ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0006.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: sustainable tourism; tourism sensitivity; tourism vulnerability; natural disaster; earthquake
Online: 4 January 2021 (10:21:51 CET)
Despite increased global interest in the impacts of natural disasters on tourism, less study executes exploring how tourism sensitivity is addressed at the destination level. Generating a link between tourism and natural disaster management is vital in places that rely heavily on tourism and are prone to natural hazards. Ranau, Sabah (Malaysia) is one of the disaster-prone tourists' destination area. Hence, this paper applies the case study of Ranau earthquake 2015 to explore tourism sensitivity towards natural disasters. A qualitative of in-depth interview is applied to acquire information needed from the Ranau tourism entrepreneurs and operators. To analyse the qualitative data, a thematic analysis is conducted. Overall findings show that tourism activity in Ranau are identified to be sensitive towards the 2015 earthquake with a significant percentage of sensitivity level on two elements. These elements are known as Source and Power. The Source element includes tourism products, size of business, development, and natural disasters management with a significant sensitivity compared to the Power element (social capital). This provides insight to the need of specific tourism system adaptation as response to the earthquake and considering the integration of natural disaster management into tourism development to enhance long term sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0051.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: tourism, travel, halal tourism, Islamic tourism, Islamic teachings, Sharia
Online: 4 December 2018 (10:05:44 CET)
A quick scan of the available literature on the subject of halal tourism reveals that many scholars and laypersons alike misconceive this concept. Whereas some suggest that halal tourism occurs whenever a Muslim individual travels somewhere, others retort that only pilgrimages by Muslim travelers regarded as halal tourism. More careful research of the literature shows that the truth is somewhere in between, as none of the above definitions is correct. Overall, it is this lack of clarity that has prompted an additional inquiry into the essence of halal tourism. This essay is a modest academic endeavor to ascertain what halal tourism is and what ideologies lie at its foundation. To answer these questions, the author employs the literature review research methodology, scrutinizing number sources. Ultimately, this essay has established that halal tourism not confined to religious pilgrimages alone. Indeed, halal tourism occurs whenever a Muslim individual travels for religion, business or leisure and uses only those services and facilities that conform to the teachings of Islam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0019.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Educational Tourism; Tourism Supply and Demand; Experience; Tourism Activities
Online: 6 September 2017 (11:58:11 CEST)
The Smart Park (well-known as Taman Pintar) as a major educational tourism destination in Jogjakarta offers a variety of tourism attractions that are very interesting for tourists. The main purpose of tourists visiting Smart Park is to get an educational tourism experience. A subjective experience raises a specific challenge for Smart Park toward the status of competitive destination. The purpose of this study is to analyze the aspects of educational tourism experience that are affected by tourism demand and supply. Data were collected by survey technique to 150 respondents and analyzed using path analysis. The results of analysis show that tourism demand and supply contributed to the variation of tourism activities by 45.1%, while the remaining was explained by other variables, such as National Budget, Local Budget, ticket sale, and cooperation with some stakeholders. Tourism supply had a higher effect than tourism demand. Tourism demand did not partially affect tourism experience. However, the results of the path analysis indicate that tourism supply had direct and indirect effects on tourism experience through the variation of tourism activities with indirect effect being dominant. In the management of Smart Park, there is still a gap between tourism demand and supply, so that the environment of tourism experience has not been created maximally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0070.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Tourism sustainability; Indicators; mountain tourism; route tourism; Drakensberg Mountains
Online: 15 June 2017 (18:36:11 CEST)
This paper assesses the use the Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria (GSTC) indicators for monitoring tourism along a mountainous route. The study was carried out along a mountain route in the Drakensberg Mountains of South Africa. A survey was carried out among tourism businesses, local communities and local government officials located along the Maluti Route, which passes though the eastern part of the Free State Province of South Africa. This study constitutes the first assessment in which the GSTC indicators are applied in the assessment of the sustainability of route tourism in South Africa. The study first evaluated the importance of each indicator by considering the level of application in tourism business organisations before examining the perceptions of local community members and local government officials regarding the applicability of the indicators in the assessment of tourism sustainability. The results suggest that there is a general appreciation of tourism sustainability among tourism business operators although shortcomings were evident on environmental and socio-economic indicators. In conclusion, the paper suggests ways through which tourism sustainability could be enhanced among different players along the Maluti Route.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2145.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: economy; tourism; sustainable tourism development; regional destination; sustainable tourism; economic crisis
Online: 30 September 2023 (07:23:55 CEST)
In order to ensure sustainable tourism development, it is currently becoming crucial to look into promotion of popular tourist destinations in Russia. This is due to a number of factors, including the acceptance of the credibility and importance of the concept of sustainable tourism, as well as the awareness of the necessity of taking into account a wide range of short- and long-term effects, external factors, and interdisciplinary aspects of the development of the Russian tourism industry. In the context of a local tourist destination during the economic crisis, the study aims to highlight some of the key economic elements of sustainable tourism. The decision to adopt a regional perspective is necessitated by the fact that many of the most crucial elements for the long-term sustainable development of the tourist complex are established at this level, including decision-making by businesses and authorities that are economically viable. The research focuses on the economic aspects to be considered while designing an overall strategy for the long-term development of regional tourist destinations in Russia. The authors define sustainable tourism from the viewpoint of economics. This understanding extends beyond the relatively limited framework of environmental and socioeconomic consequences of tourism development, affecting some less obvious economic aspects of a regional destination that directly relate to sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0098.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Green Infrastructures; Slow Tourism; Rural Tourism; Bioregion
Online: 6 February 2023 (09:55:00 CET)
In European countries many measures are carried out to improve the disadvantaged conditions and socio-economic marginality of rural areas in comparison with central places. These conditions also affect the quality of travel for visitors and tourists. Therefore, in response to a 'new' tourist demand, motivated also by the restrictions following the spread of the Covid-19 virus in recent years, the institutions and the different local actors are working more incisively to improve rural areas. The rural tourism services offer, combined with the Green Infrastructure (GI) project, at different scales - from local to regional - prove to be interesting territorial development strategies to achieve the Agenda 2030 objectives. This contribution considers the Sulcis Iglesiente - Guspinese area, in the Sardinia Region (IT), as a case study. In this area, the landscape context is marked by past mining activity and the project of a path of historical, cultural and religious values has proved to be an activator of regenerative processes, in environmental, social and economic terms. The present study proposes a methodological approach to develop an index (FI - Feasibility Index) to assess the feasibility of the Stop Places (SPs) schemes along a horse trail to integrate the current slow mobility by bicycle and pedestrian in the bioregion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0550.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: “Borghi”; Tourism development; Rural Area; Sustainable tourism
Online: 20 April 2021 (14:21:48 CEST)
The paper comes from the need to search for criteria useful for the valorization of heritage towns, located in rural and/or inland areas of Italy, now affected to depression and depopulation process. To this end, the authors point out how territorial identity can constitute the theoretical foundation to influence the development policies and, in particular, the tourism development for sustainability process It was therefore decided to interview a number of stakeholders who could contribute with their professionalism and expertise to identify possible paths and processes for the enhancement of these areas for tourism development. The methodology was based on be to be interviews with open questions, which allowed to identify a SWOT analysis, offering a guideline for a correct governance of these rural areas for their tourist enhancement, in terms of sustainability of development and tourist attractiveness. The study is an observatory that will monitor the implementation of sustainable tourism enhancement of the borghi, heritage town
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0091.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: E-tourism; Climate; Climate Change; Tourism Industry
Online: 5 July 2020 (17:04:13 CEST)
In the recent century, the tourism industry and within it the tourism economy are one of the most important and fundamental sectors of engaged business. E-tourism can be used as a dynamic tool in up to date areas of informative information and tourism marketing will be considered as a suitable field for the tourism industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between climate change and the amount of revenues from the tourism industry relying on a tool called e-tourism, and informing and providing services through this way so that Iran can achieve a greater share of export of a single-product oil economy combined with economic growth and sustainable development goals. The method of this research is descriptive-analytical.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0211.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Tourism industry; sports tourism; entrepreneurship; institutional factors; development
Online: 7 April 2021 (15:28:25 CEST)
The aim of this study is to identify the effective institutional factors on the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities of the sports tourism industry in developing countries. This research is a qualitative study, the systematic method of Strauss and Corbin (1990) has been used to analyze the data. Interviewing is the main method of collecting data in this research, which semi-structured interviews were done with 45 members of the research community. According to Shane and Venkataraman individual-opportunity nexus framework (2000), interview questions were drafted and simultaneously with data collection from interviews, data analysis was performed. Based on the research results, 75 indicators affecting the exploitation of entrepreneurship opportunities in sports tourism were identified. Our research findings show that the necessary institutional arrangements in regulatory/legal/administrative dimensions (rule of law, government policies), normative/cultural (social norms, values and beliefs), cognitive/educational (promotion of elite knowledge, promotion of social knowledge) and guidance measures/supporter (public sector support, private sector support, complementary attraction and information technology) can improve the rate of entrepreneurial behavior in this area by increasing the ability and willingness of entrepreneurs to take advantage of entrepreneurial opportunities in the field of sports tourism. Finally, according to the research results, it can be suggested that for the growth of the sports tourism industry in developing countries, The existence of a legal, normative, supportive and educational environment will affect the ability and desire of market participants to identify and exploit the entrepreneurial opportunities of this emerging industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0028.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: air pollution; inbound tourism; tourist arrivals; tourism receipts
Online: 1 March 2021 (14:12:40 CET)
Concerns about China’s air quality, and its impact on the important tourism industry have been on the debate in recent years. This article aims to investigate the potential effect of air pollution on direct economic impact of tourism, using the case of Beijing and Shanghai. The results indicate that air pollution negatively affects China's inbound tourism, resulting in huge loss of tourist arrivals and receipts, and Beijing suffers a greater loss in comparison with Shanghai, its loss in tourist number amounts to 1569,700 persons, equal to CNY 10264.268 million in tourism receipts, and the GDP losses ranges from CNY 20528.536 to 41057.072 across major source countries. This study provides a quantification of the impact helpful to generate a social awareness of air pollution detrimental impacts on inbound tourism and hence the economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0633.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; tourism; tourist behavior; tourism sustainability
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:19:47 CEST)
This research aims to understand the vision and the reaction of the population towards tourism and holidays during this period of the COVID-19 pandemic. It investigates also the tourist needs of the Algerian population after the closure of international borders. Methods: The data were collected using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods through a questionnaire applied to 203 people in different regions of Algeria (a North African country) from 1st June to 13 July 2020. Results: The needs of Algerian tourists are characterized by a great need for leisure to relieve psychological stress caused by COVID-19 (M = 25.33) among the study sample (p <0.05). The results also show an average need to rationalize the costs of tourist services (M = 5.26) according to the respondents (p <0.01). This is in addition to the great need (M = 7.75) among respondents (p <0.05) of the awareness that the tourism sector can contribute to the economic recovery in Algeria after the confinement period. About 75.86% of respondents demand the cleanliness of tourist sites, while 69.95% recommend improving safety because of the size of tourist sites in the Algerian territory and also measures related to social distancing. The results show that 53.69% of respondents preferred the month of August to go on vacation, 29.06% chose the month of September, and 17.25% would prefer the months of October, November and December since they expect a reduction in the risks of the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the tourism needs of the Algerian population, which has become increasingly aware of the consequences of the pandemic in relation to their health and on the country's economy. These results can help the authorities of the tourism sector to better understand and identify the tourism needs of this population in the current period and after the COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0403.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Sustainable tourism; Active tourism; Hybrid Choice Model; Discrete Choice Experiment; Willingness to pay; Tourism demand
Online: 7 November 2023 (10:19:04 CET)
This paper aims to understand better how attitudes towards the environment could influence preferences and willingness to pay for the development of sustainable tourism products on the Spanish island of Gran Canaria. A hybrid choice model is estimated to analyse how different latent constructs related to environmental concerns affect individuals’ preferences for a set of sustainable tourism activities. The data used in the analysis is obtained from a discrete choice experiment where different scenarios with nature-based tourism packages are created. A set of measurement indicators allowed us to gain insight into the underlying latent structure regarding the individuals’ attitudes towards the environment. The analysis consists of integrating these attitudes into a choice model, focusing on a market segment primarily comprised of potential customers who are young residents and non-residents. Results reveal significant heterogeneity in preferences and willingness to pay for the various activities under study when attitudinal latent factors are incorporated into the model. Our findings provide valuable insights for researchers, policymakers, and practitioners promoting sustainable tourism products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0714.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: cloud tourism; sustainable tourism development; audience psychological analysis; webcast
