ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0507.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: spectrum sharing, collaborative spectrum sharing, policy-based sharing, transmission opportunities, rendezvous channels, policy interpreter
Online: 21 June 2021 (11:35:10 CEST)
This paper describes some of the challenges that need to be addressed in order to develop collaborative spectrum sharing systems. The importance of these challenges stems from the assumption that rules for spectrum sharing can change after the deployment of radio networks and the whole system must be able to adapt to them. To address such a requirement, we used a policy-based approach in which transmissions are controlled by a policy interpreter system, and the policies can be modified during system operation. Our primary goal was to develop a prototype of such a system. In this paper, we outline the implementation of policy interpretation, automatic generation of transmission opportunities in case a request for transmission is denied by the policy reasoner, and the generation of rendezvous channels for the synchronization of otherwise asynchronously running software defined radios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0303.v2
Online: 19 November 2021 (08:38:42 CET)
Science continues to become more interdisciplinary and to involve increasingly complex data sets. Many projects in the biomedical and health-related sciences follow or aim to follow the principles of FAIR data sharing, which has been demonstrated to foster collaboration, to lead to better research outcomes, and to help ensure reproducibility of results. Data generated in the course of biomedical and health research present specific challenges for FAIR sharing in the sense that they are heterogeneous and highly sensitive to context and the needs of protection and privacy. Data sharing must respect these features without impeding timely dissemination of results, so that they can contribute to time-critical advances in medical therapy and treatment. Modeling and simulation of biomedical processes have become established tools, and a global community has been developing algorithms, methodologies, and standards for applying biomedical simulation models in clinical research. However, it can be difficult for clinician scientists to follow the specific rules and recommendations for FAIR data sharing within this domain. We seek to clarify the standard workflow for sharing experimental and clinical data with the simulation modeling community. By following these recommendations, data sharing will be improved, collaborations will become more effective, and the FAIR publication and subsequent reuse of data will become possible at the level of quality necessary to support biomedical and health-related sciences.
Online: 28 June 2020 (19:46:40 CEST)
Objectives: Data sharing has become a requirement of many funding bodies and is becoming a scientific standard in many disciplines. In medical research, however, data sharing can conflict with clinicians’ obligation to protect patients’ privacy. General recommendations on data sharing exist also for clinical research, but so far lack practical and Swiss-specific aspects. The objective of this document is to provide practical recommendations for all relevant aspects of data sharing in agreement with legislation in Switzerland. Methods: This document was written by members of the Swiss CTU Network, a network of academic clinical trial units. The process did not follow a formalized Delphi process. After an internal consensus round, this report is now published as pre-print for external review. A second version will incorporate external comments. We plan to publish this document as a text in progress, as we expect relevant changes in related fields such as the development of further dedicated medical repositories or methodological advances in anonymization techniques. Results: We developed principles and practical recommendations with respect to informed consent, data management plan, anonymization, data structure and format, coding of variables, metadata and documentation, version control, selection of repository, requesting and use of data. We also provide a summary of legal aspects relevant for the Swiss context. Conclusions: The intension to share data has an impact not only after a clinical trial or an observational study is completed, but also during the planning period, the conduct and the analysis phase. Clinical researchers need to be aware at the beginning of a study on how to inform patients and at least the amount of work related to preparing data for sharing, metadata, and any further documentation. This report provides details of aspects to be considered, suggests decision criteria, and provides examples and checklists, in order to support data sharing in practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0186.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: sharing economy; sharing workers; human resource management practices; service performance; work engagement
Online: 10 May 2021 (12:39:44 CEST)
Based on the Organizational Support Theory, this study examines the relationship between human resource management practices and service performance of sharing workers by demonstrating the mediation role of work engagement. We tested this theoretical model using an in-person interview questionnaire survey of 318 downwind drivers. Results showed that: (1) the main effect of human resource management practices of sharing workers on service performance was significant; (2) work engagement played a prominent mediation role between human resource management practices and service performance of sharing workers; (3) the mediation role of employee vigor between the platform incentives and the performance of employee services was significant; (4) employee dedication had an obvious and indirectly positive mediating effect between sharing workers' dimensions of human resource management practice and their service performance; (5) employee absorption on the mediation role between the various dimensions of the sharing human resources management practices (platform support, platform incentives and platform constraints) and employee service performance was significant. This study has important value for the study on human resource management practices in the context of sharing economy, and provides practical enlightenment for employee management of the sharing economy platform.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0165.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: access networks; network sharing; 5G networks; multi tenancy; optical access; sharing economics
Online: 10 October 2019 (08:48:05 CEST)
This paper details the evolution of access network sharing models from legacy DSL to the most recent fibre-based technology and the main challenges faced from a technical and business perspectives. We first give an overview of existing access sharing models, that span physical local loop unbundling and virtual unbundled local access. We then describe different types of optical access technologies and highlight how they support network sharing. Next, we examine how the concept of SDN and network virtualization has been pivotal in enabling the idea of “true multi-tenancy”, through the use of programmability, flexible architecture and resource isolation. We give examples of recent developments of cloud central office and OLT virtualization. Finally, we provide an insight into the role that novel business models, such as blockchain and smart contract technology, could play in 5G networks. We discuss how these might evolve, to provide flexibility and dynamic operations that are needed in the data and control planes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0680.v2
Online: 1 September 2020 (12:08:06 CEST)
In recent years, there have been many new global companies investing and operating in Vietnam as a form of sharing economy (Uber, Grab, Foody, Agoda, Facebook, Google, etc). These kinds of economic models are popular in the world but very new in Vietnam. Sharing economy enterprises bring both benefit and challenges for Vietnam. Before time, there is no policy and law to govern the activities of these companies. So they make the challenges for the authority of Vietnam to manage. This paper will analyze the nature, characters, and impacts of the sharing economy in Vietnam. It also mentions the problems and recommends some solutions to manage the activities of sharing - economy companies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0794.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: sustainability; urban sustainability; car-sharing; Europe
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:16:02 CET)
(1) Background: The article gives us an insight into the key issues of the car-sharing and its impact on urban sustainability. (2) Methods: A selection of 314 articles published in peer-reviewed journals from the Scopus database were analysed using Leximancer 5.0 for Automated Content analysis. (3) Results: Seven themes were identified explaining the researched topic of the car-sharing situation in Europe, which are Sharing, Economy, Model, Systems, Electrical car-sharing, Policy and Travel. There are two ways of sharing owned cars in Europe, access to cars from the fleet of private organizations and P2P car-sharing. Sustainable environmental solutions in the context of the electrification of cars are used. Car-sharing usually takes place online and can be free or for a free as defined by The European Economic and Social Committee. (4) Conclusions: The article provides an overview of understanding the concept of urban car-sharing in Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0217.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Cirrcular economy; freeshops; sharing economy; consumer behaviour
Online: 17 February 2022 (15:08:21 CET)
According to a number of authors, current social-economic and environmental problems require radical solutions, including the change of our approach to economy and looking for new models of its functioning. In Poland such trends are being recognised as well, having their reflection in the economic life. An approach described in this article concerns an intermediate sharing model, which may be placed between the most archetypical sharing, which is applied, among other, in family relationships, and sharing platforms that are raising growing controversies, such as UBER and Airbnb. The article uses the analysis of solutions applied in this regard in Poland and a survey carried out among students of the Faculty of Economics, University of Gdańsk, aimed at determining factors that affect changes in consumer behaviour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0288.v1
Online: 14 July 2020 (03:53:45 CEST)
The questions on who is entitled to benefit from REDD+ transactions remains one of the most controversially debated issues around cooperative efforts to reduce deforestation in developing countries. REDD+ has been conceived as international framework for voluntary efforts of developing countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance carbon removals from forest activities. Designed as international framework under the UNFCCC that calculates emission reductions and removals (ERRs) at the national -and as an interim step on the subnational level – REDD+ is primarily a creature of international law. However, in defining forest-carbon ERRs the international framework competes with national emission trading systems and domestic REDD+ legislation as well as private standards that define units traded on the voluntary carbon market. The definition of various carbon units is closely linked to the question on who is entitled to participate in REDD+ and benefit from the sale of ERRs under results-based payment schemes or carbon market transactions. This paper applies a legal lens to the various claims to participate in REDD+ transactions. It tries to disentangle the various rights to ERRs, various carbon credits, and payments that come with REDD+ and that almost always create confusion and not seldom conflict around REDD+ implementation. The definition of carbon rights and the legal nature of carbon credits depends on local law and differs between countries. However, there are a number of legal considerations that apply and certain underlying concepts are relevant for the understanding of REDD+ transactions and the allocation of benefits and burdens of conservation activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0199.v1
