratory diseases characterized by mucus hyperproduction. Seven pediatric studies have been conducted with favorable outcomes. Recently, regulatory agencies reduced the treatment duration to three days. Therefore, a future study will test the hypothesis that a combination of oral and topical sobrerol could benefit children and adults with frequent respiratory infections. The rationale considers that mucus accumulation could be a risk factor for increased susceptibility to have infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0854.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: salvage total laryngectomy; radiotherapy; pectoralis major flap; pharyngocutaneous fistula; laryngeal cancer; surgical morbidity; organ preservation
Online: 12 June 2023 (15:54:08 CEST)
Background: Non-surgical organ preservation protocols have known a large diffusion worldwide in the last decades. Their oncological and functional effectiveness in a real-world setting has been recently ques-tioned, also because of the high morbidity of salvage procedures. The aim of this study is to review the outcomes of post irradiation salvage total laryngectomy (STL) and reconstruction with pectoralis major flap. Methods: This retrospective observational study included 37 cases of STL in the period going from January 2015 to December 2021. Data for each patient were extracted from the hospital information system and reviewed. Results: The 3-year overall and disease specific survival are respectively 28% and 51%. All patients with recurrences died from the disease. Only 7 recurrences and 7 consequent deaths for cancer were rec-orded. The other 14 deaths derived from comorbidities, being diabetes the most significant predictive parameter for overall survival. Also low-er postoperative albumin levels were associated with a higher risk of death. Conclusions: Overall survival after STL and reconstruction with PMMF is low but most deaths are due to comorbidities and not to cancer progression or recurrence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0559.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Bone conduction; Cartilage conduction; Hearing device; Amplification; Aural atresia; Canal stenosis; Conductive hearing loss; Chronic otitis media
Online: 7 June 2023 (13:22:41 CEST)
A relatively loud sound is audible when a vibrator is attached to the aural cartilage. This form of conduction is referred to as cartilage conduction (CC). In Japan, a new type of hearing aid has been developed using CC and is available in clinical practice since 2017. A clinical study conducted prior to its launch demonstrated its benefits, particularly in patients with aural atresia who were unable to use air-conduction hearing aids. Several studies have been published on the benefits of CC hearing aids since their introduction in clinical practice. Most of the patients included in these studies had canal stenosis or aural atresia, and the purchase rates of CC hearing aids in these patients were relatively high. However, the number of patients with open ears was small, with overall poor results in the trials, with the exception in patients with continuous otorrhea. CC hearing aids are considered a good option for compensating hearing loss in ears with canal stenosis or atresia in both bilateral and unilateral cases. However, CC hearing aids are not currently considered the first choice for patients with an open ear,.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0540.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: VoiceScreen app; dysphonia screening; AVQI; smartphones
Online: 7 June 2023 (10:50:15 CEST)
The aim of the study was to develop the universal-platform-based (UPB) application suitable for different smartphones for estimation of the Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI) and evaluate its reliability in AVQI measurements and normal and pathological voice differentiation. Our study group consisted of 135 adult individuals, including 49 with normal voices and 86 pa-tients with pathological voices. The developed UPB "VoiceSreen" application installed on five iOS and Android smartphones was used for AVQI estimation. The AVQI measures calculated from voice recordings obtained from a reference studio microphone were compared with AVQI results obtained using smartphones. The diagnostic accuracy of differentiating normal and pathological voice was evaluated by applying receiver-operating characteristics. The one-way ANOVA analysis did not detect statistically significant differences between mean AVQI scores revealed using a studio microphone and different smartphones (F= 0.759; p = 0.58). Almost perfect direct linear correlations (r= 0.991- 0.987) were observed between the AVQI results obtained with a studio microphone and different smartphones. An acceptable level of precision of AVQI in discriminating between normal and pathological voices was yielded, with areas under the curve (AUC) displaying 0.834 – 0.862. There were no statistically significant differences between the AUCs (p > 0.05) obtained from studio and smartphone’ microphones. The significant differ-ence revealed between the AUCs was only 0.028. The UPB "VoiceScreen" application represents an accurate and robust tool for voice quality measurement and normal vs. pathological voice screening purposes, demonstrating the potential to be used by patients and clinicians for voice assessment employing both iOS and Android smartphones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0449.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: head and neck neoplasms; electric stimulation; chemoradiotherapy; swallowing; dysphagia