Online: 10 May 2023 (08:46:18 CEST)
In recent years,"cloud tourism" has developed rapidly and has gained a wide audience, gradually becoming a new operation form of sustainable development in the tourism.However, research on the audience perception, psychological needs, and behavior in this area is still in its infancy. Taking the tourism webcast on the Chinese Weibo platform as an example, this paper constructs a cognitive-emotional model of Chinese tourists' "cloud tourism" and explore the impact mechanism of "cloud tourism" on audience behavioral willingness by drawing on the "cogni-tive-emotional" theory, combining with text analysis and grounded theory. The findings suggest that "cloud tourism" can satisfy the audience's cognitive needs to a certain extent, but the expe-riential nature of tourism is far from sufficient, and it is difficult to realize the essence of tourism. In the future, "cloud tourism" still needs to continuously exert positive effects, becoming a visual presentation of traditional tourism and a novel operation form of sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0524.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Vietnam; China; Vietnam - China border; tourism; cross-border tourism
Online: 30 August 2022 (11:32:48 CEST)
This article aims to identify the current development of cross-border tourism between Vietnam and China. The paper analyzes the perception and strategy of cross-border tourism development in the two countries, especially in the context of China’s implementation of the “Belt and Road Initiative” (BRI). The article emphasizes that Vietnam and China have recently made efforts to promote cross-border tourism development. At the same time, Vietnam and China see cross-border tourism development as a significant part of comprehensive border cooperation between the two countries. However, the development plans for cross-border tourism between the two countries are still mainly on the desk, not yet implemented effectively. Thus, its achievements are relatively modest. Besides, the article emphasizes that the interests of the people living in the border area, especially the Vietnam side, are almost “forgotten” in the development of cross-border travel between the two countries. Besides, the article also analyzes the challenges that the two sides are facing, especially the Vietnam side, in promoting the development of cross-border tourism between the two countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0393.v1
Subject: Geography, Planning And Development, Social Sciences Keywords: tourism destinations; tourism planning; land-use/land-cover changes; Kızkalesi
Online: 7 December 2023 (07:30:59 CET)
Tourism is widely recognised as a significant economic source for local communities. Nevertheless, tourism may potentially result in adverse effects on the environment. In order to mitigate adverse effects and enhance the advantages, tourism development necessitates a comprehensive planning process. In order to effectively manage and guide the growth of tourism, it is imperative to ensure that local-level spatial plans are integrated with national policies and regional strategies. The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of national policies and regional strategies on local spatial plans in tourism destinations, specifically, by analysing the land-use/land-cover changes along the western coastline of Mersin, with a particular emphasis on the Kızkalesi tourism destination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1886.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: cultural identity; tourism development; tourism; attributes; potential; multi-attribute model
Online: 29 August 2023 (04:18:11 CEST)
The purpose of this article is to present a multi-criteria model designed to evaluate the potential of Sincelejo's cultural identity for tourism development. A descriptive quantitative methodology was used, which included a survey of 211 participants. A decision support method was applied, using the Weighted Additive Sum approach, following the multi-attribute method. Based on the information gathered, the elements of cultural identity shared by most of the criteria were identi-fied, highlighting the gastronomic, social, and cultural traditions and customs of the region, the results of which made it possible to design a composite indicator to evaluate the tourism potential of cultural identity in the area.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: international tourism; coronavirus; COVID-19; post-viral tourism; recovery strategies
Online: 31 March 2020 (05:00:08 CEST)
The coronavirus pandemic will deeply affect the tourism and travel sector. It is already clear now that its economic impact would be more severe that in the case of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003. Although not as deadly as SARS, coronavirus infection has a longer incubation period and leaves about 85% of the infected without any (or with just mild) symptoms which makes it more difficult to track and to contain. Moreover, it appears to be much more contagious than its predecessor. The goods news is that most people recover from the disease and develop antibodies that can protect them from getting infected again (natural vaccination). Those cured might become the key element for the post-virus recovery strategies of tourism organisations. People with the acquired immunity to the virus would be capable of travelling freely without spreading the disease. Airlines, hotels and gastronomy should aim at this group offering them discounts and special offers. However, the problem is how to effectively ensure that everyone who claims to be cured from COVID-19 is telling the truth. Health tracking bracelets, apps, and other advanced technological solutions should be put in place. Recent best practices from Hong Kong, mainland China, or India might be applied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0161.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: harmonic methodology tourism; sustainability attributes; rural tourism; knowledge; complex systems
Online: 12 December 2019 (04:33:50 CET)
According to the growing concern of various focus groups, in regard to the mitigation of the negative impacts generated because of the tourism, has born the interest of proposing sustainable tourism projects derivatives of the feeling within the communities (1) Background: the aim is to propose a differentiated diagnosis of the Subsystems (biophysical and anthropic) and their relationship with traditional-rational knowledge; (2) Methods: from the Theory of Complex Systems was propose the Harmonic Tourism Methodology, that try to correlation the subsystem and knowledge in the community of San Juan Tlahuica Atzingo, State of Mexico (4) Conclusions: Among the most outstanding results that are on the one hand, we must work through tourism projects to the rescue and preservation of natural and cultural resources, reassessing them through the strengthening of social cohesion. On the other hand, the application of this case allowed us to visualize that it is necessary to consolidate the elements and steps of the methodology in order to apply it to different communities that are beginning their journey in the field of the tourism and that can improve and potentiate their resources, seeking harmony between them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1903.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: destination management; tourism planning; indicator systems; local authorities; sustainable tourism; governance.
Online: 28 September 2023 (08:39:06 CEST)
Local Authorities have significant tourism planning responsibilities and can benefit from evidence-based approaches. Qualitative interviews with 29 Local Authorities identified impediments to adopting indicators. Key barriers included more knowledge of indicator systems, training in using systems and understanding sustainability value and governance issues. However, transitioning to sustainable tourism through monitoring requires efficient resourcing of Local Authorities. Statutory adoption of indicators may be needed to enable evidence-based planning and policymaking. More informed planning approaches can help destinations respond to tourism issues and sustainability threats. Findings have implications for facilitating indicator implementation and evidence-based planning in other tourism destinations internationally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0001.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: thermal tourism; health and wellness tourism; motivations; consumers’ profile; covid-19
Online: 1 July 2021 (07:39:25 CEST)
Health and wellness tourism should be particularly valued in the post-pandemic phase, as a stra-tegic product to enhance the population's well-being and quality of life indicators, at social, phys-ical, and environmental dimensions, with different proposals for specialized experiences that complement the destination's offer, positioning regions as health and wellness destinations. Thermal tourism should be encouraged, as a specific product, due to the innovation and diversi-fication observed in the services made available and the benefits recognized at different age levels of tourists and destinations communities. Considering the relevance of thermal springs and thermal tourists for tourism destinations image, positioning, and development, this research aims to identify the specific motivations of tourists to the practice of thermal tourism, to understand how the benefits that thermal tourists search for, and their sociodemographic profile influence the motivations, and how the motivations determine the travel characteristics. This research was de-veloped on the North and Centre of Portugal, for their relevance in the context of thermal springs and related tourism activities. To achieve the research objectives, a questionnaire survey was ap-plied to thermal tourists, through a non-probability by convenience sampling, using bivariate tests, such as Pearson’s chi-squared test, one-way ANOVA, and t-student. The results highlight that most respondents practiced thermal tourism due to leisure and relaxation benefits, such as the escape from daily stress, spend time with family, and being "pampered"; relaxation is the most valued motivation, followed by the search for psychological and physical wellbeing. The research found relations between the benefits expected by thermal tourists, and their travel characteristics such as the composition of the group, the general travel motivation, the thermal destination cho-sen, and the number of nights spent. In thermal tourism, new challenges emerge, demanding the development of strategies, products, and services responding to the needs of specific market segments.
Online: 28 February 2023 (06:20:18 CET)
Child-friendly tourism is a tourism concept that focuses on the welfare and needs of children as tourism actors. This concept is an important part of developing a sustainable tourism city because children are the future generation who will continue their role in maintaining the sustainability of the tourism industry. This article discusses the importance of child-friendly tourism in the development of a sustainable tourist city and provides some examples of best practices in creating a safe, comfortable and educational tourism environment for children. This article also discusses some of the challenges and opportunities in implementing the concept of child-friendly tourism, including how to involve children in decision-making and increase community participation in creating a better tourism environment for children. By adopting the concept of child-friendly tourism, tourist cities can build a sustainable tourism environment and preserve natural resources and local culture, while also providing positive and memorable tourism experiences for children and their families.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1654.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Rural tourism; tourism seasonality; World Heritage Site; sustainable livelihood; thematic analysis; fsQCA
Online: 24 August 2023 (04:00:22 CEST)
Although tourism seasonality significantly influences the livelihood activities of rural tourism households, limited research has explored how they adapt their livelihood strategies to achieve optimal outcomes. Employing an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design that combines thematic analysis and fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA), we investigated the relationship between the livelihood strategies and outcomes of rural tourism households under the influence of tourism seasonality at the Guilin Karst World Heritage Site. The results indicate that livelihood strategies adopted by rural tourism households include "Tourism Persistence,” "Seasonal Employment,” and “Seasonal Farming” during the off-season, and “Extending Working Hours,” “Increasing Staffing Input,” and “Increasing Capital Input” during the peak season. Furthermore, these strategies form flexible combinations to realize livelihood outcomes, with “Extending Working Hours” being a necessary condition. The findings also revealed that the four configurations of seasonal livelihood strategies in the two patterns significantly contributed to high livelihood outcomes. One is named “Peak-Season Driven Pattern,” where “Extending Working Hours” and “Increasing Staffing Input” are the core conditions; the other is named “Peak-Off Blend-Driven Pattern,” where “Extending Working Hours,” “Increasing Capital Input,” and the absence of “Tourism Persistence” are the core conditions. These findings provide theoretical and practical insights for sustainable livelihood research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0520.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Urban planning; land use policy; tourism planning; urban management; tourism complex; master planning
Online: 26 October 2020 (12:00:42 CET)
This research paper is to analyze the planning and design techniques of the tourism complexes in the process of municipalities’ master planning. First, it explains the importance of the tourism industry with the help of theories of scholars and experts. Then, it emphasizes the link between the economic developments of cities/regions with the development of the tourism industry. The innovation of this work is to integrate tourism industry planning and comprehensive regional/ urban planning. The main way of doing this is to plan and design the tourism complexes in the early stages of the master planning of the municipality. Urban land-use policies and locating techniques are suggested through this research. Land-use policies and new urban design models for the regional/urban sustainable development are some of the other handouts in this paper. The outcome of this research is good assistance for engineers, planners, and students of urban and regional development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0695.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Tourism livelihood income; prevent COVID-19; protective intention; merged model; local tourism practitioners
Online: 31 August 2020 (04:37:04 CEST)
(1) Background: This study examines the intention to behave actively prevent COVID-19 among local tourism practitioners by adopting an empirically validated norm activation model (NAM) of Schwartz and merging it with the Expectancy theory of Vroom; (2) Methods: The study aims to develops a theoretical framework for understanding the formation and predicting the change of personal protective intention to prevent COVID-19. Based on 514 valid responses from the field surveys; (3) Results: The author develops the refined model including 7 constructs and 26 observational items, and the results showed that the refined model has enjoys a better predictive accuracy of protective intention than the original NAM; and (4) Conclusions: The intention of preventing COVID-19 should needs wider public support and advocacy, and recognizing the change rule of improving behavioral intentions of preventing COVID-19 to maintain the safe tourism image of tourist attractions in Zhangjiajie is also beneﬁts for local tourism practitioners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: tourism geography; city connectivity; tourism services value; functional role; urban urbanhierarchy; regional pattern
Online: 17 July 2020 (09:09:52 CEST)
[Background] Previous research achievements of the service-oriented tourist city network have often focused on the analysis of its geographical distribution and service role of the important cities instead of the connections and hierarchical tendencies between the whole city in a large region.[Method]Using big data approaches on the regional connections of 38 tourism organizations including famous hotels, air passenger transport, tourism service agencies across 63 most important tourist cities in China. Fuzzy c-means clustering analysis is used to define 8 city arena clusters. [Results]According to the distributions of connectivity between 63 cities, these eight clusters play different service functional roles in the urban tourism network at four hierarchies. With their “center-edge” memberships, these arena clusters are formed by the interweaving process of regional and hierarchical tourism service connections. The results include the analysis of the various service-oriented tourist city in China and point out the geography “gap” faced by network. [Conclusion] Service-oriented tourist cities need to find their hierarchies and positioning in the network scientifically to avoid blind development, to make regional urban tourism sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0465.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: tourist destination; sustainable tourism; indicators; European Tourism Indicators System (ETIS); Visit South Sardinia.