Online: 10 July 2020 (01:40:52 CEST)
Multipartite entanglement is a resource for application in disparate protocols, of computing, communication and cryptography. Nested entanglement provides resource-states for quantum information processing. In this paper, Matryoshka quantum resource-states, which contain nested entanglement patterns, has been studied. A novel scheme for the generation of such quantum states has been proposed using an anisotropic XY spin-spin interaction-based model. The application of the Matryoshka GHZ-Bell states for n-qubit teleportation is reviewed and an extension to more general Matryoshka ExhS-Bell states is posited. An example of Matryoshka ExhS-Bell states is given in the form of the genuinely entangled seven-qubit Xin-Wei Zha state. Generation, characterisation and application of this seven-qubit resource state in theoretical schemes for quantum teleportation of arbitrary one, two and three qubits states, bidirectional teleportation of arbitrary two qubit states and probabilistic circular controlled teleportation are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0358.v1
Subject: Keywords: Quantum Computation, Multipartite Entanglement, Quantum State Sharing
Online: 23 May 2020 (05:20:18 CEST)
Multipartite entanglement is a resource for application in disparate protocols, of computing, communication and cryptography. In this paper, generation, characterisation and application of a genuine genuinely entangled seven-qubit resource state is studied. Theoretical schemes for quantum teleportation of arbitrary one, two and three qubits states, bidirectional teleportation of arbitrary two qubit states and probabilistic circular controlled teleportation as well as three schemes for undertaking tripartite quantum state sharing are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0070.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: coherence, monetary utility, insurance benefit, benefit sharing
Online: 2 November 2018 (15:13:14 CET)
We use the theory of coherent measures to look at the problem of surplus sharing in an insurance business. The surplus share of an insured is calculated by the surplus premium in the contract. The theory of coherent risk measures and the resulting capital allocation gives a way to divide the surplus between the insured and the capital providers, i.e. the shareholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0271.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Micro-mobility; Ride-sharing; Agent-based modelling; Crowdsourcing
Online: 12 May 2021 (13:48:39 CEST)
Substantial research is required to ensure that micro-mobility ride sharing provides a better fulfillment of user needs. This study proposes a novel crowdsourcing model for the ride-sharing system where light vehicles such as scooters and bikes are crowdsourced. The proposed model consists of three entities: suppliers, customers, and a management party responsible for receiving, renting, booking, and demand matching with offered resources. It can allow suppliers to define the location of their private e-scooters/e-bikes and the period of time they are available for rent. Using a dataset of over 9 million e-scooter trips in Austin, Texas, we ran an agent-based simulation six times using three maximum battery ranges (i.e., 35, 45, and 60 km) and different numbers of e-scooters (e.g., 50 and 100) at each origin. Computational results show that the proposed model is promising and might be advantageous to shift the charging and maintenance efforts to a crowd of suppliers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: knowledge-sharing intention; B2B marketing; expertise; tie strength
Online: 8 March 2020 (09:24:54 CET)
This research focuses on the knowledge-sharing intention of an expert with the purchasing decision-maker in a company as a marketing point for business-to-business transactions, where a company’s facilities expert connects the company’s purchasing decision-maker with the supplier. By providing information about the supplier’s products and companies to this decision-maker, the expert plays an important role in the purchasing decision-maker’s knowledge on suppliers. Therefore, this study aims to improve expert word-of-mouth (WOM) intentions and examines the strategies that influence them. Statistical verification is employed by considering the answers of 103 engineering experts, and a hierarchical multiple-regression analysis is used to test this study’s hypotheses. As a strategy for influencing expert WOM intentions, both the supplier’s and purchasing decision-maker’s expertise and the tie strength with the supplier are examined; the tie strength with the purchasing decision-maker is considered as the moderating variable. Three of the four hypotheses are supported. This paper gives advices to the facility suppliers who want sustained growth. they should not only appeal their expertise to the facility experts who visit their exhibition booth, but also specify who the visitors are and manage the relations with them personally with a long term perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0149.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: car sharing; forecasting; machine learning; socio-demographic; weather
Online: 13 November 2019 (12:31:49 CET)
Free Floating Car Sharing (FFCS) services are a flexible alternative to car ownership. These transportation services show highly dynamic usage both over different hours of the day, and across different city areas. In this work, we study the problem of predicting FFCS demand patterns -- a problem of great importance to an adequate provisioning of the service. We tackle both the prediction of the demand i) over time and ii) over space. We rely on months of real FFCS rides in Vancouver, which constitute our ground truth. We enrich this data with detailed socio-demographic information obtained from large open-data repositories to predict usage patterns. Our aim is to offer a thorough comparison of several machine learning algorithms in terms of accuracy and easiness of training, and to assess the effectiveness of current state-of-art approaches to address the prediction problem. Our results show that it is possible to predict the future usage with relative errors down to 10%, and the spatial prediction can be estimated with relative errors of about 40%. Our study also uncovered the socio-demographic features that most strongly correlate with FFCS usage, providing interesting insights for providers opening service in new regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0543.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Open Science, Data Sharing, Neuroimaging, Reproducibility, Transparency, Reform
Online: 27 September 2018 (11:50:12 CEST)
Ongoing debates regarding the virtues and challenges of implementing open science for brain imaging research mirror those of the larger scientific community. The present commentary acknowledges the merits of arguments on both sides, as well as the underlying realities that have forced so many to feel the need to resist the implementation of an ideal. Potential sources of top-down reform are discussed, along with the factors that threaten to slow their progress. The potential roles of generational change and the individual are discussed, and a starter list of actionable steps that any researcher can take, big or small, is provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0447.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: intelligent radio networks; spectrum sharing; coexistence; experimental evaluation
Online: 27 August 2018 (10:17:38 CEST)
The explosive emergence of wireless technologies and standards, covering licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands has triggered the appearance of a huge amount of wireless technologies, with many of them coexisting in the same band. Unfortunately, the wireless spectrum is a scarce resource, and the available frequency bands will not scale with the foreseen demand for new capacity. Certain parts of the spectrum, in particular the license-free ISM bands, are overcrowded, while other parts, mostly licensed bands, may be significantly underutilized. As such, there is a need to introduce more advanced techniques to access and share the wireless medium, either to improve the coordination within a given band, or to explore the possibilities of intelligently using unused spectrum in underutilized (licensed) bands. Therefore, in this paper, we present a SDR based framework that can be employed to devise disruptive techniques to optimize the sub-optimal use of radio spectrum that exists today. Additionally, we describe two use cases for the proposed framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0043.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: sharing activity; Covid-19 impact; core elements; sustainable development
Online: 3 February 2022 (09:58:24 CET)
Sharing activity is getting higher attention due to increasing popularity in recent years. In the paper, the authors investigated the main elements affecting the sharing activity. (1) Literature review: The theoretical part starts from the revision of definitions of sharing activity; description of the links between sharing and sustainable development, policy recommendations and relevant regulation in the field; later on, the study emphasises the key elements important for sharing. Finally, the authors investigated how the Covid-19 pandemic affected sharing activity; (2) Methods: During empirical research, the authors revised the list of 37 variables. The study uses data for each of the 27 EU countries from 2011 to 2020. The authors investigated correlation between macroeconomics variables to determine key variables for the regression model; (3) Results: The authors constructed a dynamic regression model that can be applied to predict the number of participants visiting sharing platforms in the European Union (EU); (4) Conclusions: The study shows that seeking to forecast the number of visits to sharing platforms it is necessary to use values of main macroeconomic variables such as consumer price index, productivity index, total unemployment rate, the number of users and households connected to the Internet, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0683.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: bike sharing; public transport; cycling; user analysis; impact analysis
Online: 29 March 2021 (11:26:12 CEST)
We report the experiences of the bike sharing system in Ningbo, China. To analyze the impact of the system, system log data are collected for the whole month of May 2014 (with more than 1.7 million usage records), supplemented by questionnaire data from 1,856 respondents. Our results show that public bike usage follows the same pattern as road traffic, with morning and evening peaks on week days. In terms of mode substitution, 16% of public bike trips would have been made by private cars. In average, each public bike is used 3.7 times per day, with each trip lasting around 23 minutes and covering around 3.5 kilometre. This translates into a reduction of car travel by more than 11 million kilometre per year, a significant contribution to the sustainability of urban transport in Ningbo.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0614.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: social capital; food security; hunger; knowledge sharing; social networks
Online: 29 October 2020 (13:24:11 CET)
