ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0006.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: structured illumination; fluorescence; brain; multi-camera
Online: 4 May 2022 (12:24:22 CEST)
Fluorescence microscopy provides an unparalleled tool for imaging biological samples. However, producing high-quality volumetric images quickly and without excessive complexity remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate a simple multi-camera structured illumination microscope (SIM) capable of simultaneously imaging multiple focal planes, allowing for the capture of 3D fluorescent images without any axial movement of the sample. This simple setup allows for the acquisition of many different 3D imaging modes, including 3D time lapses, high-axial-resolution 3D images, and large 3D mosaics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0510.v1
Online: 30 August 2022 (06:00:56 CEST)
The occurrence of potential spikes in a cell is a sign of life, and it is called action potential. There is a common notion that neuron signal conduction is the conduction of action potential. Hence, action potential is a typical and essential life activity. However, such potential spikes occur even in simple nonliving systems. According to the experimental observations by Pollack, structured water molecules can generate a negative potential environment. From this observation, the potential spike generation process for both living and nonliving systems caused by ion and water molecule adsorption-desorption process could be explained in this paper. So, taking into consideration the electrically neutral water molecules,the action potential generation mechanism could be explained. It is a fully inanimate model. Hence, the action potential may not be a life activity. Here, the role of water molecules in life is investigated further. It was found that the phase transition of the membrane is involved in the neuron signal conduction, but the membrane phase transition could be due to the change of state of the water molecules, which forms a large-scale structure in the cavities created by a number of lipids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0454.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Interpersonal relationship; Interpersonal schema; Elderly; Structured interview
Online: 22 January 2021 (14:25:06 CET)
As a growing public interest in social health of elderly, studies focusing on social networks and interpersonal relationships of the elderly are needed. The present study was conducted to de-velop a structured interview to evaluate the interpersonal schema based on Self-Defining Memory of elderly. First, the word cues that the elderly often report on interpersonal events were con-firmed. Next, the indices and scoring rules were prepared, including Relationship frequency (RF), Conflict frequency (CF), Dominance mean (Dm), and Warmth mean (Wm). Healthy elderly peo-ple living alone (mean age = 71.81, SD = 3.95) were interviewed. Finally, the correlation between each index and Short form of Korean Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scales (KIIP-SC) was analyzed for criterion validity. The inter-rater reliability was substantial (Kappa = .61 ~ .66). Based on the analysis of criterion validity, the indices of CF, Dm, and Wm indices showed an appropriate level of criterion validity. This study developed a structural interview based on a novel system of reporting autobiographical memory and established indices with appropriate validity to evaluate interpersonal relationships. The interview is expected to identify the characteristics of interpersonal relationships of the elderly and contribute to the establishment of the elderly community, accordingly.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Semi-structured Interview; SSI; In-depth interview; Strength and Weakness
Online: 21 June 2021 (08:52:20 CEST)
A semi-structured interview (SSI) is one of the essential tools in conduction qualitative research. This essay draws upon the pros and cons of applying semi-structured interviews (SSI) in the qualitative research method. Moreover, the challenges of SSI during the coronavirus pandemic are critically discussed to provide plausible recommendations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0054.v1
Subject: Keywords: Social Media; PMBOK knowledge areas; Delphi Study; Structured Case Study; Team effectiveness
Online: 4 December 2019 (12:37:54 CET)
Social media has become part and parcel of the world of today. These days, it’s still the most talked about thing. It cannot be overlooked because it plays a key role in our business functions such as marketing and advertising. Social Media is all about collaboration on files, ideas and projects that help users and stakeholders to successfully complete the project. It influences how people communicate, develop relationship, build trust, increase transparency and provide cultural context. The fundamental aim of this research is to investigate the capacity for project management in social media. This paper explains how social media is used for project management knowledge areas and process groups. Also this research aims to identify SM tools that can be suitable for project management processes. Two studies Delphi Study of three rounds and structured case study interview are used to investigate the impact on the performance of the project team and process robustness. These studies support social media use by accessing the contribution to relationship building, trusts, coordination and cohesion.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: micro – structured optical fibers; hollow core waveguides; optical vortices; Poynting vector; phase dislocations.