Online: 27 August 2018 (15:02:10 CEST)
The European system of indicators is the result of the European Union sustainable development strategy, based on the objectives of economic prosperity, social equity, cohesion and environmental protection. In 2010 the EC defined four strategic priorities: encourage competitiveness in the tourism sector, promote sustainable high-quality tourism, strengthen the image of Europe as a tourism destination, and finally, improve EU financial policies and instruments. This paper aims to analyze in a positive critical perspective the experience done during the period 2013-2014 in the Italian destination Visit South Sardinia. This experience is in one hand an important primacy in Italy and in Europe, but in the other hand has not reached the expected objectives. Many difficulties were encountered both for data collection and for stakeholder involvement. Also the complexity of the indicators tool kit is relevant. Even if the experience of VSS did not produce the expected results, we believe that the analysis carried out in this paper can help and support other countries and or other destination in Europe in the process of implementation of the ETIS indicators tool kit in order to adapt the system itself to the needs that are encountered locally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0141.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: volunteer tourism; development; participation; commodification
Online: 6 November 2018 (12:58:59 CET)
Volunteer tourism or ‘voluntourism’ packages development and poverty as culturally exotic and ethical experiences for tourists from industrialized countries. In the university sector study abroad tours network voluntourism agencies, local actors, e.g. NGOs, universities and government funding to offer students ‘life changing’ experiential and community development learning. Recent criticism of the commodification of development and poverty through such tours points to multiple pernicious effects of such travel, especially the failure to deliver community impact. Following review of current criticism of voluntourism, this illustrative case study of a purported sustainable housing project in rural Maharashtra employs multiple data sources and covert research to explore the multiple gaps between participatory community sustainable development and voluntourism. The study finds signal lack of financial transparency, incompetent assessment of material needs, and limited local participation and control, failure to deliver on objectives, and recommends that socially responsible short term international exchanges should be carefully monitored and prefer knowledge exchange.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: discrete choice modeling; mode choice; travel behavior; city tourism; sustainable tourism; revealed preference data
Online: 1 August 2022 (10:13:39 CEST)
With growing city tourism, there is an increasing need for urban travel demand models to consider traffic generated by visitors. Existing research has concentrated on socio-demographic and journey-related factors to determine what influences the mode choice of tourists. In contrast, revealed preference data, like travel time, is almost never considered. In this article, we present the results of discrete choice modeling of city tourists’ mode choice based on revealed preference data from a survey we conducted in Kassel, Germany. We used multinomial logit models and determined the model parameters using maximum likelihood estimations. Surprisingly, travel time played a smaller role in mode choice than understood from previously established knowledge about everyday mobility. In the final model, travel time was only significant for the alternative walking. Also, most other sociodemographic and journey-related variables showed no significant influence. The final model reproduced the mode choice, but the goodness of fit was lower than expected from other research. We conclude that modeling the travel behavior of tourists is more complex than everyday mobility. An alternative approach that we suggest would be to model trip chains rather than single trips.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Covid-19; Twitter; sustainable cities; sustainable citizenship; environmental awareness; responsible consumption; sustainable tourism
Online: 5 February 2021 (22:15:27 CET)
The social confinement resulting from the COVID-19 crisis temporarily reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Although experts consider that the decrease in pollution rates was not drastic, some surveys detect a growth in social concern about the climate. In this new climate-conscious environment, municipalities and local governments are promoting a new way of living and caring for cities, even before they can regain national and international freedom of movement. This work analyzes the connection between the new climate awareness arising from the COVID-19 crisis, the proposals of sustainable citizenship around the world, and its communication on Twitter to educate the new eco-conscious audience. The methodology mixes quantitative and qualitative analysis, using the Twitonomy Premium tool and the Twitter research tool, with data extracted at the end of December 2020. Among the top 10 most influential and active accounts, the results show educational institutions, local institutions, companies, neighborhood, associations, and influencers. The impossibility of living the city, has not prevented citizen education and commitment to make real change for when that city and its citizens return to normality. Although this new normality must be different: more ecological, more responsible, more sustainable and practiced from early childhood.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1640.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: virtual tourism; sustainable tourism; cultural heritage digitization; user engagement; VRRO platform; case study; empirical analysis.
Online: 27 November 2023 (04:29:39 CET)
A sustainable smart tourism ecosystem relies on building digital networks that link tourists to destinations. This study explores how web and immersive technologies, such as the VRRO platform, can improve tourism by offering interactive experiences to augment traditional travel. The study underscores the role of VRRO's design in enhancing user interaction and engagement, thereby encouraging the generation of user content and the development of a virtual tour network. An empirical analysis investigates user engagement, revealing that the platform is accessible to users regardless of their technological familiarity. It suggests a high likelihood of sustained use and recommendations. In conclusion, VRRO demonstrates how accessible and innovative technologies in tourism modernize travel experiences and significantly contribute to the evolution of the broader tourism ecosystem.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Coronavirus; COVID-19; Halal hospitality; Halal tourism; tourism industry; Muslim travellers; KSA; Egypt; Middle East
Online: 9 November 2020 (10:07:11 CET)
Coronavirus (COVID-19) gained and will continue to gain a lot of global attention over the coming months (and maybe the coming few years). Since its outbreak in Wuhan (China), it has turned into one of the major challenges affecting the whole world. In a comparatively short time, the virus outbreak turned into a pandemic that led to massive negative impacts not only on people health and well-being, but also on the global economy, travel industry, pharmaceutical industry, tourism industry, and many other industries. This research paper aims to investigate the different effects of coronavirus on the global Halal tourism and Halal hospitality industry and whether the coronavirus pandemic is the end of Halal tourism and hospitality as we know it or not. The paper offers an in-depth theoretical examination of the different aspect of the pandemic on Halal tourism and hospitality industry and provides guidance on how to address these different aspects. The current paper is one of very few research papers addressing coronavirus on the tourism and hospitality industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: energy prices; hospitality; risk; survey; tourism
Online: 2 May 2023 (04:24:46 CEST)
Energy, with very low demand and replacement elasticity, is a key component of production as well as a good for consumption. Inflation as a whole is instantly impacted by rising energy prices. After lockdowns were lifted in 2020–2021 and the global economy started to recover, oil prices began to rise. This trend continued with escalating geopolitical tensions and the eventual crisis in Ukraine brought on by Russia's invasion in February 2022. The current paper examines how the tourism industry has been impacted by rising energy commodity prices from the perspectives of travelers and hotel managers. Hereby a qualitative and a quantitative process is being used for a thorough examination of the consequences of inflated prices. More specifically, the three methods which were used are: descriptive analysis, correlation matrices and regression analysis. For the latter, all models appear to explain well the variation of the variables and provide reliable results. This study concludes that, although the overall inflation caused by higher energy prices was impactful for the individuals as well as for the businesses, however the touristic season of 2023 is expected to be one of the most fruitful ones yet, especially for the Greek economy, since strong numbers are reported (in revenues, expenditure and percentage of expected guests), while tourists are seemingly not willing to sacrifice their holidays altogether, but make other modifications in their lifestyle and choices. Finally, it is important to stress that governments should start integrating sustainable energy as a key component.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0348.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: tourism; Romania; climate information; near future
Online: 14 April 2023 (04:25:54 CEST)
The study presents an assessment of climate suitability for outdoor leisure activities in Romania using the Holliday Climate Index (HCI) for the near future (2021-2040), focusing on unfavorable and good climate conditions. The analysis employs data from an ensemble model in the context of RCP45 and RCP85 climate change scenarios. The results indicate that the number of days with low weather suitability is decreasing in almost the entire country, especially during the warm season, while during the winter and spring extended regions may be characterized by a higher number of days favorable for outdoor activities than during the current climate. An estimation of the impact of climate changes on tourism flux in Romania is further carried out, suggesting that the increasing attractivity of climate conditions may lead to an increased number of tourist overnights in the near future, more pronounced in rural destinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0115.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: tourism; islands; impact; economic development; sustainability
Online: 8 March 2022 (02:45:35 CET)
Tourism may not sustainably support territories with limited natural resource stock as islands. The volume in visitor arrivals and the industry investments can increase the pressure even beyond sustainable levels. There is an evident and unresolved tension between these two great polarities, sustainability and economic growth driven by tourism. The aim for policymakers is to find an acceptable equilibrium between these two dimensions. This paper investigates the tourism evolution between 2007 and 2019 in 15 Mediterranean islands, comparing the tourism pressures through statistical indicators. The analysis will compare tourism demand and supply trends in these contexts. The performances will be evaluated to identify the Islands positioning between sustainability needs and tourism development opportunities considering post-covid-19 challenges.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0662.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Posidonia oceanica; “Banquettes”; Calabria; Seaside tourism
Online: 27 May 2021 (10:20:57 CEST)
The wracks of Posidonia oceanica leaves on the sandy beaches of Calabrian region could be one of the most important defence against erosion processes. The management of Posidonia oceanica leaf litter in Italy has been realized through the mechanical removal and the transport in dumping areas of the beach-cast material. This solution, apparently simple and fast, produces a net loss of sediments from the sandy beaches and, therefore, a deficit in the sedimentary budget of coastline leading the coastal system to possible shore erosions. Instead, it could be better to keep these vegetable deposits on the place so to warrant a positive sedimentary budget and the tourist value of the regional beaches improving coastal tourism in the seaside resorts with bathing vocation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0156.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Health economics; Greece; tourism; COVID-19
Online: 21 June 2020 (16:15:24 CEST)
The issue of when and how to return to business following COVID-19 lockdown is occupying the minds of policymakers, C-Suite executives and managers the world over. We are concerned by the extent to which it appears that these decisions are being taken on a wing and a prayer, while being pitched to the public as though they shouldn’t be questioned. In this paper, we compare the likely impact of COVID-19 infections from travellers coming from the main countries that visit Greece, to the revenues they generate for the Greek economy. We find that arrivals from some countries should be excluded but aren't, while arrivals from other countries that are excluded perhaps shouldn't be. We show that a rational choice around limitations on the reopening of tourist markets depends on the demand for travel to Greece. We conclude that the current policy is largely economically rational, with some exceptions, but also speculate that Greece may not be ready to handle the resulting infection load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0186.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: COVID-19; confinement; beaches; pollution; tourism
Online: 14 June 2020 (16:12:35 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has obliged Governments all around the world to take confinement and social 13 distancing measures. The reduction of leisure and production activities on beaches and ports have 14 disappeared direct and indirect contamination such as plastics, hydrocarbon spill, microbiological loads, 15 noise level, etc. leading to temporary improved environmental conditions, converting the beaches 16 similar to Marine Protected Areas. Some conditions are briefly analyzed through local surveys and in situ 17 observations in the popular beaches and ports of Salinas, Manta and Galápagos. 97-99 % of surveyed 18 people agreed that beaches have notoriously improved during confinement at least from visual 19 observation. On a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best), the beaches were rated 2.23 and 2.83 (less than 20 acceptable) before quarantine, and 4.48 and 4.33 after it for Salinas and Manta respectively. The 21 beaches have less garbage in general and plastic, even though there has been an increase in plastic and 22 face mask production around the world. In Salinas, 72%, and 23 % of surveyed people have seen small 23 pelagic fish, whilst in Manta 75%, and 41% of people saw the same, but also 17% of people have seen 24 whales (humpback and shark-whales) and dolphins practically swimming on the beach. Manta rays, 25 turtles, and other types of species were also observed. In Galapagos beaches, turtles have been 26 observed many more times than usual. The main plausible reason is the decrease in noise level. It is 27 recommended to take this unique opportunity, to construct a baseline data and information on physical, 28 chemical, biological, microbiological coastal oceanographic science, and from them to establish a proper 29 Coastal Zone Management based on beach description, water, and beach quality, human dimension, 30 and economic value indexes. This data and information construction should ideally be done before the 31 beaches are open.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0222.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: water consumption; water metabolism; tourism destination; resilience; non-conventional water resources; sustainable tourism; overtourism; shortage; Spain
Online: 22 June 2019 (11:52:42 CEST)
Tourism, and particularly residential tourism, has led to a change in the urban and demographic model of towns along the European Mediterranean coastline. Water as a limited and limiting resource for the growth of tourism is a popular topic in the scientific literature. However, the incorporation of non-conventional resources (desalination) has meant, in theory, that this limitation has been overcome. The aims of this paper are: a) to identify the different tourism models implanted in this territory and describe them from the point of view of their consumption of water in the demand cycle from 2002 to 2017; b) analyse the hydrosocial cycle, highlighting the measures aimed at satisfying water demand; and c) identify the limitations associated with these hydrosocial systems. To this end, different types of information will be processed, and various complex indicators produced. The results show the importance that demand management and the use of desalinated water in increasing the resilience of this territory to aridity. However, this has generated other problems associated with a tsunami of construction and the continuity of a non-sustainable territorial model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1312.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: tourism; solid waste; surface water; environmental management
Online: 20 October 2023 (08:48:37 CEST)
