CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0659.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia; arvd; arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy; ARVC; VT storm; revised task force criteria 2010; ICD
Online: 27 September 2020 (03:13:29 CEST)
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a rare inherited disorder which is characterized by fibrofatty degeneration of cardiac muscles mainly in the right ventricular myocardium. It may cause tachyarrhythmias or right-heart failure or may cause sudden death, especially in young athletes. In our case report, we present a case of young age male patient who presented at a local community hospital with the complaint of atypical chest pain, palpitations, and vomiting and sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) on electrocardiograph (ECG) showing sustained ventricular tachycardia, left bundle branch morphology with the superior axis. The normal sinus rhythm was achieved after multiple DC cardioversion attempts and he was referred to our tertiary care hospital. Later ECG demonstrated epsilon waves and T wave inversion in v1 to v4 and RBBB morphology. The echocardiography showed a severely dilated right ventricle with dysfunction and right ventricle ventricular apical aneurysm. The definitive diagnosis of ARVC was made as per Revised Task Force Criteria 2010 and the electrophysiology review suggested implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) device placement. The patient successfully received a dual-chamber ICD device and he remained asymptomatic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0119.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: embodied language, grip force modulation, intraparietal sulcus, motor-evoked potential, right hemisphere
Online: 11 January 2019 (16:08:14 CET)
Objective: To evaluate the effects of left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) inhibition by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on grip force modulation (GFM) for both hands during a unimanual task. Methods: GFM induced by manual action-verb listening was evaluated for each hand in a unimanual task, and the motor-evoked potentials (MEP) were recorded for both left and right hemispheres prior to and following the left IPS inhibition. Left IPS inhibition was obtained by rTMS (5 min of 1.0 Hz, 60% of maximal stimulator output) of the international 10–20 system P3 point. Seven healthy right-handed subjects were evaluated. Results: One-way repeated measures ANOVA found that MEP amplitude and duration increased following IPS inhibition in the left hemisphere and did not change in the right hemisphere. Language-induced modulation did not change in the left hemisphere, while it was significantly attenuated in the right hemisphere. Since IPS inhibition increased the left primary motor cortex (M1) excitability, the maintenance of language-induced modulation intensity suggests it was also attenuated. Conclusion: Left IPS inhibition increased left M1 excitability without changing right M1 excitability, while attenuating the language-induced GFM for both the left and right hands.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0070.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: right to try; innovation in medicine; innovative care; innovative practice; distinction between research and practice
Online: 29 October 2019 (17:04:12 CET)
A significant part of the literature on innovative practice in medicine relates to seizing opportunities and curbing harms for patients in desperate situations. Unfortunately, the term innovation has multiple meanings and a rich rhetorical flourish that adds confusion and misunderstanding to an already difficult debate. This paper aims to enhance the current definition of innovative practice for medicine. First, we replace the term innovation with the more literal of new non-validated practice. To identify this meaning, we analyse the traditional research ethics’ distinction between research, validated practice, and innovation in the Belmont Report. Second, we propose the following explicit definition of new non-validated practice: the first or recent use of diagnostic, therapeutic or preventive interventions that introduce a significant change, with an insufficient level of evidence of safety or efficacy for regular healthcare, and with the main aim to benefit individual patients. This definition is a promising conceptual tool to inform empirical research, ethicists, and the harmonization of its regulation and legislation (e.g. right-to-try laws).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0455.v1
Online: 28 October 2022 (10:22:59 CEST)
This paper offers insights into the nexus of youth, masculinity and right-wing populism in Australia. Here we make reference to a wide body of international literature on the topic. There is some affinity between disenfranchised (white) working-class young men and the radical right. Survey data were collected for a project on masculinity and the far right in Australia. 203 young men worked primarily in “blue collar” sectors of the Australian labour force. Some survey responses locate them partly or potentially within the field of the populist right-wing, with many expressing anti-government sentiments and the discourse of white male victimhood. The majority were nostalgic for stereotypical masculinity. While right-wing populist movements across the world certainly differ, they often share a discourse promoting traditional gender roles.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0322.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Alexithymia; Right hemisphere; Line Bisection; Pseudoneglect