Social capital creates a synergy that brings many benefits to members of a community. Thus, the main objective of this article was to examine whether social capital can improve a society's food security. If yes, how? To answer these questions, a systematic literature review was conducted using the Prisma approach. The output of this method led to finding 39 related articles. Precise studying these articles illustrated that social capital improves food security through two mechanisms of knowledge sharing and product sharing (i.e., sharing food products). It revealed that social capital through improving the food security pillars (i.e., food availability, food accessibility, food utilization, and food system stability) affects food security. In other words, the interaction among the members of the community results in sharing food products and information among community members, and this facilitates food availability and access to food. There are many shreds of evidence in the literature that sharing food and food product among the community member decreases household food security and provides the healthy nutrition to the vulnerable families and improve the food utilization pillar of food security. In addition, it is disclosed that belonging to the social networks increases the resilience of the community members and decreases the vulnerability of the community that subsequently strengthens the stability of a food system. This study contributes to the common literature on food security and social capital by providing a conceptual model based on the literature. In addition to researchers, policymakers can use the finding of this study to provide solutions to address food insecurity problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0140.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: leadtime; demand uncertainty; revenue -sharing contract; production -marketing coordination
Online: 6 August 2020 (08:56:04 CEST)
In this paper, we consider a make-to-order supply chain which satisfies demand that is dependent on both price and quoted lead -time. The manufacturer chooses the lead -time and the order quantity, and the retailer sets the revenue shares. The interactions between the manufacturer and the retailer are modelled as a Nash Game, and the existence and uniqueness of pure strategy equilibrium are demonstrated. A mechanism that enables the supply chain to coordinate the decisions of the members is developed. Lastly, we also analyze how the supply chain system parameters impact the optimal supply chain decisions and the supply chain performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0153.v1
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:53:33 CEST)
Large datasets that enable researchers to perform investigations with unprecedented rigor are growing increasingly common in neuroimaging. Due to the simultaneous increasing popularity of open science, these state-of-the-art datasets are more accessible than ever to researchers around the world. While analysis of these samples has pushed the field forward, they pose a new set of challenges that might cause difficulties for novice users. Here, we offer practical tips for working with large datasets from the end-user’s perspective. We cover all aspects of the data life cycle: from what to consider when downloading and storing the data, to tips on how to become acquainted with a dataset one did not collect, to what to share when communicating results. This manuscript serves as a practical guide one can use when working with large neuroimaging datasets, thus dissolving barriers to scientific discovery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0141.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: data sharing; data management; data science; big data; healthcare
Online: 8 March 2020 (16:46:20 CET)
In recent years, more and more health data are being generated. These data come not only from professional health systems, but also from wearable devices. All these data combined form ‘big data’ that can be utilized to optimize treatments for each unique patient (‘precision medicine’). To achieve this precision medicine, it is necessary that hospitals, academia and industry work together to bridge the ‘valley of death’ of translational medicine. However, hospitals and academia often have problems with sharing their data, even though the patient is actually the owner of his/her own health data, and the sharing of data is associated with increased citation rate. Academic hospitals usually invest a lot of time in setting up clinical trials and collecting data, and want to be the first ones to publish papers on this data. The idea that society benefits the most if the patient’s data are shared as soon as possible so that other researchers can work with it, has not taken root yet. There are some publicly available datasets, but these are usually only shared after studies are finished and/or publications have been written based on the data, which means a severe delay of months or even years before others can use the data for analysis. One solution is to incentivize the hospitals to share their data with (other) academic institutes and the industry. Here we discuss several aspects of data sharing in the medical domain: publisher requirements, data ownership, support for data sharing, data sharing initiatives and how the use of federated data might be a solution. We also discuss some potential future developments around data sharing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0158.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: blockchain; biomedical data managing; DWT; keyword search; data sharing.
Online: 13 May 2019 (13:30:37 CEST)
A crucial role is played by personal biomedical data when it comes to maintaining proficient access to health records by patients as well as health professionals. However, it is difficult to get a unified view pertaining to health data that have been scattered across various health center/hospital sections. To be specific, health records are distributed across many places and cannot be found integrated easily. In recent years, blockchain is regarded as a promising explanation that helps to achieve individual biomedical information sharing in a secured way along with privacy preservation, because of its benefit of immutability. This research work put forwards a blockchain-based managing scheme that helps to establish interpretation improvements pertaining to electronic biomedical systems. In this scheme, two blockchain were employed to construct the base of it, where the second blockchain algorithm is used to generate a secure sequence for the hash key that generated in first blockchain algorithm. The adaptively feature enable the algorithm to use multiple data types and combine between various biomedical images and text records as well. All the data, including keywords, digital records as well as the identity of patients are private key encrypted along with keyword searching capability so as to maintain data privacy preservation, access control and protected search. The obtained results which show the low latency (less than 750 ms) at 400 requests / second indicate the ability to use it within several health care units such as hospitals and clinics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: switched reluctance motor; direct instantaneous torque sharing function; rotor angle
Online: 7 December 2022 (08:33:10 CET)
Increased definite power, reduced cost, and dynamic construction are the important features required by electric motors for various applications. One such motor accommodating all the requisites mentioned above is Switched reluctance. Applications pertaining to small, commercial, and EV find Switched reluctance machine as a developing competitor to the conventional induction and permanent magnet motors. Though SRMS contribute a considerable number of advantages over induction motors and permanent magnet motors, the primary disadvantages pertaining to SRMs are the torque ripple, especially at high-speed operation, and the resulting acoustic noise. These disadvantages may not always be detrimental to the systems in entirely all cases, but depending on the application to be employed, torque ripple and acoustic noise form are detrimental to the system. This paper reviews the technology status and recent trends in the minimization of torque ripples switched reluctance machines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0166.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: public space; sharing and inclusiveness; quality; urban regeneration; temporary uses
Online: 9 November 2022 (02:15:59 CET)
The paper proposes, through an experimental method, a conceptualisation of theoretical-methodological and practical guidelines for the project on the system of collective open spaces, residual areas, abandoned areas that characterise the contemporary city, both in the urban contexts of the historical city, and in the more marginal areas of the modern suburbs. This methodology was experimented on an historical neighbourhood in Rome (San Lorenzo discrict) starting from the results of some researches conducted in collaboration between Sapienza University of Rome and the Escuela de Architettura, Universidad San Jorge and some design experiments conducted by Gràvalosdimonte design studio. This methodology and experimentation combines the theme of the inter-scalarity of the project (territorial, urban and local scale) with the themes of the flexibility and proximity of functions with respect to local instances and contingencies caused by the pandemic situation and by the sustainability perspectives, with particular reference to the need for urban health, the dialectic between public and private space in the perspective of the notion of common good, the bottom-up project for the construction of proximity spaces and plurality in the decision-making process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0266.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: peer-to-peer energy trading; P2P; sharing economy; collaborative economy
Online: 14 May 2021 (09:57:09 CEST)
Peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading is a new data-driven business model currently being trialed within the energy sector. Introducing P2P transactions to an essential service such as energy could have far-reaching implications for individuals and the grid. This paper raises considerations and questions from social, economic/markets and regulatory points of view, that should be understood and addressed by societies and policymakers. It does this by considering under what circumstances it is reasonable to conceptualize P2P energy trading as part of the sharing economy, and drawing parallels to the sharing economy experience in other sectors. In order to reap the full societal benefits, while avoiding considerable risks to infrastructure and individuals, a policy approach promoting dialogue and innovation is necessary. We suggest the regulatory sandbox is the most appropriate tool to achieve this and would help avoid the breakdown of trust between policymakers and platform companies observed in other sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0709.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: non-orthogonal multiple access; priority-ordering; spectrum sharing; time-division
Online: 29 March 2021 (16:57:37 CEST)
Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has been investigated to support massive connectivity for Internet-of-things (IoT) networks. However, since most IoT devices suffer from limited power and decoding capabilities, it is not desirable to pair a large number of devices simultaneously, which encourages two-user NOMA grouping. Additionally, most existing techniques have not considered the diversity in the target QoS of IoT devices, which may lead to spectrum inefficiency. Few investigations have partially considered that issue by using an order-based power allocation (OPA) approach, where the power is allocated according to the order to the user's target throughput within a priority-based NOMA (PNOMA) group. However, this does not fully capture the effects of diversity in the values of the users' target throughputs. In this work, we handle both problems by considering a throughput-based power allocation (TPA) approach, that captures the QoS diversity, within a three-users PNOMA group as a compromise between spectral efficiency and complexity. Specifically, we investigate the performance of a time-division PNOMA (TD-PNOMA) scheme, where the transmission time is divided into two-time slots with two-users per PNOMA group. The performance of such TD-PNOMA is compared with a fully PNOMA (F-PNOMA) scheme, where the three users share the whole transmission time, in terms of the ergodic capacity under imperfect successive interference cancellation (SIC). The results reveal the superiority of TPA compared with OPA approach in both schemes, besides that the throughput of both schemes can outperform each other under imperfect SIC based on the transmit signal-to-noise ratio and the deployment scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0236.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: dockless bike-sharing system; Markovian queueing network; relocation; unequal demand
