Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Ventricular Septation and Outflow Tract Development in Crocodilians Result in Two Aortas With Bicuspid Semilunar Valves

Version 1 : Received: 29 July 2021 / Approved: 6 August 2021 / Online: 6 August 2021 (11:08:56 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Poelmann, R.E.; Gittenberger-de Groot, A.C.; Goerdajal, C.; Grewal, N.; De Bakker, M.A.G.; Richardson, M.K. Ventricular Septation and Outflow Tract Development in Crocodilians Result in Two Aortas with Bicuspid Semilunar Valves. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2021, 8, 132. Poelmann, R.E.; Gittenberger-de Groot, A.C.; Goerdajal, C.; Grewal, N.; De Bakker, M.A.G.; Richardson, M.K. Ventricular Septation and Outflow Tract Development in Crocodilians Result in Two Aortas with Bicuspid Semilunar Valves. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2021, 8, 132.

Journal reference: J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2021, 8, 132
DOI: 10.3390/jcdd8100132

Abstract

The outflow tract of crocodilians resembles that of birds and mammals as ventricular septation is complete. The arterial anatomy however, presents with a pulmonary trunk originating from the right ventricular cavum, and two aortae originating from either the right or left ventricular cavum. Mixing of blood in crocodilians cannot occur at ventricular level as in other reptiles, but instead takes place at aortic root level by a shunt, the Foramen of Panizza, the opening of which is guarded by two facing semilunar leaflets of both bicuspid aortic valves. Methods. Developmental stages of Alligator mississipiensis, Crocodilus niloticus and Caiman latirostris, have been studied. Results and Conclusions. The outflow tract septation complex can be divided into 2 components. The aorto-pulmonary septum divides the pulmonary trunk from both aortae, whereas the interaortic septum divides the systemic from the visceral aorta. Neural crest cells are most likely involved in the formation of both components. Remodeling of the endocardial cushions and both septa results in the formation of bicuspid valves in all three arterial trunks. The foramen of Panizza originates intracardially as a channel in the septal endocardial cushion.

Keywords

reptile, ventricular septation, endocardial cushions, semilunar valves, outflow tract, cartilage, foramen of Panizza, left aorta, right aorta, pulmonary trunk, pharyngeal arch arteries, coronary arter

Subject

LIFE SCIENCES, Cell & Developmental Biology

Comments (0)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0


×
Alerts
Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.

We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.