ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0290.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: calcium lactate pentahydrate; monocalcium phosphate monohydrate; mechanical activation; powder; brushite; monetite; calcium pyrophosphate; ceramics; biocompatibility
Online: 23 February 2022 (12:07:43 CET)
Ceramic samples based on b-calcium pyrophosphate b-Ca2P2O7 were prepared using firing at 900, 1000, and 1100 oC from powders of g-calcium pyrophosphate g-Ca2P2O7 with preset molar ratios Ca/P=1; 0,975 and 0,95. To prepare powders of g-calcium pyrophosphate g-Ca2P2O7 with preset molar ratio Ca/P=1; 0,975 and 0,95 powder mixtures based on calcium lactate pentahydrate Ca(C3H5O3)2⋅5H2O and, monocalcium phosphate monohydrate Ca(H2PO4)2⋅H2O were treated in an aqua medium in mechanical activation conditions, dried, disaggregated in acetone, and heat-treated at 600 oC. The phase composition of powder mixtures after treatment if planetary mill in aqua medium included both brushite CaHPO4⋅2H2O or monetite CaHPO4, and starting salts. The phase composition of all powder mixtures after disaggregation in acetone in planetary mill included monetite CaHPO4 and starting salts. After heat treatment at 600 oC according to the XRD data phase composition of all powder mixtures was presented by g-calcium pyrophosphate g-Ca2P2O7. The grain size of ceramics increased both with the growth of firing temperature and with decreasing of molar ratio Ca/P of powder mixtures. Calcium polyphosphate (t melt =960–968 oC) formed from monocalcium phosphate monohydrate Ca(H2PO4)2⋅H2O acted like a liquid phase sintering additive. It was confirmed by tests in vitro, that prepared ceramic materials with preset molar ratio Ca/P=1; 0,975 and 0,95 and phase composition presented by b-calcium pyrophosphate b-Ca2P2O7 according to XRD data were biocompatible and could maintain bone cells proliferation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0039.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydroxyapatite; oxalic acid; powder, whewellite, weddellite, calcium oxalate monohydrate, brushite, calcium hydrophosphate dihydrate, heterophase reaction, ceramics, microporosity
Online: 2 February 2022 (15:45:43 CET)
Powder mixture with given molar ratio Ca/P = 1.67 consisting of brushite (calcium hydrophosphate dihydrate) CaHPO4·2H2O, calcium oxalate monohydrate CaC2O4·H2O in form of whewellite and weddellite and some quantity of quasi-amorphous phase was obtained as a result of the interaction of hydroxyapatite powder Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 with an aqueous solution of oxalic acid H2C2O4 at a molar ratio of Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2/H2C2O4 = 1:4 under mechanical activation conditions. This powder mixture was used to produce microporous monophase ceramics based on hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 with aperient density of 1.25 g/cm3 after firing at 1200 oC. Microporosity of sintered ceramics was formed due to presence of particles with plate-like morphology, restraining shrinkage during sintering. Microporous ceramics based on hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 with roughness of the surface as a consequence of the created microporosity can be recommended as a biocompatible material for the bone defects treatment and as a substrate for bone cell cultivation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Laser Powder Bed Fusion; L-PBF; powder recoating; powder layer; powder bed; properties powder quality, productivity
Online: 1 February 2021 (10:20:52 CET)
While L-PBF offers advantages in terms of geometrical freedom or lightweight construction, its use is often limited by economic constraints or currently achievable part costs. With an anticipated increase of L-PBF machine productivity during the next years, an increase of the share of material costs and the share of non-productive time for powder layer application process is to be expected. This results in a demand for less expensive powder materials and advanced processing strategies for the short-and medium-term advancement of L-PBF. As one possible approach, the processing of gas- and water atomized stainless steel (316L) powders with different morphology and particle size distribution as well as their impact on L-PBF productivity is investigated. The actual powder applicability in L-PBF systems and the L-PBF processability determines the minimum necessary powder quality. The main focus of the presented work is put on the interaction between powder quality, powder layer properties, part quality and cost-effectiveness of the L-PBF process. To this end, the influence of the gas and water-atomized powder properties (particle size and morphology) during the powder layer application process at highest possible powder recoater speeds and the resulting powder bed properties (powder layer density, powder bed density, powder demixing) and part properties (part density and tensile strength) is investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0049.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Flowability; Powder rheometer; Powder characterization
Online: 1 February 2021 (15:08:09 CET)
The flowability of a powder is a characteristic dependent on both the particle ensemble's physical properties as well as the testing equipment and conditions. In powder bed additive manufacturing processes (SLM, EBM), flowability can be used to predict the quality of the deposited powder layer. However, how representative flowability is for the powder bed layer quality is not always clear.In this work, we compared several steel powders, as well as different testing methods. Each powder had an individual combination of composition or particle size distribution. Furthermore, the flowability testing equipment and methods were selected according to standards (Tap density, Hall flow) or referring to the published literature (angle of repose, FT4 Powder Rheometer). After measuring the flowability of different samples for each testing method, we created a database to evaluate a first correlation between the different testing methods. Finally, with a Powder Rheometer, we investigated for one sample some flow properties as function of different particle size distributions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0099.v1
Online: 4 February 2021 (09:15:34 CET)
Use of porous titanium (Ti) and Ti alloys in orthopedic implants or in light structures requires processing routes that could generate an as-much-as possible control in the pores amount, shape, size and connectivity. In this work, a colloidal approach to the processing of Ti porous structures by the inside foaming of a porogen into a gelled high solid content aqueous suspension of Ti powders, is presented. The prepared slurries contained different amounts of Methyl Cellulose (MC) as gelling agent (8, 10 and 12 g/L) and ammonium bicarbonate (BA) as porogen (15, 20, 25 wt. %). The gel-casted samples were heated at mild temperatures ranging (60, 70 and 80 °C) to promote the gelation and produce, at the same time, the porosity by the thermal decomposition of the ammonium bicarbonate. Different structures are obtained depending on the combination of the study variables
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0025.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: CoCr alloy; microstructure; powder modified; Al2O3
Online: 2 September 2019 (17:28:40 CEST)
