ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0827.v1
Online: 11 May 2023 (08:46:22 CEST)
Using SNA techniques, the study examined H2020 forestry projects. An adjacency matrix was created using the CORDIS data collection, and it was then utilized to depict the network of project members. Then, different network indicators were computed. Several statistical techniques (maximum likelihood, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, moments, bootstrapping) were employed to do a goodness-of-fit analysis on the frequencies of the degrees to confirm scale-freedom or randomness in the search for significant distributions in network research. Additionally, the small-world aspect was investigated. The findings demonstrate that while the number of project participations by project participants follows a power distribution, the distribution of project participants’ degrees reflects various effects. As a result, the scale-freedom that has been emphasized in many scientific investigations is not evident. The network indicators demonstrate that the network is not clearly small-world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0306.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; Twitter; Blood Clots; Social Media; Clots
Online: 24 February 2022 (09:35:35 CET)
After the first weeks of vaccination against the SARS-CoV-2, several cases of acute thrombosis were reported. These news reports began to be shared frequently across social media platforms. The aim of this study was to conduct an analysis of Twitter data related to the overall discussion. Data was retrieved from 14th March to 14th April using the keyword ‘blood clots’. A dataset with n=266,677 tweets was retrieved, and a systematic random sample of 5% of tweets (n=13,334) were entered into NodeXL for further analysis. Social network analysis was used to analyse the data by drawing upon the Clauset-Newman-Moore algorithm. Influential users were identified by drawing upon the betweenness centrality metric. Text analysis was applied to identify the key hashtags and websites used at this time. More than half of the network was comprised of retweets and the largest groups within the network were broadcast clusters where a number of key users were retweeted. The most popular narratives were around highlighting the low risk of obtaining a blood clot from a vaccine and highlighting higher blood clot risks in medicines commonly consumed. A wide-variety of actors drove the discussion on Twitter ranging from writers, physicians, the general public academics, celebrities, and journalists. Twitter was used to highlight the low potential of obtaining a blood clot from a vaccine and encouraged vaccinations among the public.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0802.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: urban farming; actors; policy network; social network analysis
Online: 23 April 2023 (13:36:34 CEST)
This research aims to produce a network structure in the Integrated Urban Farming Program in Bandung City to map the policy actors involved in it as an effort to support food security in the city. This research uses a mixed method with an exploratory sequential strategy involving policy actors from the government, private sector, academia, community, and mass media. To obtain the network structure in integrated urban farming to determine the most important actors, this research uses a social network analysis approach by utilizing the Gephi application. The network structure is based on four dimensions, namely centrality. The results of this study confirm that the actor who has the most connections (degree centrality), as well as the one who holds the best communication control (betweenness centrality), is Parahyangan Catholic University (Academic). While the actor who plays the most important role (eigenvector) is at the lower level of the government Sub-District and Urban Village. This research is useful for explaining the importance of the position of actors in the urban agriculture policy network which is the key to the success of a program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1161.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: international trade; trade volumes; real effective exchange rate; China; USA; social network measurement; Linder theory; poverty reduction
Online: 16 August 2023 (05:02:15 CEST)
International trade has been one of the most significant economic activities among countries, and its contributions towards a country’s economic growth and sustainable development have been acknowledged. In recent times, international trade and global trade networks have received preeminent attention due to the sharp growth in trade volumes and its contributions to poverty reduction and general welfare. Despite the growth in global trade volumes, there are worrying concerns about the unprecedented changes in international trade patterns and growing imbalances in trade in recent times. Whereas China’s trade volumes have more than tripled over the last decades and have maintained the largest trade surplus spot ahead of Germany, other major trade surplus countries such as Japan, the USA, etc. have become trade deficit countries with their trade volumes increasing at a much slower pace. In view of the growing imbalances in global trade volumes, we use an augmented gravity model of trade that incorporates social network measurement, the real effective exchange rate which is a measurement of international competitiveness, as well as the Linder theory of trade, to investigate the factors that determine the export performance of countries. Using data from 51 countries for 41 years, our results indicate that the GDP of both the home country and the partner country affects the home country’s exports positively. Similarly, the real effective exchange rate REER, trade openness OPEN and dummy variables BORDER, ENGLISH, and EU have produced positive and statistically significant coefficient estimates, and these are in line with our theoretical expectations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0347.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: mobile network data; call detail records; data analysis; human mobility; urban mobility; social sensing; urban geography; urban sociology; commuting; sustainability
Online: 27 June 2022 (04:04:09 CEST)
The analysis of the human movement patterns based on the mobile network data makes it possible to examine a very large population cost-effectively, and led to several discoveries about human dynamics. However, the application of this data source is still not common practice. The goal of this study was to analyze the commuting tendencies of the Budapest Metropolitan Area using mobile network data and propose an automatized alternative to the current, questionnaire-based method. Commuting is predominantly analyzed by the census, but that is performed only once in a decade in Hungary. To analyze commuting, the home and the work locations of the subscribers are determined based on their appearances during and outside the working hours. The home locations were compared to census data at a settlement level. Then, the settlement and district level commuting tendencies were identified and compared to the findings of census-based sociological studies. It has been found that commuting analysis based on mobile network data strongly correlates with the census-based findings, even though home and work locations have been estimated by statistical methods. All the examined aspects, including commuting from sectors of the agglomeration to the districts of Budapest and demographic distribution of the commuters, show that mobile network data can be an automatized, fast, cost-effective, and relatively accurate way of commuting analysis, that could provide a powerful tool to the sociologists interested in commuting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0541.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Social Internet of Things; Social Internet of Vehicle; Vehicle-to-Vehicle; Vehicle-to-Infrastructure; Vehicle Ad-hoc Network; Social Networks
Online: 19 April 2023 (04:27:27 CEST)
The number of people owning vehicles has been steadily growing, resulting in increased numbers of vehicles on the roads, making roads more congested, and increasing the risk of accidents. In addition, heavy rain, snow, and fog have increased due to abnormal weather caused by global warming. These bad weather conditions can also affect the safety of vehicles and drivers. The need to disseminate safety messages on the social internet of vehicles due to these problems has been steadily increasing. In this paper, we propose an efficient safety message dissemination scheme that focuses on urban environments with high vehicle density and mobility to address these problems. The proposed scheme reduces packet loss by considering frequent cluster departures and subscriptions through an efficient cluster management technique. In a vehicle-to-vehicle environment, the dissemination of safety messages is divided into an intra-cluster and an inter-cluster emergency as well as general safety message dissemination technique. In a vehicle to infrastructure environment, the proposed scheme reduces the number of processing requests and duplicate messages made to roadside units (RSUs) through a request operation process for each vehicle and an RSU scheduling technique. We conducted several performance evaluations of message packet loss and the number of RSU processing requests to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed scheme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0332.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: contact tracing; ego networks; experimental design; social networks; field theory
Online: 14 December 2020 (13:06:29 CET)
Contact tracing is one of the oldest social network health interventions used to reduce the diffusion of various infectious diseases. However, some infectious diseases like COVID-19 amass at such a great scope that traditional methods of conducting contact tracing (e.g., face-to-face interviews) remain difficult to implement, pointing the need to develop reliable and valid survey approaches. The purpose of this research is to test the effectiveness of three different egocentric survey methods for extracting contact tracing data: (1) a baseline approach, (2) a retrieval cue approach, and (3) a context-based approach. A sample of 397 college students were randomized into one of each condition and were prompted to anonymously provide contacts and populated places visited from the past four days. After controlling for various demographic, social identity, psychological, and physiological variables, participants in the context-based condition were significantly more likely recall more contacts (medium effect size) and places (large effect size) than the other two conditions. Theoretically, the research supports suggestions by field theory that assume network recall can be significantly improved by activating relevant activity foci. Practically, the research contributes to developing innovative social network data collection methods for contract tracing survey instruments.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Effective connectivity network, Partial directed coherence (PDC), Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), Default Mode Network (DMN), Electrophysiological biomarkers (EEG), Resting state network (RSN), Granger
Online: 19 May 2021 (23:06:43 CEST)
Recent brain imaging findings by using different methods (e.g., fMRI and PET) have suggested that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is correlated with alterations in regional or network-level brain function. However, due to many limitations associated with these methods, such as poor temporal resolution and limited number of samples per second, neuroscientists could not quantify the fast dynamic connectivity of causal information networks in SAD. In this study, SAD-related changes in brain connections within the default mode network (DMN) were investigated using eight electroencephalographic (EEG) regions of interest. Partial directed coherence (PDC) was used to assess the causal influences of DMN regions on each other and indicate the changes in the DMN effective network related to SAD severity. The DMN is a large-scale brain network basically composed of the mesial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, and lateral parietal cortex (LPC). The EEG data were collected from 88 subjects (22 control, 22 mild, 22 moderate, 22 severe) and used to estimate the effective connectivity between DMN regions at different frequency bands: delta (1–3 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), low beta (13–21 Hz), and high beta (22–30 Hz). Among the healthy control (HC) and the three considered levels of severity of SAD, the results indicated a higher level of causal interactions for the mild and moderate SAD groups than for the severe and HC groups. Between the control and the severe SAD groups, the results indicated a higher level of causal connections for the control throughout all the DMN regions. We found significant increases in the mean PDC in the delta (p = 0.009) and alpha (p = 0.001) bands between the SAD groups. Among the DMN regions, the precuneus exhibited a higher level of causal influence than other regions. Therefore, it was suggested to be a major source hub that contributes to the mental exploration and emotional content of SAD. In contrast to the severe group, HC exhibited higher resting-state connectivity at the mPFC, providing evidence for mPFC dysfunction in the severe SAD group. Furthermore, the total Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) was positively correlated with the mean values of the PDC of the severe SAD group, r (22) = 0.576, p = 0.006 and negatively correlated with those of the HC group, r (22) = −0.689, p = 0.001. The reported results may facilitate greater comprehension of the underlying potential SAD neural biomarkers and can be used to characterize possible targets for further medication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0212.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Graph Neural Network; Recommendation; Social Relationship
Online: 14 September 2022 (16:09:15 CEST)
There is a considerable amount of research in online social networks, most of which focuses on the structural analysis of social graphs. The interpersonal relationships of social networks, especially friend circle, can solve the cold start and sparsity problems, and through the relationship between social networks can effectively recommend users' favorite items (items), such as music , videos, brands/products, preferred tags, location, services, etc. User relationships in social networks are diverse and there are many different perspectives on different social networks. Associations among users can form multi-layered composite networks, and multi-layered social networks present new challenges and opportunities. Different relationships can influence users' preferences to different degrees, which in turn affects their behavior. Therefore, fusing multiple social networks is an effective way to improve recommendation. Although some studies have started to address multiple social network recommendations, simple linear superposition cannot reflect the coupling and nonlinear association between multiple social networks. In this paper, we propose a graph neural network recommendation model under social relationships based on this background. We first propose to compute the 2nd order collaborative signals and their intensities directly from the neighboring matrix for updating the node embedding of the graph convolution layer. Secondly by embedding historical evaluations, various social networks constituting different dimensions, the attention integration of user preferences by different social networks is achieved, and its effectiveness and scalability are demonstrated in theoretical derivation and experimental validation. The theoretical derivation and experimental validation demonstrate its effectiveness and scalability.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0503.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: social networks; digital surge; COVID-19 pandemic; technology industry; Clubhouse
Online: 19 March 2021 (14:52:38 CET)
Being a combination of the conference call, talkback radio, audio podcast, and an online video chat, Clubhouse is a new social networking app that gained over 10 million users and over $100 in valuation in just 8 months. Unlike other social networks, it offers a real-time streaming audio chat that does not ask users to share any unnecessary information like exchanging text messages, conducting video calls, or sharing photos. Instead, Clubhouse users can listen to real-time conversations, contribute to these conversations and create their own conversations for the others to listen and to interact with. Often nicknamed a “Silicon Valley’s hottest start-up”, Clubhouse positions itself as an “exclusive” and “alternative” social network that attracts various celebrities and people who just want to talk to each other. Launched in March 2020, amidst the COVID-19 pandemic with its social distancing and lockdowns, Clubhouse offered its users a space for the digital group psychotherapy where people could solve their problems by talking them through with strangers. However, it is unclear what is going to happen to this new social network in the post-pandemic world after all of its hype eventually evaporates. This paper discusses the possible underlying motives for the Clubhouse creation and its real purposes. Moreover, it looks at the three possible scenarios of its further development.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0511.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Social network analysis; Natural language processing; Dataset; Multimode; Opinion Dynamics
Online: 26 November 2021 (14:23:36 CET)
At the end of 2018, a high school student asked a question in Zhihu community, claiming that he had proved Goldbach's conjecture. The problem caused an explosive reaction and a large number of users participated in the discussion. And has caused the widespread influence. On January 1, 2019, the questioner issued his "proof". His proof was soon proved wrong. The heated discussion caused by the incident contains a lot of information of social science analysis value. Therefore, we follow up the event in the first time and build a time series dataset for the event. Taking the questioner's "proof" as the dividing line, all the answers, comments, sub comments and user information of writing these texts before and after two days were recorded. This series of temporal information can reflect the dynamic features of the interaction between user opinions, and the impact of exogenous shocks (proof release) on community opinions. The dataset can be used not only for the demonstration of various social network analysis algorithms, but also for a series of natural language processing tasks such as fine-grained sentiment analysis for long texts, as well as multimodal tasks combining natural language processing and social network analysis. This paper introduces the characteristics and structure of the dataset, shows the visualization effect of social network, and uses the dataset train the benchmark model of emotion analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: post-disaster community; sustainable development; social network; government management
Online: 16 May 2018 (11:04:53 CEST)
The current urban environment is faced with the potential threat of frequent natural disasters, and the sustainable development of post-disaster community has become a global issue. As an intrinsic motivation influencing the social interaction and capital operation of community, social network is an important mechanism promoting such sustainable development. However, the difference in social network caused by different member structure, spatial arrangement and management mechanism of post-disaster communities in different reconstruction modes has influenced such sustainable development process. Therefore, reasonable selection of reconstruction mode is crucial. This paper applied analytic hierarchy process to comprehensively measure and compare the social network strength in post-disaster communities in the four reconstruction modes adopted by the government of China, i.e. unified planning and unified construction, unified planning and independent construction, in situ reconstruction and relocation resettlement, with communities after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in Chengdu, China as study objects from the perspective of three social relations (the relations between residents and residents, residents and managers, and residents and servers). The results showed that strong connections are generally presented in the social network of post-disaster communities in unified planning modes, that the strength is significantly higher than that of those in non-unified planning modes, and that the strength of UPIC communities is the highest. Meanwhile, government intervention, residents’ free participation and market operation are positively correlated to government trust, community interaction and community service respectively. The positive impact of government intervention is the most significant, but it has a peak value. No government management and excessive government intervention will exert negative impacts. The coordination of government, society and market is the key contents of post-disaster community reconstruction. The reconstruction modes based on “government leadership, resident participation and market operation” may become a feasible path for such sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0173.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Fear of missing out (FOMO), Parental control, Problematic Social Media Use (PSMU), Social Media Addiction, Social Media Intrusion