Online: 16 February 2021 (13:24:36 CET)
The research in neuroscience links alexithymia, the difficulty of identifying and describing feelings and emotions, with a left hemisphere preference and/or a right hemisphere deficit. To provide a neuropsychological support to this finding, we explored the relationship between alexithymia and the performance in a line bisection task, a standard method to evaluate spatial attention in relation with the functioning of the right hemisphere. 222 healthy participants completed a version of the TAS-20 scale, which measures alexithymia, and were asked to mark (bisect) the center of a 10 cm horizontal segment. The results document a significant rightward shift of the line center in borderline and manifest alexithymic participants, as compared to non-alexithymic individuals. Moreover, the higher the TAS-20 score the greater the rightward shift in the line bisection task. This result supports the right-hemisphere deficit hypothesis in alexithymia and suggests that visuospatial abnormalities may be an inner component of their profile.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: animal models; cardiac aftereffects; COVID-19; hypoxia; echocardiogram; pulmonary hypertension; right ventricular dilatation; right ventricular hypertrophy
Online: 5 May 2022 (09:36:47 CEST)
COVID-19 affects many organs in our body, including the heart and lungs. COVID-19 cases that require hospitalization often exhibit pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to changes in the lung microvasculature in which the blood vessels become stiff, damaged, or narrow, causing increased pulmonary arterial pressure. This review examines the hypothesis that PH can lead to right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) as a long-lasting aftereffect of COVID-19. Recent studies have shown that significant percentages of hospitalized patients develop right ventricular hypertension and right ventricular dilatation (RVD), which may lead to right ventricular failure and death. Despite recommendations for echocardiogram reports to include right ventricular wall thickness to assess RVH, few published reports have reported this parameter. Relevant studies on animal models of PH in which the timing of PH can be precisely controlled suggest that one to three weeks of PH can cause RVH. Thus, according to the hypothesis proposed here COVID-19 patients who have long-lasting severe disease (e.g., needed to be on a ventilator for one or more weeks) accompanied by PH and RVD may develop RVH as a long-lasting sequela outlasting the infection itself. Echocardiogram studies of recovered COVID-19 patients may determine whether oft-reported cardiovascular sequelae include RVH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: rehabilitation; indicators; health systems; right to health; monitoring; health services for persons with disability; human rights; accountability
Online: 12 January 2018 (08:10:28 CET)
Background: Access to rehabilitation is crucial for the realization of the right to health and a proper concern of global health. Yet, reliable information to guide rehabilitation service planning is unavailable in many countries in part due to the lack of appropriate indicators. To ensure universal health coverage and meet the central imperative of “leaving no one behind” countries must be able to assess key aspects of rehabilitation policy and provision and monitor how they have discharged their human rights responsibilities towards those most disadvantaged, including people with disability. This article describes the process of developing an expert guided indicator framework to assess governments’ efforts and progress in strengthening rehabilitation in line with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Methods: A systems methodology - concept mapping - was used to capture, aggregate and confirm the knowledge of diverse stakeholders on measures thought to be useful for monitoring the implementation of the Convention with respect to health related rehabilitation. 56 individuals generated a list of 107 indicators through online brainstorming which were subsequently sorted by 37 experts from the original panel into non overlapping categories. 