Environmental perception is a powerful tool for identifying community needs and potential within their surroundings. This study assessed tourists' environmental perception regarding solid waste and its impact on the Hurtado balneary, located in Valledupar, Colombia. From May to July 2023, the investigation delved into the environmental attitudes and behaviors of 769 balneary users by employing a combination of observation, photographic documentation, and a comprehensive 21-question online survey. The findings unveiled compelling insights: an overwhelming 98.8% of participants acknowledged the adverse effects of solid waste on the environment, with an impressive 98% demonstrating a willingness to participate in waste management efforts. Alarmingly, 42.13% exhibited limited awareness of waste management practices, reflecting a lack of public interest and commitment (41.61%). Statistically significant disparities emerged: 59% of waste items were not appropriately disposed of in designated receptacles. Reasons for this included a lack of a sense of belonging (50.2%) and inadequate environmental education (45.6%). 96% expressed the need for river conservation signage, while 59.8% had not engaged in environmental training. The implications of these results extend beyond the Hurtado balneary, potentially informing solid waste management strategies in other aquatic environments. Furthermore, this investigation aligns with three critical Sustainable Development Goals: SDG 12, emphasizing responsible consumption and production; SDG 13, addressing climate action; and SDG 15, advocating for life on land and below water. Keywords: Tourism; solid waste; surface water; environmental management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1517.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Sustainable Tourism; Blockchain; Digital Innovation; Cases Study
Online: 21 June 2023 (09:54:27 CEST)
This article presents a comprehensive review of the relationship in sustainable tourism and blockchain technology. The aim of this research is to explore the potential of blockchain to promote sustainable tourism, as well as to evaluate the current state of research and practical implementations in this field. The findings demonstrate the potential of blockchain in enhancing sustainability practices in tourism, while also highlighting the challenges and limitations. The study provides valuable insights for policymakers, industry practitioners, and researchers, and proposes future research directions to further advance the field.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0084.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: sustainability balanced scorecard; supply chain; sport tourism
Online: 1 June 2023 (11:54:10 CEST)
An integration between the principles in supply change management in sport tourism and sustainability balanced scorecard leads to development of guidance and assessment criteria for a city to be a sustainable sport tourist destination. This paper aims to present a sport tourism sustainability management model (STSM), consisting of 5 perspectives, namely financial perspective, customer perspective, internal process perspective, learning and growth perspective and sustainability perspective. By using Delphi technique to obtain a consensus from experts, university lecturers, independent organization/association and business entities in relation to sport tourism management, the researcher defines elements to assess complex perspective for sustainable development of sport tourism. The result shows that there are 5 perspectives and 18 elements in relation to sustainable development of sport tourism. All perspectives and elements have high consensus as measured by Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance (W) of .488. To validate the model, the researcher examines correlation among the five perspectives with structural equation model and finds that the absolute fit is satisfactory, with the value of CMIN/DF at 1.830, RMSEA at .046, GFI at .951, AGFI at .919 and RMR at .038. In addition, the incremental fit also demonstrates positive result with the value of NFI at .962, CFI at .982, TLI at .973 and IFI at .982. As the model aligns and explains empirical data, it can support decision making for management team, effective and efficient strategy drafting for sustainable development in sport tourism and improving livelihoods of residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0582.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Keywords: Sustainable Tourism; community preparedness; Lombok; Indonesia
Online: 9 May 2023 (07:26:26 CEST)
This research aims to examine the level of readiness of the community to carry out sustainable tourism development, especially community-based tourism on small islands, such as Lombok Island, Indonesia. More specifically, the objectives of this study are as follows: (1) Knowing the level of community readiness in carrying out sustainable tourism development. (2) Knowing the various dimensions that influence sustainable tourism development. (3) Knowing the role of stakeholders in sustainable tourism development. The method applied in this research is mixed methods, a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods are used to determine community readiness for sustainable tourism development. A qualitative approach is used to determine the various factors that influence the development of community-based tourism and to determine the role of stakeholders in the development of community-based tourism. The level of community readiness for sustainable tourism development is high in terms of economic, social, cultural, environmental, and symbolic capital aspects. Aspects that influence the development of sustainable tourism are economic, social, and cultural. Stakeholders who play a role in developing sustainable tourism in the research area are the government, the private sector, universities, non-governmental organizations, and the media.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0147.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Protected areas; stakeholders; sustainable tourism; Sierra Morena
Online: 11 October 2022 (08:00:31 CEST)
As a form of protection, a nature park is often created to protect and valorise natural and cultural heritage in peripheral rural areas. However, in terms of multi-functionality, new nature parks are incorporated into traditional productive activities, such as recreational and tourist activities, which sometimes compromise sustainability. The research objective is to study the relationship between tourism and sustainability in the Nature Parks of “Sierra de Aracena y Picos de Aroche”, “Sierra Norte de Sevilla” and “Sierra de Hornachuelos” that makes up the Dehesas de Sierra Morena Biosphere Reserve in Andalusia, Spain. Therefore, selective interviews have been carried out with the stakeholders to establish their perception of sustainable tourism and the presence of dominant discourses. The main conclusions indicate (1) the presence of different dominant discourses on sustainability, namely the conservationist and mercantilist ones, with the prevalence of the economic dimension; (2) poor awareness and adaptation to the context of global change; and (3) the presence of competitive relationships that generate difficulties for the governance of sustainable tourism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0249.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Dazhai; local institutions; rural tourism; local development
Online: 11 May 2021 (15:00:54 CEST)
Rural tourism has been proved as an effective approach in many rural areas in China, and during the development processes, local institutions play significant roles in the context of China. This paper is to explore various roles of local institutions in the development of rural tourism in a typical community, Dazhai, in Guilin City. Within its limitations, it examines the roles by identifying the current situations of the community, formal and informal institutions that affect the rural tourism development.Obstacles still exist because of the “top-bottom”political system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0546.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Sustainable; cultural heritage; cultural tourism development; Vietnam
Online: 25 August 2020 (11:24:23 CEST)
This study presents the main ideas of sustainable cultural tourism development, a form of tourism associated with work discover and explore the culture of each region. It implies taking into account economic, environmental and socio-cultural aspects by tourism planning and management. The paper presents the historical background of the idea of sustainability, the factors that affect the sustainability of culture in tourism development. The author emphasizes the negative effects of tourism on cultural preservation that can be prevented by applying the principles of sustainable development; at the same time, propose solutions to balance economic development and cultural preservation.
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: COVID-19; Economic; Environment; Development; Social; Tourism
Online: 19 August 2020 (17:22:04 CEST)
The Corona Virus (COVID-19) pandemic situation has posed significant effect on tourism industry. Tourism destinations have embraced emergency health care measures and restrictions imposed on human movement around the world. Beaches and resorts are empty, peoples’ movements are stopped and travelling between territories is strictly controlled. The COVID-19 lockdown around the world has imposed negative impact on the livelihood of people and world economy as well. The present study attempts to find out the scopes for sustainable tourism development in near future from the consequences of social, economic, and environment in COVID-19 pandemic situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0578.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Midlands and Northern Mountains, tourism linkage, Vietnam.
Online: 30 July 2018 (10:10:04 CEST)
This study was conducted to investigate the status of regional linkage in tourism development in in the Midlands and Northern Mountains of Vietnam. The data was collected from a survey of 755 people, including officials from State management bodies in charge of tourism, officials and staffs at tourism resorts, tourism firms, tourism scientists and tourists. In addition, we conducted 10 group discussions, interviewed 30 State tourism agency officials and tourism firms in the Midland and Mountainous provinces of Vietnam. The results show that tourism development in Vietnam in general and the Northwest region in particular is extremely fragmented, not yet forming a regional linkage; Regional and national tourism development programs are just formalistic. The main cause of the situation is the limited regional integration policy in Vietnam, the lack of appropriate regional governance mechanisms and inactive participation of the private sector in regional integration. Based on the findings, we propose a tourism sector linkage model; besides, policy implications are given for fulfilling the linkage policy in the Midlands and Northern Mountains area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0005.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: sustainability; ecotourism; System Dynamic; tourism; biodiversity; communities
Online: 3 February 2017 (03:53:56 CET)
The sustainability of ecotourism is the backbone of tourism development of a country. Ecotourism can contribute to both conservation and development in which involves dynamic relationship between tourism, biodiversity and communities, facilitate by great management. The purpose of this study is to analyze the dimensions of the socio-economic and environmental impacts of ecotourism in communities surrounding the Tasik Kenyir in Terengganu, Malaysia. This study provides a framework for the development and evaluation of ecotourism. The framework will determine if the relationships between indicators are positively correlated which will result in positive contribution to the other by using System Dynamic. Socio-cultural and economic data will be collected through interviews and group discussions in selected communities in Tasik Kenyir. Data on wildlife will be extracted from secondary data from Kenyir Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu. The data analysis will explore the socio-cultural and economic differences between and within different communities due to ecotourism development, the contribution of ecotourism to conservation activities, local support for conservation and ecotourism as well as the influence of tourist activities on the distribution of wildlife species in Tasik Kenyir. This study aims to contribute toward understanding the natural resource community-ecotourism inter-relationship and help to bridge the knowledge gap that hinders biodiversity conservation initiatives. The findings will be used as a base for further development of ecotourism and will recommend alternative management options where necessary for the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1810.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: border areas; tourism ecological security; spatial evolution; drivers
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:40:17 CEST)
Tourism activities generally have a ∩-type lock on the level of tourism ecological security in an area, but when applied to the border areas of China, there are certain specificities in the spatial evolution of tourism ecological security (TES) compared to traditional findings. This paper measures tourism ecological security in China’s border areas from 2009 to 2020 by using the DPSIR model with the superefficient SBM-DEA and analyzes the spatial differences, evolutionary characteristics, and driving factors of tourism ecological security in border areas by using Pearson’s correlation coefficients, center of gravity models, and geographic probes: (1) The overall tourism ecological security index of China’s border provinces is relatively good. Tourism activities do not completely affect the traditional “∩ lock” of the border provinces. The tourism ecological security level of the border provinces presents three spatial-temporal changes (“∩” type, “U” type, “\” type) and four evolution trends (“high–high–high”, “middle–middle–medium”, “medium–low–low”, and “low–low–low”). (2) The overall tourism ecological security level in border areas is polarized between high and low levels, and the ecological security efficiency of the three large areas is spatially characterized as “Southwest Area > Northeast Area > Northwest Area”, and the center of gravity of ecological security is mostly concentrated in Xinjiang, Tibet, and Neimenggu, where the ecological security level is higher. (3) Social and environmental factors are the main factors that influence tourism ecological security in border areas, while economic factors account for a smaller proportion. Accordingly, this thesis also proposes the driving mechanism of the ecological security of tourism sites in border areas in China with a view to providing theoretical support for policy formulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0661.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Corporate Governance; Brand Equity; Profitability; Listed Tourism Companies
Online: 11 July 2023 (07:52:46 CEST)
Previous research has paid little attention to the relationship between corporate governance and brand equity in the tourism industry. This study aims to investigate the moderating effect of corporate governance (CG) on the relationship between brand equity (BE) and corporate profit-ability (CP) with ten control variables including five company characteristics and five macroeconomic variables. Financial data is retrieved from the Taiwan Economics Journal Database (TEJ), covering a total of 196 records from 32 listed companies for 16 years. Results indicate that BE has a significantly positive impact on CP in Taiwanese-listed tourism companies, and that CG moderates the relationship between BE and CP. These findings could help management executives enhance profitability by deepening BE and CG in the tourism industry. Managerial implications are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0468.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: local development; Nature Parks; Sierra Morena; stakeholders; tourism
Online: 28 March 2023 (02:43:43 CEST)
In rural spaces, new activities are developed to add to the traditional ones in the context of multifunctionality, considering the protection and enhancement of natural and cultural heritage, as in Nature Parks. They incorporate new recreational and tourist functions, understood as an instrument for local development. This research aims to study the relationships between tourism and local development in three Natural Parks (Sierra de Aracena and Picos de Aroche, Sierra Norte de Sevilla and Sierra de Hornachuelos) in Andalusia (Spain). The research uses a mixed methodology consisting of, on the one hand, selective interviews with stakeholders focused on tourism and local development processes and, on the other, secondary data to analyze the repercussions on local development. The results show that (1) prevalence among the informants of the economic dimension in local development above the environmental and socio-cultural dimensions; (2) influence of declarations of protection and implementation of development policies on the growth of the tourist offer; (3) uneven tourism development in the different municipalities and Natural Parks; and (4) limited effects of tourism on local development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: geography education; tourism education; curriculum; textbook; secondary education
Online: 19 December 2022 (10:09:48 CET)
Since the mid-20th century, tourism has become a strategic activity for the economy of the Balearic Islands, causing profound social, territorial and environmental transformations. This fact challenges local society, which must be aware of its environment in order to better face the future challenges posed by this economic activity. With this goal, the official curriculum has been analyzed, making it possible to ascertain the approach with which this subject is taught by the administration and what objectives are set. Furthermore, a review was carried out of the contents of geography textbooks in the third year of ESO and the second year of Baccalaureate, which correspond to the educational stages in which tourism aspects appear. The results obtained represent a fundamental strategic diagnosis in order to improve the teaching and learning of this key activity for the Balearic Islands, giving it more importance and adapting its approach to the current times.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0281.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Drive tourism; Routes; Sustainable; Systematic Literature Review; PRISMA.