In typical Cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloys powders, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) powder can be added. In the present study, we successfully prepared alloyed samples of various powder ratios by laser cladding, and analyzed their microstructure and carbide structural characteristics, including microhardness, biological properties, morphology (using scanning electron microscopy), and crystal structure (using X-ray powder diffraction). Elemental distribution was also determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectral analysis. The results showed that Al2O3 addition caused the alloy to change from slender columnar crystals to columnar grains similar, to equiaxed grains. In addition, Al2O3 agglomeration zones appeared, and carbide structures were altered. The mechanism of the observed performance changes was also analyzed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0024.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: insulin; phenolic derivatives; crystallography; powder diffraction
Online: 12 July 2017 (04:11:12 CEST)
Human Insulin (HI) is a well-characterized natural hormone which regulates glycose levels into the blood-stream and is widely used for diabetes treatment. Numerous studies have manifested that despite significant efforts devoted to structural characterization of this molecule and its complexes with organic compounds (ligands), there is still a rich diagram of phase transitions and novel crystalline forms to be discovered. Towards the improvement of drug delivery, identification of new insulin polymorphs from polycrystalline samples, simulating the commercially available drugs, is feasible today via macromolecular X- ray powder diffraction (XRPD). This approach has been developed and is considered as a respectable method, which can be employed in biosciences for various purposes such as observing phase transitions and characterizing bulk pharmaceuticals. An overview of structural studies on human insulin complexes performed over the past decade employing both synchrotron and laboratory sources for XRPD measurements, is reported herein. This review aims to assemble all recent advances in diabetes treatment field in terms of drug formulation, verifying in parallel the efficiency and applicability of protein XRPD for quick and accurate preliminary structural characterization in large scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0521.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: ZnO crystallite; random laser; excitons; stimulated emission; polydisperse powder; thin film; hexagonal microdisks; monodisperse nano-powder; nanophotonics
Online: 30 August 2022 (10:45:02 CEST)
A comparative analysis of the features of UV- stimulated emission (SE) of various types of disorder active materials based on ZnO crystallites for a random laser (RL) was carried out. The superlinear increase in the intensity of the UV photoluminescence (PL) band of polydisperse nano- microcrystalline (PNMC) ZnO powder at a wavelength of λ = 387 nm and some narrowing of its half-width in the range of 20-15 nm with increasing pump intensity indicate random lasing with incoherent feedback (FB). Properties of similar UV PL bands under the same conditions from a thin film containing hexagonal ZnO microdisks, as well as samples of monodisperse ZnO nanopowder indicate stimulated emission with coherent feedback. It is shown that, among the studied materials, the PNMC ZnO powder with crystallites contained nano-grains with is the most suitable for creating a laser with incoherent feedback at room temperature. The dominant factor of UV SE in PNMC ZnO powder is radiation transitions under exciton - exciton scattering conditions. The possible mechanisms of this random emission with the continuous spectrum are discussed. The average optical gain coefficient αg at λ = 387 nm in this RL system is estimated, as αg ~ 150 cm-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0175.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: coldspray; 316 stainless steel powder; EBSD; atomization
Online: 10 January 2023 (06:15:00 CET)
Cold gas dynamic spray (CS) is a unique technique to deposit material using high strain rate solid state deformation. A major challenge for this technique is its dependence on the powder properties and lack of standards to assess them between lots and manufacturers. The motivation of this research was to understand the variability in powder atomization techniques for stainless steel powders and their subsequent properties for their corresponding impact on CS. A drastic difference (~30%) was observed in deposition efficiencies (DE) of unaltered, spherical, and similar sized stainless steel (316) powders produced using centrifugal (C.A) and traditional gas atomization (G.A) techniques. The study highlights more on differences on precursor level. Using recent advancements in large scale statistical measurements like laser diffraction shape analysis, µCT scanning, traditional methods like EBSD, nano-indentation, an attempt is made to understand the powder property. Insights on powder size and shape are documented. Significant differences were observed between C.A and G.A powders in terms of grain size, fraction of higher angle grain boundaries (HAGB) and nano hardness. The outcomes of this study would be helpful to understand the commercialization of the cold-spray process for bulk manufacturing of powder precursors
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0039.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: powder technology; mechanochemical synthesis; absorber materials; chalcostibite
Online: 5 May 2022 (12:36:38 CEST)
One of the areas of research on materials for thin-film solar cells focuses on replacing In and Ga with more earth-abundant elements. In that respect, chalcostibite (CuSbS2) is being considered as a promising environmentally friendly and cost-effective photovoltaic absorber material. In the present work, single CuSbS2 phase have been synthesized directly by a short duration (2 h) mechanochemical synthesis step starting from mixtures of elemental powders. X-ray diffraction analysis of the synthesized CuSbS2 powders revealed a good agreement with the orthorhombic chalcostibite phase, space group Pnma, and a crystallite size of 26 nm. Particle size characterization revealed a multimodal distribution with a median diameter ranging from of 2.93 m to 3.10 m. The thermal stability of the synthesized CuSbS2 powders was evaluated by differential thermal analysis. No phase change was observed by heat treating the mechanochemically synthesized powders at 350 C for 24 h. By UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy the optical bandgap was determined to be 1.41 eV, suggesting that the mechanochemically synthesized CuSbS2 can be considered suitable to be used as absorber materials. Overall, the results show that the mechanochemical process is a viable route for the synthesis of materials for photovoltaic applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0477.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; surface roughness; powder bed fusion
Online: 24 August 2021 (21:43:29 CEST)
The initial stability after implantology is paramount to the survival of the dental implant and the surface roughness of the implant plays a vital role in this regard. The characterisation of surface topography is a complicated branch of metrology, with a huge range of parameters available. Each parameter contributes significantly towards the survival and mechanical properties of 3D-printed specimens. The purpose of this paper is to experimentally investigate the effect of surface roughness of 3D-printed dental implants and 3D-printed dogbone tensile samples under areal height (Ra) parameters, amplitude parameters (average of ordinates), skewness (Rsk) parameters and mechanical properties. During the experiment, roughness values were analysed and the results showed that the skewness parameter demonstrated a minimum value of 0.596%. The 3D-printed dental implant recorded Ra with a 3.4 mm diameter at 43.23% and the 3D-printed dental implant with a 4.3 mm diameter at 26.18%. Samples with a complex geometry exhibited a higher roughness surface, which was the greatest difficulty of additive manufacturing when evaluating surface finish. The results show that when the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) decreases from 968.35 MPa to 955.25 MPa, Ra increases by 1.4% and when UTS increases to 961.18 MPa, Ra increases by 0.6%. When the cycle decreases from 262142 to 137433, Ra shows that less than a 90.74% increase in cycle is obtained. For 3D-printed dental implants, the higher the surface roughness, the lower the mechanical properties, ultimately leading to decreased implant life and poor performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0252.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: laser cladding; powder flow; 316L stainless steel