41 participants rated the indicators for importance and feasibility. Multivariate statistical techniques where used to explore patterns and themes in the data and create the indicators’ organizing framework which was verified and interpreted by participants. Results: A concept map of 11 clusters of indicators emerged from the analysis grouped into three broader themes: Governance and Leadership (3 clusters); Service Delivery, Financing and Oversight (6 clusters); and Human Resources (2 clusters). The RESYST was comprehensive and well aligned with the Convention. On average, there was a moderately positive correlation between importance and feasibility of the indicators (r=.58) with experts prioritizing the indicators contained in the clusters of the Governance and Leadership domain. Two of the most important indicators arose from the Service Delivery, Financing and Oversight domain and reflect the need to monitor unmet needs and barriers in access to rehabilitation. In total, 59 indicators achieved above average score for importance and comprised the two–tiered priority set of indicators. Conclusion: Concept mapping was successful in generating a shared model that enables a system’s view of the most critical legal, policy and programmatic factors that must be addressed when assessing country efforts to reform, upscale and improve rehabilitation services. The RESYST provides a data driven basis for the development of standardized data collection tools to facilitate comparative analysis of rehabilitation systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0575.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Amyloidosis; Right Heart; Cardiac involvement; heart ultrasound
Online: 24 September 2020 (08:26:32 CEST)
Amyloidosis is due to deposition of an excessive amount of protein in many parenchymal tissues, including myocardium. The onset of cardiac Amyloidosis (CA) is an inauspicious prognostic factor, that can lead to sudden death. We retrospectively analyzed 135 patients with systemic amyloidosis, admitted to our ward between 1981 and 2019. Among them, 54 patients (46.30% F / 53.70% M, age 63.95±12.82 years) presented CA at baseline. In 53 patients, there was associated with multiorgan involvement, while in one there was primary myocardial deposition. As control group, we enrolled 81 patients (49.30% F / 50.70% M, aged 58.33±15.65) who did not meet the criteria for CA. In 44/54 of patients CA was associated with AL, 5/54 with AA, 3/54 of patients with ATTR, in 1/54 AL was related to hemodialysis and 1/54 to Gel-Amyloidosis. The most common AL type was IgG (28/44); less frequent forms were either IgA (7/40) or IgD (2/40), while seven patients had a λ free light chain form. The 32 AL with complete Ig were 31 λ-chain and just one k-chain. CA patients presented normal BP (SBP 118.0±8.4 mmHg; DBP 73.8±4.9 mmHg), while those with nCA had increased proteinuria (p=0.02). TnI and NT-proBNP were significantly increased compared to nCA (p= 0.031 and p=0.047, respectively). In CA patients we found an increased LDH compared to nCA (p=0.0011). CA patients were also found to have an increased interventricular septum thickness compared to nCA (p=0.002), a decreased Ejection Fraction % (p=0.0018) and Doppler velocity E/e’ ratio (p=0.0095). Moreover, CA patients were seen to have an enhanced right atrium area (p=0.0179), right ventricle basal diameter (p= 0.0112) and wall thickness (p=0.0471) as compared to nCA, as well as an increased inferior cava vein diameter (p=0.0495). TAPSE was the method chosen to evaluate systolic function of the right heart. In CA subjects very poor TAPSE levels were found compared to nCA patients (p=0.0495). Additionally, we found a significant positive correlation between TAPSE and lymphocyte count (r=0.47; p=0.031) as well as Gamma globulins (r=0.43, p=0.033), Monoclonal component (r=0.72; p=0.047) and IgG values (r=0.62, p=0.018). On the contrary, a significant negative correlation with LDH (r=-0.57, p=0.005), IVS (r=-0.51, p=0.008) and diastolic function evaluated as E/e’ (r=-0.60, p=0.003) were verified. CA patients had very poor survival compared to controls (30 vs. 66 months in CA vs nCA, respectively, P=0.15). Mean survival of CA individuals was worse also when stratified according to NT-proBNP levels, using 2500 pg/mL as class boundary (174 vs. 5.5 months, for patients with lower vs higher values than the median, respectively p=0.013). In much the same way, decreased right heart systolic function was correlated with a worse prognosis (18.0 months median survival, not reached in subjects with lower values than 18mm, p=0.0186). Finally, our data highlight the potential prognostic and predictive value of right heart alterations characterizing amyloidosis, as a novel clinical parameter correlated to increased LDH and immunoglobulins levels. Overall, we confirm the clinical relevance of cardiac involvement and propose that right heart evaluation may be considered as a new marker for clinical risk stratification in patients with amyloidosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0053.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: factor analysis; geographical factors; right ventricular diameter
Online: 9 November 2016 (10:26:42 CET)
Aim: To analysis the relationship between healthy adults right ventricular diameter (RVD) and geographical factors. Location: China’s 22 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. Methods: Using correlation analysis the relationship between RVD and nine geographic factors, build predictive models by factor analysis. Results: There is significant correlation between RVD and geographical factors, and the annual average temperature is most relevant geographical factors, a predictive model was built by factor analysis: Ŷ = 19.46 + 0.0007072X1 + 0.001034X2 -0.05412X3 -0.001405X4 -0.0006351X5 + 0.02903X6 + 0.01243X7 -0.01033X8 + 0.03816X9 ± 0.63. Then using Kriging interpolation interpolate the geographical distribution of Chinese healthy adult right ventricular diameter reference value in ArcGIS software. Main Conclusion: If geographic factors can be derived in anywhere of China, RVD can be calculated by the model, you can also get RVD from geographical distribution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0080.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Symmetry; Self-Face Recognition; Right Hemisphere; Self-Awareness