Online: 7 July 2021 (10:23:46 CEST)
This study examines the relationship of fear of missing out (FOMO) with heavy social networking among Turkish university students (aged 17 - 55). The perception of the possible role of parental supervision on online activities is also investigated. Factor analysis of FOMO scale led us to evaluate the construct under two dimensions as (1) fear of missing experience and (2) fear of missing activity. The results revealed that fear of missing activity increases social media intrusion while fear of missing experience is found to have no significant effect. The reverse relationship is also valid: an urge to use social media predicts fear of missing out (activity and experience). Fear of missing experience is associated with problematic social media use (PSMU) and a high desire to use social media. The results additionally demonstrate that students aged 30 and older believe more in the requirement of parental control than those aged 17-22.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0829.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Social Responsibility; Concept Analysis; praxis
Online: 13 July 2023 (02:45:51 CEST)
Purpose: Social responsibility has been accepted as a core value of nursing profession, particularly in the area of health disparity, but it seems to be difficult to understand for what is meant by social responsibility. The purpose of this study was to explore ways to define the concept of social responsibility of nursing in order to understand the meaning of social responsibility in the field of nursing profession. Methods: The concept analysis process by Walker and Avant was used to clarify the meaning of social responsibility of nursing. Results: Defining attributes of social responsibility of nursing included praxis, as approach to strategizing for social and structural change of inequity, care for an oppressed group which is under social suffering caused by the privilege and power, and action for health policy change in social and political unequal contexts. The antecedents of social responsibility of nursing included reflectivities in identifying personal characteristics, taking seriously the perspective of other vulnerable population, recognizing social environmental status quo (‘fair or unfair’), developing competences in ethical and moral reasoning with social issues. Consequences of social responsibility of nursing were achieving social justice, as equal access to basic human health need in societal level, equal access to effective nursing practice delivery system and development of health promotion policy for world health administrative practices (“health for all”) in nursing. Conclusion: This study provides a guidance to direct future studies through the procedure of identifying conceptual attributes in the context of social responsibility of nursing. Future studies are suggested to develop instruments for social responsibility as well as development of educational programs to promote social responsibility competences in nursing students and nurses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0748.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: social capital; human capital; bibliometric; visualization
Online: 31 October 2018 (10:22:32 CET)
Academic interest in social and human capital is growing significantly. Similarly, their relationship with sustainability is increasing, especially compared to sustainability’s relationship with natural capital and financial and economic capital. Bibliometric and visualization research on these relationships is nonetheless insufficient. This study analyzes the evolution of the literature on natural capital, financial and economic capital, and social and human capital related to sustainability. On the other hand, the study presents a bibliometric analysis on social capital and human capital (SHC) related to sustainability. The article studies 635 references collected from the Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection database and utilizes visualization of similarities (VOS) viewer program to graphically map the material. The analysis involves co-occurrence of keywords, co-citation, and co-authorship. The results reveal not only the state of the art and the leading trends, but also the evolution regarding impact, main journals, documents, topics, authors, institutions, and countries. The study provides researchers and practitioners with a visual and schematic frame of the research on this topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0635.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: benefit corporation; b corp; institutional logic; hybrid entrepreneurship; social entrepreneurship; social enterprise
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:37:58 CEST)
This paper contributes to the current debate about Benefit Corporations, presenting the development of this organisational model in Italy, the first country to introduce this hybrid form after the US. Grounded on an institutional logic perspective, it provides a picture of the institutional dynamics that have characterised the rise of this new entrepreneurial form outside the US. The analysis provides an in-depth foundational study of the Italian case and highlights the relevant influence of different institutional pressures in explaining the rise of and constraints in the diffusion of Benefit Corporations. Empirically, it combines secondary data, available from different public sources, and primary data collected through interviews with a series of knowledgeable informants. Based upon the analysis, two aspects appear peculiar for the development of Benefit Corporations in Italy: the interplay between the Benefit Corporation legal form and the certified B Corp model, and the rise of tensions between social entrepreneurship and the third sector ecosystem. This paper concludes that the peculiar institutional pressures leading to the birth of Benefit Corporations in Italy may be source of permanent tensions and of concern for the diffusion of the model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0245.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: online dating, social networks, agent-based modeling, mobile dating applications, MRQAP
Online: 17 January 2022 (16:18:07 CET)
We report an agent-based model to compare the effectiveness of simple and complex mobile dating application interfaces in generating matches for virtual users. We define the relative complexity of dating applications as the number of available features and dub this variable, the multiplicity. We replicate some of the most popular mobile dating applications through the generation of a synthetic population endowed with attributes, preferences, and behaviors drawn from literature. We treat our data as a network dataset and use a robust statistical procedure (MRQAP) to issue a valid and reliable comparison between simulated applications. We show how the quadratic assignment procedure can be used to compare network simulations rigorously. As a result, we observe a direct relationship between multiplicity and agent-level experiences and expectations in match generation. We also observe the emergence of divergent matching systems with minor rule changes as well as several expected properties of online dating systems. This work serves as a proof-of-concept in the integration of classical social network analysis methods with agent-based modeling to compare virtual designs and to enhance the policy-generation process of online social networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0344.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: SNA; Foreign Trade; Social network analysis; Electronic integrated circuits; UCINET; COVID-19
Online: 22 September 2022 (11:26:03 CEST)
Social network analysis (SNA) is an effective method for characterizing networks from various specific perspectives. Global trade contracted sharply in 2020 owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, and growth is expected to be lower than the pre-pandemic trends. This study takes countries worldwide as the primary unit of analysis and uses different procedures of social network analysis (SNA), including network density, centrality, and core-periphery structure, and applies them to the field of trade in electronic integrated circuit products (ICPT). In addition to static and descriptive analysis, this study also uses of tools such as Ucinet 6.732 for visual analysis, visual analysis, and more convenient and precise display of the network structure of ICPT. The important countries play a central role in determining the overall structural features. The core-periphery structure in the network from both spatial and temporal perspectives, data on electronic integrated circuit products for the period 2015-2021 were used in SNA. This study found that the ICPT network became denser from 2015 to 2021 but declined and picked up in 2018 and 2020. Moreover, the core-peripheral structure exists in the ICPT network. The main core network countries are Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, mainland China, Malaysia, Japan, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, and other Asian countries, including the United States and Germany.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0132.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: carbon emission intensity; gravity model; social network; driving effect; sustainable development; Construction industry
Online: 11 January 2022 (08:46:34 CET)
To explore the spatial network structure characteristics and driving effects of carbon emission intensity in China's construction industry, the investigation combined the modified gravity model and social network analysis method to deeply analyze the spatially associated network structure characteristics and driving effects of carbon emission intensity in China's construction industry, based on the measurement of carbon emission data of China's construction industry from 2006 to 2017. The results show that the regional differences of carbon emission of construction industry are significant, and the carbon emission intensity of construction industry show a fluctuation trend. The overall network of carbon emission intensity shows an obvious “core-edge” state, the hierarchical network structure is gradually broken. Economically developed provinces generally play a leading role in the network, and play an intermediary role to guide other provinces to develop together with them. Among the network blocks, most of the blocks play the role of “brokers”. The block with the leading economic development has a strong influence on the other blocks. The increase of network density, the decrease of network hierarchy and network efficiency will reduce the construction carbon emission intensity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1092.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: high-speed railway; quality of urbanization; dynamic network; improved social network analysis; spatial econometric model
Online: 18 September 2023 (02:54:48 CEST)
Applying the improved social network analysis method and the idea of rolling window regression, this paper explores the impact of HSR network on the quality of urbanization and its dynamics. Based on a sample of 273 cities in China over 2009–2019, we find that the high-speed railway network has an increasing positive effect on the quality of urbanization, which proves the existence of network effect. The empirical results further show that this effect is closely related to the cov-erage rate of high-speed rail network. In addition, heterogeneity analysis reveals that urban ag-glomeration cities are the main beneficiaries. Academically, our study provides a plausible expla-nation and evidence from network size differences for the two conflicting views of the HSR effect. Practically, we also propose some important policy implications for countries in different high-speed rail network construction stages.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0527.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: social robot; Interaction design; Bibliometric; VOSviewer; Citespace
Online: 7 September 2023 (09:27:28 CEST)
(1) Background: The social robot interaction design is critical in determining acceptance and user experience. However, few studies have systematically discussed the current focus and future research directions of social robot interaction design from a bibliometric perspective. Therefore, in order to identify the latest research progress and evolution trajectory of research hotspots in social robot interaction design over the last decade. (2) Methods: based on 2416 papers related to social robot interaction design collected in the Web of Science (WOS) database, a comprehensive review was conducted by using bibliometrics to draw a knowledge map using VOSviewer and CiteSpace in an integrated manner. (3) Conclusions: The current research hotspots of social robot interaction design mainly focus on #1the study of human-robot relationships in social robot, #2Research on the Emotional Design of Social Robot, #3research on social robot for children's psychotherapy, #4research on companion robot for elderly rehabilitation, and #5research on educational social robot. The reference co-citation identifies the classic literature that forms the basis of the current research, which provides theoretical guidance and methods for the current research. Finally, we discuss several future research directions and challenges in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0201.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: intergenerational social mobility; Markov processes; ESS
Online: 4 December 2023 (12:10:43 CET)
This paper investigates the transmission of educational attainment from parents to offsprings as a mediator of intergenerational class mobility in Europe. The study covers the last two decades with data drawn from a cross-national large scale sample survey, namely the European Social Survey (ESS), for the years 2002 - 2018. Interest has focused on the question of persistence of inequality of educational opportunities by examining attainment of nominal levels of education and the association between the educational attainment of the parent with the highest level of education and their descendants. The study covers also new trends in social mobility which consider education as a ‘positional good’ and a novel method of incorporating educational expansion into the transition probabilities is proposed, providing answers to whether the rising accessibility of educational qualifications attenuates the association between social origin and educational attainment. Therefore, the concept of positionality is taken into account in the estimation of intergenerational transition probabilities and to complement the analysis mobility measures are provided for both methods, nominal and positional. The proposed positional method is validated through a correlation analysis between the upward mobility scores (nominal and positional) with the Education Expansion Index (EEI) for the respective years. The upward mobility scores estimated via the positional method are higher correlated with the EEI for all years indicating a better alignment with the broader trends in educational participation and achievement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0522.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: job crafting; meta-analysis; leadership; social factors
Online: 24 August 2020 (09:52:46 CEST)
Despite the considerable focus on job characteristics and individual differences in job crafting research, the influence of social factors on job crafting has not been well-acknowledged. This meta-analysis estimates the associations between social factors and job crafting, and how social factors contribute to employee outcomes through their job crafting. Based on a sample of 51 empirical studies that included 54 independent effect sizes (N = 17,863), we found that social factors of positive leadership styles (e.g., empowering and transformational) and coworker support were positively related to employee job crafting. Further, our study showed that employee job crafting positively mediate the relationships between social factors and work outcomes (e.g., job performance and well-being). Our study contributes to job crafting literature by integrating social factors into the job crafting model and demonstrating that the social context of work (in particular organizational-insiders) play a crucial role in shaping employees’ job crafting behavior. We also emphasize the critical role that job crafting plays in transmitting valuable social resources into improved work outcomes. Building on our results, we provide future direction for job crafting research and discuss how our results can imply practice in terms of job crafting training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0252.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: RMG; Bangladesh; fire; structural; developing; industry; safety; social technology; critical juncture; global, disasters
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:48:53 CEST)
Findings primarily drawn from literature review and interviews with professional resource persons suggest that although the RMG industry of Bangladesh has made substantial progress in correcting structural risks within factory buildings, fire still remains an unresolved issue posing unceasing threat to safety. These findings are significant for all stakeholders within the global supply chain network of Bangladesh, concerned with improving sustainability of the RMG industry and seeking to outline the responsibilities for each group of actors towards preventing building disasters. Both Tazreen Fashion fire incident and the Rana Plaza building collapse served as ‘critical junctures’ in rapid transfer of physical technology to enhance structural safety and streamline production planning within the RMG manufacturing factories within Bangladesh. However, the transfer of social technology within the supply chain network of a developing nation in areas such as development of organisational safety culture or promoting workplace ethics, requires long-term planning and prolonged practices. The paper thus concludes that in developing countries, transfer of physical technology is more readily achievable than the adoption of social technology.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: social media; network analysis; interaction strength; retweet graph; retweet cascade
Online: 14 October 2020 (08:23:40 CEST)
Tracking information diffusion is a non-trivial task and it has been widely studied across different domains and platforms. The advent of social media has led to even more challenges, given the higher speed of information propagation and the growing impact of social bots and anomalous accounts. Nevertheless, it is crucial to derive a trustworthy information diffusion graph, which is capable of highlighting the importance of specific nodes in spreading the original message. The paper introduces the interaction strength, a novel metric to model retweet cascade graphs by exploring users’ interactions. Initial findings show the soundness of the approaches based on this new metric with respect to the state-of-the-art model, and its ability to generate a denser graph, revealing crucial nodes that participated in the retweet propagation. Reliable retweet graph generation will enable a better understanding of the diffusion path of a specific tweet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0076.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Complex Network Theory; Social Network Analysis; High-Tech Enterprises; Co-Competition Relationship; Innovation Ecological Niche
Online: 5 July 2021 (08:00:56 CEST)
The fusion of "innovation theory" and "ecology" gave birth to a large number of studies on "innovation ecology", which mainly studies how to build an industrial ecological chain at the regional level, focusing on self-evolution, achieving ecological balance, and enabling the regional economy to take the path of sustainable innovation. This type of research borrows a lot of concepts from ecology, and very vividly describes the competition and cooperation relationships formed by various agents in the innovation system, laying a good foundation for qualitative analysis of the inherent dynamics of innovation development. However, many studies focus on the analogous description of ecosystems and economic systems, lacking scientifically and rigorously quantitative empirical research as a support. This paper uses network-based indicators such as degree, cluster coefficient, and betweenness centrality to measure the function and position of high-tech enterprises in the Z-Park in a business environment, so as to clarify the socio-economic meaning of the topological structure of the regional innovation system. On this basis, it provides theoretical references for regional innovation development and sustainable development policy formulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0348.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: social entrepreneurship; responsible innovation; sustainable management; Mexican SMEs.