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:37:29 CEST)
Drive tourism (DT) have become an attractive way of tourist destination for an increasing number of visitors along driving routes. This flow of visitors has made sustainability a major issue that is, the way by which tourism development ensure economic benefits for local communities and preserves local identity, along the route, without compromising the environmental resources. Many studies focused the topic of DT, mainly the analysis of a particular angle, either be economic sustainability, e.g., advantages of the ones related to economic and environment sustainability [e.g., 2,4,5,10], such as the impact of tourists along the route environment. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the social consequences of DT in the local entrepreneurial environment and ensuing over enhancing of their cultural representativeness in terms of authenticity. Our aim is to summon these points of view and achieve, through a systematic literature review, a clear and integrative picture of the driving tourism impacts in terms of sustainability along the routes throughout local communities. A systematic literature review was performed using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) methodology. This systematic literature review sought to consolidate knowledge on the subject. In order to illustrate the link between major categories and their corresponding trends, authors used VOSviewer scientific software. The gathering of existing knowledge around the three components of sustainability highlighted the importance of community involvement and collaboration among DT stakeholders to ensure a trade-off between the protection and promotion of DT routes. Opportunities for future studies are suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0387.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: environmental diversity; eco-tourism; Asir region; GIS; RS
Online: 17 September 2020 (08:06:50 CEST)
This is study follows environmental diversity assessment for geotourism development in Asir region. Geotourism seeks to supporting the tourism landscape in its interaction with the historical and archaeological, architectural or immaterial heritage, and requires diversification in terms of product, market and geographical potential. The study is based on various tourist facades and environmental diversity in Asir. As tourism development is a comprehensive undertaking involving many sectors, and these are the challenges to which the country’s tourism industry should respond to promote domestic tourism. quality and spatial pattern of tourism resources, climate comfort, and natural disaster possibility. Based on analyze multi-source datasets collected, geomorphological features of this area, we created a GIS database comprising geologic and topographic maps, and satellite images using these datasets. The findings of the study provided valuable insights into the role of environmental diversity in achieving tourism. The study examined the interrelationship between tourism and environmental diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0101.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Covid-19; tourism; security measures; sex differences; ANOVA
Online: 4 August 2020 (16:05:20 CEST)
The tourism sector in general and the hotelier in particular face the challenge of managing appropriate measures to deal with the covid-19 pandemic. In this sense it is useful to know what the measures are most demanded by the clientele. This research, by analyzing the variance (ANOVA) of a factor concluded that women are more demanding than men in terms of the level of demand in relation to the measures to be taken in hotels. This, as a practical application, allows to know more accurately the expectations, demands and demands of the client segmented by sex, in order to satisfy and improve the tourist experiences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0313.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: eWOM; Online Reviews; Online consumer behavior; Management; Tourism
Online: 14 July 2020 (13:45:38 CEST)
Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) has been widely used by the majority of consumers in different digital platforms. This exploratory study was conducted with the aim to get further insights about online consumer behavior through social networking sites and online reviews sites in order to help tourism businesses develop sustainable eWOM strategies. In order to carry out this objective, an exploratory study has been developed to analyze the existing literature of eWOM strategies and online consumer behavior. The systematic literature review analysis establishes two main topics: (i) tourism (ii) eWOM. The scientific database of Web of Science has been used to collect relevant literature of the subject matter. The search term “Tourism” and “eWOM” were applied. The database of Web of Science produced a total of 124 articles and with the different filters applied during the PRISMA 2009 Flow diagram the process resulted in a selection of 13 studies. The results of the research will provide a broader knowledge for scholars of social sciences and businesses for adopting sustainable strategies of the increasing influence of eWOM in tourism.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); Carbon Footprint (CFP); Tourism
Online: 19 February 2020 (10:28:55 CET)
The importance of the contribution from tourism to climate change was pointed out by the International Tourism Organization (UNWTO). By combining process-based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Input-output analysis, several researches have tried to evaluate the impacts of the tourism industry as well as its products and services. Indeed, the tourism sector has a wide range of industries including travel and tour, transportation, accommodation, food and beverage, amusement, souvenirs etc. However, the existing cases did not show a breakdown of the impact on climate change. In this paper, the carbon footprint (CFP) of the Japanese tourism industry was calculated based on tourist consumption, using the Japanese Input-output table and the Japanese tourism industry. It was shown that the total emissions were approximately 136 million t-CO2 per year. The contribution ratio of each stage is as follows: Transport 56.3%, Souvenirs 23.2%, Petrol (direct emissions) 16.9%, Accommodation 9.8%, Food and Beverage 7.5%, Activities 3.0%. Then, in the breakdown, the impact is high in the following order Air transport 24.7%, Petrol (direct emissions) 16.9%,Accommodation 9.8%, Food and Beverage 7.5%, Petrol 6.1%, Textile products 5.3%, Food items 4.9%, Confectionery 4.8%, Rail transport 3.9%, Cosmetics 1.9%, Footwear 1.8%, etc. In addition to transportation, this research also highlighted especially the contribution from souvenirs, accommodation, food and beverages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0301.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: geostatistics; spatial modeling; KDE; OHSA; IDW; tourism; Coimbra
Online: 30 January 2019 (05:21:59 CET)
Spatial modeling in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) always involves choices. The existence of constraints, either of a financial nature or related to the specifics of the software itself, to the algorithms, the uncertainty and even the reliability of the data, the purposes and the applications of the studies, make this a kind of guiding compass for GIS analysts. Building on a previous exercise of data acquisition (check-ins) based on two Digital Social Networks (DSN—Facebook and Foursquare) and on the awareness of the use of voluntary geographic information generated by tourists sharing their topophilic ties through DSN, the present analysis aims to evaluate the contribution of modern techniques of spatial analysis applied to tourism in the “Alta and University of Coimbra” area. Concepts and procedural tasks related to density determination, cluster analysis and identification of patterns associated with regionalized variables have thus been implemented with the purpose of evaluating and comparing the results obtained through the application of two techniques of spatial analysis, Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) and Optimized Hot-Spot Analysis (OHSA) & Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) Interpolation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0383.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: tourism demand, climate change, climate volatility, GARCH model
Online: 21 August 2018 (15:48:14 CEST)
As climate is not only a valuable tourism resource but also a factor influencing travel experience, estimating climate change can provide implications to sustainable development of the tourism industry. This study develops Climate Volatility Index (CVI) using GARCH model and estimates the relationship between CVI and Japanese tourism demand for Korea using a tourism demand model, based on data from January 2000 to December 2013. Time lag is applied based on a decision making process regarding travel destinations. The result shows that an increase in volatility of climate change leads to a decrease in tourism demand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0071.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: social exchange theory; structural equation modeling; tourism development
Online: 26 July 2017 (06:32:58 CEST)
Background: Tourism is one of the prominent industry that has a capability to generate handsome income for developed as well as developing countries. However, the study to investigate specifically the perception of local residents towards tourism is still lacking. The perception of the locals is important since it could determine the extent of their support for tourism development. Plus, previous research found that male residents are more support better towards the tourism development. Thus, this factor is adapted as well in this study to examine whether this gender may influence to the tourism industry. 2) Methods: This study used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique for determining the structural estimates between constructs. 3) Results: The respondents agree that positive perception, negative perception and tourism impact has a significant impact on support for tourism development in which has been recognized as Social Exchange Theory model. Moreover, the finding also revealed that gender has a potential to moderates the causal effect of tourism impact on tourism development. 4) Conclusion: The resident understand the tourism sector could strengthen economic nation but they also want the natural resources should be protected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1533.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Inland areas; heritage trail; digital sustainability; slow tourism; destination governance; community-involved tourism; cultural heritage; holistic approach; QR-code; trail signage
Online: 25 October 2023 (08:10:15 CEST)
Guiding the visitor to appreciate the sights during an excursion is crucial to building a memorable experience. In the literature, we find many articles exploring the use of sophisticated technologies towards such a goal. The case of tourism proposals for inland areas exhibits a noteworthy aspect, since the presence of human artifacts and the signage may damage the experience, and introduce pollutants as well. This paper analyzes the signage for a natural trail putting into practice a holistic methodology that takes into account all aspects of the problem, starting from the touristic vocation of the area and the social fabric. The analysis indicates slow, community-involved tourism as the preferable target, with extreme requirements of sustainability in the social, economic, and environmental domains for the signage solution. Appropriate governance guidelines are given to implement the proposal. Footprint evaluations address the QR-code technology, which is used to design a real-scale solution finally deployed on the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1134.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: gentrification; touristification; tourism in historic cities; heritage protection; Seville
Online: 17 November 2023 (04:33:10 CET)
Encouraged by the administration the gentrification process has been useful in economic terms for the reactivation of socio-cultural fabrics of historic urban spaces in decline. What was initially considered an advantage has led to the touristification of historic centres, and in turn to the alter-ation of their original use. In these settings, the demographic void caused by increasingly shunning local identity has combined with pressure from excessive tourism and the obsolescence of heritage protection bodies in charge of conservation. Given the crisis affecting the definitions of the current system, this study aims to review the envi-ronmental agents of heritage value in relation to the processes of touristification and gentrification. Data obtained from different methodologies are analysed using a multidisciplinary database, a model which enables the analysis of the relevant information from the different interacting fields. The case study focuses on the historic town centre of Seville specifically between 2015 and 2020. Elements are defined as indicators for these processes and the analysis of the case study will com-prise the main results of this research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1176.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Tourism gentrification; Traditional industrial areas; Relocation decision; Residents’ stress
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:40:56 CEST)
Tourism gentrification presents issues of privatization of public space, the transformation of public services to cater to tourists, the erosion of community social bonds, and the commodification of regional consumption, which has far-reaching impacts on the well-being of local residents and a desire to relocate. Thus, tourism gentrification in traditional industrial areas is defined as a process driven by the reconfiguration of spatial functions and the transformation of service provisions, resulting in displacement. This study employs Q methodology aims to understand the residents’ perceptions of tourism gentrification with a specific focus on the 798 Industrial Art Zone in Beijing, China. The results reveal four dimensions that form residents’ stress: neighboring environment, community attachment, economic interest, and cultural identity. Based on the stress threshold theory, this study further proposes a framework to explain the decision-making processes of residents in relation to their intent to relocate due to stress from interactions with migrants and visitors and changes in the place functions of industrial areas and communities. The findings offer valuable theoretical knowledge surrounding tourism gentrification from residents’ perspectives and suggest practical guidance for policymakers and destination managers in reducing residents’ stress and promoting sustainable development of industrial tourism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1181.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: heat-escape tourism; destination selection; climate comfort; Shanghai Disneyland
Online: 17 August 2023 (07:57:54 CEST)
Climate and its fluctuations have wide-ranging impacts on the tourism industry. High temperatures, as a typical meteorological and climatic factor, influence tourists' travel intentions and spatial behavior. This study conducted a descriptive analysis and market trend analysis of Chinese tourism during periods of high temperatures, revealing several key findings. Firstly, tourists seeking respite from summer heat exhibit a preference for short-distance trips and resource-rich destinations. Secondly, heat-escape tourism products undergo changes over time, gradually shifting towards mountainous areas and waterfront locations. Furthermore, taking Shanghai Disneyland as a case study demonstrates that the holiday system holds greater significance than temperature constraints. Despite experiencing a significant decline in the quality of their tourist experience in high-temperature environments, long-distance travelers are not deterred from choosing pre-booked tourism products by sudden bouts of hot weather.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0311.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: sustainability; energy transition; nautical tourism; energy independence; renewable energy
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:45:09 CEST)
In the last 20 years, the share of renewable energy sources in the production of electricity in the European Union has doubled, from about 15% to almost 35%. The main driver of this development has been the increase in the share of wind energy and solar photovoltaic energy. The authors aim to analyze the influencing factors that affect the energy transition process applied to nautical tourism, from polluting energy to renewable solar energy. The authors' research approach consists in using the framework offered by the energy transition process from the perspective of the socio-technical and economic approach, by applying the qualitative research method with a deductive approach. The tool used to achieve the objective was the semi-structured interview. The research unitarily, holistically, and specifically approaches the problem of energy transition from polluting sources to renewable ones offered by solar energy, in the case of nautical tourism with direct implications on the specific industry in the Netherlands. The research results are structured in the fields of technology, governance, economics, and user preferences. This research has the potential to provide support to find optimal solutions that encourage users to accelerate the energy transition process by adopting sustainable solutions for nautical tourism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1638.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: population aging; household tourism consumption; intergenerational care; Internet use
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:26:41 CEST)
The ever deepening population aging has brought opportunities and challenges to the continued expansion of tourism consumption in China. In this article, the impact of population aging on household tourism consumption was studied from both theoretical and empirical aspects. First, the micro mechanisms of the impact of population aging on household tourism consumption were analyzed, which include economic condition mechanism, intergenerational care mechanism, health status mechanism and Internet use mechanism. Subsequently, the impact of population aging on household tourism consumption and its impact mechanisms were tested, and the heterogeneity analysis was conducted, by using the data of China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) from 2014, 2016 and 2018. The main conclusions of the article are as follows: (1) Population aging has a significant negative impact on household tourism consumption, and a series of robustness test results such as endogenous treatment support this finding. (2) The results of the impact mechanism test show that population aging has a negative mediating effect on household tourism consumption by reducing household economic conditions. The moderating effect of intergenerational care on the effect of population aging on household tourism consumption is insignificant. Health status of the elderly and Internet use have a significant positive moderating effect on the impact of population aging on household tourism consumption. (3) The results of the heterogeneity analysis show that the negative impact of population aging on household tourism consumption in urban areas is greater than that in rural areas, and the negative impact of population aging on household tourism consumption of families with the old-old elderly is greater than that of falimies with the young-old elderly. The conclusions of this article provide important references for activating tourism consumption in China in the context of population aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Hydrodynamic model; marine and coastal tourism; analysis hierarchy process