Online: 9 December 2020 (16:49:27 CET)
Although the dockless bike-sharing system, which can be regarded as a typical example of the resource-sharing system, has been increasingly popular for years with people especially in China, the imbalanced distribution of shared bikes gradually becomes a major problem for both bike-sharing companies and their customers. To solve the imbalance problem, we aim to investigate the long-term performance of a system under the influence of some key factors (with an emphasis on the unequal demand between different nodes), which can guide us to discover the causes of the problem and offer several valuable suggestions to the operators. According to the fundamental principle of a dockless bike-sharing system, we propose a model reduction method to reduce the complexity of the theoretical network models, which are developed based on the Markovian queueing theory with the consideration of higher-demand nodes and lower-demand nodes. The theoretical network models provide us with steady-state probabilities of having a certain number of bikes at one node, which are used as an important part of the optimization model for solving the imbalance problem by carrying out an operator-based relocation strategy. The objective of the optimization model is to maximize the total profit and determine the optimal relocation frequency. It is found that most of the shared bikes are possible to gather at one low-demand node eventually in the long run under the influence of the different arrival rates at different nodes, but the decrease of the number of bikes at the high-demand nodes is more sensitive to the unequal demands and may cause a great loss for operators, which should be payed attention to especially when solving the relocation problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0189.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: network monitoring; spectrum sharing; Wi-Fi tethering; sensing of misbehavior
Online: 14 February 2020 (04:54:35 CET)
Wi-Fi tethering using a mobile device (e.g., a smartphone or a tablet) as a hotspot for other devices has become a common practice. Despite the potential benefits of Wi-Fi tethering, the open source nature of mobile operating systems (e.g., Google Android) can be abused by a selfish device to manipulate channel-access parameters to gain an unfair advantage in throughput performance. This can cause serious performance problems within a well-planned Wi-Fi network due to an unauthorized selfish or misconfigured tethering device interfering with nearby well-planned access points (APs). In this paper, we demonstrate that the selfish behavior of a tethering node that adjusts the clear channel assessment (CCA) threshold has strong adverse effects in a multi-AP network, while providing the selfish node a high throughput gain. To mitigate this problem, we present a passive online detection scheme that identifies the network condition and detects selfish tethering nodes with high accuracy by exploiting the packet loss information of on-going transmissions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research to consider the problem of detecting a selfish tethering node in managed Wi-Fi networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: inter-personal relationships; construction innovation; knowledge sharing; inter-organizational relationships
Online: 8 February 2019 (09:20:06 CET)
Abstract: Guanxi, a Chinese term that defines social networks of power and benefits, can be divided into inter-personal and inter-organizational relationships, and guanxi significantly influences construction innovation in China. Many studies have examined the relationship between guanxi and construction innovation at the project or organizational level. However, few of these studies explained how guanxi could affect an individual’s innovative behaviour from a double-level perspective. This paper builds on social capital theory and social exchange theory to examine guanxi’s role in motivating innovative behaviour in a China-specific construction context. It investigates the main effects of inter-personal relationships on innovative behaviour, the mediating effects of knowledge sharing, and the cross-level moderating effects of inter-organizational relationships. These elements were tested using a survey that received 178 responses from 35 different organizations. The results were analysed using Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM) and revealed that inter-personal relationships have positive influences on innovative behaviour, thus highlighting the partial mediating effects of knowledge sharing. In addition, the analyses showed that inter-organizational relationships augment inter-personal relationships and knowledge sharing on innovative behaviour by cross-level interaction. The research findings enhance an understanding of guanxi and innovative behaviour in China-specific construction project settings, as well as verifying the significance of guanxi in stimulating innovative behaviour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0354.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: health self-tracking; data donation; data sharing; quantified self; mobile tracking
Online: 27 June 2022 (08:46:26 CEST)
Health self-tracking is an ongoing trend as software and hardware evolve, making the collection of personal data not only fun for users but also increasingly interesting for public health research. In a quantitative approach we studied German health self-trackers (N=919) for differences in their data disclosure behavior by comparing data showing and sharing behavior among peers and their willingness to donate data to research. In addition, we examined user characteristics that may positively influence willingness to make the self-tracked data available to research and propose a framework for structuring research related to self-measurement. Results show that users' willingness to disclose data as a "donation" more than doubled compared to their "sharing" behavior (willingness to donate= 4.5/10; sharing frequency= 2.09/10). Younger men (up to 34 years), who record their vital signs daily, are less concerned about privacy, regularly donate money, and share their data with third parties because they want to receive feedback, are most likely to donate data to research and are thus a promising target audience for health data donation appeals. The paper adds to qualitative accounts of self-tracking but also engages with discussions around data sharing and privacy.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; health literacy; information sharing; family well-being; preventive measures
Online: 5 January 2021 (11:40:50 CET)
Objective: We tested a model of individual health literacy information sharing with family members, personal preventive behaviours and family well-being during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Hong Kong. Methods: We analysed data of 1501 randomly selected Chinese adults from a cross-sectional survey in Hong Kong from 9 to 23 April, 2020. Individual health literacy about COVID-19 with the items extracted from the questionnaire in World Health Organization Risk Communication and Community Engagement (RCCE) Action Plan Guidance for COVID-19 preparedness and response, COVID-19 information sharing with family members, preventive behaviours against COVID-19 and family well-being were measured. Structural equation modelling analysis tested the proposed model. Findings: COVID-19 information sharing with family members partially mediated the association between individual health literacy and personal preventive behaviours. The direct eﬀect of 0.24 was shown, and the indirect eﬀect through COVID-19 information sharing with family members was small at 0.03 (Z = 3.66, p < 0.001). Family well-being was associated with personal preventive behaviours against COVID-19. The model was adjusted for sex, age, and socioeconomic status factors and had good ﬁt with RMSEA = 0.04, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.96, and SRMR = 0.02. Conclusion: COVID-19 information sharing with family members was a partial mediator between individual health literacy and personal preventive behaviours against COVID-19. Strategies for enhancing health literacy and preventive measures against COVID-19 are needed to promote family well-being in the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: cognitive radios; Collaborative Intelligent Radio Networks; spectrum sharing; coexistence; experimental evaluation
Online: 10 October 2019 (09:37:08 CEST)
DARPA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency from the United States, has started the Spectrum Collaboration Challenge with the aim to encourage research and development of coexistence and collaboration techniques of heterogeneous networks in the same wireless spectrum bands. Team SCATTER has been participating in the challenge since its beginning, back in 2016. SCATTER’s open-source software-defined physical layer (SCATTER PHY) has been developed as a standalone application, with the ability to communicate with higher layers of SCATTER’s system via ZeroMQ, and uses USRP X310 software-defined radio devices to send and receive wireless signals. SCATTER PHY relies on USRP’s ability to schedule timed commands, uses both physical interfaces of the radio devices, utilizes the radio’s internal FPGA board to implement custom high-performance filtering blocks in order to increase its spectral efficiency as well as enable reliable usage of neighboring spectrum bands. This paper describes the design and main features of SCATTER PHY and showcases the experiments performed to verify the achieved benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0419.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Convention on Biological Diversity; Access and Benefit Sharing; Nagoya Protocol; industry perspective
Online: 23 November 2021 (10:46:33 CET)
Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) is a framework which refers to a relatively recent type of legal requirements for access to and/or use of “genetic resources”. They are based on diverse national and regional laws and regulations, which mostly result from the implementation of the United Nations’ Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and its supplementary agreement, the Nagoya Protocol. Their ambition is to achieve fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of genetic resources as an incentive to conserve and sustainably use them. This paper describes the experiences, practical constraints and complexities encountered by users of genetic resources when dealing with ABS legislation, with a focus on users from the private sector. We provide insights on how ABS laws have fundamentally changed the way of working with genetic resources in the hope that it inspires re-thinking of the ABS framework, to better support the overall objectives of the CBD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0636.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: collaborative economy; sharing economy; switchover; obtainer; provider; values; learning; mutuality; exploratory research
Online: 23 April 2021 (12:05:17 CEST)
The collaborative economy comprises resource circulation systems where consumers can act as both obtainers and providers of products and services. Despite considerable research on collaborative economies, there is a dearth of understanding of how individuals switch from being an obtainer to a provider. We address this void by drawing on 31 in-depth semi-structured interviews with collaborative economy obtainers. The findings suggest that personal values, learning experience, social benefits, mutuality, and peer influence drive obtainers to become providers. In contrast, distrusting strangers, a sense of intimacy, a lack of resources to share, and a lack of skills inhibit the switchover process. Our findings contextualize the drivers and inhibitors idiosyncratically to convert obtainers into providers, offer important implications for managers, contribute to the collaborative economy and sharing economy literature, and suggest compelling avenues for future research.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Peer-to-peer energy trading; distributional impacts; realist review; Airbnb; sharing economy