Online: 29 May 2019 (10:44:35 CEST)
Responsible innovation combines philanthropic and economic aspects and it is common to refer to entrepreneurs who lead it as "social entrepreneurs". The present study of 100 Mexican SMEs, provides knowledge of exploratory nature about what the models of organization are conducive to SMEs in the generation and development of responsible innovations. Through the statistical technique of cluster analysis, this study identified and characterized four models of organization according to the level of social entrepreneurship reached: (1) “The techno-scientific organization”, (2) “The techno-social organization”, (3) “The capitalist-social organization” and (4) “The capitalist organization”. While in Europe the dominant discourse about responsible innovation focuses on the control of the risk of social rejection of the advance of science and technology; in contexts such as the Mexican, the phenomenon is configured as the mechanism through which entrepreneurs articulate its technological and scientific capabilities to solve priority and specific problems of the society, however, the social impact does not crucially affect their business initiatives. The techno-scientific organization (50% of studied SMEs) is proposed as the model of organization with greater viability for Mexican entrepreneurs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0253.v1
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:48:10 CEST)
Indonesia is an archipelago with diverse ethnicities, races, languages, cultures, beliefs, and customs. As Indonesians, with these differences, they should respect each other, or what is commonly known as tolerance. However, in the 21st century, tolerance between people in Indonesia is starting to fade. This is due to the development of the times accompanied by technology development, which causes globalization to enter quickly. The culture of tolerance typical of Indonesian society is starting to fade due to the influence of globalization. Based on these problems, this study aims to determine what causes the decline intolerance of Indonesian society in the 21st century and answer what solutions can be given to prevent the decline intolerance of Indonesian society in the 21st century. The research method used is descriptive-qualitative through literature review by analyzing data following the topic to be discussed. The data used are from 20 journal articles with a span of 2019-2021. The results of this study are in the form of a decline in intolerance that the Indonesian people own due to technological advances in the form of adverse use of social media. However, with the existence of moral education and the role of teachers and the government to overcome the decline intolerance, it is hoped that the Indonesian people will understand the meaning and importance of tolerance. This study also has limitations, namely only on the causes of the fading of tolerance in Indonesian society.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0453.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: COVID-19; MPox; Twitter; Big Data; Data Mining; Data Analysis; Sentiment Analysis; Data Science; Social Media; Monkeypox
Online: 27 March 2023 (08:39:28 CEST)
Mining and analysis of the Big Data of Twitter conversations have been of significant interest to the scientific community in the fields of healthcare, epidemiology, big data, data science, computer science, and their related areas, as can be seen from several works in the last few years that focused on sentiment analysis and other forms of text analysis of Tweets related to Ebola, E-Coli, Dengue, Human papillomavirus (HPV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Measles, Zika virus, H1N1, influenza-like illness, swine flu, flu, Cholera, Listeriosis, cancer, Liver Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, kidney disease, lupus, Parkinson's, Diphtheria, and West Nile virus. The recent outbreaks of COVID-19 and MPox have served as "catalysts" for Twitter usage related to seeking and sharing information, views, opinions, and sentiments involving both these viruses. While there have been a few works published in the last few months that focused on performing sentiment analysis of Tweets related to either COVID-19 or MPox, none of the prior works in this field thus far involved analysis of Tweets focusing on both COVID-19 and MPox at the same time. With an aim to address this research gap, a total of 61,862 Tweets that focused on Mpox and COVID-19 simultaneously, posted between May 7, 2022, to March 3, 2023, were studied to perform sentiment analysis and text analysis. The findings of this study are manifold. First, the results of sentiment analysis show that almost half the Tweets (the actual percentage is 46.88%) had a negative sentiment. It was followed by Tweets that had a positive sentiment (31.97%) and Tweets that had a neutral sentiment (21.14%). Second, this paper presents the top 50 hashtags that were used in these Tweets. Third, it presents the top 100 most frequently used words that are featured in these Tweets. The findings of text analysis show that some of the commonly used words involved directly referring to either or both viruses. In addition to this, the presence of words such as "Polio", "Biden", "Ukraine", "HIV", "climate", and "Ebola" in the list of the top 100 most frequent words indicate that topics of conversations on Twitter in the context of COVID-19 and MPox also included a high level of interest related to other viruses, President Biden, and Ukraine. Finally, a comprehensive comparative study that involves a comparison of this work with 49 prior works in this field is presented to uphold the scientific contributions and relevance of the same.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2042.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Sexual health; contraceptives; religion; social determinants
Online: 29 September 2023 (08:28:05 CEST)
Despite great strides in the development of contraceptive technologies, the United States has one of the highest teen pregnancy rates in the world. Many investigators have aimed to examine the relationship between religion and the sexual health behaviors of college students to determine how social factors may influence the use of contraception amongst college students. Thus, we aimed to examine the differences in current contraceptive method and age of first contraceptive usage among sexually active female college students with different religious affiliations and strengths of religiosity. It was hypothesized that there would be no difference in current contraceptive methods among different religious affiliations and strengths of religions, and that there would be a difference in age of first contraceptive usage among different religious affiliations and strengths of religiosity. Two-hundred twenty-four college aged females completed a 20-question survey about sexual health and religious practices. Chi-squared tests were implemented to determine if the frequencies of responses across religious affiliations and strengths of religiosity. Significant differences in the frequency of responses for age of first contraceptive usage were observed across different strengths of religiosity (p=0.016) and for the self-perceived impact of religion on sexual health across different religious affiliations (p=0.033) and strengths of religiosity (p=0.005). All other differences were found not to be statistically significant. It was determined that increased strengths of religiosity resulted in delayed onset of contraceptive us-age and that both different religious affiliations and greater strengths of religiosity lead to different self-perceived impacts of religion on sexual health.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: social work; global issues; trends; challenges; practice; education; research
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:46:43 CEST)
This scholarly article provides an overview of the present and future issues and trends in social work on a global scale. Drawing upon recent bibliographic references and a review of the literature, this article explores the challenges faced by social workers in various regions and highlights emerging trends that are reshaping the field. The analysis incorporates insights from renowned authors and researchers to provide a comprehensive understanding of the current state and anticipated future of social work practice, education, and research worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0299.v4
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; pandemic; science; social science; bibliometric analysis
Online: 12 September 2020 (09:49:40 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus emerged in Wuhan City, Hubei province of China at the end of 2019, has radically transformed the lives of people around the world. Due to its fast spreading, it is currently considered as a worldwide health, social and economic concern. The lack of knowledge on this area has encouraged academic sphere for extensive research, which is reflected in exponentially growing scientific literature in this area. However, current state of COVID-19 research reveals only early development of knowledge, while a comprehensive and in-depth overview remains neglected. Accordingly, the main aim of this paper is to fill the aforementioned gap in the literature and provide an extensive bibliometric analysis of COVID-19 research across science and social science research landscape, using innovative and sophisticated bibliometric approaches (e.g. Venn diagram, Biblioshiny descriptive statistics, VOSviewer co-occurrence network analysis, Jaccard distance cluster analysis, text mining based on logistic regression). The bibliometric analysis is based on the Scopus database including all relevant and latest information on COVID-19 related publications (n=16,866) in the first half of 2020. The empirical results indicate that there is still a lack of publications of COVID-19 and its implications in less-explored (non-health) sciences, especially in social sciences. Accordingly, the findings emphasize an importance of a comprehensive and in-depth approach considering different scientific disciplines in COVID-19 research. The understanding of the evolution of emerging scientific knowledge on COVID-19 is beneficial not only for scientific community but also for evidence-based policymaking in order to prevent and address the COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0213.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: twitter; discourse analysis; Covid-19; Coronavirus; disinformation; misinformation; social media activity; downplay
Online: 10 September 2020 (03:28:01 CEST)
Misinformation can amplify humanity's most significant challenges. As the novel coronavirus spreads across the world, concerns regarding the spreading of misinformation about it and also people downplaying the severity of it are also growing. This article investigates social media activity in May 2020, specifically Twitter, with respect to COVID-19, the themes of tweets, where the discussion is emerging from, disinformation shared about the virus, and its relationship with COVID-19 incidence rate at the state and county level. A geodatabase of all geotagged COVID-19 related tweets was compiled. Multiscale Geographically Weighted Regression was employed to examine the association between social media activity, population, and the spatial variability of disease incidence; our results suggest that MGWR could explain 96.7% of the variations. Moreover, Covid-19 related twitter dataset content analysis reveals a meaningful strong spatial relationship that exists between social media activity and known cases of COVID-19. Discourses analysis was conducted on tweets to index tweets downplaying the Pandemic or disseminating disinformation; the discourses analysis findings suggest that states in where twitter users spread more misinformation and showed more resistance to pandemic management measures in May are experiencing a surge in the number of cases in July.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0203.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; Social Psychology; scientific publications; Spain
Online: 17 February 2022 (08:17:58 CET)
This study analyses the papers published by Spanish social psychologists to determine whether they address topics related with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Publications by Spanish institutions indexed by the Web of Science in the thematic category of “Social Psychology” were subjected to bibliometric analysis. The publications were classified by their relationship with the SDGs using OSDG, an open-source labelling tool, and an in-depth content analysis was performed to validate the results. A corpus of 1632 papers published by Spanish institutions between 1980 and 2020 was identified. Thirty-four percent of the papers address matters related with the SDGs; 23 % concern matters related with Goal 3 (good health and well-being), and 5 %, with Goal 5 (gender equality). Only 3 % are interventions to modify behaviour or change social environments. Conclusions: The review of these papers allows detecting to what extent the research conducted in Social Psychology contributes to achieving the goals proposed in each of the SDGs. Also, the content analysis of this publications identifies several factors (cognitive, emotional, social or cultural) which should be investigated to improve knowledge on how to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0015.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Social media; Community; Facebook; Twitter; Google; Information; Interaction
Online: 1 October 2021 (12:03:09 CEST)
Background: Caregivers often use the internet to access information related to stroke care to improve preparedness, thereby reducing uncertainty and enhancing the quality of care. Method: Social media communities used by caregivers of people affected by stroke were identified using popular keywords searched for using Google. Communities were filtered based on their ability to provide support to caregivers. Data from the included communities were extracted and analysed to determine the content and level of interaction. Results: There was a significant rise in the use of social media by caregivers of people affected by stroke. The most popular social media communities were charitable and governmental organizations with the highest user interaction – this was for topics related to stroke prevention, signs and symptoms, and caregiver self-care delivered through video-based resources. Conclusion: Findings show the ability of social media to support stroke caregiver needs and practices that should be considered to increase their interaction and support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0360.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Corporate social responsibility, corporate governance, stakeholder engagement, sustainability, sustainable development goals.