Online: 6 June 2023 (11:37:29 CEST)
Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the standard treatment for locally advanced head and neck cancer; however, CRT may cause post-treatment dysphagia. Transcutaneous electrical sensory stimulation (TESS), developed in recent years for swallowing rehabilitation, has been used at many medical facilities. Although TESS has been used for dysphagia in several fields, its safety and efficacy in patients with head and neck cancer remain to be clarified. Therefore, this study evaluated the safety of TESS in ten patients with head and neck cancers undergoing CRT. Swallowing rehabilitation intervention and TESS implementation were performed for all patients during CRT. Non-blood toxicity adverse events (AEs), such as dermatitis and mucositis, occurred during CRT; however, the severity was less than Grade 3. No patient experienced pain due to TESS. As survival time analysis using the Kaplan–Meier method for interferential current device implementation rates revealed a feasibility of 100% for up to 60 Gy and a feasibility of 78% for up to 70 Gy, it concludes that TESS was feasible until 70 Gy. This study confirmed the feasibility and safety of TESS in the head and neck region, even during CRT. Although the precise mechanism of TESS on dysphagia is not yet clear, its continued use has great potential for improving sensory disturbance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1817.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: hearing; auditory processing; cognition; music; byzantine; percussion; rhythm
Online: 26 May 2023 (02:35:33 CEST)
Better auditory processing of musicians is observed in previous research. As musicians differentiate their practice method and performance environment, we aimed to assess auditory perception in Greek musicians with respect to their musical specialization. If there are differences, this may provide a basis for better shaping auditory training in individuals with auditory processing disorder. The auditory tests administered were speech in noise (Speech in Babble), with and without rhythmic advantage (Word Recognition—Rhythm Component), short-term and working memory (Digit Span - Forward and Backwards), temporal resolution (Gaps In Noise) and detection of frequency discrimination threshold (DFL). Groups consisted of classical musicians, Byzantine chanters, percussionists, and non-musicians (12 participants/group). Statistical analysis revealed significant difference in: (i) word recognition in noise with precursor synchronized pulse between classical musicians compared to Byzantine musicians, (ii) better frequency discrimination of Byzantine musicians compared to non-musicians for the 2000Hz region and (iii) working memory, an advantage detected in musicians. Considering all the above, we conclude that musicians have a superior auditory perception, regardless of musical specialization. Musical training enhances elements of auditory processing and may be used as an additional rehabilitation during auditory training, focusing on specific types of music for specific auditory processing deficits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0767.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Tinnitus; sound therapy; enriched acoustic environment
Online: 10 May 2023 (14:44:55 CEST)
Tinnitus is a heterogeneous auditory disorder without a pharmacological cure but with several palliative treatments. One of the most applied treatments for tinnitus relief combines counselling with sound therapy. The efficiency of this sound therapy depends on the type of sound stimulus and the exposition time. The fundamentals of a customized sound therapy that stimulates the auditory system with a continuous or sequential sound which compensates for the subject hearing loss are described here. A sample of 137 tinnitus subjects are treated with this sound therapy, named Enriched Acoustic Environment. 90% of these patients achieved a clinically relevant and statistically significant tinnitus-related distress relief quantified as a mean drop of their Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score of 24.3 points. These subjects exposed with sequential stimuli (31%) achieved greater distress relief (5.1 points more in their Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score) than those stimulated with continuous sound (69%). Therefore, this sound constitutes an optimized stimulus for tinnitus treatment.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0469.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: pharyngoplasty; barbed sutures; surgery; obstructive sleep apnea
Online: 8 May 2023 (08:32:28 CEST)