Online: 14 September 2021 (11:44:42 CEST)
This paper discusses the basic concepts of phase dislocations and vortex formation in the electric fields of fundamental air core mode of hollow core waveguides with specific types of rotational symmetry of the core – cladding boundary. Analysis of the behavior of the electric field phase in the transmission bands shows that the mechanism of light localization in the hollow core waveguides with discrete rotational symmetry of the core – cladding boundary cannot be completely described by the ARROW model. For an accurate description of the phase behavior, it is necessary to account for phase jumps of the magnitude of π when passing through the phase dislocations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0189.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: micro/nano-structured alloy; mechanical properties; in-situ tensile; deformation mechanism; research progress
Online: 27 December 2017 (06:39:22 CET)
Metal and alloy toughening was the core and long-term research direction in materials filed. As grain size had bimodal distribution, micro/nano-structured alloys presented excellent comprehensive mechanical properties, and this had become one of the research hotspots and developing trends in the field of nanotechnology. In-situ tensile test was a direct and effective method to study the deformation mechanism of materials, which revealed the multiple mechanisms responding to feature grain sizes and provided reliable experimental means and research technique. Research on development of in-situ technique and its applications in mechanical properties was reviewed in this paper according to the recent advances on the modern mechanical properties for high strength and high plasticity alloy at home and abroad. The disadvantages of the present study of preparation methods and investigation techniques for high-performance alloy had been concluded. Finally, the development prospects of high strength and high plasticity alloy materials were analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0122.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: structured information control net; process mining; process analyzing; structural analysis; behavioral analysis; process rediscovery
Online: 10 February 2020 (09:37:56 CET)
Process (or business process) management systems fulfill defining, executing, monitoring and managing process models deployed on process-aware enterprises. Accordingly, the functional formation of the systems is made up of three subsystems such as modeling subsystem, enacting subsystem and mining subsystem. In recent times, the mining subsystem has been becoming an essential subsystem. Many enterprises have successfully completed the introduction and application of the process automation technology through the modeling subsystem and the enacting subsystem. According as the time has come to the phase of redesigning and reengineering the deployed process models, from now on it is important for the mining subsystem to cooperate with the analyzing subsystem; the essential cooperation capability is to provide seamless integrations between the designing works with the modeling subsystem and the redesigning work with the mining subsystem. In other words, we need to seamlessly integrate the discovery functionality of the mining subsystem and the analyzing functionality of the modeling subsystem. This integrated approach might be suitable very well when those deployed process models discovered by the mining subsystem are complex and very large-scaled, in particular. In this paper, we propose an integrated approach for seamlessly as well as effectively providing the mining and the analyzing functionalities to the redesigning work on very large-scale and massively parallel process models that are discovered from their enactment event logs. The integrated approach especially aims at analyzing not only their structural complexity and correctness but also their animation-based behavioral properness, and becomes concretized to a sophisticated analyzer. The core function of the analyzer is to discover a very large-scale and massively parallel process model from a process log dataset and to validate the structural complexity and the syntactical and behavioral properness of the discovered process model. Finally, this paper writes up the detailed description of the system architecture with its functional integration of process mining and process analyzing. And more precisely, we excogitate a series of functional algorithms for extracting the structural constructs as well as for visualizing the behavioral properness on those discovered very large-scale and massively parallel process models. As experimental validation, we apply the proposed approach and analyzer to a couple of process enactment event log datasets available on the website of the 4TU.Centre for Research Data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0092.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Anaea aidea; caterpillar demography; multi-state mark-recapture; state-space model; stage-structured matrix
Online: 18 December 2016 (09:33:13 CET)
Organisms in the wild have cryptic life stages that are sensitive to changing environmental conditions and can be difficult to survey. In this study, I used mark-recapture methods to repeatedly survey Anaea aidea (Nymphalidae) caterpillars in nature, then modeled caterpillar demography as a hidden Markov process to assess if temporal variability in temperature and density influence the survival and growth of A. aidea over time. Individual encounter histories result from the joint likelihood of being alive and observed in a particular stage, and I included hidden states by separating demography and observations into parallel and independent processes. I constructed a demographic matrix containing the probabilities of all possible fates for each stage, including hidden states, e.g., eggs and pupae. I observed both dead and live caterpillars with high probability. Peak caterpillar abundance attracted multiple predators, and survival of fifth instars declined as per capita predation rate increased through spring. A time lag between predator and prey abundance was likely the cause of improved fifth instar survival estimated at high density. Growth rates showed an increase with temperature, but the most likely model did not include temperature. This work illustrates how state-space models can include unobservable stages and hidden state processes to evaluate how environmental factors influence vital rates of cryptic life stages in the wild.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0199.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Catalyst; antibacterial activity; solvent-free conditions; heterogeneous catalysis; Synthesis; cyanopyridines; pyrimidines; nano-structured Na2CaP2O7; catalyst recovery