Online: 16 May 2021 (21:30:41 CEST)
Cooperative organizations try to balance economic viability and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) management through strategic policies that involve dialogue, participation and engagement with stakeholders. To measure the impact of CSR management, the electricity sector implements monitoring processes and models, such as the Sustainability Reporting Standards of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), which measure contributions to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations 2030 Agenda. This research analyses the strategic management of CSR in the 28 electric cooperatives that market electricity in Spain with the aim of determining their level of commitment to CSR and stakeholder participation in their corporate policies. The analysis is based on the descriptive-exploratory study of the whole population of electric cooperatives. The results indicate that the CSR management of most electric cooperatives is still in an emerging stage within the Value Curve. Importantly, there is a significant percentage of cooperatives that have already advanced towards the consolidating and institutionalized stages. However, most of these social-economy organizations are not developing programs that link their CSR strategies with their priority SDGs and sustainability as commitment to their community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0243.v1
Online: 19 June 2020 (12:15:46 CEST)
All over the world, development of micro blog and other social platform indicate that Social Media is now the focus and trend of the Internet. Daily life, study and work are influenced by news in Social Medias . Micro blog is new emergent type of media and it spreads information rapidly in the crowd in recent years. Suppose an user searches for specific information about one topic on micro blog. He/she found easily plenty of information related to his/her search in social medias. The problem is to find out the correct information. Normally, multi-document summarization method deals with a collection of documents about one topic for extracting the valuable points and discards useless information. Actually, it needs to extract the topic content by adding topic factors and social patterns. Topic factor is the lexical information related to the topic. Social pattern relates to special interactive mode owned by online social network, such as comment and repost. People has been seen the fake news on mobile/internet during lockdown period. It is of no doubt that anyone with a social media account has seen at least one example of this.Humanity’s greatest challenges are to detect false information. Fake news are collected from 150 persons using social media The aim of the paper is to investigate the truthfulness of the news people share on social media using K-nearest Neighbour (KNN) based Classifier method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0091.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Frailty; Social Isolation; Social Networks; Social Support; Social Participation; Aging
Online: 2 February 2021 (14:32:33 CET)
This research investigated the effects of social isolation on frailty and health outcomes and tested whether these associations varied across different levels of frailty. We performed a multivariate analysis of data from the first wave of the FRéLE study among 1,643 Canadian older adults aged 65 years and over. We assessed social isolation using social participation, social networks, and support from various social ties, namely, friends, children, extended family, and partner. Frailty predicted disability, comorbidity, depression, and cognitive decline. Less social participation was associated with IADLs, depression, and cognitive decline. The absence of friends was associated with depression and cognitive impairment. Less social support from children and partner was related to comorbidity, depression, and cognitive decline. Overall, social isolation is linked to mental health, rather than physical health. The associations of having no siblings, receiving less support from friends, and participating less in social activities with ADL limitations, depression, and cognitive decline were higher among frail than pre-frail and robust older adults. This study corroborates the pivotal role of social connectedness, particularly the quality of relationships, on the mental health of older adults. Public health policies on social relationships are paramount to ameliorate the health status of frail older adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0068.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: bioclimatic design; climatic conditions; wind tunnel; numerical methods; social housing; energy efficiency
Online: 3 May 2018 (11:26:27 CEST)
This paper presents the results of aerodynamical performance research focused on maintaining the thermal comfort and increasing the energy efficiency of a typical social housing unit located in a high-density urban area. Bioclimatic design strategies are used to develop a sustainable and economic technology in existing housing clusters in Mexico City. A full-scale prototype, built on campus facilities, was used to study the flow conditions around the design. All scaled prototypes implement similar criterion. Furthermore, a scaled prototype is evaluated within a low speed wind tunnel installation. Additionally, numerical simulations were performed at transient state based on previous physical measurements and historical local climatic conditions to determine preferable modifications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: behavioral analysis; COVID-19; governmental intervention; mask adoption; movement change; vaccine participation; non-pharmaceutical interventions; policy recommendations; social physics; social behavior
Online: 20 October 2022 (11:41:27 CEST)
Since its emergence, COVID-19 has caused a great impact in health and social terms. Governments and health authorities have attempted to minimize this impact by enforcing different mandates. Recent studies have addressed the relationship between various socioeconomic variables and compliance level to these interventions. However, little attention has been paid to what constitutes people's response and whether people behave differently when faced with different interventions. Data collected from different sources show very significant regional differences across the United States. In this paper, we attempted to shed light on the fact that a response may be different depending on the health system capacity and each individuals’ social status. For that, we analyzed the correlation between different societal variables (i.e. education, income levels, population density, etc.) along with healthcare capacity related variables (i.e. hospital occupancy rates, percentage of essential workers, etc.) with regards to people's level of compliance with three main governmental mandates in the United States: mobility restrictions, mask adoption, and vaccine participation. Our aim was to isolate the most influential variables impacting behavior in response to these policies. We found that there was a strong relationship between individuals' educational levels and political preferences with respect to compliance with each of these mandates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0316.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: ; Social interaction; Self-organization; Imitation; Coordination dynamics; Group normalization; Interpersonal symmetry
Online: 13 September 2022 (15:59:57 CEST)
I present an experimental paradigm to explore the interpersonal dynamics generating a collective mind. I hypothesized that collective organization is based on dual interpersonal modes: (1) symmetrical and (2) anti‑symmetrical. I specified the geometric topology of these modes by detecting the spatiotemporal patterns that embed cooperative agents in a three‑dimensional matrix. I found that the symmetrical mode is executed automatically and without guidance. Conversely, the anti‑symmetrical mode required explicit direction and recruited attention for execution. I demonstrate that self‑other mirror‑symmetry stabilized group dynamics, enabled fast and efficient symmetrical imitation that optimized information transmission, whereas anti‑symmetrical imitation was comparatively slow, inefficient, and unstable. I determined that the anti‑symmetrical mode spontaneously transitioned to the symmetrical mode under perturbations. Crucially, this renormalization mechanism never transitioned from symmetrical to anti‑symmetrical. These self-organizing dynamics speak to interpersonal symmetry‑breaking. In the present work, spontaneous group choice mandated that agents synchronize cooperative cycles in symmetrical space under internal or external perturbations. I provide examples to illustrate that this self-regulating pullback attractor manifests in invertebrates and vertebrates alike. I conclude by suggesting that inter‑agent symmetry provides the social stability manifold through which attention-driven interactions enable intrapersonal and interpersonal change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0228.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Requirements Engineering; Authoring Tools; 3D content; IEEE 830 standard; Social Media
Online: 8 April 2021 (10:16:52 CEST)
This paper presents a requirements specification analysis for driving the design of new systems that will allow 3D media creators to further promote and monetize from their work. The provided requirements analysis is based on the IEEE 830 standard for requirements specification. It allows us to elucidate system requirements through existing (AS-IS) and envisioned (TO-BE) scenarios affected by the latest trends on design methodologies and content promotion in social media. A total of 30 tools for content creation, promotion and monetization are reviewed. The target groups, i.e. creator groups, are divided in 10 types according to their role in 3D media production. Based on this division 10 candidate TO-BE scenarios have been identified and out of these 10 scenarios, we have selected 6 scenarios for validation by media creators. The validation was performed through a survey of 24 statements on a 5 Likert scale by 47 individuals from the domains of Media, Fine arts, Architecture, and Informatics. Useful evaluation results and comments have been collected that can be useful for future systems design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2127.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: Hispanic; Familism; Vision Impairment; Hearing Impairment; Social Isolation; Cognitive Functioning
Online: 30 May 2023 (11:28:27 CEST)
Objectives: Understanding the intersection of age, ethnicity, and disability will become increasingly important as the global population ages and becomes more diverse. By 2060, Hispanics will comprise 28% of the U.S. population. This study examines critical associations between sensory impairment, social isolation, and cognitive functioning among Hispanic older adults. Methods: Our sample consisted of 557 Hispanic older adults that participated in Rounds 1-3 or Rounds 5-7 of the National Health and Aging Trends Study. Longitudinal mediation models across a three-year span were estimated using Mplus with vision, hearing, and dual sensory impairment predicting cognitive functioning directly and indirectly through social isolation. Results: Findings indicated that cognitive functioning was concurrently and, in certain cases, longitudinally predicted by vision and dual sensory impairment, and by social isolation. Contrary to expectations, vision and hearing impairment were not predictive of social isolation. Dual sensory impairment was associated with social isolation, yet no significant indirect associations were found for sensory impairments predicting cognitive functioning through social isolation. Discussion: The finding that social isolation did not mediate the relationship between sensory impairment and cognitive decline among Hispanic older adults in the U.S. is contrary to findings from other studies that were not specifically focused on this population. This finding may be evidence that culturally motivated family support and intergenerational living buffer the impact of sensory impairments in later life. Findings suggest that Hispanic older adults experiencing dual sensory impairments may benefit from interventions that foster social support and include family members.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0268.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: wellness; health; user engagement; social media; instagram; negative binomial regression
Online: 12 April 2023 (09:46:13 CEST)
Wellness is a multidimensional concept that touches upon the various physical, mental, emotional, spiritual, social and environmental facets of health. Interest towards and importance of wellness have been growing constantly for the past two decades and thus makes it crucial to understand which factors affect public engagement with wellness information for multiple stakeholders. The Instagram account of New York Times (NYT) specifically for sharing wellness content with the handle nyt_well was selected as the object of study. 773 posts from this account between March of 2019 and December of 2022 were collected and analyzed to answer the research question of which factors are most influential to public engagement with wellness content. Two negative binomial regressions were run on features including the type of post, length, word count, sentiment score and topic with number of likes and comments as the dependent variables for each of those regression models. Results indicated that the type of post and its sentiment score were the two most influential determinants of public engagement with p-values smaller than 0.05. While the effects of some of these factors aligned with findings from previous studies conducted on social media content not related to wellness (e.g., marketing), some others affected the two separate public engagement metrics in opposite directions, warranting future studies to investigate further on the cause of this phenomenon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0175.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Online content; Social media; Legal frameworks; TCRA; Tanzania; Online anonymity
Online: 4 May 2023 (03:41:53 CEST)
This paper examines the challenges to justice in Tanzania posed by the proliferation of anonymous social media accounts and the dissemination of offensive and harassing content. The study analyzes the legal frameworks governing online content in Tanzania, including the Electronic and Postal Communications Act and the Electronic and Postal Communications (Online Content) Regulation of 2018, and highlights their shortcomings in identifying the publishers of such content. The paper also discusses the Legal and Human Rights Center's challenge to the EPOCA regulation and the authorities and responsible organs identified to deter, adjudicate, and open court processes in dealing with alleged offenses arising from online published content. Ultimately, the paper argues that a better understanding of the hindrances to justice in Tanzania must consider the paucity of legal frameworks governing published and online social media content. The findings of this study have significant implications for policymakers, legal practitioners, and civil society organizations seeking to promote accountability and protect human rights in Tanzania.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: older adult; happiness; family type; socio-physical environment; social activities
Online: 5 February 2020 (10:33:26 CET)
This study used secondary data from the 2017 Korean Community Health Survey to compare the associations of socio-physical environment, social support networks, and social activities with happiness among older adults with three different family types. As per the results, there was a significant difference in happiness index between the three groups (F = 86.688, p < .001). Older adults living alone (odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.57–0.99) and those living with family (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.65–0.99) showed greater happiness as the frequency of contact with family increased. Older adults living with only their spouse showed an increase in happiness when their contact with friends was higher (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.56–0.84). It was confirmed that there were differences in factors influencing happiness according to the family type of the older adults in this study. Therefore, the happiness of older adults needs to be adequately ensured, while considering their various circumstances, including family type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0323.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: social media; netnography; mental health; natural language processing; visualization; data analysis; COVID-19
Online: 8 February 2022 (11:12:14 CET)
Abstract: Understanding social media networks and group interactions are crucial to the ad-vancement of linguistic and cultural behaviour. This includes the manner in which people ac-cessed advice on health, especially during the global lockdown periods. Some people turned to social media to access information on health where most activities were curtailed with isolation rules, especially for older generations. Facebook public pages, groups and verified profiles, using "senior citizen health", "older generations", and "healthy living" keywords were analysed over a 12-month period to analyse the engagement promoting good mental health. CrowdTangle was used to source English language status updates, photo and video sharing information which resulted in an initial 116,321 posts and 6,462,065 interactions Data analysis and visualisation were used to explore large datasets, including natural language processing for “Message” content discovery, word frequency and correlational analysis and co-word clustering. Preliminary results indicate strong links to healthy aging information shared on social media which showed correla-tions to global daily confirmed case and daily death totals. The results can be used to identify public concerns early on and address mental health issues in the senior generation on Facebook.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1512.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: corporate social responsibility; digital technologies; systematic literature review; bibliometric analysis
Online: 21 July 2023 (13:18:36 CEST)
The modern technologies require the need to analyze the opportunities for improvement the integration of digital technologies in CSR activities in the context of added values be-tween business and science in perspective, incl. the future digital society. The main goal of this article is to identify the current state of research on the integration of digital technolo-gies in CSR activities in business, as well as to prepare recommendations for further re-search and practice. A systematic literature review and bibliometric analysis of 129 scien-tific articles published between 2014 to 2023 was performed. The bibliometric analysis was organized in two directions: descriptive and performance analysis, through which we can study the contribution of the analyzed objects to the given scientific area, and science mapping, which studies the relationships among them. The results indicate that the com-panies use more frequently artificial intelligence, blockchain, the Internet of Things and other technologies to increase the efficiency and impact of their CSR activities. In addition, this research reveals the basis of bringing forward the new trends for future publications, which shall upgrade and enrich the theory and practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0744.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: subjects of publications; bibliometric analysis; text clustering; energy transition; social issues
Online: 12 September 2023 (10:54:09 CEST)
The article aims to explore social aspects in the area of energy research by using bibliometrics methods and tools. The study is based on the data of Energy Research & Social Science journal publications exported from ScienceDirect database during 2019-2023. Methodologically, the work included clustering of the bibliometric records under consideration. This allowed to identify the main topics of publications and those in which the research of social problems prevails. This stage of the work was carried out using carrot2, an engine for clustering search results. Next, the analysis of publication topics related to social issues research was carried out using VOSviewer — a software tool for visualizing scientific landscapes. The topics of the four clusters obtained at this stage were described by key terms with the maximum total link strength. For the principal ones, a definition was made on the basis of the texts of publications that most fully disclose the meaning of these terms. The 1537 publications in the journal during the period under review deal with many aspects of energy transition research, renewable energy, energy policy, energy justice and energy systems, but only 78 of them are dominated by social issues. The paper reveals the main social issues in the field of energy research: sociology of energy, socio-technical system, community energy, energy democracy, sociology of the future, energy sovereignty, socio-technical imaginary and shows the insufficient attention to this topic, especially to the investment of such research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0201.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Internet use; social capital; income gap between farmers; mechanism
Online: 8 July 2021 (13:26:17 CEST)
Based on 2010, 2013 and 2015 CGSS data, the impact of Internet use and social capital on the income gap among farmers in the past five years is assessed at three time points using the OLS method and a quantile regression method. The study finds that (1) the income gap among farmers increases continuously in the five-year period, while Internet use plays a positive impact on farmers’ income growth in all five quartiles; the coefficient differences are all significantly negative, indicating that Internet use plays a positive role in alleviating the income gap between high-income and low-income farmer subgroups, and (2) social capital plays a positive role in moderating the income gap among farmers and that Internet use by farmers expands the boundary of social capital, which in turn increases the income level of and alleviates the income gap among farmers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0704.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: textbook; curriculum; social studies; public sector; private sector; education
Online: 30 July 2020 (05:17:10 CEST)
Text book ought to be viewed as one of the numerous sources educators can attract after making a powerful exercise and may offer a system of direction and introduction. The analysis of textbook forms a necessary part in academics so as to devise the most appropriate content. The present study made a comparative account of textbooks for Grade 5 Social studies taught in public (i.e., Punjab textbook) and private sector (Oxford textbook) of Pakistan. The comparison was made on key features and on themes suggested by National Curriculum Council (2017) as a standard for textbook publishers. The findings demonstrated that both books contain activities and are clearly written, however, PTB is cheaper, possess low paper quality than OTB and was revised in 2018 whereas OTB has not revised since 2010. It is also suggested that both textbooks do not contain enough information as per NCC’s standard. It is suggested that government should take notice about it and publishers should be bound to deliver only that material in education sector that is according to the devised set of standards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0230.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: social life cycle assessment; crepe rubber; concentrated latex; ribbed smoked sheets; corruption