Background: The use of barbed sutures for pharyngoplasty techniques is a new trend in sleep apnea surgery, but little is known about its short-term results depending on the different techniques. The objective of this study was to compare the surgical results in two different centers using barbed sutures in which the main difference was the loops performed in the soft palate. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) operated in two centers. A statistical analysis comparing the ENT department of the Ospedale Morgagni-Pierantoni from Forlí with the ENT department of Dr. Peset University Hospital was performed. Results: The final sample size was 138 patients (70 from Forlí and 68 from Valencia). In both series, a significant improvement was observed in OSA patients with significant reductions in respiratory events not related to weight reduction. The mean delta Apnea-Hypopnea index was 13.36 (SD 21.3) in Forlí and 22.8 (SD 22.05) in Valencia (p<0.05). Forlí’s series had a higher proportion of multilevel surgeries than Valencia's and a lower proportion of tonsillar hypertrophy. Conclusion: The number of loops performed in the soft palate may improve the surgical results, nevertheless, this must be confirmed in prospective studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0403.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; middle ear; ear surgery; middle ear surgery; otologic surgery
Online: 6 May 2023 (09:34:27 CEST)
In post mortem analyses, SARS-CoV-2 was found in the middle ear of some, but not all patients with COVID-19 disease. It is not clear whether SARS-CoV-2 penetrated the ear passively post mortem, or existed in the middle ear of living patients during, and perhaps also after infection. This study investigates whether SARS-CoV-2 can be found in the middle ear of living patients during ear surgery. Swabs from the nasopharynx, the filter connected to the tracheal tube and secretion from the middle ear were collected during middle ear surgery. All samples were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 with PCR. History of vaccination, COVID-19 and contact with SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals were recorded preoperatively. Postoperative SARS-CoV-2 infection was noted at the follow-up visit. Overall 63 participants (62%) were children and 39 (38%) were adults. SARS-CoV-2 was found in the middle ear and in the nasopharynx of two and four CovEar Study participants, respectively. The filter connected to the tracheal tube was sterile in all cases. Cycle threshold (ct) values of the PCR test were between 25.94 and 37.06. SARS-CoV-2 penetrates into the middle ear of living patients and can be found in asymptomatic patients. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the middle ear may have implications for ear surgery and can pose a risk of infection for operating room staff. It may also directly affect the audio-vestibular system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0534.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: micro injection molding; 3D printing; rapid tooling; digital light processing; implant; drug delivery system; dexamethasone; anti-inflammatory; TNF-α; biocompatibility; inner ear therapy
Online: 19 April 2023 (03:57:41 CEST)
A novel approach for the long-term medical treatment of the inner ear is the diffusion of drugs through the round window membrane from a patient-individualized, drug-eluting implant, which is inserted in the middle ear. In this study, drug-loaded (10 wt% Dexamethasone) guinea pig round window niche implants (GP-RNIs, ~1.30 mm x 0.95 mm x 0.60 mm) were manufactured with high precision via micro injection molding (µIM, Tmold = 160 °C, crosslinking time of 120 s). The medical grade silicone elastomer MED-4244 (NuSil Technology LLC, Radnor, PA, USA) was used. Molds for µIM were 3D printed from a commercially available resin PlasGRAY V2 (Asiga, Alexandria, Australia, TG = 84 °C) via a high-resolution DLP process (xy-resolution of 32 µm, z-resolution of 10 µm, 3D printing time of about 6 h). Drug release, biocompatibility, and bio-efficacy of the GP-RNIs were investigated in vitro. GP-RNIs could be successfully produced. Wear of the molds due to thermal stress was observed. However, the molds are suitable for single use in the µIM process. About 10% of the drug load (8.2 ± 0.6 µg) was released after 6 weeks (medium: isotonic saline). The implants showed high biocompatibility over a time of 28 days (lowest cell viability ~80%). Moreover, we found anti-inflammatory effects over a time of 28 days in a TNF-α-reduction test. These results are promising for the development of long-term drug-releasing implants for human inner ear therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Tullio Phenomena; Noise Cancellation Device; Dizziness; Vertical Heterophoria; Third Mobile Window Disorder; Binocular Vision Dysfunction
Online: 11 April 2023 (05:49:05 CEST)