Online: 15 June 2018 (11:50:29 CEST)
Laser Cladding is one of the leading processes within Additive Manufacturing technologies, a fact which has concentrated an important amount of effort on its development. In regard to the latter, the current study aims to summarize the influence of the most relevant process parameters in the laser cladding processing of single and compound volumes (solid forms) made from AISI 316L stainless steel powders and using a coaxial nozzle for deposition. Process speed, applied laser power and powder flow are considered to be the main variables affecting laser cladding in single clads, meanwhile overlap percentage and overlapping strategy become also relevant when dealing with multiple clads. By means of setting appropriate values of each process parameter, the main goal of this paper is to develop a processing window in which a good metallurgical bond between the delivered powder and substrate is obtained, trying simultaneously to maintain processing times in their lowest value possible. Conventional metallography techniques were performed on the cross sections of the laser tracks to measure the effective dimensions of clads for dilution analysis, height and width for the values of overlap between contiguous clads and layers, and also to analyze them for physical defects such as porosity and cracks. The resulting solid piece was 8 mm high at 800 mm/min.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0314.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: powder bed fusion; additive manufacturing; ss316l; interface strength
Online: 12 April 2021 (14:12:58 CEST)
Metal powder bed fusion (PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) builds metal parts layer by layer upon a substrate material. The strength of this interface between substrate and printed material is important to characterize, especially in applications where the substrate is retained and included in the finished part. This paper studied the tensile and torsional strengths of wrought and additively manufactured (through PBF) SS316L and compared them to specimens composed of half wrought material and half PBF material. The PBF specimens consistently exhibited higher strength and lower ductility than the wrought specimens. The hybrid PBF/wrought specimens performed similarly to the wrought material. In no specimens did any failure appear to occur at or near the interface between wrought substrate and PBF material. In addition, most of the deformation in the PBF/wrought specimens appeared to be limited to the wrought portion of the specimens. These results are consistent with microscopy showing smaller grain size in the PBF material, which often leads to increased strength in SS316L due to the Hall-Petch relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0100.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: Periwinkle Shell Powder, Geotechnical Property, Expansive soil, Stabilization.
Online: 5 November 2018 (10:19:58 CET)
This study used eco-friendly materials known as Periwinkle Shell Powder (PSP) in stabilizing the engineering properties of lateritic soil. Preliminary test was performed on the un-stabilized lateritic soil for the purposes of identification and classification (natural moisture content, liquid limits, plastic limits, and plasticity index). The engineering tests were conducted on the lateritic soil stabilized with additions of (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 %) PSP and OPC respectively. The result showed that cement gave a progressive increase in the Maximum Dry Density (MDD) of the lateritic soil from 1875 kg/m3 (2 %) to 2294 kg/m3 (10 %) respectively. This represents 22 % increase in the MDD from the un-stabilized state. For PSP, the Maximum MDD was attained at 6 % (1974 kg/m3), representing 5.3 % increase in MDD of the soil from the un-stabilized state. For both stabilizing agent, the Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) increases from 13.65 % to 13.83 % and from 11.72 % to 14.41 % for Cement and Periwinkle Shell Powder respectively. PSP recorded an increase of 5.6 % of CBR value compared with OPC that recorded an increase of 34 % CBR value. The study therefore concluded that Periwinkle Shell Powder (PSP) could be considered as good stabilizer for clayey or lateritic, and its uses as a stabilizer could also provide a big relief to the environmental pollution caused by its indiscriminate dumping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0179.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Zirconium oxide; powder nanotechnologies; nanoionic capacitors; nanoelectronics; dimensional effects
Online: 12 January 2022 (17:46:13 CET)
The dimensional effect of the accumulation of an electric charge with a density of up to 270 μF/g by the system of compacted zirconium dioxide nanoparticles during exposure in an electric field (5000 V/m) under normal physical conditions is determined. Based on a qualitative complex analysis of the forms of appearance of the effect, it is shown that the place of localization of different charge carriers is the surface of nanoparticles. The supposed mechanism of this effect is considered using the theory of dispersed systems, the band theory, and the theory of contact phenomena in semiconductors. It was concluded that this mechanism is due to the phenomenon of localization of electron-type charge nanoparticles in the near-surface zone of the material in contact with the adsorption ion atmosphere. This effect is relevant for modern nanoelectronics, microsystem technology, and printed electronics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0635.v1
Online: 29 January 2021 (17:21:56 CET)
This paper presents an advanced microstructural analysis of the AlSiMg, Ti64 and N700 powders used for additive manufacturing. The internal microstructure of the regular and irregular powder grains were characterized down to atomic resolution by using scanning electron microscopy and high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy.The accretionary forms on top of the irregular AlSiMg powder grains exhibit a slightly coarse microstructure with a network of eutectic Si consisting of nano-crystallites, suggestinga slower cooling than the grain itself that contain a predominately amorphous Si network. A nm thin amorphous C layer on the surface of some Ti64 plasma atomized powder grains promoted the attachment of satellites and growth of envelopes. In case of gas atomized N700 powder grains, we identified thin oxide and carbon amorphous layers as well as metal segregations at the interface between the grain body and the accretionary forms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0638.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Al/nanoSiC; Mechanical Alloying Powder Metallurgy; Mechanical Properties; Microstructure
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:48:40 CEST)