Online: 18 January 2021 (14:03:00 CET)
Peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading – where energy prosumers transact directly between each other – could help enable transition to a low-carbon energy system. If it is to be supported in policy and regulation, it is important to anticipate the distributional impacts (or how it might impact segments of society differently). However, real-world evidence on P2P energy trading is currently extremely limited. To address this challenge in the short- to medium-term, this study aimed to explore what might be learned from the extensive body of research on a comparable offering in the accommodation sector: Airbnb. A realist review approach was employed to maximise transferability of findings, focused on what mechanisms are thought to lead to what distributional outcomes, in what contexts. On the basis of the review, participation in (and receipt of benefits of) P2P energy trading schemes would be expected to represent disproportionately those living in areas with network management challenges, who are younger and more highly educated. The review also raised the prospect of discrimination on the basis of characteristics such as race and gender where there are high levels of individual choice over who to trade with. Recommendations include monitoring, incentivising diversity, anonymization, and limiting trading choices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0489.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Petroleum Resources; Contract Structure; Production Sharing Agreement; International Oil Company; National Oil Company
Online: 26 December 2022 (12:03:54 CET)
Most developing countries with petroleum resources are constrained in the ability to refine their oil and gas resources. This virtually results in the involvement of the International Oil Company (IOC) by the National Oil Company (NOC) of a particular nation to enter into an agreement to achieve the production of oil based on an agreed framework. However, in cur-rent development, there is little focus on the contractual agreement, particularly on the pro-duction sharing agreement by the IOC in the exploration of petroleum resources of developing countries. The primary objective of this paper is to critically explore the contract structure of production sharing agreement by the IOC in the exploration and development of petroleum resources in developing countries. Content analysis was used as the methodology of the study after examining several literatures. The findings indicate that the contract structure of the production sharing agreement (PSA) between NOC and IOC plays a significant role in the cost and risk of exploration and development of oil. In addition, it is noted that the joint committee of the NOC and IOC plays a paramount role in monitoring the operations of PSA between the NOC and IOC. Hence, from the gross oil production, the NOC gets its share as profit while IOC gets its share income tax. As an instrument of contract structure in the oil and gas sector, PSA needs further entrenchment between IOC and NOC to avoid likely issues that can emanate between the two parties in the face of current developments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0376.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Photo-taking Behavior; photo capturing and sharing; bystanders; human behavior analysis; identity protection
Online: 13 September 2020 (11:16:17 CEST)
Nowadays, with smartphones people can easily take photos, post photos to any social networks and use the photos for some purposes. This leads to a social problem that unintended appearance in photos may threaten the privacy of photographed person. Some solutions to protect facial privacy in photos have already been proposed. However, most of them rely on different techniques to de-identify photos which can be done only by photographers, giving no choice to photographed person. To deal with that, we propose an approach that allows photographed person to proactively detect whether someone is intentionally/unintentionally trying to take pictures of him/her. Thereby, he/she can have appropriate reaction to protect the privacy. In this approach, we assume that the photographed person uses a wearable camera to record the surrounding environment in real-time. The skeleton information of likely photographers who are captured in the monitoring video is then extracted to be put into the calculation of dynamic programming score which is eventually compared with a threshold for recognition of photo-taking behavior. Experimental results demonstrate that by using the proposed approach, the photo-taking behavior is precisely recognized with high accuracy of 92.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0180.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: radio virtualization; software-defined radio; network densification; infrastructure sharing; multi-tenancy; cognitive radios
Online: 15 November 2019 (16:44:52 CET)
The next generation of wireless and mobile networks will have to handle a significant increase in traffic load compared to the actual one. This situation calls for novel ways to increase spectral efficiency. Therefore in this paper, we propose a wireless spectrum hypervisor architecture that abstracts a radio frequency (RF) front-end into a configurable number of virtual RF front-ends. The proposed architecture has the ability to enable flexible spectrum access in existing wireless and mobile networks, which is a challenging task due to the limited spectrum programmability, $i.e.$, the capability a system has to change the spectral properties of a given signal to fit an arbitrary frequency allocation. The main goal of the proposed approach is to improve spectral efficiency by efficiently using vacant gaps in congested spectrum-bandwidths or adopting network densification through infrastructure sharing. We demonstrate mathematically how our proposed approach works and present several simulation results proving its functionality and efficiency. Additionally, we designed and implemented an open-source and free proof of concept prototype of the proposed architecture, which can be used by researchers and developers to run experiments or extend the concept to other applications. We present several experimental results used to validate the proposed prototype. We demonstrate that the prototype can easily handle up to 12 concurrent physical layers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0221.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Smart Cities; Internet of things; Bicycle sharing systems; Machine learning; Association rule mining
Online: 10 October 2018 (14:24:32 CEST)
Bike sharing systems are a key element of a smart city as they have the potential for reducing pollutant emissions and traffic congestion thus substantially improving citizens’ quality of life. In these systems, bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a very short-term basis. They are rented in a station and returned in any other station with free docks. However, to achieve a satisfactory user experience, all the stations in the system must be neither overloaded nor empty. The occupancy level of the stations can be constantly monitored through IoT-based services. The goal of this work is to analyze occupancy level data acquired from real systems to discover situations of dock overload in multiple stations which could lead to service disruption. The proposed methodology relies on a pattern mining approach. A new pattern type, called Occupancy Monitoring Pattern (OMPs), is proposed to characterize situations of dock overload in multiple stations. Since stations are geo-referenced and their occupancy levels are periodically monitored, OMPs can be filtered and evaluated by considering also the spatial and temporal correlation of the acquired measurements. The results achieved on real Smart City data highlight the potential of these techniques in supporting domain experts in maintenance activities, such as periodic re-balancing of the occupancy levels of the stations, as well as in improving the user experience, such as suggesting alternative stations in the neighborhood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0249.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: switched reluctance motor (SRM); torque-speed performance; drive efficiency; torque sharing function (TSF)
Online: 19 April 2018 (09:59:17 CEST)
In this paper, by evaluating extreme value of the qth-power current, a torque sharing function (TSF) family for reducing the torque ripples in the switched reluctance motor (SRM) is proposed. The optimization criteria of the TSF has two secondary objectives, including the maximization of the torque-speed range and the minimization of copper loss. The evaluation indices in terms of the peak phase current, the rms phase current, and the torque ripple factor are compared between the proposed TSF family and four conventional TSFs including linear, sinusoidal, exponential, and cubic TSFs. An optimization objective function that combines the maximum absolute value of the rate-of-change of the flux linkage (MAV-RCFL) and the qth-power of current is proposed and a weighting factor is used to balance the influence of the two optimization objectives. An optimal TSF can be easily obtained by solving the optimization problem from the TSF family. The proposed TSF is validated by using simulations and experiments with a three-phase 6/4 SRM with 7.5 kW, 3000 rpm, and 270 V DC-link voltage. The dynamic simulation model is implemented in Matlab/Simulink. The results demonstrate the validity and superiority of the proposed control method; the optimal TSF provides better torque-speed performance, and a better reduction in copper loss and torque ripples at high speed compared to the conventional TSFs obviously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: water rights; robustness; water governance; water scarcity; water allocation; water accounting; water trading; water sharing
Online: 6 November 2019 (10:43:15 CET)
A framework for the review of existing water management systems and their transformation into robust water sharing systems is offered. The framework focuses on the need to develop efficient and equitable ways to manage water scarcity and plan to deal with the tensions scarcity imposes on any community. The framework identifies a way to bring together traditional community-managed systems with those typically used to allocate water to large water users and more commonly found in developed countries. So that use can be kept within sustainable limits while optimizing use, the framework includes mechanisms that enable the reallocation of water as demand and supply conditions change. Non-consumptive uses are recognized and environmental objectives can be delivered efficiently. Compliance with well-established accounting and hydro-logical concepts. Ways to increase the value of existing entitlements, encourage innovation and protect investments are included as options. It is recognized that the governance and legal arrangements necessary to underpin successful implantation are context specific.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0017.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Next Generation Wireless Networks; Cognitive Radios; Collaborative Intelligent Radio Networks; Spectrum Sharing; Coexistence; Experimental Evaluation
Online: 15 October 2018 (12:15:23 CEST)