Identifying a vestibular source of pathology in patients complaining of post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) dizziness can be difficult. We describe a possible new method utilizing the reduction of post-TBI symptom (including dizziness) with the use of a noise cancellation device (NCD). This retrospective case series included patients with TBI and dizziness presenting to a binocular vision specialty clinic, who were diagnosed with a vertical heterophoria (VH). If they did not respond adequately to microprism lenses and/or if they experienced hyperacusis, they were evaluated with an NCD. If there was marked reduction of TBI symptoms (including dizziness), the patients were referred to a neuro-otologist for vestibular diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Fourteen patients were identified and found to have abnormalities on vestibular testing consistent with Third Mobile Window Disorder (TMWD). All were treated with a 6-week medical protocol (diuretics, no straining, low sodium/no caffeine diet). Five responded positively, requiring no further treatment. Nine required surgical intervention and responded positively. In conclusion, 14 patients with post-concussive dizziness and VH, a positive response to NCD was associated with abnormal vestibular testing, a diagnosis of TMWD, and symptom reduction/resolution with a medical or surgical approach. The removal of sound resulting in reduction or resolution of vestibular symptoms represents an Inverse Tullio Phenomena.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0035.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Speech-in-noise hearing difficulties; Hidden hearing loss (HHL); hearing aids; self-report; Reaction time; Ecologically momentary assessment (EMA)
Online: 2 February 2023 (08:37:41 CET)
Objective: This study assessed hearing aid benefits for people with a normal audiogram but hearing-in-noise problems in everyday listening situations. Design: Exploratory double-blinded case control study whereby participants completed retrospective questionnaires, ecological momentary assessments, speech-in-noise testing, and mental effort testing with and without hearing aids. Twenty-seven adults reporting speech-in-noise problems but normal air-conduction pure-tone audiometry took part in the study. They were randomly separated into an experimental group who trialled mild-gain hearing aids with advanced directional processing and a control group fitted with hearing aids with no gain or directionality. Results: Self-reports showed mild-gain hearing aids reduce hearing-in-noise difficulties and provide a better hearing experience (i.e., improved understanding, participation, and mood). Despite the self-reported benefits, the laboratory tests did not reveal a benefit from the mild-gain hearing aids, with no group differences on speech-in-noise tests or mental effort measures. Further, participants found the elevated cost of hearing aids to be a barrier for their adoption. Conclusions: Hearing aids benefit the listening experience in some listening situations for people with normal audiogram who report hearing difficulties in noise. Decreasing the price of hearing aids may lead to greater accessibility to those seeking remediation for their communication needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: hearing therpy; speech therapy; cochlea implant; digital application
Online: 2 November 2022 (06:10:30 CET)
Background: In order to achieve the best possible hearing and understanding with a cochlear implant (CI), regular hearing speech therapy treatment is necessary after implantation. This treatment should also be accessible to the growing proportion of hearing-impaired people with a migration background. This requires an alternative to therapy in the therapist's native language. The aim of this study was to evaluate six multilingual conversation applications with regard to their usefulness for therapy. Material and Methods: The six most commonly used applications were reviewed in terms of accuracy of content and grammatical translation, as well as pronunciation for English, Spanish, Arabic, Turkish, and Russian by native speakers. The number of available languages, availability, cost, and additional features were also analyzed. The accuracy of the content and grammatical translation as well as the pronunciation were statistically evaluated, and the differences were highlighted. The results of the different applications were compared with the performance of a native speaker. Results: All applications tested differed significantly from the native speaker level, with Google Translator showing the closest approximation to the native speaker level. All apps offer translations for multiple languages and, with exceptions, are available in both app stores. Furthermore, all apps have additional therapist-facilitating features. Conclusion: Multilingual conversation apps can make speech therapy in a foreign language much easier when used with patients. An adaptation of the software to the specific requirements of a hearing speech therapy is necessary to achieve a linguistic level that corresponds to the native language of the therapist and to enable an easy use in the therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0098.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: tinnitus; normal hearing; Evoked potentials; auditory; brain stem; otoacoustic emission
Online: 6 July 2022 (13:54:44 CEST)