Online: 2 April 2021 (18:19:34 CEST)
While the desire to uncover the neural correlates of consciousness has taken numerous directions, self-face recognition has been a constant in attempts to isolate aspects of self-awareness. The neuroimaging revolution of the 1990’s bought about systematic attempts to isolate the underlying neural basis self-face recognition. These studies, including some of the first fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) studies, revealed a right hemisphere bias for self-face recognition in a diverse set of regions including the insula, the Dorsal Frontal Lobe, the Temporal Parietal Junction and Medial Temporal Cortex. Confirmation of these data (which are correlational) was provided by TMS (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation) and patients in which direct inhibition or ablation of right hemisphere regions leads to a disruption or absence of self-face recognition. These data are consistent with a number of theories including a right hemisphere dominance for self-awareness and/or a right hemisphere specialization for identifying significant social relationships including to oneself.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0453.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: electrocardiogram; pulmonary hypertension; right axis deviation; dextrocardia; technical errors
Online: 26 August 2022 (09:27:06 CEST)
A 57-year-old male with a history of hyperlipidemia and mild pulmonary hypertension presented for a left inguinal hernia repair. Preoperative electrocardiogram showed severe right axis deviation at 177 degrees and abnormal repolarization. Right ventricular hypertrophy secondary to pulmonary hypertension was the primary differential but was quickly ruled out due to the patient being asymptomatic and having great exercise tolerance. Dextrocardia was also ruled out due to normal progression on the precordial leads. The simultaneous severe right axis deviations of P, R, and T waves raised suspicion for erroneous lead placement. The repeat electrocardiogram confirmed the diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0533.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: glaucoma progression; nycthemeral intraocular pressure; right-left comparison; laterality
Online: 30 August 2021 (09:52:58 CEST)
Purpose: To determine whether 24-hour IOP monitoring can be a predictor for glaucoma progression and to analyze the inter-eye relationship of IOP, perfusion and progression parameters. Methods: We extracted data from manually drawn IOP curves with HIOP-Reader, a software suite we developed. The relationship between measured IOPs and mean ocular perfusion pressures (MOPP) to retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness was analyzed. We determined the ROC curves for peak IOP (Tmax), average IOP (Tavg), IOP variation (IOPvar) and historical IOP cut-off levels to detect glaucoma progression (rate of RNFL loss). Bivariate analysis was conducted to check for various inter-eye relationships. Results: 217 eyes were included. The average IOP was 14.8±3.5 mmHg, with a 24-hour variation of 5.2±2.9 mmHg. 52% of eyes with RNFL data showed disease progression. There was no significant difference in Tmax, Tavg and IOPvar between progressors and non-progressors (all p>0.05). Except for Tavg and the temporal RNFL, there was no correlation between disease progression in any quadrant, Tmax, Tavg and IOPvar. 24-hour and outpatient IOP variables had poor sensitivities and specificities in detecting disease progression. The correlation of inter-eye parameters was moderate; correlation with disease progression was weak. Conclusion: In line with our previous study, IOP data obtained during a single visit (outpatient or inpatient monitoring) make for a poor diagnostic tool, no matter the method deployed. Glaucoma progression and perfusion pressure in left and right eyes correlated weakly to moderately with each other.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0390.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Farmer’s right; food sovereignty; seed production system; conventional breeding
Online: 17 July 2020 (15:22:09 CEST)
Farmer’s right and their sovereignty is an important issue related with intellectual property rights and agrobiodiversity management. To boost farmer’s right, a conceptual hypothesis is proposed where they choose either a new high yielding variety or the existing one and apply conventional breeding approaches to select the seed for next years in their own fields. Although farmers produce seeds traditionally from several years, they have not been guided with scientific discipline to produce sufficient amount of quality seeds. This new concept suggests trained farmers can use breeding approaches to produce quality seed for their own use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0064.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: fractional integral inequalities, right and left - Hilfer and Hilfer fractional derivatives.