Nano Silicon carbide reinforced aluminum (Al/nanoSiC) metal matrix composites are attractive because of their superior properties such as high strength and stiffness, Application of aluminum in technological and structural application is growing steadily. The major limitation for metal matrix nano composites, however, is their propensity to brittle fracture. The new technologies and new materials are two basic aims for companies. In this research, the effect of addition Al/SiC nano particles on microstructure and mechanical properties of pure aluminum has been investigated. Pure aluminum powder and various fractions of SiC particles with an average diameter of 50 nm were milled by a high-energy planetary ball mill to produce nanocrystalline Al–SiC nanocomposite powders. Pressing and sintering applied to consolidate powders to tablet shape. Then the samples were rolled to cylindrical shape. The nano SiC Percentage were 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% , 12,5% and 15%. Mechanical tests such as tensile, hardness, fracture toughness and young’s modules measurement carried out to study the mechanical behavior of each alloy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphology and microstructure of nanocomposite powders and bulk samples. The role of wt% fraction of SiC nanoparticles was investigated. The results shows that the addition of SiC nano particles has significant influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties of composites and usually the optimum properties depends on wt% SiC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0364.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: electro sinter forging; powder metallurgy; capacitor discharge sintering; 100Cr6
Online: 16 September 2020 (12:13:25 CEST)
In this study one of the most innovative sintering techniques up to date was evaluated: Electro-Sinter-Forging (ESF). Despite it has been proved to be effective in densifying several different metallic materials and composites, bearing steels such as 100Cr6 have never been processed so far. Pre-alloyed Astaloy CrM powders have been ad-mixed with either graphite or graphene and then processed by ESF to produce a 100Cr6 equivalent composition. Porosity has been evaluated by optical microscopy and compared to that one of 100Cr6 commercial samples. Mechanical properties such as hardness and transverse rupture strength were tested on samples produced by employing different process parameters and then submitted to different treatments (machining, heat treatment). The experimental characterization highlighted that porosity is the factor mostly affecting mechanical resistance of the samples, correlating linearly to the transverse rupture strength. Hardness on the other side does not correlate to the mechanical resistance because process related cracking has a higher effect on the final properties. Promising results were obtained that give room to the sinterability by ESF of materials difficult to sinter by conventional press and sinter techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0250.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: carbon fiber; cement; sustainability; marble powder; bottom ash; paste
Online: 15 March 2020 (15:56:26 CET)
The damage caused by global warming is rapidly increasing, and its adverse effects become more evident with each passing day. Although it is known that the use of alternative binder materials in concrete would decrease this negative effect, reluctance to new composites continues. Waste use plays a vital role in sustainability studies. In this study, pure cement paste was prepared and enriched with carbon fiber. This study investigated the wide range of volume fraction of carbon fiber in cement-based composites. Two different industrial wastes, marble dust, and bottom ash were chosen and mixed with cement and four different (0.3%, 0.75%, 1.5%, and 2.5%) carbon fiber volume fractions. Based on physical, mechanical, and durability tests at 7, 28, and 56-days of curing, the composites were resistant to sulfate and seawater attack. The 0.75% carbon fiber addition seems to be an optimum volume percentage beyond which both physical and mechanical properties were adversely affected. The composites with 0.75% carbon fiber have reached 48.4 MPa and 47.2 MPa at 56-days of curing for marble dust and bottom ash mixture groups, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0064.v1
Subject: Keywords: Binder Jetting; Additive Manufacturing; Simulation; Powder bed; Density; Shrinkage
Online: 6 November 2019 (11:40:48 CET)
Binder jet printed components typically have low overall density in the green state and high shrinkage and deformation after heat treatment. It has previously been demonstrated that, by including nanoparticles of the same material in the binder, these properties can be improved as the nanoparticles can fill the interstices and pore throats between the bed particles. The beneficial effects from using these additive binder particles can be improved by maximising the binder particle size, enabling the space within the powder bed to be filled with a higher packing efficiency. The selection of maximum particle size for a binder requires detailed knowledge of the pores and pore throats between the powder bed particles. In this paper, a raindrop model is developed to determine the critical radius at which binder particles can pass between pores and penetrate the bed. The model is validated against helium pycnometry measurements and binder particle drop tests. It is found that the critical radius can be predicted, with acceptable accuracy, using a linear function of the mean and standard deviation of the particle radii. Percolation theory concepts have been employed in order to generalise the results for powder beds that have different mean particle sizes and size distributions. The results of this work can be employed to inform the selection of particle sizes required for binder formulations, to optimise density and reduce shrinkage in printed binder jet components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0005.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: flavored yogurt; potato powder; physiochemical properties; microstructure; rheological properties
Online: 1 August 2019 (04:19:53 CEST)
The current study emphasizes on optimizing a suitable ratio of enzymatically hydrolyzed potato powder (EHPP) and whole milk powder (WMP) to produce a quality yogurt by evaluating the physicochemical and rheological properties. The results showed that the addition of EHPP decreased the pH towards acidic conditions which resulted in the high acidity of yoghurt. The proximate composition showed that EHPP increased the ash, protein, water holding capacity (WHC) while fat, synersis, color parameters and total solid were decreased when compared to control yoghurt (CY) sample. Moreover, texture profile (TPA) analysis showed that the addition of EHPP decreased the hardness and cohesiveness while springiness did not show significant difference. Furthermore, rheological properties revealed that EHPP decreased the storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G”) when compared with control. In addition to this, sensory analysis revealed that the treatment P4M (1:3) was found as optimum ratio regarding taste, flavor, and aroma. Besides this, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirms that the high amount of EHPP resulted in the void holes while CY showed dense gel structure. The prepared yogurt with EHPP provides an excellent flavor, satisfying sweetness and homogeneous texture. These findings suggest the optimum formulation ratio of prepared yogurt was found to be P4M (1:3) for desirable attributes and consumer acceptance. The prepared yogurt from the EHPP presents the potential industrial applications.