In patients with unilateral tinnitus with normal hearing, several studies have compared the ipsilateral and contralateral ears; however, few studies have investigated its relationship with the duration of tinnitus. We compared the auditory brainstem response and otoacoustic emission parameters between ipsilateral and contralateral ears in adults with unilateral tinnitus and normal hearing. This retrospective review included 84 patients with unilateral tinnitus and normal hearing who underwent auditory brainstem response and otoacoustic emission; they were categorized according to the duration of tinnitus. The latencies and amplitudes of waves I, III, and V, and V/I ratio of both ears in auditory brainstem response, and the results of distortion-product otoacoustic emission and transient evoked otoacoustic emission were examined. The auditory brainstem response parameters, distortion-product otoacoustic emission parameters, and transient evoked otoacoustic emission parameters between the ipsilateral and contralateral ears along the duration of tinnitus were analyzed. Moreover, the failure rates of both distortion-product otoacoustic emission and transient evoked otoacoustic emission between the ears along with the duration and the effects of the variables on the amplitude and latency of each wave were examined. Although there was little significant difference between the ipsilateral and contralateral ears, laterality seemed to have an effect on wave I latency in the multiple linear regression analysis. The distortion-product otoacoustic emission failure rate of the ipsilateral ear was higher than that of the contralateral ear in all patients. However, there was no remarkable difference between the ears in the distortion-product otoacoustic emission and transient evoked otoacoustic emission parameters throughout the duration. We found that outer hair cells and the distal portion of the cochlear nerve are possible pathologic lesions in tinnitus with normal hearing and cochlear synaptopathy could be suspected. Further studies, including those on inner hair cells and higher central cortex, are needed.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Total Laryngectomy; Cancer; Voice; Voice prosthesis; Otolaryngology; Head Neck Surgery; Speech Language Therapists.
Online: 5 July 2022 (05:44:14 CEST)
Background: In the present study, we assessed the feasibility and success outcomes of voice prosthesis (VP) changes when performed by speech-language pathologist (SLP). Methods: Patients treated with total laryngectomy (TL) from January 2020 to December 2020 were prospectively recruited from our medical center. Patients benefited from tracheoesophageal puncture. The VP changes were performed by the senior SLP and the following data were collected for each VP change: date of placement; change or removal; VP type and size; reason for change or removal; and use of a washer for periprosthetic leakage. A patient-reported outcome questionnaire including 6 items was proposed to patients at each VP change (Appendix 1). Items were assessed with a 10-point Likert-scale. Results: Fifty-two VP changes were performed by the senior SLP during the study period. The mean duration of the SLP consultation, including patient history, examination and VP change procedure was 20 min (range: 15-30). The median prosthesis lifetime was 88 days. The main reasons for VP changes were transprosthetic (N=34; 79%) and periprosthetic (N=7; 21%) leakages, respectively. SLP successfully performed all VP changes. He did not change one VP but used a periprosthetic silastic to stop the periprosthetic leakages. In two cases, SLP needed the surgeon examination to discuss about the following indication: implant mucosa inclusion and autologous fat injection. The patient satisfaction was high according to the speed and the quality of care by the SLP. Conclusion: The delegation of VP change from the otolaryngologist-head and neck sur-geon to the speech-language pathologist (SLP) may be done without significant complications. The delegation of VP change procedure to SLP may be interesting in some rural regions with otolaryngologist shortage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0243.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: telemedicine; otolaryngology; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; virtual healthcare
Online: 26 April 2022 (13:02:00 CEST)
Objectives: As institutions modified medical practices to mitigate the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, providers were forced to modify care through the implementation of telemedicine. The objective of this article is to review the current practices of otolaryngology during the COVID-19 pandemic and the limitations of telemedicine in current practice. Methods: A thorough review of the PubMed and MEDLINE databases was performed for publications between 2020 and 2021. Studies discussing telemedicine in otolaryngology during COVID-19 pandemic were selected. Results: As worldwide cases of COVID-19 continue to oscillate, we must continue to be vigilant in our clinical practice, implementing safe techniques to mitigate the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus through the continual use of telemedicine in all specialties of otolaryngology. Trends of increased patient acceptance of the use of telemedicine have been seen across subspecialities, including otolaryngology. Conclusion: Currently there are challenges associated with the implementation of telemedicine in the field of otolaryngology that rely heavily on adjunct physical examination, imaging studies, and specialty procedures. However, telemedicine has tremendous potential and can be adapted to include in the otolaryngologist’s toolbelt during public health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Smoking; DPOAEs; Contralateral supression; OAE; Non-smokers; auditory system; ill-effects on efferent system