Online: 21 April 2022 (09:26:25 CEST)
A facile and novel synthesis of thirteen 2-amino-3-cyanopyridine derivatives 5(a-m), by a one-pot multicomponent reaction (MCRs), is described for the first time, starting from aromatic aldehydes, malononitrile, methyl ketones, or cyclohexanone and ammonium acetate in the presence of the nanostructured diphosphate Na2CaP2O7 (DIPH) at 80 °C, under solvent-free conditions. These compounds were synthesized in short reaction times with good to excellent yields (84-94%). The diphosphate Na2CaP2O7 is used as an efficient catalyst, environmentally, easy handling, non-toxic, stable, and reusable. Our study was strengthened by the synthesis of five new pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives 6(b, c, g, h, j) by intramolecular cyclization of 2-amino-3-cyanopyridines 5(b, c, g, h, j), with formamide. The synthesized products were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, XRD, TEM, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, TLC, and BET. The operating conditions were optimized using a model reaction in which the catalyst amount, temperature, time, and solvent effect were evaluated. The antibacterial activity was tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains for the synthesized compounds.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0297.v1
Subject: Keywords: Human Milk Fat; TAG; DHA; Fatty Acids; Nutrients; Food Industry; Structured Lipids; LCPUFA; Interesterification; Acidolysis; PA
Online: 18 May 2020 (05:47:46 CEST)
Maternal milk, from well-nourished and healthy mothers, is a source of several bioactive compounds and balanced nutrients required for proper growth and development of the infant. Hence it is regarded as the optimal form of nourishment. Human milk fat from human milk is the most crucial component and is a necessity for the growing infant. However, in certain cases, the breast milk may fulfill the nutritional needs or the breast-feeding of the infant is not feasible; infant formulae are then considered as the best alternative as nutritional support. It becomes essential for the infant formula to behave and provide nutritive support in the same way as human milk. In order to achieve so, the most crucial components of all should also be prepared precisely, i.e., the analogue of human milk fat. This analogue, which mimics the actual human milk fat, can be then used as a prime ingredient while designing the infant formula. Significant research and several advances have been made in preparing the infant formula enriched with adequate fat content, and more studies are still being conducted in order to achieve a more sound product in the most economical and simplest way possible.
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: lamins; structured illumination microscopy; single molecule localization microscopy; steerable filters; computational geometry; delaunay triangulation; voronoi tessellation
Online: 22 March 2019 (15:55:59 CET)
The nuclear lamina consists of a dense fibrous meshwork made of nuclear lamins, Type V intermediate filaments, and is ~14 nm thick according to recent cryo-electron tomography studies. Recent advances in light microscopy have extended the resolution to a scale allowing for the fine structure of the lamina to be imaged in the context of the whole nucleus. We review quantitative approaches to analyze the imaging data of the nuclear lamina as acquired by structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM), as well as the requisite cell preparation techniques. In particular, we discuss the application of steerable filters and graph based methods to segment the structure of the four mammalian lamin isoforms (A, C, B1, and B2) and extract quantitative information.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0413.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: financial capacity instruments; Semi-Structured Clinical Interview for Financial Capacity; deci-sional capacity; mild cognitive impairment; gamification
Online: 31 May 2022 (07:37:21 CEST)
Financial capacity instruments are psychometric tools designed to evaluate individual decisional capacity based on financial decisions. As tests are complex and need special conditions for administration and evaluation, it is difficult to use them in daily geriatric clinics. Our scoping review objective was to evaluate existing financial capacity instruments from the perspective of simplicity and portability. We evaluated one English speaking knowledge database (Medline) using a dedicated MeSH terminology. The review yielded one independent instrument, The Semi-Structured Clinical Interview for Financial Capacity, that can be easy adapted for every-day clinical use. It is simple to understand and perform and do not need trained personnel for administration. It can be finalized in 15 minutes. Initially validated on 261 subjects (with different forms of cognitive impairment), it showed good accuracy and precision mainly in subjects with cognitive impairment. The test is less apt to detect early or fluctuating cognitive impairment. Simplicity, the main advantage of the test, allows gamification fact that increases portability. Familiar images (coins, money) that are used for performing simple tasks does not need complex translation and adaptation. In form of a game, the test is suitable for serial administration, increasing the chance for early capacity reduction detection. Results reflect a physician judgement related to the subjects’ capacity to understand and execute simple financial instructions and not financial proficiency scores. The main limitation of our review is that we investigated only one, English speaking, knowledge database. The scoping strategy generated a financial capacity instrument that can be used in geriatric clinics for early diagnostic of decisional capacity reduction. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the test in conditions of serial administration and in populations having various financial experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: religious pluralism; decolonization of mind; semi-structured interview; psychological features; Hinduism; Indian culture; religious rights of human