Online: 7 December 2022 (14:47:31 CET)
Poso regency, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, has a coastal area that has marine tourism potential to be developed. It is expected that marine tourism can bring socio-economic impact to the com-munity. This research was conducted with the objective of assessing the suitability of the area to be developed as a marine and coastal tourism site to provide benefits to the coastal community. Hydrodynamic model will be used in this research as coastal area mapping. As an approach, Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP) is utilized whose parameters consist of depth, coast type, coast width, brightness, current speed, water base materials, observation of dangerous biota and availability of fresh water. Based on the overall mapping area of 98,644 ha, the research results show that the area that can be utilized is 7,979 ha with a very suitable category, while there is an area of 1,045 ha which can still be classified in the appropriate category.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0097.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: conservation; sacred groves; natural sites; heritage tourism; local communities
Online: 7 September 2022 (03:30:51 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to examine the potential of the sacred groves and natural sites for tourism in local communities in Nigeria. Three communities in Inyi town were chosen as case studies: Umuome, Enugwu-Inyi, and Alum, using a purposive sampling technique. An ethnographic data collection method was adopted, using in-depth interviews and direct observation. Grove locations were located and mapped using a geographic information system (GIS) throughout the research area. The secondary data was obtained from scholarly journals. The findings showed that the sacred groves and natural sites had exceptional value for cultural and eco-tourism. There are not many works that have studied the tourism dimension of the sacred groves in the study domain. The implication of the study is that tourism aids in the preservation of the sites' integrity. The research helps the government and policymakers to adopt a policy that promotes tourism in the sacred groves. This research is important to researchers at the universities and research institutions that are seeking to carry out a related research. Conclusively, utilizing the area for tourism is a superior conservation alternative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0433.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: GIAHS; farmer involvement; youth inclusivity; tourism management; Tokimai branding
Online: 24 September 2021 (12:48:06 CEST)
Sado island in Niigata prefecture is among the first GIAHS designated sites in Japan and among developed countries worldwide. Recent studies have pointed out the need to incorporate culture and farmer opinions to further strengthen GIAHS inclusivity in rural farming. In connection to this, the study explored whether farmer visibility, which is highlighted by GIAHS designation, actually translates to farmers’ actual perception of GIAHS involvement. A survey was conducted among Sado island farmers to determine their knowledge and perception of their GIAHS involvement, in connection to their perspectives on youth involvement, Sado island branding, and tourism management. Results showed that 56.3% of Sado island farmers feel uninvolved or unsure towards GIAHS, which is in stark contrast with the prevalent farming method in the area which is special farming (complies with GIAHS regulations). Further analyses revealed that farmers who feel that GIAHS does not promote youth involvement, Sado island branding, and tourism management have higher predisposition to perceive themselves as uninvolved towards GIAHS. This study highlights the need for careful reevaluation and integration of farmer insights and needs to the current GIAHS implementation in Sado island and in other GIAHS as well.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0416.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: zoo animals; visitor attitudes; wildlife encounters; wildlife tourism; selfie
Online: 18 February 2021 (12:13:24 CET)
In the twenty-first century– an era of increasing domestic and international tourism- there are boundless opportunities to encounter wild animals both in their home countries and ex situ in zoological facilities around the world. Tourism activity– especially at accredited zoos and sanctuaries –plays a crucial role in the conservation of wild animal populations, and influences the welfare of individuals within involved species. Unfortunately, not all zoos and sanctuaries prioritize the conservation and welfare of their animals, such as those who promote irresponsible and mutually-harmful visitor-animal encounters for economic profit. While the relationship between visitors and animals at zoological facilities has shifted over time to match evolving morals and sentiments towards animals, there is still a storied tendency of visitors preferring close encounters with charismatic wild species. Since the 1970s, researchers’ attention has increasingly focused on assessing the influence of the visitor effect, which refers to the impact that viewing, touching, feeding, holding, and riding captive wildlife has on the animals. Many wildlife attractions promote such encounters, despite research suggesting that close interactions with visitors can cause stress and harm to involved species. Such activities are further promoted through the “selfie tourism” phenomenon, in which visitors capture images of themselves in too-close proximity to wild animals to be shared on social media. In this commentary, we consider the challenge of “selfie tourism”, and how it can promote unethical relationships between humans and wildlife and lead to deleterious implications for the animals’ conservation and welfare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0436.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: tourism carrying capacity; game theory; population games; urban models
Online: 22 January 2021 (08:46:01 CET)
The emergence of Airbnb along with an increase in urban tourism has intensified the pressure on urban areas while adding a new dimension in the dynamics of the housing distribution especially in historic cities. These dynamics affect both local economies and alter significantly the characteristics of urban space arising the necessity to create not only policies that foster sustainable tourism development but also to advance urban models that explore the relation between Airbnb and the traditional rental and accommodation sector. Through the case of Venice, the present study sheds light on the potential evolution of Airbnb housing in comparison to the traditional rental and homeowner market. In particular, it seeks to understand whether a potential equilibrium between these uses exists and if so, at which point in regards to this equilibrium the historic center of Venice is now. To tackle this question, methods deriving from the field of game theory and specifically evolutionary game theory are used. With the agents (players) being the housing units, the designed theoretical model explores the population dynamics of the housing units in Venice given the three options of homeownership or long-term rental (residential), short term rental over Airbnb (airbnb) or no use (vacant). The findings of our theoretical population game model are validated and discussed against a dataset describing the use patterns in the city of Venice during the past 20 years. A verification of the outcome through further case studies could eventually provide insights on future behavior of tourism pressure in historic urban areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0002.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Peripheral areas; local development; heritagisation; sustainable rural tourism; stakeholders
Online: 1 October 2020 (08:42:54 CEST)
In the context of multiple repurposing of rural spaces, tourism represents a path for development, with the potential to revitalize these areas. The conservation and restoration of heritage, and its promotion through tourism, can become an opportunity for local development, in which a range of stakeholders fulfil different roles in the carrying out of the processes involved. The aim of the study was to analyse the process and results of channelling heritagisation through tourism in Mértola (Baixo Alentejo, Portugal). A series of interviews with the chief stakeholders in the process was conducted, from which the contexts and conceptualisations of development were determined. On the basis of secondary data (statistics), an analysis of the impacts of the process of heritagisation and the development of tourism was undertaken. The objectives of this study consisted in determining: a) the importance of the process of heritagisation in Mértola; b) the viability of the project, given the cost and lack of comprehensive conservation, in creating a unified whole; d) the performance of, and power relationships between, the various stakeholders; e) the limited participation of locals due to disaffection with the project; f) the correlation between heritage, rural tourism and local development.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0536.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: corona-virus; COVID-19; tourism sector; review; risk hedging
Online: 30 April 2020 (14:15:28 CEST)
Nowadays tourism is growing as a gigantic, global business accounting for 10.4 % of Global GDP and 10% of global employment (Joppe, 2020). This review paper aims to explore the risks borne for tourism sector by the outbreak of corona-virus in 2020. Tourism sector is a highly vulnerable sector and the costs that will be borne from corona-virus pandemic will be devastating, particularly for the countries relying on this sector as a basic source of income. The paper suggests possible solutions and adaptation routes, while at the same time reviews lessons of the past from other pandemics and crisis. This paper is very useful for tourism policy makers and governments in countries where tourism contributes a significant part of their GDP, but also for other economic sectors closely but indirectly connected in the tourism value chain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0123.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: social media; selfies; wild animals; wildlife tourism; wildlife trade
Online: 10 April 2019 (09:35:16 CEST)
Social media has become a powerful tool for spreading information and awareness campaigns on environmental issues, especially as they pertain to the conservation of wild animals. It is a double-edged sword, however, since it also facilitates the legal and illegal trade of wild animal species as well as the propagation of ‘wild animal selfies.’ This review presents some key literature to date which concerns the impact of social media on public perceptions of animals (such as through ‘viral’ videos), changing trends in animal encounters at wildlife tourism destinations, and the wildlife trade as it is facilitated by social media. Finally, avenues for future research are suggested with urgency, since the impact of social media on the welfare and conservation of wild animal species is most likely underestimated yet bears serious consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0158.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: contemporary media; advertising; education program; digital literacy; tourism capital
Online: 10 July 2018 (05:26:39 CEST)
Technology then has become a mixed bag for the tourism industry. It creates a great deal of conveniences while at the same time has been used as a way to increase revenues and to lessen customer service, especially for the education of adults in the area of digital competence for the use for advertising the tourist offer of your own units. Modern Education Programs can be a great help in overcoming digital literacy and thus helping to choose a variety of offers that offer free internet advertising. The survey was conducted on the example of Okrug municipality on the Čiovo peninsula in the period from February 2017 to April 2017. 278 private renters participated. The aim of the research was to show that the Program for the Education of Foreign Languages, a specific English language that was organized by the Municipality, contributed to the advertising of its tourist units, thereby contributing to the revenue, ie the occupancy in the number of reservations. The paper used a quantization method, a questionnaire survey. point to the fact that it is necessary to invest in the Education Program so that the older population, in particular, acquires the general level of digital literacy and foreign language learning, for the purpose of finding an adequate media for advertising and strengthening the tourist capital of a municipality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0063.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: cultural tourism; world heritage site; sustainability; satisfaction; cordoba; Spain
Online: 13 March 2017 (09:23:32 CET)
The recognition of a place as a World Heritage Site (WHS) by UNESCO is fundamental to preserve its historical and artistic inheritance and, at the same time, to encourage visits to that area. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the study of the relationship between WHS and cultural tourism, with a marked sustainable character, through the presentation of the results of research conducted in the city of Cordoba (Spain) and which analyses the sociodemographic profile of the tourists, the variables that influence their level of satisfaction and of their loyalty and the classification of the travelers through different variables. The principal results of the research show the significant educational level of the surveyed tourists, as well as the high level of satisfaction with the visit, the high number of countries of origin and the outstanding motivation for knowing the city’s heritage roots.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0036.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: conservation; governance; habitat loss; livelihood; eco-tourism; carbon credits
Online: 7 December 2016 (11:13:38 CET)
Establishment of protected areas (PAs) is one of the key global conservation strategies that currently cover approximately 15% of the earth’s land surface. Globally, PA networks are designed to curb the growing anthropogenic pressures in areas with high biological diversity. Despite the importance of PAs in conserving the vanishing biodiversity and unique habitats, many of them are in critical condition due to poor governance thus functioning below the expected level. Moreover, in many developing countries, the PA coverage is below the global standard. Recognizing their contemporary role in conservation, governments have recently agreed to expand the global PA coverage to 17% by the year 2020 (Aichi target 11). This book with eight chapters from different regions of the world provides an overview of the PAs governance, institutional mechanisms, conservation benefits, limitations and challenges associated with their respective policy discourse, integrated management, and functional attributes. Protected areas expect to to play an important role in the long rn in conservation and protection of biodiversity and ecosystems particularly in countries where population pressure and habitat loss are high. Regular intervention, political commitment, and effective governance are essential for the sustainability of PAs across the world. Here, we also attempted to shed some light on future development clues for the sustainable management and monitoring of PAs worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: accessibility; culture heritage; inclusive tourism; museum; people with disabilities; Krakow
Online: 16 November 2023 (02:55:02 CET)
The aim of the paper is to assess the accessibility for people with disabilities of flagship cultural attractions, that is museums located in Krakow, a city with a rich historical heritage entered onto the UNESCO World Cultural and Natural Heritage List and distinguished by the Access City Award. The research shows to what degree the museums have been adapted to receive visitors with disabilities. Assessment was also conducted of access to the museums’ websites, and the possibility for virtual tours of their collections. The research results indicate that Krakow museums are well-prepared for receiving people with physical disabilities and seniors, but are less well adapted to receiving visually impaired and blind people, and hearing impaired and deaf people. Analysis of the museums’ websites shows that they are well-prepared in terms of compatibility and comprehensibility, but that they received a worse assessment for their perceivability and functionality. Visitors to the museums are principally adults, adolescents and seniors. People with disabilities make up 10% of all visitors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1714.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: cultural routes; cultural heritage; cultural management; analysis; digital culture; tourism
Online: 26 October 2023 (12:15:08 CEST)
This paper constitutes a comprehensive literature review within the field of cultural tourism, with a particular focus on the concept of the cultural route as a tourist-cultural product. Within this framework, the paper offers an overview of contemporary technological challenges, concerns, and limitations. It thoroughly explores cutting-edge technologies pertaining to the promotion of cultural heritage, both in general and in the specific context of realizing the concept of the cultural route, a tourist-cultural service enriched by the utilization of new media. Additionally, it extensively references the latest techniques and models for enhancing the user experience of digital cultural tourism products. Moreover, the paper showcases existing digital platforms and tools that encapsulate and emphasize the notion of cultural tourism. It assesses the respective methodologies, technologies, and techniques employed in each case, accompanied by illustrative instances of their applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: boring peripheries; mining tourism; rural destination; stakeholders; sustainable rural development.