Online: 10 September 2021 (11:29:00 CEST)
The present study compared the contralateral suppression and the amplitude of distortion product otoacoutsic emissions (DPOAEs) between smokers and non-smokers to determine the influence of smoking. Thirty smokers and thirty non-smokers within the age range of 18-40 years with a normal hearing sensitivity were considered for the study. For both the groups, DPOAEs were measured and the efferent auditory system functioning was measured by presenting the white noise of 50 dB HL to the contralateral side, while recording the DPOAEs. There was no significant effect of age on the amplitude of DPOAEs in both the groups. However, there were significant differences in the amplitude of DPOAEs between smokers and non-smokers. The amount of suppression and DPOAE amplitude were reduced in smokers when compared to non-smokers. The study found no significant correlation between the amount of smoking and amount of suppression between smokers and non-smokers. However, there were significant correlations between the amount of smoking and DPOAE at low and mid frequencies between smokers and non-smokers. Therefore, the present study highlights the increased damage to the efferent auditory system risk and the smoking ill-effects on the efferent auditory system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0606.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: tinnitus; acupressure; self-help; ecological momentary assessment; stress
Online: 9 August 2021 (11:45:41 CEST)
Tinnitus is a phantom sound perception in the ears or head and can arise from many different medical disorders. Currently, there is no standard treatment for tinnitus that reliably reduces tinnitus. Individual patients reported that acupressure at various points around the ear can help to reduce tinnitus, which was investigated here. With this longitudinal observational study, we report a systematic evaluation of auricular acupressure on 39 tinnitus sufferers, combined with a self-help smartphone app. The participants were asked to report about tinnitus, stress, mood, neck and jaw muscle tensions twice a day using an ecological momentary assessment study design for six weeks. On average, 123.6 questionnaires per person were provided and used for statistical analysis. The treatment responses of the participants were heterogeneous. On average, we ob-served significant negative trends for tinnitus loudness (Cohen’s d effect size: -.861), tinnitus dis-tress (d = -.478), stress (d = -.675), and tensions in the neck muscles (d = -.356). Comparison with a matched control group revealed significant improvements for tinnitus loudness (p = .027) and self-reported stress level (p = .003). The positive results of the observational study motivate fur-ther research including a randomized clinical trial and long-term assessment of the clinical im-provement.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Drug-induced hearing loss; cochlea; outer hair cells; hearing protection; SIRT3
Online: 9 August 2021 (07:50:36 CEST)
A single paragraph of about 200 words maximum. For research articles, abstracts should give a pertinent overview of the work. We strongly encourage authors to use the following style of structured abstracts, but without headings: (1) Background: Place the question addressed in a broad context and highlight the purpose of the study; (2) Methods: briefly describe the main methods or treatments applied; (3) Results: summarize the article's main findings; (4) Conclusions: indicate the main conclusions or interpretations. The abstract should be an objective representation of the article and it must not contain results that are not presented and substantiated in the main text and should not exaggerate the main conclusions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0087.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CR); inflammation; nasal polyps; epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT); Polyp derived mesenchymal stem cells (PO-MSCs)
Online: 4 August 2020 (11:07:19 CEST)
Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common inflammatory disease of paranasal sinuses, which causes rhinorrhea, nasal congestion and hyposmia. The genetic predisposition or the exposure to irritants can sustain the inflammatory response and the development of nasal polyposis. Nasal polyps are benign and teardrop-shaped growths that project in the nasal cavities and originate from the ethmoid sinuses. This inflammatory process is associated with high expression of IL-5 cytokine and infiltration of eosinophils. Humanized monoclonal antibodies targeting IL-5 or its receptor, represent a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of nasal polyposis in combination with corticosteroids. The molecular pathogenesis of nasal polyps in CRS patients is associated to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process in which epithelial cells lose their typical phenotype acquiring a mesenchymal phenotype. TGFβ/SMAD, ERK, and Wnt/β-catenin pathways are altered in EMT during the nasal tissue remodeling. miRNA and inhibitor molecules targeting these altered signaling pathways are able to interfere with EMT; which could lead to alternative therapies. Nasal polyps are an alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells which can be easily isolated from surgical biopsies. A molecular understanding of the biology of PO-MSCs will contribute to delineating inflammatory process underlying the development of nasal polyps.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0430.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: COVID-19; tracheostomy; head and neck; otolaryngology