Online: 5 June 2023 (03:59:09 CEST)
Raw rubber production is the sole foundation for the rubber product industry, rendering raw rubber to manufacture essential commodities to mankind such as tires, condoms, surgical gloves, and so forth. Raw rubber production involves various stakeholders; however, literature focusing on the social impacts of raw rubber production and its supply chain has hereto been limited. Social life cycle assessment, a popular tool to assess the social impacts of a product or process and was deployed herein to assess the social profiles of three Sri Lankan raw rubber supply chains (crepe rubber, concentrated latex, and ribbed smoked sheets). The Social Hotspots Database v4 on Sima Pro v9.3 was used for the analysis. Results indicated that Governance and Labour rights & decent work had been affected in its supply chain of fertilizers due to Corruption and Freedom of association & collective bargaining issues, mainly in Belarus, and China. Proposed improvement options to address these touchpoints were found to be effective. For instance, if the importation of K-fertilizer shifted into low risk countries, overall social risks associated with Corruption and Freedom of association & collective bargaining in the supply chains could be reduced by ca. 36% and 25%, respectively. As a result, social risks in the aforesaid impact categories, i.e., Governance and Labor rights & decent work, were reduced by ca. 35-41% and ca. 17-20%, respectively. Such improvements may help positioning the Sri Lankan rubber industry in the sustainability-conscious-world rubber market. Further, the methodical hierarchy developed herein is suggested to adopt in any industry to measure social sustainability subjected to the relevant refinements to the supply chains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0126.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: corporate social responsibility (CSR); sustainability; complementarity; fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA)
Online: 12 November 2019 (10:00:45 CET)
We examined how combinations of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities lead to high performance in Korean companies. This study addressed two related questions to expand our limited knowledge in this area. The first was what combinations of CSR activities achieve high performance. The second was to identify how CSR activities form an interdependent system, depending on different corporate situations. Korean Economic Justice Institute index data, from 2012 to 2018, were used with fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis, and the results revealed several effective CSR activity factor combinations under given strategies and management environments. Companies with high performance exhibit complementarity between social contribution, environmental management, fairness, and employee satisfaction. By contrast, companies with low corporate performance show no complementarity between relatively unrelated activity factors. For companies whose CSR activities lead to low financial performance, most of the causal pathways focused only on activities at the primary stakeholder level, with weak diversity of CSR activities’ combinations at the primary and secondary stakeholder levels. These results indicate not only the appropriateness of CSR activity factor combinations for companies’ strategy and management environment contexts, but also their effectiveness, and are expected to provide companies with significant implications for CSR activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1358.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: sleep; social jetlag; healthcare workers; regularity; occupational health
Online: 20 September 2023 (04:53:38 CEST)
Healthcare workers have atypical working schedule and are exposed to experienced stress that led to poor sleep health and frequent mental complaints, particularly since the Covid-19 crisis. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of poor sleep hygiene and mental complaints and their associations among healthcare workers. Usual sleep-wake timings were ex-plored during workdays and free days and used to compute sleep duration, sleep efficiency and social jetlag. Insomnia, sleepiness, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and fatigue were calculated using validated scales. A total of 1,562 participants were included (80.5% of women and mean age of 40.0). Among them, 25.9% slept less than 6 hours, 24.3% had a poor sleep efficiency, and 11.5% reported a social jetlag. A total of 33.9% of participants reported insomnia, 45.1% reported EDS, 13.1% reported fatigue, 16.5% reported depression and 35.7% reported anxiety. After ad-justment, sleep duration and sleep efficiency were associated with mental complaints. Social jetlag was associated with significant insomnia but not with anxiety or depression symptoms. Healthcare workers have a high prevalence of poor sleep hygiene and mental complaints. The promotion of sleep health through behavioral sleep strategies should be encouraged to ensure good health for these professionals.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0332.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Decision Making Process; Social Networks; Social Commerce; Social Support
Online: 21 January 2022 (14:53:08 CET)
The introduction of social commerce ushered in a new era in business-consumer interaction. As a result, more power has passed from the vendor to the buyer, primarily fueling e-commerce acceptance. As a result, understanding consumer behaviour in the context of social commerce adoption has become essential for businesses looking to persuade customers by using the power of social ties and support.Furthermore, such social ties will facilitate trust as the most promising benefit while reducing perceived risk, which has always been a critical problem with online commerce. This study proposes a paradigm for understanding the impact of social commerce on the stages of the consumer decision-making process: need recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, and post-purchase behaviour, with a focus on social support. In this respect, relevant literature in the subject of social commerce either (1) lacks an adequate explanatory model, (2) has a solid theoretical base, or (3) contains practically complex theories with insufficient empirical data. The research model applies the Social Commerce Constructs (SCC): recommendations and referrals, forums and communities, and ratings and reviews to study the respective influence on the consumer decision-making process phases. This paper aims to understand the influence of social commerce on an integrative model that incorporates all customer choice phases while expecting new knowledge. Furthermore, it is advised that this conceptual model be empirically verified to evaluate the practical consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0329.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: chatbot; cyber security; artificial intelligence; threats; vulnerability; data manipulation; social media; sentiment analysis
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:08:49 CEST)
In recent years, groups of cyber criminals/hackers have carried out cyber-attacks using various tactics with the goal of destabilizing web services in a specific context for which they are motivated. Predicting these attacks is a critical task that assists in determining what actions should be taken to mitigate the effects of such attacks and to prevent them in the future. Although there are programs to detect security concerns on the internet, there is currently no system that can anticipate or foretell whether the attacks will be successful. This research aims to develop sustain-able strategies to reduce threats, vulnerability, and data manipulation of chatbots, consequently improving cyber security. To achieve this goal, we develop a conversational chatbot, an application that uses artificial intelligence (AI) to communicate, and deploy it on social media sites (e.g., Twitter) for cyber security purposes. Chatbots have the capacity to consume large amounts of information and give an appropriate response in an efficient and timely manner, thus rendering them useful in predicting threats emanating from social media. The research utilizes sentiment analysis strategy by employing chatbots on Twitter (and analyzing Twitter data) for predicting future threats and cyber-attacks. The strategy is based on a daily collection of tweets from two types of users: those who use the platform to voice their opinions on important and relevant subjects, and those who use it to share information on cyber security attacks. The research pro-vides tools and strategies for developing chatbots that can be used for assessing cyber threats on social media through sentiment analysis leading to a global sustainable development of businesses. Future research may utilize and improvise on the tools and strategies suggested in our research to strengthen the knowledge domain of chatbots, cyber security, and social media.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0076.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Mathematical names; Hindu mathematical tradition; Indian social psyche; Mathematics and religion; Mathematics and society; Hindu mathematics
Online: 5 April 2021 (14:42:47 CEST)
The current paper explores the potential interlink between names of individuals in a society and its collective social consciousness, particularly with reference to the pervasive occurrence of the ‘mathematical names’ in the current Hindu society in the Indian subcontinent and beyond. Initially, an attempt is made to put things into mathematical perspective by drawing a quick sketch of some of the stellar achievements of the Indian mathematicians. Under the six broad categories of geometry, trigonometry, numeration, arithmetic, algebra, and mathematics in the Vedic tradition, a concise simple description of these subdivisions is presented, underlining the names of the concepts and terms, sometimes by producing the textual references. Then, upon identification of such mathematical terms, an attempt is made to juxtapose these with the names current in the Indian Hindu society. By employing an extensive dataset of university student names in India and the directories of Facebook and LinkedIn, we produce both qualitative and quantitative evidence of the presence of such names in the Indian subcontinent. Evidently, these names reflect the impressions of the tremendously rich mathematical heritage left by the Hindu stalwart mathematicians. This hypothesis has also been examined by taking surveys of people bearing these mathematical names, as well as by documenting the ‘conscious procedures’ that go behind the naming of a Hindu Indian child. In trying to investigate if such a phenomenon is unique to the Indian tradition, a stark contrast with the ‘names in mathematics’ as prevalent in the European mathematical traditions is presented, as cultural roots of mathematics are explored. Further, we ascribe the presence of these names as the extant remains of the colossal impact of multifarious mathematical traditions existing in India. Interestingly, the present research also brings to the fore, certain unseen facets of the Indian Hindu society as regards the education of mathematics to women – through an indirect exploration of their names. We also show that the pervasive occurrence of these names is not merely the result of semantic chance events, but denotes the richness of the Indian mathematical legacy. Next, we also present cross-cultural comparisons to show the uniqueness of Indian mathematical and scientific traditions that led to the pervasiveness of ‘mathematical names’ in India. Finally, an attempt is made to clarify some subtle points on the associations between mathematics and religion in India and other cultures of the world. It is sincerely hoped that the present study may shed light on the cultural roots of mathematics and may furnish a new dimension in the study of mathematics, culture and civilizations across the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0115.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Film, Radio And Television Keywords: heroin users; junkies; cinematic representations; social constructionism; cultural criminology
Online: 7 May 2018 (11:05:31 CEST)
This article responds to an identified and significant gap in the existing scholarly canon to consider the extent to which cinematic representations construct heroin users—the ‘junkie’—as a criminalised ‘Other’ which confer legitimacy on the notion that such are criminogenic and deviant. Positioned within the disciplinary bounds of cultural criminology, this article focuses on five films - Sid and Nancy (1986); The Basketball Diaries (1995); Trainspotting (1996); Requiem for a Dream (2000); and, T2 Trainspotting (2017). Drawing together Hall’s (1997) theories of representation and Hjelm’s (2014) theories of social constructionism, the findings from a narrative analysis of each of the films—individually and comparatively—explores the following themes, junkies: as criminogenic; as dangerous underclass; as embodying decay and depravity; and in relation to female junkies, as junkie whores. In doing so, this article elucidates new thinking and ideas about cinematic representations of junkies and how this shapes and influences social norms and mores.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2204.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; Social isolation stress; Neuropsychiatric disorders; Biopsychosocial vulnerability; Therapeutic strategies
Online: 1 September 2023 (07:30:29 CEST)
The COVID-19 Pandemic generated, in addition to severe symptoms, hospitalizations, and deaths worldwide, stress from the fear of the disease and social uncertainties, from restriction measures and social isolation. Stress from social isolation impacts mental health, aggravating conditions, and triggering neuropsychiatric symptoms in individuals with biopsychosocial vulnerability. During and immediately after the period of social restriction imposed by the Pandemic, the scientific community carried out several research protocols. It revealed results that relevantly demonstrate the harmful effect of the stress induced by the Pandemic situation. This review reports and discusses research results demonstrating impairments in neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, dementia, eating disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety, and depression. In addition to studies showing the effect of social isolation on disorders, research results are reported and discussed that evaluated protocols with some possible therapeutic intervention strategies during times of social restriction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0021.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: allegiance norm; social desirability; social utility
Online: 3 December 2016 (10:07:44 CET)
In this study we were interested in the behaviors of individuals who preserve the social and organizational environment by ensuring sustainability. More specifically we are interested in allegiants behaviors. Numerous studies have highlighted the normative character of allegiance. To confer an object the status of social norm means to assign value (in terms of desirability and utility) to that object. Therefore we questioned the value attributed to allegiance. 170 employees were questioned on the desirability and utility they attribute to a future work colleague (future peer or future subordinate) starting from the answers the latter was supposed to have given to a questionnaire on allegiance. It was observed that desirability and utility make reference to two independent dimensions, utility being often more important. It was also noted there is greater severity assigned to endo-group targets (future peers) than to exo-group targets (future subordinates). Finally, it was noted there was not so much a valuation of allegiant targets, but rather a rejection of rebel targets, which raises the question of the bi-dimensionality of the valuation-devaluation process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0241.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Attitude Toward Behavior; Subjective Norms; Perceived Behavioral Control; Outcome Expectation; Social Entrepreneurial Intention; Generation Z; Generation Millennials
Online: 14 February 2023 (09:01:41 CET)
As one of the world's most populous countries, Indonesia is struggling with the composition of its people, the majority of whom are unemployed productive-age individuals with low education levels. Another issue is the high poverty rate, which is followed by issues of gender inequality. The government cannot solve these social issues on its own. There is a need for community support to solve these problems through sustainable social entrepreneurship activities. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior and Outcome Expectation, this study will determine the factors that influence the interest of individuals known as the Z and Millennial generation, aged 18 to 34 years old, in becoming social entrepreneurs. This study applied a quantitative approach with a judgmental sampling technique to a sample of Generation Z and Millennials who have ever participated in social activities but have not yet started their own business. The study gathered 210 respondents, who were then analyzed using the PLS-SEM method with multiple group analysis generation-based comparison. According to the findings, the Millennial Generation's Attitude Toward Behavior, Subjective Norms, and Outcome Expectation all had a positive impact on Social Entrepreneurial Intention. Meanwhile, Subjective Norms had no effect on Social Entrepreneurial Intention in the Z Generation. Only attitude toward behavior, perceived behavioral control, and outcome expectation have a positive effect on the development of social entrepreneurial intentions. Furthermore, the findings of this study confirm that subjective norms influence attitude toward behavior and Perceived Behavioral Control in both Generation Z and millennials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0971.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Business model; scaling social impact; social entrepreneurship; social impact; scale; society
Online: 14 August 2023 (04:36:48 CEST)
This paper examines the Business Model (BM) from a socioeconomic system perspective to discern key factors, and understand its interactions resulting in the Scaling of Social Impact (SSI) in Social Entrepreneurship (SE). Previously, studies have explained the importance of BM in relation to SE. However, there is a lack of empirical studies on how BM’s transitions through participation of various actors result in SSI. This research applies qualitative analysis on a single case study of a Japanese social startup, “mymizu”, the first water refill application platform in Japan. The findings show that collaboration amongst different stakeholders on the initial phase of the BM could increase awareness of responsible consumption, convert into actual users for sustainability, and change their behavior. Secondly, members of the society could take on dual roles, both as users and collaborators in the BM, which results in an exponential scaling effect of the social impact. This paper contributes towards adding a participatory stakeholder (PS) to the ecosystem of SSI and building a “regenerative” BM that is relevant in SE towards sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0002.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Digital; end-user; framework; health; implementation; learning; model; professional; research; social; theory
Online: 4 May 2022 (06:48:50 CEST)
Digital health research is an emerging discipline that requires easy-to-understand theoretical frameworks and implementation models for digital health providers in health and social care settings. The COVID-19 pandemic has heightened demand for digital health discipline-specific instruction on ‘how to’ manage evidence-based digital health transformation. Access to the use of these models guarantees that digital health providers can investigate phenomena using safe and suitable approaches and methods to conduct research and identify answers to challenges and problems that arise in health and social care settings. The COMPASS theory is designed to aid transformation of health and social care environments. A navigational rose of primary quadrants is divided by four main compass points, with person-centred care being central to the philosophy. Two axes produce Cartesian planes that intersect to form a box plot, which can be used to discover human and physical resource weightings to augment digital health research design and implementation. A third continuum highlights stakeholders' capabilities, critical for any multidisciplinary study. The COMPASS mnemonic guides end-users through the process of design, development, implementation, evaluation, and communication of digital health transformations. The theory's foundations are presented and explained in context of the 'new normal' of health and social care delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0362.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: social identity; social group behaviour; social structure; pro-environmental behaviour; sustainability transitions
Online: 6 November 2023 (14:54:22 CET)
In recent years, change in behaviour towards the environment has gained prominence as a policy tool to influence positive environmental value. Simultaneously, the role played by social identity in promoting pro-environmental action is gaining recognition. Within this work, the intersection between collective group identity and environmental behaviour has received very little attention. Group norms are considered a strong predictor of pro-environmental behaviour, yet the influence of social identity and collective action on environmental action has not been adequately investigated in a multi-ethnic setting. Within this context, this study examines the affective component of social identity influence on pro-environmental action. More succinctly, this study demonstrates how outgroups and in-groups’ relations and broader socio-cultural structures, values, interest, and norms impact environmental and sustainability transitions behaviours. Through interviews with participants across the four dominant social groups in South Africa, this study provides compelling evidence that country wide expressions of social identity and in-group dynamics shapes the individual behaviour regarding environmental and sustainability concerns and further strengthen the individual’s perspective for social environmental transformation. This study advances the need for a social-identity centred approach to foster pro-environmental and sustainability outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0367.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Social Economy; Social Solidarity Institutions; Sustainable Development; Corporate Social Responsibility; Environmental Responsibility.