Online: 17 October 2023 (11:49:29 CEST)
The crisis of mining-industrial activities in Western Europe since the middle of the 20th century caused the cessation of mining, triggering a structural crisis. It is necessary to look for alternatives, among which tourist activities based on mining heritage stand out. However, there are unattractive peripheral spaces in which new activities encounter obstacles to their development, facing the post-industrial and rural crises. The Riotinto Mining Basin (Huelva, Andalusia) represents an example of such spaces with an enormous cultural heritage. A central agent, the Río Tinto Foundation, has opted to enhance tourism value, while the mine has recently been reactivated. The objective of this research is to analyze the contribution of mining tourism to sustainable rural development. The methodology applied has been mixed based on conducting interviews and analyzing secondary data. The results are (a) achievement of the tourism value of the mining heritage; (b) difficulties for tourism to overcome its peripheral condition; (c) relative contribution of tourism to the improvement of the territorial image; (d) lack of coordination among stakeholders; (e) limited contribution of tourism to sustainable rural development, moving to a secondary economic role after the reopening of the mine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1372.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Tourism; HIV; AIDS; Malaysia, mathematical model; reproduction number; sensitivity analysis
Online: 21 August 2023 (02:30:00 CEST)
To assess the impact of tourism on the incidence of HIV and AIDS using Malaysian epidemiological data over the period of 1986-2011 with additional consideration for newborns infected with HIV. A population-level mathematical model was used to investigate: i) the role of tourism in the spread of HIV and measures used to reduce HIV spread in Malaysia; ii) whether the stability of infectious disease transmission is dependent on the flow of visiting tourists. We first derived an equation for the reproduction number (R0) threshold to quantify the contagiousness of HIV in Malaysia. Sensitivity analyses were used to determine the effect of various parameters on HIV transmission with respect to the increase in tourism. Our findings suggest that a stable disease-free state is sustainable based on the low value of R0 was 0.0017. This result is encouraging from a public health perspective. Approximately 14% of outbound tourists who leave the country return infected with HIV and the difference between the rate at which tourists move to the susceptible category and the rate at which tourists leave the susceptible is category is 12%. Estimated parameters for the influx of tourist rates, δ=1.1540x10-3[1.1477x10-3 - 1.15954x10-3], δ1=7.7901x10-4[7.7867x10-4 - 7.79418x10-4], and δ2=1.4030x10-8[-7.2287x10-7-7.5096x10-7], significantly impacted the spread of HIV in Malaysia. Some significant adjustments were made to the expected parameters. The methods used are helpful to public health analyses and provide a framework for epidemiological modeling of HIV spread among tourists. The trend and magnitude of tourist inflows may be determinants in the incidence of HIV and AIDS in Malaysia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0457.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Reproductive Medicine Keywords: Historic Syrian cities; cultural preservation; tourism investment; Challenges; key players
Online: 27 March 2023 (10:06:28 CEST)
This paper explores the challenges and opportunities of balancing cultural preservation and tourism investment in historic Syrian cities in the post-war period. The Syrian conflict has caused significant damage to the country's cultural heritage, including its ancient cities, which are UNESCO World Heritage sites. Key issues raised include what challenges local governments to face, the impact of the war on the preservation of historic sites, how tourism can be used as a tool for economic development, and how to ensure that cultural heritage is preserved while also allowing for tourism investment. To gain an in-depth understanding of the old Syrian cities, extensive research has been conducted, including a review of existing literature and interviews with key stakeholders. The researcher found that rebuilding historic Syrian cities is a complex task that requires balancing cultural preservation with tourism investment. It will require collaboration between government officials, preservationists, developers, and local communities to ensure that these cities are restored in a way that respects their history and culture while also promoting economic growth through tourism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0495.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: "The Belt and Road" initiative; Tourism Economy; DID; Parallel Trend
Online: 31 December 2021 (08:48:37 CET)
As an important component of modern service industry, tourism is regarded as a "green" driver to regional economic growth and industrial upgrading. Applying the "quasi-natural experiment" advocated by the “The Belt and Road” Initiative, this paper, based on the method of DID, as-sessed the influence of this initiative on regional tourism development by analyzing panel data collected from 286 prefecture-level cities in China over the period of 2007-2018. It is found that the "The Belt and Road" initiative has stimulated market dynamics and promoted tourism de-velopment in the regions along the route, and has significantly improved indicators such as per capita domestic and inbound tourism revenue and per capita domestic and inbound tourist re-ceipt. Also, the degree of contribution of domestic tourists to the tourism economy of the re-gions where the policy has been implemented is stronger than that of inbound tourists. In sum, the results of this paper not only confirm that the “The Belt and Road” Initiative has significantly contributed to the high-quality tourism development of Chinese provinces along the routes, but also provide important policy enlightenment for the upgrading of regional tourism industry and regional economic balance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0039.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: sustainable hospitality; sustainable tourism; holistic sustainability; ESG; automated content analysis
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:48:25 CET)
Analytical study presents the evolution and change in content over time and the emergence of different sustainable tourism (ST) concepts in tourism and hospitality. For this purpose, a Comparative Automated Content Analysis (ACA) analyses scientific articles published between 1990, when the first article in this field was published in the Web of Science (WOS), and the end of 2020. With the ACA for analysis papers research, this research helps explain why and how changing business models cross the time, organizational processes, importance of information and communication technologies in sustainable tourism strategies, green investments, sustainable standards in tourism and hospitality, and sustainable reporting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0167.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Island nations, Tourism, Small Island Nations, economic development, tropical islands
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:29:52 CET)
In the past few decades, the tourism sector has emerged as a significant economic activity in island nations, particularly in tropical regions. However, most of the tropical islands face similar constraints. National and international tourists visit the SIDS including A & N Islands and contribute to the GDP to significant share. The Covid-19 outbreaks in SIDs including A & N islands shows that number of people infected were less as compared to metros or big cities. However, tourism activities completely stopped due to lockdown resulting in decreasing tourist’s arrival, declined GDP and per capita income of SIDs to greater extent. The information gathered from various sources, mass media and net analysed and interpreted in this chapter. Due to Covid-19 tourist’s arrival declined which has serious consequences on the livelihood of islander. Our analysis revealed A&N Islands deficit in energy available at from different sources by 18.26%. However, they are surplus in protein. The burden of high expenditure coupled with poor infrastructure makes them more vulnerable in the circumstance of pandemic outbreaks. This outbreak has created the question of survival due to loss of jobs, halted economic activates, psychological, health unrest and livelihood threats among the depending people of these Island nations. Therefore, government interventions and subsidized package is very much essential to revive the tourism industry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0487.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Tourists; Tourism industry; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus; Pandemic
Online: 23 October 2020 (10:52:13 CEST)
Taking advantage of tourists’ intensive flow, the SARS-CoV-2 virus rapidly spread causing thousands of deaths globally. Trying to contain the already pandemic virus, government travel restrictions were suddenly imposed. Consequently, the tourism industry, which at that moment employed one in ten workers globally, suddenly collapsed. Hundreds of thousands of workers immediately lost their income. Flights were cancelled, and thousands of tourists were stuck abroad with no means to return to their home countries. The gravity of the situation raised the question of whether there was scholarly knowledge that could have helped manage tourism during the current pandemic. To answer this question, a methodical literature review was performed, allowing for up to 900 publications to be analysed. Keywords used were pandemic, tourism, tourist and travel. Based on this process, 63 publications were selected for further analysis. Among these, less than 5% were focused on the tourism side of the problem. As such, this research concludes that, by the time the novel coronavirus emerged, there was, virtually, no scholarly knowledge on how to manage tourism during pandemic times so as to avoid chaos, and that the scholarly community studying related issues is very small. Moving forward, this article recommends that research funding agencies and universities encourage the sound development of this area of knowledge. Aspects that should be investigated include when, how and by whom should tourism be halted, as well as the feasibility of a Tourism World Fund for supporting related costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0201.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Covid-19; tourism; security measures; sex differences; ANOVA; hotel sector
Online: 8 August 2020 (04:03:12 CEST)
The tourism sector in general and the hotelier in particular face the challenge of managing appropriate measures to deal with the covid-19 pandemic. In this sense it is useful to know what the measures are most demanded by the clientele. This research, by analyzing the variance (ANOVA) of a factor concluded that women are more demanding than men in terms of the level of demand in relation to the measures to be taken in hotels. This, as a practical application, allows to know more accurately the expectations, demands and demands of the client segmented by sex, in order to satisfy and improve the tourist experiences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0146.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Covid-19; tourism; security measures; sex differences; ANOVA; hotel sector
Online: 6 August 2020 (10:08:54 CEST)
The tourism sector in general and the hotelier in particular face the challenge of managing appropriate measures to deal with the covid-19 pandemic. In this sense it is useful to know what the measures are most demanded by the clientele. This research, by analyzing the variance (ANOVA) of a factor concluded that women are more demanding than men in terms of the level of demand in relation to the measures to be taken in hotels. This, as a practical application, allows to know more accurately the expectations, demands and demands of the client segmented by sex, in order to satisfy and improve the tourist experiences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: decision-making; tourism; sustainable development goals; Iceland; synergies; trade-offs
Online: 1 July 2019 (12:10:11 CEST)
The development of major economic sectors can provide the bedrock on which long-lasting national economic prosperity is formed. Iceland’s tourism sector is an example of a rapidly expanded industry in recent years, to the extent that it has become the largest sectoral contributor to the nation’s economy. The growth of the sector has led to a number of sustainability impacts, thus presenting opportunities and challenges in terms of meeting the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations. Using the case study of Iceland, this paper aims to advance conceptual understanding of the synergies and trade-offs between a nation’s tourism sector and performance across the 169 targets of the SDGs. Empirical results were derived from four theme-based focus groups, comprised of expert participants, who were tasked with completing scoresheets concerning their perception of the extent of synergies and trade-offs for each target. The majority (126 in number) of the mean scoresheet outcomes for the SDG targets revealed neither synergies nor trade-offs. However, 32 synergies and 11 trade-offs were identified. Many of the target synergies related to new economic opportunities, such as jobs, employment and training for young people. Target trade-offs tended to be environmental and social. In particular, concern was voiced about the greenhouse gas emissions of the Icelandic tourism sector, which derives from international aviation, cruise ships and rental car usage. The outcomes of this study are of particular relevance to tourism companies, policy-makers and governance institutes, all of whom are increasingly endeavouring to link their activities with the fulfilment of the SDGs, maximising synergies, mitigating the extent of any potential trade-offs, and potentially transforming trade-offs into synergies. Furthermore, the results are likely of interest to academics focused on researching the broad sustainability impacts of economic sectors and their contribution to meeting the visionary goals of the SDGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0171.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: GI; DSN; Geostatistics; Spatial Modeling; KDE; OHSA; IDW; Tourism; Coimbra
Online: 19 February 2019 (10:24:18 CET)
Spatial modeling in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) always involves choices. The existence of constraints, either of a financial nature or related to the specifics of the software itself, to the algorithms, the uncertainty and even the reliability of the data, the purposes and the applications of the studies, make this a kind of guiding compass for GIS analysts. Building on a previous exercise of data acquisition (check-ins) based on two Digital Social Networks (DSN — Facebook and Foursquare) and on the awareness of the use of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) generated by tourists sharing their topophilic ties through DSN, the present analysis aims to evaluate the contribution of modern techniques of spatial analysis applied to tourism in the “Alta and University of Coimbra” area. Concepts and procedural tasks related to density determination, cluster analysis and identification of patterns associated with regionalized variables have thus been implemented with the purpose of evaluating and comparing the results obtained through the application of two techniques of spatial analysis, Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) and Optimized Hot-Spot Analysis (OHSA) & Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) Interpolation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0183.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: death; bodies; human rights; burial; ethics; tourism; heritage; culture; memory