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:58:00 CET)
Here we present Hilfer-Polya, psi-Hilfer Ostrowski and psi-Hilfer-Hilbert- Pachpatte types fractional inequalities. They are univariate inequalities involving left and right Hilfer and -Hilfer fractional derivatives. All estimates are with respect to norms ||.||p, 1 <_ p <_infinite. At the end we provide applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0486.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: (left-, right-) pseudo-commutative; commutative; d/BCK-algebra; disjoint; (linear) groupoid
Online: 22 October 2018 (10:04:34 CEST)
In this paper, we investigate the effects of certain variants of the commutative laws on properties of several families of algebras which are in general not commutative, such as groups, linear algebras, or actually quite anti-commutative, such as $BCK$-algebras and $d$-algebras among others. From results obtained it becomes clear that by considering these variants in the presence of yet other axioms it is to be expected that a quite rich and varied set of results may be obtained both in the general and the particular setting of which what has been accomplished in this paper is a substantial sample.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0465.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: right to privacy; personal data; indemnity; sustainability of public finances; Covid-19
Online: 26 January 2023 (03:09:31 CET)
The basic constitutional freedoms and rights of a person and citizen are in principle unlimited: the full scope of their exercise is the rule, and the restriction determined by law can only be an exception based on explicit constitutional authority and the legitimate aim of the restriction determined by the Constitution. That being so, the restrictions - in addition to being based on constitutional authority and pursuing constitutional objectives - should be commensurate with the needs to achieve these objectives. This means that restrictive legal rules must be suitable for achieving the legitimate aim pursued, must not be stricter than necessary and must be balanced between the constitutionally guaranteed subjective right of the individual and the interests of society. In this scholar paper, the authors point out the economic and legal consequences of the violation of individual privacy and data protection rights caused by the public disclosure of personal data of people who, at a certain time, were obliged to self-isolate due to suspicion of Covid-19 virus infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0456.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Rural land right; farmers’ income; farm income; non-farm income; land transfer
Online: 26 August 2022 (09:44:58 CEST)
Based on data from the Yunnan Province farm household survey, we examine the effect of rural land rights policy on farmers’ income. The regression results show that right significantly raises the total income of farmers, with farm income serving as the primary source of total income. After performing numerous robustness tests, using instrumental variables to handle endogeneity and arriving at the same conclusion, the result is still valid. According to the heterogeneity analysis, in the sample of households with long-term migrant workers, the confirmation of rural land rights significantly increases total and nonfarm income while decreasing farm income. Furthermore, total income includes nonfarm income, which reflects the effect of different farmers' optimal labor allocation based on the external market environment. According to the impact mechanism anal-ysis, right can increase farmers' total income by promoting land transfer, and farmers in less developed areas are more willing to increase their income by land transfer out.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0588.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: non-mixture model; Fréchet distribution; right censored survival data; maximum likelihood method
Online: 29 September 2018 (07:55:08 CEST)
This paper considers a non-mixture cure model for right censored data. It utilizes the maximum likelihood method to estimate model parameters in the non-mixture cure model. The simulation study is based on Fréchet susceptible distribution to evaluate the performance of the method. Comparing with Weibull and exponentiated exponential distributions, the non-mixture Fréchet distribution is shown to be the best in modeling a real data on allogeneic marrow HLA-matched donors and ECOG phase III clinical trial e1684 data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0522.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: coalgebra; coderivation; differential algebra; Novikov algebra; Lie algebra; Jordan superalgebra; right-alternative algebra
Online: 29 November 2021 (11:35:43 CET)
Locally finiteness of some varieties of nonassociative coalgebras is studied and the Gelfand-Dorfman construction for Novikov coalgebras and the Kantor construction for Jordan super-coalgebras are given. We give examples of a non-locally finite differential coalgebra, Novikov coalgebra, Lie coalgebra, Jordan super-coalgebra, and right-alternative coalgebra. The dual algebra of each of these examples satisfies very strong additional identities. We also constructed examples of an infinite dimensional simple differential coalgebra, Novikov coalgebra, Lie coalgebra, and Jordan super-coalgebra over a field of characteristic zero.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0244.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Myocardium tissue; Left ventricle mechanics; right ventricle mechanics; cardiac septum mechanics; anisotropy index
Online: 14 September 2021 (15:12:23 CEST)