The explosive emergence of wireless technologies and standards, covering licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands has triggered the appearance of a huge amount of wireless technologies, with many of them coexisting in the same band. Unfortunately, the wireless spectrum is a scarce resource, and the available frequency bands will not scale with the foreseen demand for new capacity. Certain parts of the spectrum, in particular the license-free ISM bands, are overcrowded, while other parts, mostly licensed bands, may be significantly underutilized. As such, there is a need to introduce more advanced techniques to access and share the wireless medium, either to improve the coordination within a given band, or to explore the possibilities of intelligently using unused spectrum in underutilized (e.g., licensed) bands. Therefore, in this paper, we present an open source SDR-based framework that can be employed to devise disruptive techniques to optimize the sub-optimal use of radio spectrum that exists today. Additionally, we describe three use cases where the proposed framework can be employed along with intelligent algorithms to achieve improved spectrum utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0092.v1
Subject: Keywords: Climate clubs; Article 6 of the Paris Agreement; assetization; effort-sharing; joint certification mechanism; carbon neutrality
Online: 5 October 2021 (16:04:49 CEST)
Recent times have witnessed an increasing number of countries and private firms pledging carbon neutrality by mid-century. Whilst representing a significant improvement in intentions to tackle climate change, such pledges lack substance and structure. For instance, individual pledges lack coordination and aggregation among peers, while strategies and measures to achieve ambitious targets are largely absent. Moreover, current disagreements obstructing progress in international climate change negotiations further undermine the reliability of carbon neutrality objectives. Effective international policies are needed to foster aggregate mitigation ambitions and the creation of adequate supporting mechanisms. This theoretical paper describes a governance innovation aimed at overcoming such shortfalls and disagreements through a unifying yet customizable pathway towards carbon neutrality. It does so by first outlining a political governance framework based on a climate club interpretation of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement. Secondly, it proposes carbon emission mitigation effort sharing on a per capita basis to ensure efficiency, equity and political feasibility. Thirdly, this paper describes how the supply of certified mitigations of carbon emissions required to satisfy effort sharing-based demand can be assetized as carbon credits by operationalizing Article 6 as a joint certification mechanism. The resulting governance architecture for managing demand and supply of mitigations shifts efforts to tackle climate change from a ‘problem-driven’ cost approach to ‘opportunity-driven’ value creation pathways towards carbon neutrality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0051.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: distributed generation; LV microgrid; negative-sequence current; zero-sequence current; power sharing; unbalance load; voltage control
Online: 5 September 2018 (05:55:55 CEST)
This paper reports a new control strategy to improve sharing of unbalanced currents in islanded LV microgrids. This technique provides fast and effective sharing of positive-, negative- and zero-sequence currents, and is the first example of zero-sequence current sharing in the literature. The controllers are designed in the stationary frame. The control structure consists of four loops; 1)~the current controller; 2)~the voltage controller; 3)~the droop controller and the 4)~negative and zero sequence current controllers. The output current is considered unknown for the controller and is added to the control system as a disturbance. The proposed controller features a high gain in fundamental and harmonic frequencies, hence a good voltage quality is obtained in the presence of unbalanced and nonlinear loads. To this aim, a proportional-resonant (PR) controller is adopted as the current controller. By using a multi-resonant controller as current controller, a unified control structure is obtained which is suitable for both grid-connected and islanded modes. The voltage controller is designed using a resonant controller so that the voltage can have low VUF and THD in the presence of unbalanced and nonlinear loads. Furthermore, in this paper droop method is applied to the control structure to share real and reactive powers. Simulation studies show that the conventional droop method cannot share the oscillatory part of the output power that is due to the presence of unbalanced loads in the microgrid. This paper relies on using zero and negative sequence virtual impedance controller to share the oscillatory part of output power. By using zero-sequence virtual impedance controller (ZSVIC) and negative-sequence virtual impedance controller (NSVIC), the zero and negative sequence currents in the microgrid are controlled and shared effectively. By compensating zero- and negative-sequence currents locally, the flow of these currents in the microgrid is minimized, and the overall power quality of the islanded LV microgrid is improved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Diagnosis delay; rare diseases; undiagnosed programs; standardized phenotype; phenotype ontologies; whole exome analysis; international data sharing
Online: 13 June 2018 (15:41:21 CEST)
One of the IRDiRC goals for 2017-2027 is to achieve definitive diagnosis for rare undiagnosed diseases within one year, as diagnosis delay remains one of the pending issues in the rare diseases field. The Spanish Undiagnosed Rare Diseases Program (SpainUDP) was created in response to this challenging scenario to cover patients’ needs and after seeing the success of the UDP in USA. SpainUDP offers a multidisciplinary approach to those patients who have long sought a diagnosis without any success. During a first phase of the protocol, undiagnosed cases are sent to SpainUDP by individual patients, patient organizations or hospitals. After a carefully analysis of phenotype, data from sequencing experiments (WES) is processed with a standard pipeline and a detailed standardized phenotypic information (mapped to HPO) is connected to genetic data. In addition, the participation of SpainUDP in international initiatives such as the European projects RD-Connect and Solve RD, the Undiagnosed Diseases Network International (UDNI), and the MatchMaker Exchange platform, allows the establishment of a global data sharing strategy across multiple projects submitting data to these international initiatives. From the official beginning of the program (at the end of 2015) until early 2018, 147 cases were accepted in SpainUDP. During this time, 37 cases (25 %) dropped out the program due to several reasons. The remaining 110 cases are distributed as follows: phenotypic and genotypic (WES) characterization was finished in 30 cases, of which 20 (67 %) were diagnosed; 21 cases are pending on variants validation by Sanger; in 25 cases, WES is ongoing and 34 cases are in a deep phenotypic characterization. As a conclusion, SpainUDP aims to achieve a diagnosis following two recommendations of the IRDiRC: the patients’ diagnosis in a period of time as short as possible and the promotion of data sharing (especially genomic) at the international level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0127.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: telemedicine; emergency medicine; emergency medical services; workload; work job satisfaction; technology acceptance; knowledge sharing; Dunning-Kruger effect
Online: 8 June 2022 (11:32:45 CEST)
Background: Tele-emergency physicians (TEPs) take an increasingly important role in the need-oriented provision of emergency patient care. To improve emergency medicine in rural areas, we set up the project Land|Rettung (English: Rural|Rescue), which uses TEPs to restructure professional rescue services using information and communication technologies (ICTs) in order to reduce the therapy-free interval. Successful implementation of ICTs relies on user acceptance and knowledge sharing behavior. Methods and findings: We conducted a factorial design with active knowledge transfer and technology acceptance as a function of work satisfaction (high vs. low), workload (high vs. low) and point in time (prior to vs. after digitalization). Data were collected via machine readable questionnaires issued to 755 persons (411 pre, 344 post), of which 304 or 40.3% of these persons responded (194 pre, 115 post).Technology acceptance was higher after the implementation of TEP for nurses but not for other professional groups, and it was higher when the workload was high. Regarding active communication and knowledge sharing, employees with low work satisfaction are more likely to share their digital knowledge as compared to employees with high work satisfaction. Additional and more detailed analyses reveal that this is an effect of previous knowledge concerning digitalization. After implementing the new technology, work satisfaction increased for the more experienced employees, but not for the less experienced ones. Results are discussed considering the Dunning-Kruger effect. The Dunning-Kruger effect describes a cognitive bias. People with high expertise often underestimate their actual skill level. They have a more critical attitude towards their performance and feel the urgent need to fill possible knowledge gaps they notice. Conclusions: Our research illustrates that employees’ workload has an impact on the intention of using digital applications. The higher the workload, the more people are willing to use TEPs. Regarding active knowledge sharing, we see that employees with low work satisfaction are more likely to share their digital knowledge compared to employees with high work satisfaction. This might be attributed to the Dunning-Kruger effect. Highly knowledgeable employees initially feel uncertain about the change, which translates into temporarily lower work satisfaction. They feel the urge to fill even small knowledge gaps, which in return leads to higher work satisfaction. Those responsible need to acknowledge that digital change affects their employees’ workflow and work satisfaction. During such times, employees need time and support to gather information and knowledge in order to cope with digitally changed tasks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0415.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Patkos; sustainable development; knowledge sharing; knowledge management; Homo Technologicus; Homo Sustainabiliticus; conceptual model; quantum organizational decision-making
Online: 18 February 2021 (12:09:03 CET)
This conceptual, interdisciplinary paper will start by introducing the commencement of a new era in which human society faces continuously accelerating technological revolutions, named for short ‘Padkos’. In this context, a conceptual model of sustainable development with a focus on knowledge sharing and management will be proposed. The construct of knowledge management will be unpacked into a three-layer model with a focus on the knowledge-human and data-machine spheres. Then, each sphere will be discussed with concentrating on the learning and decision- making processes, the digital supporting systems and the human actors’ aspects. Moreover, the recombination of new knowledge development and contemporary knowledge management into one amalgamated construct will be proposed. The holistic conceptual model of knowledge sharing for sustainable development is comprised by time, cybersecurity and two alternative humanistic paradigms (Homo Technologicus and Homo Sustainabiliticus). Two additional particular models are discussed in depth. First, a recently proposed model of quantum organizational decision-making is elaborated. Next, a boundary management and learning process is particularized. The paper ends with several implications for the future based on the deliberations in the paper and the models discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0505.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Sharing Economy; Category Formation; Emergence; Social Movement; Similarity Clustering; Truce; Radial Category; Identity Legitimation; Stakeholders; Business Models.