Online: 19 April 2019 (11:18:13 CEST)
This paper describes a multi-channel in-situ monitoring system developed to better understand defect formation signatures in metal additive manufacturing. Three high-speed imaging modes coupled with an image computer capable of processing and storing these data streams allowed an examination of defect formations signatures and mechanisms. It was found that defects later detected in X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans were related to regions with anomalous heat signatures and powder bed morphology. Automated defect detection algorithms based on these defect signatures captured 80% of defects greater than 300 µm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0400.v1
Online: 25 June 2018 (16:48:10 CEST)
The application of solvent method in the preparation of polypropylene powders was investigated, including the influence of various technological conditions, such as the raw material melt index of polypropylene, processing temperature, dosage of the solvent and the packing pressure. The experimental data show that using solvent method can effectively produce polypropylene powder, and the optimal technological conditions are: melt index of polypropylene being about 17.8 g/10min, processing temperature being about 166.0 ℃, dosage of the solvent being about 0.067g/ml and the packing pressure being about 0.7MPa.Under this technological conditions, polypropylene powder with excellent sphericity could be prepared, the apparent density of powder can reach 0.40 g/cm3 and the prepared powder displayed a narrow size distribution with the mean size of about 42.7 µm.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0734.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: cannabinoid; CBD; dental care; dental plaque; tooth polish; polishing powder
Online: 31 July 2020 (06:02:24 CEST)
Introduction: Dental health problems including dental plaque are common health problems affecting people of different age groups globally. Air-polishing is a safe tooth polishing technique used by dental professionals for stain and plaque removal and as preventive procedure for dental health. Here we report the technical improvisation of existing air-polishing technique by supplementing cannabinoid powder into the classic polishing powder for effective removal of supragingival and subgingival plaque and inhibition of plaque forming bacteria. Methods: The cannabidiol (CBD) powder was added to the tooth polishing powder (AIR-N-GO, classic) at 1% (wt/wt) ratio. The study was conducted on 12 patients, of which 6 received regular polishing treatment and 6 received CBD-supplemented polishing treatment. The dental plaque samples were collected before and after each treatment and subjected to in vitro microbiological analysis and the colony forming units (CFU) were analyzed using automated colony counter. Results: Based on in vitro microbiological analysis, the average CFU of interdental space samples collected from post-CBD-supplemented polishing treatment was significantly reduced (linear fold change between 3.9-18.4) compared to that of post-regular polishing (linear fold change between 1.0-2.6) treatment. Conclusions: CBD-supplemented polishing powder can help in effective removal and killing of dental plaque bacteria during the polishing treatment. CBD powder can be added as enhancing supplement to the existing polishing powders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: powder handling, flowability, dosing, transport, mixing, dispersion, piezoelectric actuators, vibrations
Online: 26 February 2018 (16:00:40 CET)
Since fine powders tend strongly to adhesion and agglomeration, their processing with conventional methods is difficult or impossible. Typically, in order to enable the handling of fine powders, chemicals are added to increase the flowability and reduce adhesion. This contribution shows that instead of additives also vibrations can be used to increase the flowability, to reduce adhesion and cohesion, and thus to enable or improve processes such as precision dosing, mixing, and transport of very fine powders. The methods for manipulating powder properties are described in detail and prototypes for experimental studies are presented. It is shown that the handling of fine powders can be improved by using low-frequency, high-frequency or a combination of low- and high-frequency vibration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0202.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: pasta; salmon powder; glycaemic index; protein digestibility; polyphenols; antioxidant activity; bioaccessibility
Online: 17 December 2018 (15:59:54 CET)
This research focussed on utilisation of salmon protein and lipid to manipulate pasta glycaemic index and protein digestibility. Salmon fish (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) powder (SFP) supplemented pasta flour at the from 5% to 20% (w/w). Inclusion of SFP lead to a significant reduction in starch digestibility and hence the potential glycaemic values of pasta (experimental pasta being up to 143% lower than control values). SFP addition to pasta increased the release of phenolic compounds from pasta during both a gastric digestion (179%) and pancreatic digestion ( 133%) in comparison to the control sample. At the same time, the antioxidant activity of the digested pasta was increased by up to 263% (gastric) and 190% (pancreatic) in comparison to durum wheat pasta alone. Interestingly, although protein levels increased with incorporation of SFP, the digestibility values of the protein decreased from 86.41% for the control pasta to 81.95% for 20% SFP pasta. This may indicate that there are interactions between phenolic and protein in the pasta samples which affect overall protein digestibility levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0081.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Powder compaction; Discrete element method (DEM); Cohesive contact models; LIGGGHTS; EDEM
Online: 4 October 2018 (15:02:44 CEST)
The purpose of this work was analysing the compaction of a cohesive material using different DEM simulators to determine the equivalent contact models and identify how some parameters of the simulations affect the compaction results (maximum force and compacts appearance) and computational costs. For that purpose, three cohesion contact models were tested (‘linear cohesion’ in EDEM; ‘SJKR’ and ‘SJKR2’ in LIGGGHTS). The influence of the particle size distribution (PSD) on the results was also investigated. Further assessments were performed on the effect of selecting different timesteps, using distinct conversion tolerances for exporting the 3D models to STL files and moving the punch with different speeds. Consequently, it was possible to determine that a timestep equal to a 10% Rayleigh timestep, a conversion tolerance of 0.01 mm and a punch speed of 0.2 m/s are adequate for simulating the compaction process using the contact models in this work. In addition, the results determined that the maximum force was influenced by the PSD because of the rearrangement of the particles. The PSD was also related to the computational cost because of the number of simulated particles and their sizes. Finally, an equivalence was found between the linear cohesion and SJKR2 contact models
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0549.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: solid state recycling; metallic scrap/sludge; powder metallurgy; in-situ reduction
Online: 27 September 2018 (15:07:43 CEST)
The issues of metallic scrap management and its utilization in manufacturing plants are nowadays intensely considered to address essential sustainability guidelines. Efficient recycling procedure for shop floor metallic scrap is not yet available because of abundance and contamination of nonmetallic constituents. Other ferrous metallic scrap are melted and purified during secondary steelmaking to get products in the form of blooms and billets are obtained. This study illustrates the potential of powder technology (powder metallurgy (PM) and metal injection molding (MIM)) based process for solid-state recycling and attainment of usable products. Industrially downgraded grinding sludge is pulverized and used as a raw material. Results showed properties of sintered parts are significantly improved due to in-situ reduction and densification during sintering. Recyclability Index (RI) was created to compare the effect of process variables on obtained products. Based on RI, recycled ferrous parts have about 70% comparable properties with equivalent pure iron parts. Complex reduction and sintering behavior in MIM, particularly, diffusion and pore volume kinetics limits applicability of MIM with this recycling approach. However, few industrial parts were developed and manufactured by PM based approach to validate the applicability of this novel recycling-cum-manufacturing process for the production of porous parts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0470.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Arthrospira platensis; carotenoids; natural pigments; spirulina powder; C-phycocyanin; antioxidant activity