Heart myocardia are critical to the facilitation of heart pumping and blood circulating around the body. The biaxial mechanical testing of the Left Ventricle (RV) is utilised to build the computa-tional model of the whole heart with little importance given to the unique mechanical properties of Right Ventricle (RV) and Mid-wall (MDW). Most of those studies focussed on the LV of the heart, and then apply the obtained characteristics with a few modifications to the right side of the heart. However, that view has been contested over time with the realisation that the right side of the heart possesses its own unique mechanical properties that are widely distinct from that of the left side of the heart. This paper is aimed at reporting and evaluating the passive mechanical property dif-ferences in the three main walls of the rat heart based on biaxial tensile test data. Fifteen mature Wistar rats weighing 225 ± 25 g were euthanised by inhalation of 5 % halothane. The hearts were excised after which all the top chambers comprising the two atria, pulmonary and vena cava trunks, aorta and valves are all dissected out. Then 5 x 5 mm sections from the middle of each wall were carefully dissected with a surgical knife to avoid over-prestraining the specimens. The specimens were subjected tensile test. The elastic moduli, peak stresses in the toe region and stresses at 40 % strain, anisotropy indices as well as the stored strain energy in the toe and linear region up to 40 % strain are used for statistical significance tests. The following are the main findings of this study: (1) LV and MDW tissues have relatively shorter toe regions of 10 - 15 % strain as compared to RV tissue whose toe region extends up to twice as much as that (2) LV tissues have higher strain energy storage in the linear region despite being lower in stiffness than the RV (3) the MDW has the highest strain energy storage along both directions which might be directly related to its high level of anisotropy. These findings, though for a specific animal species at similar age and around the same body mass, emphasize the importance of application of wall specific material parameters to obtain accurate ventricular hyperelastic models. The findings further enhance our understanding of the desired mechanical behaviour of the different ventricle walls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0139.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: grip force modulation; embodied language; left hand; right hemisphere; left hemisphere; unimanual task
Online: 10 July 2019 (07:37:58 CEST)
Background and objectives: The language-induced grip force modulation (GFM) can be used to better understand the link between the language and motor functions as an expression of the embodied language. However, the contribution of each brain hemisphere to the language-induced GFM is still unclear. Using six different action verbs as stimuli, this study evaluated the GFM of the left hand in unimanual task to characterize the left- and right-hemisphere contributions. Materials and Methods: The left-hand GFM of 20 healthy consistent right-handers subjects was evaluated using the verbs “to write”, “to hold”, “to pull”(left-lateralized central processing actions), “to draw”, “to tie”, and “to drive” (bi-hemispheric central processing actions) as linguistic stimuli. The time between the word onset and the first interval of statistical significance regarding the baseline (RT) was also measured. Results: The six verbs produced language-induced GFM. The modulation intensity was similar for the six verbs, but the RT was variable. The verbs “to draw”, “to tie”, and “to drive”, whose central processing of the described action is bihemispheric showed a longer Rt compared to the other verbs. Conclusions: The possibility that an action is performed by the left-hand does not interfere with the occurrence of GFM when this action verb is employed as linguistic stimulus. Therefore, the language-induced GFM seems mainly rely on the left hemisphere, and the engagement of the right hemisphere seems to slow down the increase in the GFM intensity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0289.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Geometry & Topology Keywords: fullerenes; right-angled polytopes; truncation of edges; connected sum; k-belts; p-vector
Online: 31 January 2018 (02:06:27 CET)
A Pogorelov polytope is a combinatorial simple 3-polytope realizable in the Lobachevsky (hyperbolic) space as a bounded right-angled polytope. It has no 3- and 4-gons and may have any prescribed numbers of k-gons, k ≥ 7. Any polytope with only 5-, 6- and at most one 7-gon is Pogorelov. For any other prescribed numbers of k-gons, k ≥ 7, we give an explicit construction of a Pogorelov and a non-Pogorelov polytopes. Any Pogorelov polytope different from Löbel polytopes can be constructed from the 5- or the 6-barrel by cuttings off pairs of adjacent edges and connected sums with the 5-barrel along a 5-gon with the intermediate polytopes being Pogorelov. For fullerenes there is a stronger result. Any fullerene different from the 5-barrel and the (5, 0)-nanotubes can be constructed by only cuttings off adjacent edges from the 6-barrel with all the intermediate polytopes having 5-, 6- and at most one additional 7-gon adjacent to a 5-gon. This result can not be literally extended to the latter class of polytopes. We prove that it becomes valid if we additionally allow connected sums with the 5-barrel and 3 new operations, which are compositions of cuttings off adjacent edges. We generalize this result to the case when the 7-gon may be isolated from 5-gons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0246.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy; arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy; cardiac conduction system; sudden unexpected cardiac death; autopsy
Online: 9 June 2021 (08:49:09 CEST)