Online: 26 October 2020 (08:50:38 CET)
The Sharing Economy (SE) has dawn great attention from several stakeholders in society in the last five years. While business actors are interested in financial opportunities to meet consumer needs, new business models, the academia and governmental organizations are concerned with potential unintended effects on the society and environment. In the process of making a clearer comprehension of the SE phenomenon, researchers have identified that, despite its notable global growth, there still persists a lack of a more solid ground in understanding its origins and respective mechanisms under which it has been evolving over time as a category. In this research, we address the problematics of the origins and ascendency of the SE by examining the process by which the SE is arising as a new category, searching for conceptual clarification and pinpointing the legitimacy granted by key stakeholders. Our guiding research questions are: (1) how the SE was formed and evolved as a market category; and (2), as a market category, is the SE legitimate? Additionally, we attempt to identify the nature of the SE as a category. To answer these questions, we conducted an historical analysis of the expression SE and its equivalents. This paper deepens the discussion about the nature of the SE by providing evidence that (i) the SE has predominantly been formed by emergence processes, comprising social movement, similarity clustering and truce components. It is the combination of all these aforementioned processes that renders the SE a special case of market category formation, which, in turn, has been allowing communication, entrepreneurship, regulation and research about what really is the SE, and despite the evident lack of agreements regarding both the label and its content; (ii) there is a generalized legitimacy granted to the SE by a vast number of stakeholders, even though still lacking on the consolidation of socio-political legitimation, and (iii) the nature of the SE seems to fall in a metaphorical approach, particularly, the notion of radial categories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0273.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Chromobacterium vaccinii; biofilm; sharing goods; social cheater; bog microbiome; bacterial genome, violacein, cold adaptation, IDBac, QS mutant
Online: 12 September 2020 (12:04:38 CEST)
Chromobacterium species are common in tropical and subtropical zones in environmental water samples and believed to «tropical» species. Here we describe an environmental case of resident Chromobacterium vaccinii in biofilms associated with Carex spp. roots in Moscow region, Russia (warm-summer humid continental climate zone). We performed broad characterization of individual properties as well as surrounding context for better understanding the premise of C. vaccinii survival during winter season. Genome properties of isolated strains propose some insights into adaptation to habit and biofilm mode of life, including social cheaters carrying ΔluxR mutation. Isolated C. vaccinii differs with previously described strains in some biochemical properties and some basic characteristics like fatty acid composition as well as unique genome features. Despite potential to modulate membrane fluidity and presence of several genes responsible for cold shock response, isolated C. vaccinii didn`t survive during exposure to 4 °C, while in initial complex biofilm it was able to survive for months in vitro at 4 °C. Surrounding bacterial community within the same biofilm with C. vaccinii represented a series of psychrophilic bacterial species which may share resistance to low temperatures with other species within biofilm and provide C. vaccinii opportunity to survive during cold winter season.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0132.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS); resource mobilization; Digital Sequence Information (DSI); Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework; biodiversity crisis
Online: 7 September 2021 (16:07:18 CEST)
Facing unprecedented global declines in the extent and integrity of ecosystems, the 15th UN Biodiversity Conference (COP-15) in Kunming, China, presents an opportunity for transformative change. However, a lack of consensus on two key issues – resource mobilization and Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) associated with Digital Sequence Information (DSI) – risks stalling negotiations for an ambitious ‘Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework’ as the next 10-year strategic plan under the Convention on Biological Diversity. We highlight systemic misconceptions concerning the financing of biodiversity and the burden this places on the ABS system. In the context of DSI, we caution that conflating ABS with resource mobilization risks disrupting modern science policy built on open access, with potentially severe ramifications for scientific research and innovation. To resolve these tensions, we call for a recalibration of discussions on ABS in order to maximize the value delivered by biodiversity for all of society, including indigenous peoples and local communities.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: zoonotic risk; viral emergence; viral ecology; genomics; machine learning; access and benefit sharing; intellectual property law; global health
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:53:59 CEST)
In light of the urgency raised by the COVID-19 pandemic, global investment in wildlife virology is likely to increase, and new surveillance programs will identify hundreds of novel viruses that might someday pose a threat to humans. Our capacity to identify which viruses are capable of zoonotic emergence depends on the existence of a technology—a machine learning model or other informatic system—that leverages available data on known zoonoses to identify which animal pathogens could someday pose a threat to global health. We synthesize the findings of an interdisciplinary workshop on zoonotic risk technologies to answer the following questions: What are the prerequisites, in terms of open data, equity, and interdisciplinary collaboration, to the development and application of those tools? What effect could the technology have on global health? Who would control that technology, who would have access to it, and who would benefit from it? Would it improve pandemic prevention? Could it create new challenges?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0035.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Collaborative consumption; Data sharing and reuse; Data recycling; Digital assets; United nations SDGs; Sustainability; Sustainable Development; Sustainable scholarship
Online: 3 July 2020 (12:15:23 CEST)
In order to meet the needs of an increasingly complex research landscape, researchers engage in “collaborative prosumption” through open data sharing and reuse. Although significant gains have been achieved in this regards because of growing requirements from funding agencies, governments and journals, the question of how reuse of openly available data for new research contribute to sustainability is yet to be appropriately addressed in the literature. Therefore, relying on a three stage stratified clustered random sampling of the Journal of Applied Econometrics data archive (JAEDA), the present research provides a case study of the value of research data recycling for sustainable research and economic development. More specifically our analysis show that reformatting from wide to long format, openly shared equity price index data on eleven European countries’ extracted from JAEDA, and augmented with country level geospatial Meta data, provides a new basis for interesting descriptive analytics and spatio-temporal econometric modeling and inference. Given the ever-increasing volume of openly available research data, our study provides a first-hand insight on open data reuse, which should benefit all stakeholders in the research community, as they seek sustainable solutions for scientific productivity and progress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0279.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Content distribution networks; Peer-to-peer computing; Random Linear network coding; File sharing; rarest-piece issue; information thoery
Online: 19 February 2020 (11:42:27 CET)
Peer-to-peer (P2P) content distribution or file sharing system aims to facilitate the dissemination of large files over unreliable networks. Network coding is a new transmission technique that has captured the interest of researchers because of its ability to increase throughput and robustness of the network, and decrease the download time. In this survey paper, we extensively summarize, assess, compare, and classify the most recently used techniques to improve P2P content distribution systems performance using network coding. To the best of our knowledge, this survey is the first comprehensive survey that specifically focuses on the performance of network coding based P2P file sharing systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0158.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Airborne wind energy; Direct interconnection technique; Load sharing control; Active power; Reactive power exchange; Non-reversing pumping mode
Online: 7 November 2018 (09:56:23 CET)
In this paper, an offshore airborne wind energy (AWE) farm consisting of three non-reversing pumping mode AWE systems is modelled and simulated. The AWE systems employ permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG). A direct interconnection technique is developed and implemented for AWE systems. This method is a new approach invented for interconnecting offshore wind turbines with the least number of required offshore-based power electronic converters. The direct interconnection technique can be beneficial in improving the economy and reliability of marine airborne wind energy systems. The performance and interactions of the directly interconnected generators inside the energy farm internal power grid are investigated. The results of the study conducted in this paper, show the directly interconnected AWE systems can exhibit a poor load balance and significant reactive power exchange which must be addressed. Power control strategies for controlling the active and reactive power of the AWE farm are designed, implemented, and promising results are discussed in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0106.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Convention on Biological Diversity; Nagoya Protocol; ABS access and benefit sharing; Brazil ABS law; genetic resources; associated traditional knowledge.