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:48:06 CET)
Social Economy institutions seek to provide answers to social problems, given that they naturally have a socially responsible mission. This study aims to answer the research question: how sustainable practices, namely environmental behaviour, have been adopted by Portuguese Private Social Solidarity Institutions (IPSS) with the purpose of contributing to Sustainable Development? To achieve this objective, qualitative research was carried out in 31 IPSS, which was framed within the scope of the TFA project (Theoretical framework for promotion of accountability in the social economy sector: the IPSS case). Semi-structured interviews were conducted, with a script based on the literature review, from May to July 2019, with those responsible for the management of these entities. A content analysis was conducted, using the NVivo12 Version 12.6.0 software, which enables data to be coded and categorised, reducing any researcher bias. The results indicate that most entities carry out activities of an environmental nature, related to the reuse of materials, the recycling of waste, the sale of materials for recycling, and user awareness. Several entities expressed financial limitations to the implementation of Environmental Management Systems and their accomplishment. However, the objections presented are not impossible to overcome, according to studies presented in other countries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0495.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19); analysis; modeling; recommendations; surveillance; social media analytics; meteorological effects; image processing; business and economy
Online: 24 August 2020 (02:54:47 CEST)
COVID-19 has created anxiety not only in individuals but also in health organizations, and countries worldwide. Not a single industry is left un-influenced and loss is being estimated in billions of dollars. The widespread of this pandemic disease has challenged researchers all over the world. Some of the researchers are working to invent its cure while, others are applying computing technologies to stop its spread, by analyzing and identifying patterns for prediction and forecasting. This is by no doubt the hottest area of research for the last 100 years. This survey has targeted the research published in computing sub-domains to combat the pandemic. The survey has clustered the scientific efforts into logical groups: surveillance, metrological effects, social media analytics, image processing and business and economy, analysis and modeling. It will serve as a leading source for the followings: researchers who want to identify what has been achieved in different computing sub-domains, those who need fresh authenticated datasets openly accessible for different research contexts and what are future directions in this area of research. The findings of analysis and modeling can be also useful for government agencies who want to set priorities and formulate policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2176.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Child sexual abuse; Social Networking; Social Support.
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:24:03 CEST)
This research mapped significant social networks of victims of childhood sexual abuse, identifying relationships between childhood trauma and social bonds in adult life. Ten adult women, aged between 20 and 40 years, in psychiatric care for the consequences of trauma suffered in childhood participated in the research. For data collection, the map of significant social networks was used and analyzed through the structure, functions and attributes of the bonds. The network is composed of people from the Friendship, Family, Community, Work/Study and Health Teams group. The networks of friendships, family, co-workers or studies play a predominant role of emotional support, while the Health Teams also offer emotional support, but primarily provide clinical support in overcoming trauma and its consequences. The network of relationships has specific functions that maintain psychosocial integrity and help women to overcome the abuse suffered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0911.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: emotional intelligence; adolescents; social networks; social desirability
Online: 25 April 2023 (09:43:26 CEST)
Social networks have become an ubiquitous aspect of adolescents' life, providing new ways to connect and communicate with peers. However, little is known about the impact of social net-works on adolescents' emotional intelligence (EI), a crucial skill for social and identity development. The aim of the present study is to explore the time spent and reasons for using social net-works and their relationship with emotional intelligence in adolescents and young adults (15-19 years). After signing informed consent, participants completed a battery of questionnaires offered via secure online form. The results showed that teenagers spend more than 3 h/day on Whatsapp, more than 2 h/day on Instagram and less on Facebook (26m per day); girls prefer to use Whatsapp and Instagram, boys opt for Facebook. Most participants use social media when bored and/or to communicate with friends. Moreover, time spent on social media has a relationship with stress management with some aspects of EI (assertiveness, self-actualization, optimism, etc.). EI and social desirability have a significant relationship, especially in the sphere of adaptability. Based on the results obtained, future perspectives and training are suggested with the aim of adapting to the constant changes in the new technological reality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0585.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: disability; poverty; health; social exclusion; social inequality
Online: 29 September 2018 (06:05:36 CEST)
In this paper, we analyze data from the 2012 Encuesta de Integración Social y Salud (Social Integration and Health Survey) of the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spanish National Institute of Statistics) to obtain profiles created by combining disability, poverty and social exclusion. We hypothesize that the probability that people will experience social exclusion increases if they have a disability, chronic illness or limitation in conducting everyday activities, and that this probability is greater for women than for men. To conduct our analysis, we constructed a social exclusion model based on a series of social determinants that acts as a dependent variable. In this context, social exclusion is understood to go beyond the concept of financial poverty. We performed bivariate analyses, in which we calculated the Odds Ratios (OR) for certain variables considered to be predictors of social exclusion. We also performed a means comparison test and an ANOVA test to observe differences between individuals with recognized disability and those without. Finally, we conducted logistic regression analysis to determine which vulnerability profiles are most likely to experience a situation of social exclusion. We also discuss the limitations of our study, and suggest areas in, which the relationships between health, social exclusion and disability can be further investigated.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0694.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; long COVID; social media; Twitter; big data; data analysis; natural Language processing; data science; sentiment analysis
Online: 12 September 2023 (05:32:14 CEST)
Since the outbreak of COVID-19, social media platforms, such as Twitter, have experienced a tremendous increase in conversations related to Long COVID. The term “Long COVID” describes the persistence of symptoms of COVID-19 for several weeks or even months following the initial infection. Recent works in this field have focused on sentiment analysis of Tweets related to COVID-19 to unveil the multifaceted spectrum of emotions, viewpoints, and perspectives held by the Twitter community. However, most of these works did not focus on Long COVID, and the few works that focused on Long COVID have limitations. Furthermore, no prior work in this field has investigated Tweets where individuals self-reported experiencing Long COVID on Twitter. The work presented in this paper aims to address these research challenges by presenting multiple novel findings from a comprehensive analysis of a dataset comprising 1,244,051 Tweets about Long COVID, posted on Twitter between May 25, 2020, and January 31, 2023. First, the analysis shows that the average number of Tweets per month where individuals self-reported Long COVID on Twitter, has been considerably high in 2022 as compared to the average number of Tweets per month in 2021. Second, findings of sentiment analysis using VADER show that the percentage of Tweets with positive, negative, and neutral sentiment were 43.12%, 42.65%, and 14.22%, respectively. Third, the analysis of sentiments associated with these Tweets also shows that the emotion of sadness was expressed in most of these Tweets. It was followed by the emotions of fear, neutral, surprise, anger, joy, and disgust, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0207.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Social Anxiety Disorder; Social Phobia, Online Survey; Adult, Oman; Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale
Online: 8 August 2020 (09:39:49 CEST)
Background: Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is among the most common anxiety disorders worldwide with data largely emerging from the Euro-American and Pacific Rim populations. In contrast, there is a dearth of studies among the populations of Arabian Gulf countries including Oman. This study has two interrelated aims: (i) to explore the prevalence of SAD among Omani adults, and (ii) to tease out the links between sociodemographic factors and SAD in Oman. Methods: A cross-sectional study via an online survey was conducted among 1019 adult Omani nationals residing in Oman. The presence of SAD was assessed using the Arabic version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Result: Nearly half the participants (45.9%, n=468) endorsed themselves as having features of SAD as defined by LSAS. In the multivariate logistic analysis, participants below 40 years of age were 1.6 times (OR=1.568, p=0.026) more likely to have SAD than those who were 40 and older. Women were 1.3 times (OR=1.348, p=0.038) more likely to endorse SAD than men. Participants who had secondary or undergraduate education were respectively 1.5 times (OR=1.45, p=0.014) and 2.5 times (OR=2.509, p<.001) to have SAD than who were postgraduates. Conclusion: The present data suggest that 45.9% of the participants reached the cut-off for case-ness in LSAS, which is high compared to reports from other populations. As online survey respondents tend to belong to similar demographics, the current results need not be representative of the Omani adult population, which calls for studies that adopt more inclusive survey methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0307.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: social cognition; social information processing; mother-child relationships; parenting style; kindergarten; social functioning
Online: 26 November 2019 (04:11:54 CET)
Children's ability to adjust to the social rules and expectations in the educational environment is of major concern to researchers and practitioners alike. Accordingly, the main purpose of the present study was to examine predictors of children's social functioning in kindergarten with a specific focus on (a) maternal factors; and, (b) children's social cognition. Using a multi-method (self-reports and direct assessments), multi-informant (child, mother, teacher) design, we collected data from 306 kindergarten children and their mothers tapping the mother's social cognitions (general and child-related) and parenting style, and children's social cognition (social information processing) and functioning in kindergarten. We found direct associations between the mother and child's social cognitions, between the mother's authoritarian parenting style and her child's less competent social cognition and behavior, and between the child's social cognition and social functioning. Finally, as hypothesized, we found a number of interesting mediated effects. Most notably, we found that the association between the mother's social cognition (her tendency to attribute hostile intent to unknown others) and the child's social cognition (his/her tendency to generate less competent responses) is fully mediated by the mother's higher levels of authoritarian parenting style. The important theoretical and clinical implications of our findings are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1450.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: semantic and linguistic technologies; spatial data mining; spatial data analytics; spatio-temporal characterization; social media
Online: 23 October 2023 (16:15:23 CEST)
At the beginning of 2019, the petroleum crisis impacted many economies dependent on this industry. The Mexican government started programs to identify points and government officials involved in the gasoline stealing from PEMEX (Petróleos Mexicanos), the country’s leading government petroleum company. The programs consisted of supervising and monitoring the Mexican country network of gasoline ducts to detect points where gasoline was being stolen. Consequently, large urban regions faced a lack and shortage of gasoline. This situation generated several reactions in social media and many open data in news media. Although the government provided open data about stealing gasoline locations related to crimes, it did not analyze the collected data to identify patterns, insights, and the spatio-temporal characterization of this phenomenon. This paper presents a study to deal with the regional semantics described in the social media locations of gasoline stealing. Thus, a framework to discover the trends that emerge from social media and how it is correlated with the government’s open data is also presented—the proposed methodology used machine learning techniques based on linguistic and semantic technologies. The analysis was applied to a dataset of 24,317 geo-referenced tweets. The obtained results reflected the Mexican thinking opinion regarding discovered social topics, polarization maps, and regional insights. According to discovered trends, there were long fuel lines between 1.5 and 5 kilometers (on average) at fuel stations in different Mexican states.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0089.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: cultural capital; lifestyle; management of the body; public sport; social capital
Online: 5 January 2021 (12:47:31 CET)
The present study has been done using the Survey Research. The research sample scale equals 400 people, besides its statistical population is included the 15-year population and most of the city of Kerman in 2020. The method of multistage-cluster-stratified sampling was used in five districts of the city of Kerman, moreover the results have been analyzed by SPSS and AMOSS16 software, and only is one model fitted with reality among five models of designed path. The results of analysis of path diagram indicate that other coefficients of the path all of them are significant except the direct impact of one's image of the body on sport-based cultural capital and social class on the tendency toward the public sport. Other results of the study suggest that sport-based socio-economic capital leaves an indirect effect on sport-based cultural capital by which the tendency of citizens toward the sport grows up. At that showing athletic advertisements in the media are effective on the tendency of citizens to public sport.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1946.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Economical load dispatch; Social Spider Algorithm; Particle Swarm Optimization; Thermal power system,; Plug-in electric vehicles
Online: 28 June 2023 (04:49:38 CEST)
The economical load dispatch problem is a critical concern in thermal power systems to ensure cost-effective operation. This paper conducts a comparative analysis between the Social Spider Algorithm (SSA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for economical load dispatch in a 6-unit thermal power system with the integration of 11,000 plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Both SSA and PSO are population-based optimization techniques designed to minimize the overall fuel cost while satisfying the load demand by determining the optimal power output of each unit. SSA emulates the social behavior of spiders, while PSO simulates the collective intelligence of a swarm of particles. Performance evaluation of the algorithms considers power system data, such as unit fuel costs, minimum and maximum loads, and total load demand. The objective is to minimize fuel cost while meeting the load demand. Comparative analysis of SSA and PSO includes convergence speed, solution quality, and computational efficiency. Experimental results indicate that SSA outperforms PSO in achieving a more optimal and economical load dispatch solution for the 6-unit thermal power system. SSA demonstrates faster convergence and provides superior-quality solutions compared to PSO. This paper contributes to the field by highlighting SSA's effectiveness in achieving cost-efficient operation of thermal power systems. The findings suggest that SSA holds promise as an optimization technique for similar power system optimization problems, enhancing overall operational efficiency and reducing costs for thermal power plants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0999.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: paramedic; community paramedicine; social needs; social isolation; equity
Online: 17 October 2023 (08:17:52 CEST)