A retrospective study was conducted on pathologically diagnosed arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) from consecutive cases over the past 34 years (n = 1,109). The cardiac conduction system (CCS) was removed in two blocks, containing the following structures: Sino-atrial node (SAN), atrio-ventricular junction (AVJ) including the atrio-ventricular node (AVN), the His bundle (HB), the bifurcation (BIF), the left bundle branch (LBB) and the right bundle branch (RBB). The ACM cases (2.07% of the total cases) consisted of 20 (86.96%) sudden unexpected cardiac death (SUCD) and 3 (13.04%) native explanted hearts; 16 (69.56%) were males and 7 (30.44%) were females, ranging in age from 5 to 65 (mean age ± SD, 36.13 ± 16.06) years. The following anomalies of the CCS, displayed as percentages of ACM SUCD cases, have been detected: Hypoplasia of SAN (80%) and/or AVJ (86.67%) due to fatty-fibrous involvement, AVJ dispersion and/or septation (46.67%), central fibrous body (CFB) hypoplasia (33.33%), fibromuscular dysplasia of SAN (20%) and/or AVN (26.67%) arteries, hemorrhage and infarct-like lesions of CCS (13.33%), islands of conduction tissue in CFB (13.33%), Mahaim fibers (13.33%), LBB block by fibrosis (13.33%), AVN tongue (13.33%), HB duplicity (6.67%%), CFB cartilaginous meta-hyperplasia (6.67%), and right sided HB (6.67%). Arrhythmias are the hallmark of ACM, not only from the fatty-fibrous disruption of the ventricular myocardium that accounts for reentrant ventricular tachycardia, but also from the fatty-fibrous involvement of CCS itself. The careful examination of the cardiac conduction system on serial sections was crucial in documenting the fatty-fibrous infiltration of CCS in ACM.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0153.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Cardiac mechanics; Biaxial testing; Rat heart; Left ventricle mechanics; Mid-wall mechanics; Right ventricle mechanics
Online: 6 August 2021 (08:24:19 CEST)
This article presents raw data of biaxial tensile measurements of rat heart passive myocardium conducted in lab scale environment. The passive myocardium of the rat was divided into three regions, namely: left ventricle, mid-wall and right ventricle. The biaxial dataset of passive rat myocardia is presented as stress vs strain of the passive rat myocardium in various regions. The determination of valid material properties of the heart plays an important role in the development computational models. These computational models are useful in studying various scenarios and mechanisms of heart diseases. In addition, valid and accurate materials are critical in the development of new therapies. The dataset presented here is useful in the area of soft tissue mechanics including studying the mechanisms of heart diseases such as myocardial infarction. Accordingly, the evaluation of stress and strain in left ventricle, mid-wall and right ventricle was performed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0109.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: freedom of religion; children and religion; church and state; law and religion; right of the child
Online: 7 November 2022 (06:33:40 CET)
Political and legal debate about freedom of religion and belief (FoRB) in Australia has intensified since the Same-sex marriage postal survey in 2017. Central to this debate has been children, their parents and institutions (Schools). This paper outlines the place of children in the Australian FoRB since 2017, focusing on the Same-sex marriage postal survey debate and subsequent reviews into freedom of religion. In particular it highlights the links drawn between same-sex marriage or marriage equality and the Safe School Coalition Australia campaign, the emphasis on parental rights in relation to education about marriage in schools and the ongoing debate about potential reform to Australia’s suit of anti-discrimination laws
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0026.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: wearable devices; ethics; children; privacy; large data; right to an open future; living in the spot-light
Online: 25 June 2021 (11:00:42 CEST)
Wearable and mobile technology has advanced in leaps and bounds in the last decade with technological advances creating a role from enhancing healthy living to monitoring and treating disease. However, the discussion about the ethical use of such commercial technology in the community, especially in minors, is lacking behind. In this paper, we first summarize the major ethical concerns that arise from the usage of commercially available wearable technology in children, with a focus on smart watches, highlighting issues around the consent process, mitigation of risk and potential confidentiality and privacy issues, as well as the potential for therapeutic misconceptions when used without medical advice. Then through a relevant thought experiment we move on to outline some further ethical concerns that are connected to the use of wearables by minors, to wit the issue of informed consent in the case of minors, forcing them to live in the spotlight, and compromising their right to an open future. We conclude with the view that mitigating potential pitfalls and enhancing the benefits of wearable technology especially for minors requires brave and comprehensive moral debates.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: equipment vendor selection; fuzzy TOPSIS; fuzzy weighted average left and right score; multi-choice goal programming; multi-aspiration goal programming
Online: 30 May 2019 (08:42:27 CEST)