Online: 25 July 2018 (06:19:11 CEST)
Arthrospira platensis is the widely available source of spirulina and contains distinctive natural pigments including carotenoids and C-phycocyanin (C-PC). In this study, the major carotenoid and C-PC contents were determined in seven commercially available spirulina powder products and laboratory-prepared A. platensis trichomes (AP-1) by an LC-DAD method and a UV-Visible spectrometry, respectively. The correlation of these two pigment content levels with Hunter color coordinates and antioxidant activity was also evaluated. The L* value failed to show a significant correlation with pigment content, but a positive correlation was observed between a* values and the contents of total carotenoid and C-PC. As b* values decreased, the total carotenoid and C-PC contents increased. AP-1 exhibited the highest content of total carotenoids, chlorophyll a and C-PC, and antioxidant activities among the samples. This observation could be related to degradation of these pigments during the mass production process. The carotenoid profiles suggested that the commercial spirulina powders originated from two different sources, A. platensis and A. maxima. Total carotenoid and C-PC content exhibited positive significant correlations with antioxidant activities measured by DPPH and ABTS assays. These results provide a strong scientific foundation for the establishment of standards for the commercial distribution of quality spirulina products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0168.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Al-Zn-Cr Alloys; powder metallurgy; strengthening; extrusion; dry sliding wear
Online: 21 March 2017 (04:26:13 CET)
Aluminum base alloys containing chromium (Cr) and zinc (Zn) were produced using extrusion and heat treated powder metallurgy. Cr addition ranged between 5 to 10 wt. % while Zn was added in an amount between 0 to 20 wt. %. Heat treatment processes were performed during powder metallurgy process at different temperatures followed by water quenching. Similar alloys were extruded, with an extrusion ratio of 4.6 to get proper densification. Optical microscopy was used for microstructure investigations of the produced alloys. The element distribution microstructure study was carried out using the Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis method. Hardness and tensile properties of the investigated alloys have been examined. Wear resistance tests were carried out and the results were compared with these of the Al-based bulk alloys. Results showed that the aluminum base alloys containing 10wt. % Chromium and heat treated at 500°C for one hour followed by water quenching exhibited the highest wear resistance and better mechanical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0299.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Metal 3D printing; Additive manufacturing; Powder bed fusion; Thermal simulation; Thermal history
Online: 17 September 2021 (09:28:45 CEST)
The powder bed fusion (PBF) metal additive manufacturing (AM) method uses an energy source like a laser to melt the metal powders. The laser can locally melt the metal powders and creates a solid structure as it moves. The complexity of the heat distribution in laser PBF metal AM is one of the main features that need to be accurately addressed and understood to design and manage an optimized printing process. In this research, the dependency of local thermal rates and gradients on print after solidification (in the heat-affected zone) was numerically simulated and studied to provide information for designing the print process. The simulation results were validated by independent experimental results. The simulation shows that the local thermal rates are higher at higher laser power and scan speed. Also, the local thermal gradients increase if the laser power increases. The effect of scan speed on the thermal gradients is opposite during heating versus cooling times. Increasing the scan speed increases the local thermal gradients in the cooling times and decreases the local thermal gradients during the heating. In addition, these simulation results could be used in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning for developing digital additive manufacturing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0513.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Hot isostatic pressing; β-Type titanium alloy; biomaterial; phase transformation; powder metallurgy
Online: 19 April 2021 (17:16:20 CEST)
The influence of the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) post-processing step on structural and phase changes, porosity healing and mechanical strength in a powder metallurgy Ti35Nb2Sn alloy was studied. Powders were pressed at room temperature at 750 MPa, and then sintered at 1,350°C in a vacuum for 3 h. The standard HIP process at 1,200°C and 150 MPa for 3 h was performed to study its effect on a Ti35Nb2Sn powder metallurgy alloy. The influence of the HIP process and cold rate on density, microstructure, the quantity of interstitial elements, mechanical strength and Young's modulus was investigated. HIP post-processing for 2 h at 1,200°C and 150 MPa led to greater porosity reduction and a marked retention of the β phase at room temperature. The slow cooling rate during the HIP process affected phase stability, with a large amount of α”-phase precipitate, which decreased the titanium alloy’s yield strength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0624.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: AM; selective laser melting; metal powder; high speed steel; microstructure and hardness
Online: 29 January 2021 (13:45:40 CET)
Selective laser melting (SLM) is a commonly used laser powder bed technique where the final properties are influenced by many different powder related properties, such as particle size distribution, chemical composition and flowability. In applications where high hardness, wear resistance, strength and good heat properties are required, high speed steels (HSS) are widely used today. HSS has high carbon content and are therefore considered as unweldable. The rapidly growing implementation of AM technologies has led to a growing range of new applications and demands for new alloys and properties. The interest in being able to manufacture HSS by SLM without cracking is therefore increasing. In SLM, it is possible to preheat the base plate to a few hundred degrees Celsius which has been used for HSS and proved successful due to reduced thermal gradients. In this study, the properties of SLM produced high speed steel PEARL Micro®2012 with a carbon content of 0.61 wt.-% have been investigated and compared to those of a forged and rolled PM-HIP counterpart ASP®2012.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0055.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Laser powder bed fusion; automatic quality assessment; machine learning; automatic relevance determination
Online: 6 April 2020 (12:41:05 CEST)