Online: 14 May 2018 (05:32:40 CEST)
In The Work of the Dead: A Cultural History of Mortal Remains, Thomas Laqueur argues that the work of the dead is carried out through the living and through those who remember, honour, and mourn the dead. Further, he maintains that the brutal or careless disposal of the corpse “is an attack of extreme violence”. To treat the dead body as if it does not matter or as if it were ordinary organic matter would be to deny its humanity. From Laqueur’s point of view it is inferred that the dead are believed to have rights and dignities that are upheld through rituals, practices, and beliefs of the living. Drawing on dark tourism scholarship and cultural memory theory, this paper examines the display of human bones at Sedlec Ossuary, Czech Republic and the tourist culture that has built up around the site. Primarily, my writing calls into question the commoditization of burial places as a conceivable violation of the human rights of the dead. My research is driven by a number of questions: What is it that draws tourists to burial grounds and how do heritage sites negotiate visitor experiences? What are the ethical boundaries when a final resting place with bodies on display is also marketed as a tourist site? Do the dead have human rights and how are the living responsible for preserving those rights?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1148.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: sustainable development education; environment protection; environmental psychology; reflex-ive process; responsible behavior; rural community; rural tourism; sustainability learning; sus-tainable tourism and hospitality; travel experience
Online: 18 July 2023 (04:15:18 CEST)
Eco-innovation denotes developing green practices using environmentally friendly innovative approaches or technologies. Although, eco-innovation has been broadly applied in different in-dustries, such as low-carbon production and manufacturing, how to implement such innovation in education for sustainable development (ESD) has rarely been studied. Therefore, this research considered a reflective and cooperative learning approach to science, technology, engineering, arts, and math (STEAM) education. A case study examined Wanluan Township of Pingtung County in southern Taiwan. Four departments’ students and teachers at Meiho University were involved in situated learning. Students of hospitality management played farm owners who en-gaged in organic agriculture to produce food and beverages. These agricultural products were farm-to-table, cooked and served for customers in a natural dining setting through the students’ teamwork. Students of tourism, sports & leisure management, and food science & nutrition played tourists in a self-guided travel context, who engaged in acts such as visiting buildings to understand heritage while observing that the houses were still in use a dwelling. This encouraged reflection on the importance of cultural preservation. According to the results from the role-play farm owners and tourists, eco-innovation can represent a sustainable marketing strategy for im-proving the local-community economy and can be implemented in a practical situation in STEAM. The goal of ESD for 2030 — societal transformation — is to foster students’ responsible behavior and attitudes in a personally authentic manner, thereby fostering sustainability learning and understanding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0278.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Sustainable space tourism; economic development; environmental protection; education intervention; Chinese residents
Online: 5 December 2023 (15:19:38 CET)
Space tourism began in 2001 and became popular in 2021 because of commercial operations. With the development of space technology and commercialization, like re-launchable rockets to travel to space in recent years, it has gradually entered the era of space. However, the space industry causes massive emissions, inducing some opposition to its development. It is essential to investigate the attitude of residents toward space tourism and balance the pros and cons of sustainability. Quantitative analysis was adapted to test two models based on duality theory. The data were obtained from 284 samples from various regions of China and analyzed using the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The results show that the two-factor model of economic development conflicted with environmental protection. However, study two indicates that educational interventions can facilitate sustainable space tourism because they mediate the relationship between economic and environmental factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0045.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: heritage sites; cultural resources management; overtourism; tourism carrying capacity; sustainability; Alhambra.
Online: 1 September 2023 (11:57:38 CEST)
For a number of years heritage resources have suffered the negative effects of tourist pressure. Overtourism has been generating a wide-ranging debate on this issue. This work focuses on the strategies and measures adopted to address overtourism during the last 30 years in heritage attractions, which are much less studied than urban heritage centres. Specifically, it analyses measures relating to the management of site capacities, based on the concept of tourist carrying capacity, using the content analysis as a methodology. We have used the Alhambra in Granada as a case study, as one of the most visited Spanish World Heritage Sites. The results obtained reflect a strong consensus on the need to introduce measures to restrict tourist activity, although these measures imply a great effort in terms of management and tend to be taken advantage of by some stakeholders for their own benefit. The extensive time frame of the measures adopted allows us to reflect on the possibilities and limitations of dealing with overtourism by using capacity management strategies, and to extract useful conclusions for other heritage sites with similar problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1586.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: smart cities; TAM; decision making; fuzzy logic; smart tourism; customer journey
Online: 24 July 2023 (10:52:09 CEST)
Due to the irruption of new technologies in cities such as mobile applications, geographic infor-mation systems, Big Data, Internet of Things (IoT) or Artificial Intelligence (AI), new approaches to citizen management are being developed with the aim of adapting citizen services to this new en-vironment. These new services can enable city governments and businesses to offer their citizens a truly immersive experience that facilitates their day-to-day lives and ultimately improves their quality of life. In this sense, it is important to emphasize that all investments in infrastructure and technological developments in smart cities will be wasted if the citizens for whom they have been created eventually do not use them for whatever reason. To avoid these kinds of problems, the citizen's level of adaptation to the technologies should be evaluated. However, although much has been studied about new technological developments, studies to validate the actual impact and user acceptance of these technological models are much more limited. This paper tries to fill this gap presenting a new model of recommender system based in the most cited and used model in the scientific and academic literature: the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and using the most cited and agreed upon criteria in the existing literature. To accomplish the objective, this study in-troduces a novel recommender system that utilizes a fuzzy 2-tuple linguistic model in conjunction with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to prioritize and personalize the relationship between tourists and smart cities. The methodology proposed in this paper was tested and validated in a case of study through different clusters to derive global recommendations tailored to each specific cluster. The main findings reveal that the use of technology is closely linked to the ability to enjoy personalized experiences in the realm of Smart Cities and Smart Tourism. As future works, authors recommend extending the recommender system model to any cluster of tourists using the proposed methodology and evaluate also other kind of disruptive technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) in supporting the citizens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2158.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: rural road landscape; landscape character; landscape visual quality; rural tourism experience
Online: 30 June 2023 (02:43:44 CEST)
The rural road landscape is crucial in forming rural areas' landscape character (LC). As a platform for portraying the rural landscape, the rural roads demonstrate the area's unique natural and cultural characteristics to the visitors. However, with the continuous development of rural areas, the rural LC has been severely impacted, thus impacting visitors' visual experience. In order to preserve and protect the rural landscape, this study aims to assess the visual quality of rural road landscapes based on public preference and heatmap analysis. The results indicated that most of the participants had a higher level of preference for rural landscapes with open horizontal views represented by agricultural areas such as paddy fields. It was also found that different paddy field characters based on their planting stages can also positively affect the visual quality of rural road landscapes. The study also revealed that rural LCs with roadside settlements, commercial structures, mixed agricultural crops, and vegetation received low preference ratings. These characters negatively impact the visual quality of the rural road landscape. These findings provide significant insight for planners and decision-makers regarding protecting and preserving the essential rural road landscapes for the rural tourism experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1996.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: collaborative consumption; Peer-to-Peer accommodation platforms; motivations; sustainability; tourism industry
Online: 30 May 2023 (05:46:20 CEST)
This research aims to contribute to the growing body of knowledge of Collaborative Consumption (CC) by exploring the motivations that influence the use of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) accommodation platforms from the demand side. There has been a significant increase in interest in sustainable choices regarding P2P accommodation in recent years. To address this gap and contribute to the collaborative consumption and P2P accommodation theory a quantitative study was conducted through a survey yielding 235 responses from both users and non-users of P2P platforms. The findings of this study suggest that P2P accommodation platform usage is influenced by multiple motivations, including sustainability, belonging, economic benefits, and convenience. Interestingly, the study also found that individuals with higher levels of academic qualifications are more likely to adopt this mode of consumption. Moreover, the study is the first of its kind to quantitatively address this topic and, therefore, contributes significantly to the field of collaborative consumption and P2P accommodation theory. By understanding the motivations of P2P platform users, policymakers and practitioners can develop targeted strategies to promote sustainable choices in this sector. Overall, this study provides a useful framework for future research on collaborative consumption and sustainable P2P accommodation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0360.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: tourism and related; SMEs; small particulate matters; association rules; data mining
Online: 27 June 2022 (10:24:27 CEST)
In northern Thailand, the problem of small particulate matter happens every year, with the pri-mary source being agricultural weed burning and wildfire. The tourism industry is strongly impacted and has been the spotlight for the past few years. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of small particulate matter on tourism and related SMEs in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The data was collected from 286 entrepreneurs in the tourism and related SMEs sectors. The data was analyzed using data mining and association rule techniques. The study revealed that small particulate matter has a considerable impact on customer factors, especially the number of customers has decreased. Operational factors and prod-uct/service factors are also affected by the dust in the form of adjustments to keep the business running and the protection of the health of employees and customers. Certainly, financial factors are affected by the small particulate matter situation, both lower revenues and higher costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0172.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Inbound Tourism; Spillover Effect; Game Theory; Sustainable Development; Neighboring Countries, Mongolia
Online: 6 August 2021 (18:03:00 CEST)
The main aim of sustainable development is to ensure an intelligible and long-lasting balance between the economy, society, and the environment. Sustainable tourism could only be successful if the inter-relationships between all three dimensions are accepted. In the limited number of research analyses, the focus of the research is on competition between tourist countries and destinations. This study has used Game theory to analyze the competition applies time-series data in selected neighboring countries measure of a VAR-based spillover index, developed by  to investigate the time-varying relationship between tourism and Gross Domestic Product. Each country analyzed Vector Error Correction (VEC) and Granger analysis to explore the causal short and long-term tourism and use a sample that spans from 1997 to 2019. From the main results of Cholesky, the total spillover index is 59.0% between Russia and Mongolia which suggests a moderate interdependence among the four variables. Findings indicate that neither China nor Mongolia have a short-run influence on tourism development. China's inbound tourism is affected in the long run by Mongolia's inbound tourism but not vice versa can be explained by the fact that the number of tourists visiting Mongolia would include China in their travels.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0199.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Ecotourism; Sustainability; Island Tourism; Penghu National Scenic Area; Tourist Service System
Online: 15 February 2020 (14:45:47 CET)
In order to increase the number of tourism in ecotourism, enhance the ecotourism attractions. It is essential to construct the ecotourism service system for the Penghu National Scenic Area because the ecology system is sensitive and frangible. This study adopts the Fuzzy Delphi method and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to establish an index framework of ecotourism service system of Penghu National Scenic Area. The results indicated that there are 4 dimensions which include 21 factors service attributes are identified as the service system for traveling. The findings are concluded as follows:(1)the security management capability is the main principle for ecotourism service system;(2)the ecological diversity is fundamental for the marine environment and the core resource for ecotourism;(3)the transportation capacity and environmental quality need to improve; (4)the marine environmental resources is the most important item for sound ecotourism development; (5)the enhancement of the operation willingness of local communities can promote ecotourism development;(6)the natural resources should be protected to provide an ideal recreational environment for ecotourism;(7)the development of ecotourism needs to support local conservation to achieve sustainability. The perspectives of sustainability and service system are involved to support the value of this study, which can continuously sustain Penghu archipelago.