Online: 7 December 2022 (01:52:23 CET)
This study presents a detailed assessment on the impact of the Brazilian legal framework related to the access and benefit sharing provisions of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity. The research is based on a comprehensive dataset that was systematically collected over several years, directly from the official government bodies responsible for its implementation. The aim of the study is to contribute to a fact-based discussion on the effectiveness of national ABS laws, focusing on the Brazilian legal framework, first established in the year 2000 and revised in 2015, as a case example. This study balances the costs and benefits of the Brazilian ABS system and assesses the regulatory challenges it poses to individuals, companies, and institutions that perform research, share knowledge, develop, manufacture or market products derived from Brazilian biodiversity. The study indicates that, after over 22 years of operation, the regulatory challenges are still real and relevant, and that the significant volume of data collected from users on access, prior commercialization and shipment of genetic materials abroad was never systematically assessed by the agencies in charge. Besides, it shows that the costs incurred by the government in managing the policy itself have been higher than the economic benefits it has made possible, and that the institutional mechanisms in place since 2015 have not been able to allocate the monetary benefits contributed by users to the National Benefit Sharing Fund to any projects aimed at developing sustainable uses or preserving Brazilian biodiversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0452.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: knowledge management (KM); communities of practice (CoP); tacit knowledge; knowledge sharing; KM cycle; CoP framework, organizational culture, performance measurement
Online: 27 August 2018 (11:04:27 CEST)
In this digital world, organisations are facing global competition as well as manpower pressures leading towards knowledge economy, which heavily impacts on their local and international businesses. The trend is to foster collaboration and knowledge sharing to cope with these problems. With the advancement of technologies and social engineering that can connect people in virtual world across time and distance, several organisations are embarking on knowledge management (KM) systems, implementing community of practice (CoP) approach. However, virtual communities are relatively new paradigms, and there are several challenges to their successful implementation from an organisation’s point of interest. There is lack of CoP implementation framework that can cater to today’s dynamic business and sustainability requirements. To fill the gap in literature, this paper develops a practical framework for a CoP implementation with a view to align KM strategy with business strategy of an organization. It explores the different steps of building, sharing and using tacit and explicit knowledge in CoPs by applying Wiig KM cycle. It proposes a practical CoP implementation framework that adopts the Benefits-Tools-Organisation-People-Process (BTOPP) model in addressing the key questions surrounding each of the BTOPP elements with a structured approach. Finally, it identifies key challenges such as organizational culture and performance measurements, and provides practical recommendations to overcome them for a successful CoP implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0009.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Digital Twin; Internet-of-Medical-Things (IoMT); Security; Privacy; Blockchain; Non-fungible Token (NFT); Virtual Healthcare Services; Access Control; Data Sharing
Online: 1 September 2022 (07:21:25 CEST)
Seniors safety is a compelling need, which necessitates 24/7 real-time monitoring and timely dangerous action recognition. Being able to mirror characteristics of physical objects (PO) to corresponding logical objects (LO) and seamlessly monitor their footprints thus detect anomaly parameters, Digital Twins (DT) has been considered a practical way to provide virtual health services for seniors safety. Meanwhile, widely adopted Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) consisting of wearable sensors and non-contact optical cameras for self and remote health data monitoring also raises concerns on information security and privacy violation. Therefore, security of POs, LOs and reliable data sharing among healthcare professionals are challenging as constructing trust and privacy-preserving virtual health services. Thanks to characteristics of decentralization, traceability and unalterability, Blockchain is promising to enhance security and privacy properties in many areas like data analysis, finance and healthcare. This paper envisions a lightweight authentication framework (LAF) to enable secure and privacy-preserving virtual healthcare services. Leveraging Non-Fungible Token (NFT) technology to tokenize LOs and data streams on blockchain, anyone can certify the authenticity of a digital LO along with its synchronized data between PO without relying on a third-party agency. In addition, the NFT-based tokenization not only allows owners fully control their IoMT devices and data, but it also enables verifiable ownership and traceable transferability during data sharing process. Moreover, NFT only contains references to encrypted raw data that are saved on off-chain storage like local files or distributed databases, such a hybrid storage strategy ensures privacy-preservation for sensitive information. A proof-of-concept prototype is implemented and tests are conducted on a case study of seniors safety. The experimental evaluation shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed LAF solution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0182.v4
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: open access initiative; challenges of data sharing; data management; open government data; human-computer interaction; documentation; human factors; standardization; information policy
Online: 17 January 2018 (11:09:52 CET)
The Release of government dataset for public use can potentially strengthen the relationship between the government and its constituents. However, research shows that there are several challenges for open data effectiveness. This paper reviews current determinants and issues associated with the open government data (OGD) procedures. The review concentrates on two ends of the spectrum: First, from the perspective of the preparation by the government, focusing on the organization of traditional governmental datasets and how the recording of the data is administered. Second, from the perspective of the users, focusing on the way in which the data is released to the general public and on human-computer interaction (HCI) issues between end-user and data-consumption interfaces. Following a thorough analysis of these two opposing challenges, the paper proposes approaches to mitigate them. This review and subsequent recommendations contribute and expand current understanding of open government data effectiveness and can lead to public policy changes, development of new procedures and strategies, and ultimately improvements at both ends of the federal open data endeavor.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0322.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: digital platforms; data sharing and exchange; digital transformation; data cooperatives; in-teroperability; data sovereignty; construction industry; value networks; productivity; capital pro-ject performance
Online: 18 January 2023 (07:20:51 CET)
Digital federated platforms and data cooperatives for secure, trusted and sovereign data exchange will play a central role in the construction industry of the future. With the help of platforms, cooperatives and their novel value creation, the digital transformation and the degree of organization of the construction value chain can be taken to a new level of collaboration. The goal of this research project was to develop an experimental prototype for a federated innovation data platform along with a suitable exemplary use case. The prototype is to serve the construction industry as a demonstrator for further developments and form the basis for an innovation platform. It exemplifies how an overall concept is concretely implemented along one or more use cases that address high-priority industry pain points. This concept will create a blueprint and a framework for further developments, which will then be further established in the market. The research project illuminates the perspective of various governance innovations to increase industry collaboration, productivity and capital project performance and transparency as well as the overall potential of possible platform business models. However, a comprehensive expert survey revealed that there are considerable obstacles to trust-based data exchange between the key stakeholders in the industry value network. The obstacles to cooperation are predominantly not of a technical nature, but of a competitive, predominantly trust-related nature. To overcome these obstacles and create a pre-competitive space of trust, the authors therefore propose the governance structure of a data cooperative model, which is discussed in detail in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0269.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electric Moped Scooter Sharing; E-Moped; Shared Mobility; Urban Mobility; Life Cycle Assessment; Sustainability; Total Cost Of Ownership; Multi-Agent Transport Simulation; MATSim; Berlin
Online: 9 June 2021 (15:30:13 CEST)
Electric moped scooter sharing services have recently experienced strong growth rates, particularly in Europe. Due to their compactness, environmental-friendliness and convenience, shared e-mopeds are suitable modes of transport in urban mobility to help reduce the environmental impact. However, its traffic-related, economic and environmental effects are merely represented in academic research. We used passenger car traffic data in Berlin generated by the multi-agent transport simulation framework MATSim to develop a python-based simulation, resembling an e-moped sharing system. Based on the results, a total cost of ownership and a life cycle assessment for fleet sizes of 2,500, 10,000 and 50,000 vehicles were conducted. The results indicate that a substantial part of all passenger car trips in Berlin can be substituted. The larger the fleet, the more and longer trips are replaced. Simultaneously, the efficiency in terms of fleet utilization decreases. The scenario with 10,000 e-mopeds offers the lowest total distance-based costs for sharing operators, whereas a fleet consisting of 2,500 vehicles exhibits the lowest environmental emissions per kilometer driven over the expected lifespan of a shared e-moped. Based on the renewable energy potential for 2050 forecasted by the German Federal Environment Agency, a significant overall decline in environmental impacts can be achieved.