Online: 29 March 2020 (09:15:12 CEST)
Importance: The rapidly expanding 2019 novel coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus) has challenged the medical community to an unprecedented degree. Physicians and healthcare workers are at added risk of exposure and infection during the course of the patient care. Due to the rapid spread of this disease through respiratory droplets, healthcare providers such as otolaryngologists-head & neck surgeons who come in close contact with the upper aerodigestive tract during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are particularly at risk. Here we present a set of safety recommendations based on our review of literature and communications with physicians with first-hand knowledge of safety procedures during the 2019 COVID-19 pandemic.Observations: A high number of healthcare providers were infected during the first phase of the pandemic in Wuhan province. Subsequently, by adopting strict safety precautions, other regions were able to achieve high levels of safety for healthcare providers without jeopardizing the care of patients. We reviewed the most common procedures related to the examination and treatment of upper aerodigestive tract diseases. Each category was reviewed based on the potential risk imposed to healthcare workers. Specific recommendations were made, based on the literature, when available, or consensus best practices. Specific safety recommendations were made for performing tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients. Conclusions and Relevance: Preserving highly skilled healthcare work force is a top priority for any community and healthcare system. Based on the experience of healthcare systems in Asia and Europe, by following strict safety guidelines, the risk of exposure and infection of healthcare providers could be significantly reduced, while providing high levels of care. The provided recommendations could be used as broad guidance for all healthcare workers who are involved with the care of COVID-19 patients.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: hearing impairment; hearing loss; ontology; data harmonization; meta-analysis
Online: 19 September 2019 (11:37:08 CEST)
Hearing impairment (HI) is a common sensory disorder that is defined as the partial or complete inability to detect sound in one or both ears. This diverse pathology is associated with a myriad of phenotypic expressions and/or syndromes. HI can be caused by various intrinsic, environmental and/or unknown factors. Some ontologies capture some relevant HI forms, phenotypes and syndromes, but there is no comprehensive knowledge portal which includes aspects specific to the HI disease state. This hampers inter-study comparability, integration and interoperability within and across disciplines. This work describes the HI Ontology (HIO) that was developed based on the Sickle Cell Disease Ontology (SCDO) model. This is a collaboratively developed resource built around the 'Hearing Impairment' concept by a group of experts in different aspects of HI and ontologies. HIO is the first comprehensive, standardized, hierarchical and logical representation of existing HI knowledge. HIO allows researchers and clinicians alike to readily access standardized HI-related knowledge in a single location and promote collaborations and HI information sharing, including epidemiological, socio-environmental, biomedical, genetic and phenotypic information. Furthermore, this ontology illustrates the adaptability of the SCDO framework for use in developing a disease-specific ontology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: noise; hearing aid; viewing center; mini stadium; sound level meter; Bundesliga
Online: 28 December 2018 (04:59:52 CET)
Noise pollution is an environmental problem due to its effect on hearing and other related health issues. The elevated noise levels above standard limits cause hearing loss and other attendant problems. In Nigeria, viewing centers where football matches are watched via satellite are known as ‘Mini Stadium’. In this study, the noise pollution of a viewing center was assessed. To do this, five top teams each from the English Premier League (EPL), La Liga, Bundesliga, League 1, and Serie A were selected for the assessment. A sound level meter (GB: 2266204, made in China) was used for the monitoring. The range of noise levels in dBA showed as follow: EPL (56-108); La Liga (46-106); Bundesliga (54-102); Serie A (49-101); and Ligue 1 (54-101). The results when compared with the standard limits, it was observed that part of the results exceeded the limits, this means that the viewers and others within the viewing center may be prone to the hearing problem. It is recommended that acoustic insulators and hearing aids should be used to reduce the attendant problems associated with noise.