Online: 29 May 2019 (05:03:27 CEST)
This article presents the study of religious pluralism and decolonization of Indian mind in Russia. The paper analyzes the investigation results concerning psychological features of modern Indian students from universities in Russia and India. For measuring of connection between religious pluralism and decolonization of Indian mind we made socio-psychological investigation of Indian students. We made 254 semi-structured interview with Indian students who are studying in Russia and India. According to the result of investigation that decolonization of Indian mind is connected with the level of religious pluralism. Among the values principles of religious pluralism get more significance and importance in decolonizing mind of Indian students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0280.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Hyperspectral Technology; Non-destructive Testing; Soybean; Machine Learning; Support Vector Machine; Extreme Gradient Boosting; Tree-structured Parzen Estimator
Online: 19 July 2022 (07:12:32 CEST)
Soybean with insignificant differences in appearance have large differences in their internal physical and chemical components, therefore follow-up storage, transportation and processing require targeted differential treatment. A fast and effective machine learning method based on hyperspectral data of soybean for pattern recognition of categories is designed as a non-destructive testing method in this paper. A hyperspectral-image dataset with 2299 soybean seeds in 4 categories is collected; Ten features is selected by extreme gradient boosting algorithm from 203 hyperspectral bands in range 400 to 1000 nm; A Gaussian radial basis kernel function support vector machine with optimization by the Tree-structured Parzen Estimator algorithm is built as TPE-RBF-SVM model for pattern recognition of soybean categories. The metrics of TPE-RBF-SVM are significantly improved compared with other machine learning algorithms. The accuracy is 0.9165 in the independent test dataset which is 9.786% higher for vanilla RBF-SVM model and 10.02% higher than the extreme gradient boosting model.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0447.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: optics; resolution; superresolution; Ernst Abbe; structured illumination; non-linear; image scanning microscopy; total internal reflection; MINFLUX; localization microscopy
Online: 16 April 2021 (14:45:48 CEST)
This article presents answers to the questions on superresolution and structured illumination microscopy as raised in the editorial of a recent publication [K. Prakash et al. arXiv, 2102.13649, 2021]. The answers are based on my personal views on superresolution in light microscopy, supported by reasoning. Discussed are the definition of superresolution, Abbe’s resolution limit and the classification of superresolution methods into non-linear-, prior-knowledge- and near-field-based superresolution. A further focus is put on capabilities and technical aspects of present and future structured illumination microscopy (SIM) methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric vehicle (EV); charging station (CS); state of charge (SOC); structured query language (SQL); personal home page (PHP)
Online: 16 March 2017 (06:36:11 CET)
The enormous growth in the penetration of electric vehicles (EVs), has laid the path to advancements in the charging infrastructure. Connectivity between charging stations is an essential prerequisite for future EV adoption to alleviate users’ “range anxiety”. The existing charging stations fail to adopt power provision allocation and scheduling management. To improve the existing charging infrastructure data based on real-time information and availability of reserves at charging stations could be uploaded to the users to help them locate the nearest charging station for an EV. This research article focuses on an a interactive user application developed through SQL and PHP platform to allocate the charging slots based on estimated battery parameters, which uses data communication with charging stations to receive the slot availability information. The proposed server-based real-time forecast charging infrastructure avoids waiting times and its scheduling management efficiently prevents the EV from halting on road due to battery drain out. The proposed model is implemented using a low-cost microcontroller and the system etiquette tested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0427.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: cloud-native; observability; cloud computing; logging; structured logging; logs; metrics; traces; distributed tracing; log aggregation; log forwarding; log consolidation
Online: 25 August 2022 (07:32:18 CEST)
Background: Cloud-native software systems often have a much more decentralized structure and many independently deployable and (horizontally) scalable components, making it more complicated to create a shared and consolidated picture of the overall decentralized system state. Today, observability is often understood as a triad of collecting and processing metrics, distributed tracing data, and logging. The result is often a complex observability system composed of three stovepipes whose data is difficult to correlate. Objective: This study analyzes whether these three historically emerged observability stovepipes of logs, metrics and distributed traces could be handled more integrated and with a more straightforward instrumentation approach. Method: This study applied an action research methodology used mainly in industry-academia collaboration and common in software engineering. The research design utilized iterative action research cycles, including one long-term use case. Results: This study presents a unified logging library for Python and a unified logging architecture that uses the structured logging approach. The evaluation shows that several thousand events per minute are easily processable. Conclusion: The results indicate that a unification of the current observability triad is possible without the necessity to develop utterly new toolchains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0029.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: discrete-structured population; matrix population model; population projection matrices; calibration; net reproductive rate; reproductive uncertainty; colony excavation; Diophantine systems
