Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed
Who Owns REDD+? Carbon Markets, Carbon Rights and Entitlements to REDD+ Finance
Version 1 : Received: 12 July 2020 / Approved: 14 July 2020 / Online: 14 July 2020 (03:53:45 CEST)
A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.
Streck, C. Who Owns REDD+? Carbon Markets, Carbon Rights and Entitlements to REDD+ Finance. Forests 2020, 11, 959. Streck, C. Who Owns REDD+? Carbon Markets, Carbon Rights and Entitlements to REDD+ Finance. Forests 2020, 11, 959.
The questions on who is entitled to benefit from REDD+ transactions remains one of the most controversially debated issues around cooperative efforts to reduce deforestation in developing countries. REDD+ has been conceived as international framework for voluntary efforts of developing countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance carbon removals from forest activities. Designed as international framework under the UNFCCC that calculates emission reductions and removals (ERRs) at the national -and as an interim step on the subnational level – REDD+ is primarily a creature of international law. However, in defining forest-carbon ERRs the international framework competes with national emission trading systems and domestic REDD+ legislation as well as private standards that define units traded on the voluntary carbon market. The definition of various carbon units is closely linked to the question on who is entitled to participate in REDD+ and benefit from the sale of ERRs under results-based payment schemes or carbon market transactions. This paper applies a legal lens to the various claims to participate in REDD+ transactions. It tries to disentangle the various rights to ERRs, various carbon credits, and payments that come with REDD+ and that almost always create confusion and not seldom conflict around REDD+ implementation. The definition of carbon rights and the legal nature of carbon credits depends on local law and differs between countries. However, there are a number of legal considerations that apply and certain underlying concepts are relevant for the understanding of REDD+ transactions and the allocation of benefits and burdens of conservation activities.
REDD+; carbon markets; carbon rights; benefit-sharing
SOCIAL SCIENCES, Law
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