Introduction: Health and social needs exist along a dynamic continuum. Recognizing that health status is inextricably impacted by social determinants of health, there exists opportunities and a professional responsibility to better understand how community paramedicine can address social needs in effort to reduce healthcare inequities.Aim: The primary objective of this scoping review is to systematically investigate published peer reviewed and grey literature to explore how community paramedicine supports social needs along a health and social continuum.Methods: A scoping review of English language literature was conducted using the JBI Scoping Review methodology. We searched CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE and grey literature searches in Google Scholar and organisational websites. We used search terms related to community paramedicine and social needs. Results: A total of 30 peer-reviewed and 13 grey literature articles met inclusion criteria. The main findings of this scoping review describe the evolving ways community paramedicine models are addressing health and social needs. A key recommendation across the literature was the need to meaningfully engage communities early in program development to understand how best to implement and co-design an integrated service model that addresses the needs specific to each community, though there was a lack of evidence to guide this approach. There is a notable lack of evidence pertaining to how best to optimize technologies in program design and implementation. The results highlight opportunities to determine best practices for conducting holistic community needs assessments that include equitable stakeholder engagement and enhance education to prepare paramedics for expanded roles.Conclusion: Community paramedicine provides opportunities to better meet the needs of structurally marginalised communities. However, there is a social responsibility and opportunity to engage in community needs assessments to co-design service delivery, advance paramedic education, and enhance interprofessional collaboration to better support social needs and generate upstream solutions for individuals and communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1295.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Social commerce; Social media; Personified communication; E-commerce
Online: 18 May 2023 (08:01:47 CEST)
The development of mobile internet technology has enabled companies to use social media for E-commerce. Some companies use personified images and languages to communicate with consumers in this context. How does personified communication affect consumer behavior in social commerce? Are consumers willing to accept this new form of communication under social commerce? To answer these questions, this paper explores consumers' willingness to take per-sonified communication in the context of social commerce. It investigates the role of cognitive needs in regulating the internal mechanism and proposes some suggestions for enterprises to improve social media communication. Specifically, this paper presents an improved model based on the TAM model. In our model, perceived interaction is introduced as a new independent variable, and cognitive need is added as a regulatory variable, which is more suitable for social commerce. We conduct a questionnaire survey on the Internet and analyze data using AMOS and SPSS. The results show that perceived usefulness and perceived interaction positively im-pact attitude, which influences consumers' willingness to purchase. Furthermore, the cognitive need as the regulatory variable significantly affects the influencing path from perceived use-fulness to attitude and purchase intention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0027.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: omnichannel CRM; social CRM; social media marketing; retail
Online: 2 June 2022 (05:09:15 CEST)
Customers make purchases through a multi-stage, omnichannel process, which now extends to social media. A loyalty loop can be achieved when an existing customer bypasses the initial stages –consider and evaluate– to make a direct purchase. However, to build that loyalty loop, a retailer must embrace techniques and software across social media marketing, social CRM, and omnichannel CRM. Reviewing literature from academic researchers and industry practitioners, this paper identifies emerging industry trends and discusses an illustrative case study of a UK digital retailer. The importance of social media for omnichannel retailing and building loyalty is highlighted and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0105.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: opinion game; opinion dynamics; social Interaction; social network
Online: 9 February 2020 (14:48:20 CET)
We introduce a new, and quite general variational model for opinion dynamics based on pairwise interaction potentials and a range of opinion evolution protocols ranging from random interactions to global synchronous flows in the opinion state space. The model supports the concept of topic “coupling”, allowing opinions held by individuals to be changed via indirect interaction with others on different subjects. Interaction topology is governed by a graph that determines interactions. Our model, which is really a family of variational models, has, as special cases, many of the previously established models for the opinion dynamics. After introducing the model, we study the dynamics of the special case in which the potential is either a tent function or a constructed bell-like curve. We find that even in these relatively simple potential function examples there emerges interesting behavior. We also present results of preliminary numerical explorations of the behavior of the model to motivate questions that can be explored analytically
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0427.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Twitter; Stakeholder Management; Social Media Communication; Social Media; CSR; Communication Strategy
Online: 23 November 2022 (01:14:53 CET)
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become increasingly important for companies in recent years. On the one hand, regulatory frameworks require the disclosure of measures for sustainable management. On the other hand, for long-term corporate success, stakeholders must be strategically engaged in the dialog on sustainability aspects. Social media, and Twitter in particular, offer the potential to foster a meaningful stakeholder dialogue on CSR topics. Due to Elon Musk's acquisition in the fall of 2022, this strategic disruption provides an opportunity to systematically capture the platform's past activities and strategies to synthesize practical information that can guide Twitter usage decision making and be used for research to serve as the basis for future comparative longitudinal studies of changes in usage. We conducted a literature review including 42 papers to contribute to the body of evidence on CSR communication strategies on Twitter across industries and countries by deriving interdisciplinary suggestions for strategic CSR-related stakeholder management. Results cover relevant CSR topics, prioritized stakeholder groups for CSR communication on Twitter and successful communication strategies for companies to obtain beneficial results, such as generating social media capital. The results contribute to the strategic planning and implementation of CSR stakeholder management on Twitter and offer starting points for future studies on social media mining and CSR communication strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0149.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: adaptive co-marketing; social marketing; community-based social marketing; social license to operate; community engagement; corporate social responsibility; marketing strategy
Online: 30 November 2016 (05:13:35 CET)
The concept of a Social License to Operate (SLO) has become increasingly important in the sustainability literature in recent years. Having its origins in the business discourse of the mining industry with respect to limiting opposition to mining projects, the notion of a social contract above and beyond legal requirements has since become applied across a number of different industries. Despite the concepts adoption confusion exists over the practices and outcomes of SLO, and particularly the nature of engagement. Given this situation it is surprising that not more attention to the role of marketing, and social marketing in particular, in operationalizing the concept. The paper discusses the potential of social marketing to contribute to SLO. Economic, political and social relations are complex in SLO and exchange is intricate in such relational environments. A community-based social marketing orientation is proposed as a means to improve exchange relations and enhance engagement. Seven models of SLO related social marketing models are discussed with community-based social marketing and adaptive co-marketing models being regarded as the most positive for the achievement of an SLO. Potential barriers to adoption of these approaches are noted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0363.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: social media; social media metrics; digital marketing; social media marketing strategy; customer sentiment; customer engagement
Online: 25 July 2022 (08:38:24 CEST)
The role of Social Media Marketing (SMM) in marketing strategies is rapidly growing. Because the use of social media is growing, the industry of SMM will grow bigger in the coming years; the pace of this growth is faster than ever. To survive in the modern competitive world, effective use of SMM for a firm is a must; for that, every SMM channel needs to be used to its full potential. For a marketing campaign to be effective, there is a need for some metrics to measure the success of the SMM campaign. These metrics measure if the campaign is successfully implemented or not. This would help firms understand the market, gain a competitive advantage, and ultimately get a positive impact on the overall business. This study categorizes SMM strategy into 4 dimensions and associates 10 broad categories of SMM metrics to these dimensions. The proposed model of this study suggests the application of Social Media Analytics (SMA) ineffective use of metrics to measure SMM campaigns. There are so many SMA Tools available for free and time-efficient data analysis that can lead to faster and better results than manual analysis. Following this model, the importance of SMA tools in devising an effective SMM strategy is highlighted. The implication of this research is towards a better understanding of the application of SMA for any firm to have a solid SMM Strategy, especially small and medium-sized enterprises that have limited resources.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Data Science; Advertising Campaign; Effectiveness; Evaluating, Social Media; Digital Marketing; Sentiment Analysis; Instagram; Machine Learning
Online: 11 August 2021 (08:44:07 CEST)
The growth of social media has changed the face of many aspects of marketing such as online, digital, etc. It also has changed the way modern human communicates and connects with others. Moreover, the behavior on this platform could not and should not be justified with strategies of other marketing channels and media. Due to the nature of social media, they are rich in precise and lean data, but processing these data and extracting knowledge and insights from them are problematic. Evaluating the effectiveness of a marketing endeavor is also a task related to these data. The current research attempts to assess the effectiveness of an advertising campaign on Instagram via advertising cost and sentiment classification of audience opinion regarding the campaign. The methodology used in this research is the standard process of data mining, i.e., CRISP-DM. Furthermore, multiple machine learning models and approaches were studied to train a prediction model based on data. In order to find the most accurate algorithm, grid search was used among the trained models and different algorithms with different combinations of hyper-parameters. The obtained results revealed that although the number of not profitable advertising media was higher than the profitable media, the overall status of the campaign was profitable, both in the cost-effectiveness approach and sentiment analysis approach. The other valued outcome of this research was important general and specific insights which can be used to shape a better-performing and effective advertising campaign on Instagram.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1025.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: corporate social responsibility; motives; definition; social responsibility managers; Uruguay
Online: 14 August 2023 (15:16:24 CEST)
Knowledge of the motivations of managers to practice Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a critical issue for those who promote its adoption. The understanding of these reasons is complicated by the fact that there are different ways of defining this responsibility, raising the question of whether there is any relationship between reasons for adopting it and how to define it. To address this issue, a classification of these reasons was constructed and related to a classification of the different ways of defining CSR. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to a non-probability sample of Social Responsibility managers, which included indicators for both classifications. It was found that these managers present all types of motives, with proactive outweighing reactive motives and that there is a significant degree of correlation between the ways of defining CSR and the reasons for doing so. This suggests that managers present coherence in their objectives (motives) and means (practices of Social Responsibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0405.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: models of using internet; bonding social capital; social identity
Online: 23 September 2021 (11:58:40 CEST)
In this research, we are attempting to review the relationship between users' models of using internet and bonding social capitals in Iran. The theoretical framework of the research are based on theoretical approaches of Dearnly and Feder, Velleman, Katz in the field of internet and models of using it and views of Putnam, Woolcock regarding social capital. The method used in this research is a qualitative – quantitative mixed method and the sampling method which has been used in the qualitative method is the purposive sampling method (theoretical sampling) and in the quantitative method, a combination of clustering, systematic and stratified sampling method in proportion with age and gender has been used. The statistical population of all persons who are 15 years old and more in Kerman city has been estimated to be 515114 persons in 2019 and the research sample has been estimated to be about 400 persons. Research results indicate that the rate of citizens' usage of internet in Kerman city is very low (less than 5 hours per week). Other results of the research indicate that regarding the model based on information associated with news, mostly filtered and unpermitted news sites such as VOA, BBC and other networks have been used. Research data regarding social identity is indicative of formation of identity evolutions in the contemporary society of Iran. The results of the path model test of the research indicate that news and economic information based models have about (0.11) direct and positive impact and ethnic identity has a direct and positive impact (0.189) and group identity has about (-0.131) impact and entertainment based model has about (0.130) impact on social capital. The results of variables' indirect impacts have also been expressed in the research
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0331.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Social media ethics; Social media; data misuse; data integrity
Online: 12 March 2021 (08:05:09 CET)
The present high-tech landscape has allowed institutes to undergo digital transformation in addition to the storing of exceptional bulks of information from several resources, such as mobile phones, debit cards, GPS, transactions, online logs, and e-records. With the growth of technology, big data has grown to be a huge resource for several corporations that helped in encouraging enhanced strategies and innovative enterprise prospects. This advancement has also offered the expansion of linkable data resources. One of the famous data sources is social media platforms. Ideas and different types of content are being posted by thousands of people via social networking sites. These sites have provided a modern method for operating companies efficiently. However, some studies showed that social media platforms can be a source for misinformation at which some users tend to misuse social media data. In this work, the ethical concerns and conduct in online communities has been reviewed in order to see how social media data from different platforms has been misused, and to highlight some of the ways to avoid the misuse of social media data.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0614.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: social capital; food security; hunger; knowledge sharing; social networks
Online: 29 October 2020 (13:24:11 CET)
Social capital creates a synergy that brings many benefits to members of a community. Thus, the main objective of this article was to examine whether social capital can improve a society's food security. If yes, how? To answer these questions, a systematic literature review was conducted using the Prisma approach. The output of this method led to finding 39 related articles. Precise studying these articles illustrated that social capital improves food security through two mechanisms of knowledge sharing and product sharing (i.e., sharing food products). It revealed that social capital through improving the food security pillars (i.e., food availability, food accessibility, food utilization, and food system stability) affects food security. In other words, the interaction among the members of the community results in sharing food products and information among community members, and this facilitates food availability and access to food. There are many shreds of evidence in the literature that sharing food and food product among the community member decreases household food security and provides the healthy nutrition to the vulnerable families and improve the food utilization pillar of food security. In addition, it is disclosed that belonging to the social networks increases the resilience of the community members and decreases the vulnerability of the community that subsequently strengthens the stability of a food system. This study contributes to the common literature on food security and social capital by providing a conceptual model based on the literature. In addition to researchers, policymakers can use the finding of this study to provide solutions to address food insecurity problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0462.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: adolescents; dating violence; school social climate; school social support
Online: 22 October 2020 (12:07:46 CEST)
