Chromobacterium species are common in tropical and subtropical zones in environmental water samples and believed to «tropical» species. Here we describe an environmental case of resident Chromobacterium vaccinii in biofilms associated with Carex spp. roots in Moscow region, Russia (warm-summer humid continental climate zone). We performed broad characterization of individual properties as well as surrounding context for better understanding the premise of C. vaccinii survival during winter season. Genome properties of isolated strains propose some insights into adaptation to habit and biofilm mode of life, including social cheaters carrying ΔluxR mutation. Isolated C. vaccinii differs with previously described strains in some biochemical properties and some basic characteristics like fatty acid composition as well as unique genome features. Despite potential to modulate membrane fluidity and presence of several genes responsible for cold shock response, isolated C. vaccinii didn`t survive during exposure to 4 °C, while in initial complex biofilm it was able to survive for months in vitro at 4 °C. Surrounding bacterial community within the same biofilm with C. vaccinii represented a series of psychrophilic bacterial species which may share resistance to low temperatures with other species within biofilm and provide C. vaccinii opportunity to survive during cold winter season.
Chromobacterium vaccinii; biofilm; sharing goods; social cheater; bog microbiome; bacterial genome, violacein, cold adaptation, IDBac, QS mutant
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