This study evaluates whether a combination of photodiode sensor measurements, taken during laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) builds, can be used to predict the resulting build quality via a purely data-based approach. We analyse the relationship between build density and features that are extracted from sensor data collected from three diﬀerent photodiodes. The study uses a Singular Value Decomposition to extract lower-dimensional features from photodiode measurements, which are then fed into machine learning algorithms. Several unsupervised learning methods are then employed to classify low density (< 99% part density) and high density (≥ 99% part density) specimens. Subsequently, a supervised learning method (Gaussian Process regression) is used to directly predict build density. Using the unsupervised clustering approaches, applied to features extracted from both photodiode sensor data as well as observations relating to the energy transferred to the material, build density was predicted with up to 93.54% accuracy. With regard to the supervised regression approach, a Gaussian Process algorithm was capable of predicting the build density with a RMS error of 3.65%. The study shows, therefore, that there is potential for machine learning algorithms to predict indicators of L-PBF build quality from photodiode build-measurements. Moreover, the work herein describes approaches that are predominantly probabilistic, thus facilitating uncertainty quantiﬁcation in machine-learnt predictions of L-PBF build quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0335.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Bacillus cereus; mild heating; dielectric barrier discharge plasma; red pepper powder; quality
Online: 25 December 2019 (03:46:00 CET)
The synergistic efficacy of combined treatment mild heat (MH) and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in Bacillus cereus-contaminated red pepper powder was tested. A cocktail of three strains of B. cereus (NCCP 10623, NCCP 14579, ATCC 11778) was inoculated onto red pepper powder and then treated with MH (60 ℃ for 5-20 min) and DBD plasma (5-20 min). Treatment with MH and DBD plasma alone for 5~20 min resulted in reductions of 0.23~1.43 and 0.12~0.96 log CFU/g, respectively. Combined treatment with MH and DBD plasma was the most effective at reducing B. cereus counts on red pepper powder and resulted in log-reductions of ≥ 6.0 log CFU/g. The largest synergistic values (4.24-4.42 log) against B. cereus in red pepper powder were obtained by the combination of 20 min MH and 5~15 min DBD plasma. Hunter color ‘‘L’’, ‘‘a’’, and ‘‘b’’ values of the combination-treated samples were not significantly different from those of non-treated samples. Also, no significant (p > 0.05) differences in pH values between samples were observed. Therefore, these results suggest that the combination of MH treatment and DBD plasma can be potentially utilized in the food industry to effectively inactivate B. cereus without incurring quality deterioration of red pepper powder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0163.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Artificial Neural Network (ANN); classification; image analysis; chokeberry powder; colors; spray-drying
Online: 16 September 2019 (11:04:14 CEST)
The study concentrates on researching possibilities of using computer image analysis and neural modeling in order to assess selected quality discriminants of spray-dried chokeberry powder. The aim of the paper is quality identification of chokeberry powders on account of their highest dying power, the highest bioactivity as well as technologically satisfying looseness of powder. The article presents neural models with vision technique backed up by devices such as digital camera as well as electron microscope. Reduction in size of input variables with PCA has influence on improving the processes of learning data sets, thus increasing effectiveness of identifying chokeberry fruit powders included in digital pictures, which is shown in the results of the conducted research. The effectiveness of image recognition are presented by classifying abilities as well as low Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), for which the best results are achieved with typology of network type Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP). The selected networks type MLP are characterized by the highest degree of classification at 0.99 and RMSE at 0.11 at most at the same time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0013.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: fish scale powder; high-speed grinding; heat treatment; hydroxyapatite; magnesium whitlockite; nanosized grain
Online: 1 July 2022 (10:05:25 CEST)
Mixture of abramis brama (freshwater bream), carassius carassius (crucian carp), and sander lucioperca (pike perch) scales was used for the preparation of fish scale powder containing about 26.5 wt. % of removed when heating components preferably of organic nature, and 63.5 wt. % of mineral components. Fish scale powder enriched with inorganic components was prepared from washed, dried, and ground fish scale mixture using vibration sieving. Inorganic powders consisting of hydroxyapatite and magnesium whitlockite were obtained via heat treatment of this fish scale powder at 800-1000 oC. Particles of these inorganic powders consisted of sintered grains with dimensions less than 100 nm after heat treatment at 800 oC, less than 200 nm after heat treatment at 900 oC, and 100-500 nm after heat treatment at 1000 oC. Fish scale powder enriched with inorganic components as well as heat-treated inorganic powders consisting of hydroxyapatite and magnesium whitlockite can be recommended for the production of different materials such as ceramics or composites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0253.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Magnetic abrasive finishing; microstructure evolution; mechanical property; laser powder bed fusion; Inconel 718
Online: 21 February 2022 (12:08:50 CET)
Surface finishing is challenging for additively manufactured components with complex geometries. Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) is a promising surface finishing technology that can refine the surface quality of components with complex shapes produced by additive manufacturing. However, there is insufficient study regarding the impact of MAF on microstructure-property relationships for additively manufactured builds, which is critical for evaluating the mechanical performance. Furthermore, although MAF is usually used as the final step of post-processing, it remains unclear whether adjusting the sequence between MAF and other processes, e.g., heat treatment, can potentially improve the mechanical performance. In this work, the effects of MAF on the microstructure and mechanical property evolution of Inconel 718 superalloys made by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) were studied. The application of MAF was found to significantly reduce the surface roughness of alloys and refine the grain size of aged samples. Moreover, MAF is able to increase the elongation of materials, which can be further influenced by the sequence of MAF and different heat treatments. The highest elongation can be achieved when MAF is performed between homogenization and aging processes. This work demonstrated a promising solution to improving the performance of LPBF Inconel 718 by combining MAF and heat treatment, which provides new perspectives on the post-processing development of additively manufactured alloys for advanced mechanical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0006.v1
Subject: Keywords: Additive manufacturing; laser powder bed fusion; support structures; lattice structures; easily removable; overhang
Online: 1 February 2021 (10:16:51 CET)
Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) is a type of additive manufacturing technology that processes metal powders into a component. Support structures are an essential part of the L- PBF process as they transfer the laser-induced heat during and shortly after the process to the substrate, sustaining positional accuracy of downward facing surfaces of the component. Since the use of support structures is inevitable, optimized designs for them are crucial in realizing more sustainable production process. In a serial production setup, reducing the lead time and cost of a non-value-added process step like support structure removal is of significance when improving the overall business case and competitiveness.The goal of this study was to verify the applicability of lattice-based support structures for L-PBF. To achieve this, different lattice types as support structures were designed. They were tested, compared and verified for a Siemens gas turbine component. The results showed that the generated lattice-based support structures could be suitable for L-PBF. The supports had to be designed appropriately such that they could preserve the geometry of the part. Furthermore, they had to have a short fabrication time and to be removable easily, preferably without machining or sawing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0292.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: laser powder bed fusion; Inconel 718; high temperature; material characterisation; laser shock peening