(1) To analyse the potential association between school social support CECSCE and school social climate CASSS and experiences of dating violence among adolescents in Europe; (2) Cross-sectional design. We recruited 1,555 participants age 13-16 from secondary schools in Spain, Italy, Romania, Portugal, Poland and UK. The analysis in this text concerns student with dating experience (n=993) (57.2% of girls and 66.5% of boys). The association of the exposure to physical and/ or sexual dating violence, control dating violence and fear was measured by calculating the prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI), estimated by Poisson regression models with robust variance. All the models were adjusted by country and by sociodemografic variables; (3) The results show that the average values of all types of social support are significantly lower in young people who have suffered any type of dating violence or were scared of their partner. The likelihood of suffering physical and/or sexual dating violence decreased when CECSCE increased [PR (CI95%): 0.96 (0.92; 0.99)]. In the same way, the likelihood of fear decreased when CASSS classmates increased [PR (CI95%): 0.98 (0.96; 0.99)]; (4) There is an association between school social support and school social climate and experiences of dating violence among adolescents in Europe. Our results suggest that in the prevention of dating violence, building a supportive climate at schools and building / using the support of peers and teachers should be important.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Alzheimer's Disease; Loneliness; Social-Emotional; Social Acceptance; Attention Focused
Online: 28 June 2020 (09:28:29 CEST)
The aim of the present research to identify the differences between the social acceptance, attention, and emotional and social loneliness feeling in women suffering from Alzheimer's and normal. The sample was analyzed in this study included 39 women age 51 to 69 years with the scope of that 19 of them with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 18 people had normal cognitive function and healthy in the city of Gorgan in the winter 1395 in the study. Identification of Alzheimer's sufferers and healthy based on the diagnosis of the physician and cognitive status questionnaire (SPMSQ) and they were asked to answer the social acceptance of the scale questionnaire Marlow and Craven, affective and social adults alone feel scale (SELSA-S), Spotlight questionnaire (FAQ). The data using analysis of variance, multivariate factor test method (MANOVA) were studied. The results of this test indicate that it is totally focused attention between petty scale, the Spotlight focused on the notion of social acceptance of social interaction and social-emotional feeling lonely scale in women suffering from Alzheimer's and normal according to the analysis of the one-way variance of a significant difference in the context of manova level (P < 0.001). But in the other scale retail spotlight focused on his research, a significant difference was not observed. According to the results of the research in general can be found stating that to provide family-centered care and the implementation of the health-welfare interventions by relevant organs with different educational, supportive, emotional and consultation approaches, can be effective on health promotion of public health and the actual need in the community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: detour task; equids; social cognition; social learning; spatial cognition
Online: 9 May 2018 (05:08:10 CEST)
Horses’ ability to adapt to new environments and to acquire new information plays an important role in handling and training. Social learning in particular would be very adaptive for horses as it enables them to flexibly adapt to new environments. In the context of horse handling, social learning from humans has been rarely investigated but could help to facilitate management practices. We assessed the impact of human demonstration on spatial problem-solving abilities in horses using a detour task. In this task, a bucket with a food reward was placed behind a double-detour barrier and horses (n = 16) received a human demonstration or no demonstration. Horses were allocated to two test groups of 8 horses each, which experienced the two treatments in a counterbalanced order. We found that horses did not solve the detour task faster with human demonstration. However, both test groups improved rapidly over trials. Our results suggest that horses prefer to use individual rather than social information when being confronted with a spatial problem-solving task.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0121.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: social criteria; building assessment tools; sustainable development; social sustainability
Online: 15 January 2018 (07:55:41 CET)
The social criteria of sustainable development have remained underexplored. Moreover, a large number of green building assessment tool and social sustainability documentations have been developed which, has had a direct impact on social criteria issues, but there seems to be a substantial gap in the study of social criteria in green building assessment tools. In examining the problem facing social sustainability, taking into consideration social sustainability in sustainable development reviews and green building assessment tool towards social aspects. This paper through analysis identified a centripetal conceptual framework composed of seven key components equity, education, participation & control, social cohesion, health & safety, accessibility & satisfaction, and cultural values. The interpretation of the social sustainability in green building assessment tool would impact building practitioners towards implementing social criteria in GBAT. The aim was to identify social categories as well as consider a starting point for the development of an effective social criteria assessment tool for green building.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0515.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: ESG; Sustainable Finance; Smart Real Estate; Sustainable Real Estate; User wellbeing; Social Sustainability; Environmental Sustainability
Online: 23 February 2021 (14:11:23 CET)
Investors are currently obliged to take ESG (Environment, Social, Governance) issues into consideration as part of their fiduciary duty. As such, it becomes increasingly important to identify sustainable investments that hold financial value as well. A sector where this is especially underdeveloped is real estate. This has a lot to do with the obfuscated conceptualization of ESG. The article identifies key gaps in literature and practice, and provides a framework to further the understanding of how ESG factors can add societal and financial value in the real estate sector. A key premise of the article is that the user in the building is grossly overlooked. Drawing on insights from behavioral social science and environmental psychology, the paper explains the role of the user in improving buildings’ ESG, also taking into account the investment value. To conclude, the article makes the case that the transition to user-centered smart real estate is the solution to improving both the environmental (E) and social (S) sustainability of buildings, as well as their investment value. Therefore, practitioners and academics are encouraged to critically evaluate and contextualize the ESG framework they are using, as well as the extent to which users are considered and smart technology is employed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0196.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Twitter; Social Media; Social Networking; Social Network Analytic; DistilBERT; Text Similarity; Natural Language Processing; Character Computing
Online: 17 February 2022 (13:15:23 CET)
Social media platforms have been entirely an undeniable part of the lifestyle for the past decade. Analyzing the information being shared is a crucial step to understanding human behavior. Social media analysis aims to guarantee a better experience for the user and risen user satisfaction. For deriving any further conclusion, first, it is necessary to know how to compare users. In this paper, a hybrid model has been proposed to measure Twitter profiles’ similarity and quantifies the likeness degree of profiles by calculating features considering users’ behavioral habits. For this, first, the timeline of each profile has been extracted using the official TwitterAPI. Then, in parallel, three aspects of a profile are deliberated. Behavioral ratios are time-series-related information showing the consistency and habits of the user. Dynamic time warping has been utilized to compare the behavioral ratios of two profiles. Next, the audience network is extracted for each user, and for estimating the similarity of two sets, Jaccard similarity is used. Finally, for the Content similarity measurement, the tweets are preprocessed respecting the feature extraction method; TF-IDF and DistilBERT for feature extraction are employed and then compared using the cosine similarity method. Results have shown that TF-IDF has slightly better performance; therefore, the more straightforward solution is selected for the model. Similarity level of different profiles. As in the case study, a Random Forest classification model was trained on almost 20000 users revealed a 97.24% accuracy. This comparison enables us to find duplicate profiles with nearly the same behavior and content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0907.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Natural Language Processing; Social Text Mining; Machine Learning; Vocational Domain Identification; Vocational Language; Error Analysis; Class Balancing
Online: 25 April 2023 (09:29:07 CEST)
Highly-skilled migrants and refugees finding employment in low-skill vocations, despite professional qualifications and educational background, has become a global tendency, mainly due to the language barrier. Employment prospects for displaced communities are mostly decided by their knowledge of the sublanguage of the vocational domain they are interested in working. Common vocational domains include agriculture, cooking, crafting, construction, and hospitality. The increasing amount of user-generated content in wikis and social networks provides a valuable source of data for data mining, Natural Language Processing and machine learning applications. This paper extends the contribution of the authors’ previous research on automatic vocational domain identification by further analyzing the results of the machine learning experiments with the domain-specific textual data set, considering 2 research directions: a. predictions analysis and b. data balancing. Wrong predictions analysis and the features that contributed to misclassification, along with correct predictions analysis and the features that were the most dominant, contributed to the identification of a primary set of terms for the vocational domains. Data balancing techniques were applied on the data set to observe their impact on the performance of the classification model. A novel 4-step methodology is proposed in this paper for the first time, consisting of successive applications of SMOTE oversampling on imbalanced data. Data oversampling obtains better results than data undersampling in imbalanced data sets, while hybrid approaches perform reasonably well.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0633.v1
Online: 26 May 2021 (11:29:12 CEST)
Delay-tolerant networks (DTN) is an approach to deal with scarce network connectivity found in sparse mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) which makes the problem of routing messages a challenging task. DTNs have find their usefulness in many challenging environments such as tactical networks, underwater sensor networks, wildlife monitoring, disaster recovery etc. Pocket Switched Networks (PSNs) have emerged as a new application of the delay tolerant networks where network nodes are computing devices carried by humans. Hence, the study of how humans interact in their day-to-day life, the places they visit frequently, the people they meet frequently, the social groups in which they participate on regular basis etc. can help improve routing process in PSNs. This type of routing inspired from the way humans interact with each other is referred to as social based routing and had been a recent topic of research in the field of DTNs. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the various social-based algorithms that have been designed for Delay Tolerant Networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0494.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Religion Keywords: faith-informed advocacy; Christian social work; ethics; values; social justice
Online: 9 October 2023 (08:53:53 CEST)
This article presents the development of a Faith-Informed Advocacy Model that integrates faith-based principles and values into advocacy efforts within Christian social work. Drawing from the intersection of Christian ethics and social work principles, this model provides a framework for Christian social workers to engage in advocacy work that is grounded in their faith and guided by ethical principles. The article includes case studies that illustrate the application of the model in real-world scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0057.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: instagram; social networking sites (SNS); social comparison orientation; well-being
Online: 4 September 2023 (04:29:23 CEST)
Social networks are experiencing great popularity, with Instagram currently being the most intensively used network. On these platforms, users are continuously exposed to self-relevant information that fosters social comparisons. A distinction is made between ability-based and opinion-based comparison dimensions. To experimentally investigate the influence of these comparison dimensions on users' subjective well-being, an online exposition experiment (N = 409) was conducted. In a preliminary study (N = 107), adequate exposition stimulus material was selected in advance. The results of the main study indicated that exposition of ability-related social comparisons in the context of social media elicited lower well-being than exposition of opinion-related social comparisons. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed and suggestions for future work were outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0061.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Social engagement; social rehabilitation; community-based; financial analysis; Momentum Center
Online: 2 May 2023 (05:28:57 CEST)
Cost-effective community engagement is needed to address causes of mental illness related to social issues (i.e. isolation, stigma and lack of purpose) that are typically outside the scope of healthcare. This pilot study evaluated the relationship between clinical healthcare resources and a community-based social engagement organization in a medium-sized community in the midwestern US. Analyses were based on a retrospective longitudinal comparison of clinical visit frequency from two cohorts that joined the Momentum Center for Social Engagement (MC) and either frequently participated (Engaged; n = 9) or had extenuating circumstances limiting participation (Non-engaged; n = 3). The frequency of >1800 visits to the member’s primary mental healthcare provider were compared during the period from November 2016 - May 2021. Engaged MC members reduced frequency of regular visits to their primary mental healthcare provider by 50%, while Non-engaged MC members maintained clinical visit frequency. The financial value of reduced healthcare visits and associated wellbeing improvements was estimated to be $1.0 million, 95% CI: [$0.6-1.4 million], or roughly four times the budget received by the MC from the healthcare provider. Thus, the MC appears to be a valuable approach to improving mental health in conjunction with existing community healthcare services. Clinical implications include considering the unique MC-style community-based support as a component of practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0020.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: social modernisation; social sustainability; factor analysis; structural equation modelling; Lithuania
Online: 3 January 2023 (08:36:13 CET)
The present paper investigates the 'soft' determinants of social environmental sustainability of the country. A three-dimensional research approach, covering the education system and educational culture; socio-economic integration; and the legal system and the importance of public administration and citizenship, was utilized. A cross-sectional survey of 1,021 respondents and a structural equation modelling were selected as main research tools. Lithuania served as an empirical basis for the research. It was revealed that the most important factors in shaping the modernisation of the country through the lens of social environmental sustainability are the participation of citizens in social communities and social activities. Factors that need improvement are public participation and tolerance for the disabled.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: emotional loneliness; social loneliness; nursing homes; older adults; social isolation
Online: 27 January 2022 (13:25:59 CET)
(1) Background: Loneliness, little studied in Nursing Homes (NHs), can affect physical and mental health. We aimed to verify the prevalence of loneliness in 5 NHs and its associated factors. (2) Methods: Cross-sectional study. Older adults aged 65 or over with preserved cognitive status were included. The De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale was used to assess overall, social, and emotional loneliness; sociodemographic and health-related variables were collected. The chi-square (or Fisher’s) test and logistic regression were used for bivariate and multivariate analysis respectively. (3) Results: The final sample consisted of 65 participants (81.5% female) with a mean age of 84±7.13. Prevalence of overall loneliness was 70.7% (95%CI:58.2-81.4), social loneliness 44.6% (95% CI: 33.1-56.6) and emotional loneliness 46.2% (95% CI: 34.5–58.1). Overall loneliness was associated with lower perceived quality of life (Odds Ratio-OR= 5.52, 95% CI:1.25-24.38) and NH with state subsidized places (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.05-0.74); social loneliness with having 0-1 children (OR=0.25, 95% CI: 0.08-0.77), and emotional loneliness with depression (OR=4.54, 95% CI: 1.28-16.08) and urinary incontinence (UI) (OR=4.65, 95% CI: 1.23-17.52). (4) Conclusions: Loneliness was present in almost 71% of residents and was associated with the type of NH and poorer quality of life, emotional loneliness with depression and UI and social loneliness with having less than 2 children.