Online: 1 June 2021 (11:49:45 CEST)
The notion of potential-growth indicator came to being in the field of matrix population models long ago, almost simultaneously with the pioneering Leslie model for age-structured population dynamics, albeit the term has been given and the theory developed only recent years. The indicator represents an explicit function, R(L), of matrix L elements and indicates the position of the spectral radius of L relative to 1 on the real axis, thus signifying the population growth, or decline, or stabilization. Some indicators turned out useful in theoretical layouts and practical applications prior to calculating the spectral radius itself. The most senior (1994) and popular indicator, R0(L), is known as the net reproductive rate, and we consider two more ones, R1(L) and RRT(A), developed later on. All the three are different in what concerns their simplicity and the level of generality, and we illustrate them with a case study of Calamagrostis epigeios, a long-rhizome perennial weed actively colonizing open spaces in the temperate zone. While the R0(L) and R1(L) fail respectively because of complexity and insufficient generality, the RRT(L) does succeed, justifying the merit of indication.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0250.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: cell nucleus; gene expression; transcription foci; transcription factors; super-resolution microscopy; structured illumination; stimulated emission depletion; stochastic optical reconstruction; photoactivation
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:29:32 CEST)
Classical models of gene expression were built using genetics and biochemistry. Although these approaches are powerful, they have very limited consideration of the spatial and temporal organization of gene expression. Although the spatial organization and dynamics of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription machinery has fundamental functional consequences for gene expression, its detailed studies have been for long time abrogated by the limits of classical light microscopy. The advent of super-resolution microscopy (SRM) techniques allowed for the visualization of the RNAPII transcription machinery with nanometer resolution and millisecond precision. In this review, we summarize the recent methodological advances in SRM, focus on its application for studies of the nanoscale organization in space and time of RNAPII transcription, and discuss its consequences for the mechanistic understanding of gene expression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0324.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: celiac disease; gluten-free diet; effectiveness; adherence; nutritionists; clinic; serology; duodenal biopsies; structured questionnaires; peptides derived from gluten in feces and urine.
Online: 15 October 2018 (16:27:32 CEST)
Celiac disease (CD) is a genetically conditioned autoimmune process that appears in susceptible people. It can affect people of any age, and slightly predominates in females. It has a fairly homogenous global distribution, with an average prevalence of 1-2%, the frequency having increased in recent decades. The only effective treatment is a strict and permanent gluten-free diet (GFD), although the level of compliance with it is poor, at about 50% of cases. To monitor the effectiveness of the GFD, several procedures involving various approaches are employed: a) periodic interviews by nutritionists; b) clinical follow-up; c) serological controls of specific antibodies; d) endoscopies with collection of duodenal biopsies; e) structured questionnaires; f) determination of gluten peptides derived from gluten in feces and/or urine. All of these procedures are useful when applied, alone or in combination, depending on the cases. Some patients will only need to consult to their doctors, while others will require a multidisciplinary approach to assess their compliance with the GFD. In children, normalization of duodenal mucosa was achieved in 95% of cases within 2 years, while it is more delayed in adults, whose mucosa take longer to heal completely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0414.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: ethnobotanical indices; ethnobotanical uses; native and exotic species; local community; semi-structured interviews; natural resources in mountains areas; traditional knowledge and manage-ment; ornamental plants
Online: 24 August 2022 (05:51:58 CEST)
Iturbide is located in the Northeast of Mexico, it has a rich native and exotic flora, however, there are no ethnobotanical records, therefore, it requires attention in the documentation of traditional practices and uses of its botanical resources. In 2021, twelve field trips were carried out, applying 110 semi-structured interviews. Plant samples were collected, identified and deposited in an herbarium. We used the Chi-square test to compare ethnobotanical uses with respect to others reported in Mexico. To determine the cultural importance, three ethnobotanical indices were applied (UVI, ICF and FL). We recorded 250 species with ethnobotanical uses associated with 121 genera and 83 families, including 140 native and 110 exotic species. The most common plant families were Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, and Fabaceae. The main uses were ornamental, medicinal and food. The species with the highest UVI values were Lepidium peruvianum, Ocimum basilicum and Rosmarinus officinale. The multifunctionality of the native and exotic flora demonstrates the extensive knowledge associated with botanical resources. Examples, the role of ornamental plants, with a direct impact on human well-being, the resilience of healers and traditional inhabitants by using different species for the treatment of various ailments. or indigenous edible plants in the daily diet.