The airport ground handling service (AGHS) equipment vendor selection (AGHSEVS) problem is critical for ramp work safety management, because AGHS equipment malfunctions affect airport ramp work safety. Appropriate vendor selection can prevent aircraft damage and delays in airlines schedules, and ensure reliable and high-quality ground handling service. The AGHSEVS problem is a time-consuming and complex process that requires professional knowledge and experience to make judgments. Specifically, AGHSEVS is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. Previous research has seldom integrated MCDM methods with linear and goal programming to solve the AGHSEVS problem. The objective of this study was to develop a new system evaluation model for AGHSEVS by considering both qualitative and quantitative methods. We test the proposed approach on an AGHS company in Taiwan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0026.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle & Field Physics Keywords: Tc symmetry; CTP symmetry; Photon space; Elementary particles; Quantum wave functions; Modified Lorenz transformations; Left-handed neutrinos; Right-handed dark matters
Online: 1 March 2022 (15:01:52 CET)
The time symmetry of Tc = CT is redefined based on the 4-D Euclidean space. The time inversion symmetry of Tc = CT changes the signs of the charge (q) and absolute time (ct) of the particle. The P symmetry changes the signs of the space momenta and handedness of the particle. The Tc symmetry changes the signs of the time momentum (Pt=E/c) and charges. The handedness are classified as the left-handedness and right-handedness on the 3-D space. The charges (|q| = cDt) and energies (E= cDtDV) of the particles are originated from the upward warping (q>0) and downward warping (q<0) of the particles along the time axis. The evolution of our matter universe with Pt > 0 since the big bang can be interpreted based on the CTP symmetry with the partner antimatter universe with pt < 0. The photon space is called as the vacuum space. Then the E and M waves are the space fluctuations, and the gravitational G wave is the time fluctuations. And the E, M and G fields are newly explained. The zero E and M fields of the photon space indicates that the photon space and gamma ray are the 2EM waves. The rest mass energy of the particle is the 4-D space volume of the warped photon space. In the present work, the quantum wave function is considered as the 4-D vector with the space wave function and time axis wave function in the 4-D Euclidean space. The warped photon space corresponds to the squared wave function which is the probability density. It is concluded that, in the quantum mechanics, the imaginary number concept is introduced in the quantum wave functions instead of the time axis component of the 4-D wave function vector. The left-handed neutrino puzzle is explained from the handedness partner relation with the right-handed dark matters. Finally, the modified Lorentz transformations derived in the 4-D Euclidean space are compared with the Lorentz transformations of the special and general relativity theories in the 4-D Minkowski space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0157.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: reptile, ventricular septation, endocardial cushions, semilunar valves, outflow tract, cartilage, foramen of Panizza, left aorta, right aorta, pulmonary trunk, pharyngeal arch arteries, coronary arter
Online: 6 August 2021 (11:08:56 CEST)
The outflow tract of crocodilians resembles that of birds and mammals as ventricular septation is complete. The arterial anatomy however, presents with a pulmonary trunk originating from the right ventricular cavum, and two aortae originating from either the right or left ventricular cavum. Mixing of blood in crocodilians cannot occur at ventricular level as in other reptiles, but instead takes place at aortic root level by a shunt, the Foramen of Panizza, the opening of which is guarded by two facing semilunar leaflets of both bicuspid aortic valves. Methods. Developmental stages of Alligator mississipiensis, Crocodilus niloticus and Caiman latirostris, have been studied. Results and Conclusions. The outflow tract septation complex can be divided into 2 components. The aorto-pulmonary septum divides the pulmonary trunk from both aortae, whereas the interaortic septum divides the systemic from the visceral aorta. Neural crest cells are most likely involved in the formation of both components. Remodeling of the endocardial cushions and both septa results in the formation of bicuspid valves in all three arterial trunks. The foramen of Panizza originates intracardially as a channel in the septal endocardial cushion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0385.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM); hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM); restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM); arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC); left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC); Duchenne muscular dystrophy; dystrophin; genome editing; CRISPR/Cas9; Cpf1 (Cas12a)
Online: 29 December 2019 (13:41:48 CET)
Cardiomyopathies are diseases of heart muscle, a significant percentage of which are genetic in origin. Cardiomyopathies can be classified as dilated, hypertrophic, restrictive, arrhythmogenic right ventricular or left ventricular non-compaction, although mixed morphologies are possible. A subset of neuromuscular disorders, notably Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies, are also characterized by cardiomyopathy aside from skeletal myopathy. The global burden of cardiomyopathies is certainly high, necessitating further research and novel therapies. Genome editing tools, which include zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) systems have emerged as increasingly important technologies in studying this group of cardiovascular disorders. In this review, we discuss the applications of genome editing in the understanding and treatment of cardiomyopathy. We also describe recent advances in genome editing that may help improve these applications, and some future prospects for genome editing in cardiomyopathy treatment.