Online: 14 October 2020 (09:11:10 CEST)
This paper reviews state of the art Additive Manufactured (AM) IN718 alloy intended for high temperature applications. AM processes have been around for decades and have gained traction in the past five years due to the huge economic benefit it brings to manufacturers. It is crucial for the scientific community to look into AM IN718 applicability in order to see a step-change in the production. Microstructural studies reveal that the grain structure plays a significant role in determining the fatigue lifespan of the material. Controlling IN718 respective phases such as the ϒ’', δ and Laves phase is seen to be crucial. Literature reviews have shown that the mechanical properties of AM IN718 were very close to its wrought counterpart when treated appropriately. Higher homogenization temperature and longer ageing were recommended to dissolve the damaging phases. Various surface enhancement techniques were examined to find out their compatibility to AM IN718 alloy that is intended for high temperature application. Laser shock peening (LSP) technology stands out due to the ability to impart low cold work which helps in containing the beneficial compressive residual stress it brings in high temperature fatigue environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: electrical resistance sintering; MF-ERS; FAST; ECAS; Iron; hot pressing; sintering; powder metallurgy
Online: 10 May 2018 (15:34:08 CEST)
Commercially pure (c.p.) iron powders with a deliberate high degree of oxidation were consolidated by medium-frequency electrical resistance sintering (MF-ERS). This is a consolidation technique where pressure, and heat coming from a low-voltage and high-intensity electrical current, are simultaneously applied to a powder mass. In this work, the achieved densification rate is interpreted according to a qualitative microscopic model, based on the compacts global porosity and electrical resistance evolution. The effect of current intensity and sintering time on compacts was studied on the basis of micrographs revealing the porosity distribution inside the sintered compact. The microstructural characteristics of compacts consolidated by the traditional cold-press and furnace-sinter powder metallurgy route are compared with results of MF-ERS consolidation. The goodness of MF-ERS versus the problems of conventional sintering when working with oxidized powders is analyzed. The electrical consolidation allows to obtain higher densifications than the traditional route under non-reducing atmospheres.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0105.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: DRS dielectric relaxation; DSC differential scanning calorimetry; SMP skim milk powder; boundary curves
Online: 9 April 2018 (10:22:24 CEST)
This paper describes the dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) method for obtaining glass transition temperature and the onset of crystallinity of skim milk powder (SMP). The methodology consists of exposing SMP samples to numerous constant temperatures, T, and water activities, aw, and measuring the relaxation time. Measurements are based on changes in the loss-tangent height at its peak frequency. Glass transition times are identified at peaks in the loss-tangent height versus time curve and the onset of crystallinity times are identified when the loss-tangent height collapses. The analysis leads to two boundary curves: glass transition Tg, aw curve and the onset of crystallinity Tc, aw curve. They separate the SMP stable (long shelf life) and unstable (short shelf life) regions. Two curve fitting algorithms were developed for (a) aw2, tg curve where tg is the time to glass transition and aw2, tc curve where time tc is the time to onset of crystallinity and (b) Tg, aw and Tc, aw boundary curves. Finally, the DRS data are compared to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0155.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: powder metallurgy; dynamic alloying; heat treatment; super-deep penetration; alloys; composite materials; mechanical properties
Online: 11 February 2022 (03:19:55 CET)
The dynamic effects observed in collisions represent a specific area of high-energy interaction located at the boundary of mechanics, hydrodynamics, shock wave physics, and alternating high-pressure regions. The paper shows that in the volume of a solid metal body, as a result of dynamic alloying by a high-speed stream of powder particles in the super-deep penetration mode (SDP), fibre structures of altering material arise, forming the framework of the composite material. The stream of powder particles in the metal obstacle following the path of least resistance and the impact of shock waves on particles results in a volumetric framework from the products of interaction between the injected and matrix materials. When using SDP, defective structural elements (channelled) - germs of reinforcing fibres arise. At the subsequent heat treatment, there is an intensive diffusion. The growth process of reinforcing fibres shifts to higher temperatures (as compared to the standard mode), leading to an increase in the bending strength of the fibre material up to 13 times for high-speed tool W6Mo5Cr4V2 steel. As a result of the completion of the growth of reinforcing fibres in the volume of the W6Mo5Cr4V2 steel, the material's bending strength in 1.2 times is realised. Simultaneously, it provides an increase of wear resistance 1.7-1.8 times.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: 316L austenitic steel; selective laser melting; powder bed fusion; technological parameters; mechanical property characterization
Online: 1 March 2020 (15:36:32 CET)
The main aim of this study is to investigate the optimization of the technological process for selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing. The group of process parameters considered was selected from the first-stage parameters identified in preliminary research. Samples manufactured using three different sets of parameter values were subjected to static tensile and compression tests. The samples were also subjected to dynamic Split–Hopkinson tests. To verify the microstructural changes after the dynamic tests, microstructural analyses were conducted. Additionally, the element deformation during the tensile tests was analyzed using digital image correlation (DIC). To analyze the influence of the selected parameters and verify the layered structure of the manufactured elements, sclerometer scratch hardness tests were carried out on each sample. Basing on the research results it was possible to observe the porosity growth mechanism and its influence on the material strength (including static and dynamic tests). Parameters modifications that caused 20% lower energy density, elongation of the elements during tensile testing decreased twice, which was strictly connected with porosity growth. An increase of energy density by almost three times caused a significant reduction of force fluctuations differences between both tested surfaces (parallel and perpendicular to the building platform) during sclerometer hardness testing. That kind of phenomenon had been taken into account in the microstructure investigations before and after dynamic testing where it had been spotted a positive impact on material deformations based on fused material grains formation after SLM processing.
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: laser powder bed fusion; substructure; model; growth direction; crystallographic orientation; cell; cell-like dendrite
Online: 6 December 2019 (11:33:12 CET)
Cellular substructure has been widely observed in the sample fabricated by laser powder bed fusion, while its growth direction and the crystallographic orientation have seldom been studied. This research tries to build a general model to construct the substructure from its two-dimensional morphology. All the three Bunge Euler angles to specify a unique growth direction are determined, and the crystallographic orientation corresponding to the growth direction is also obtained. Based on the crystallographic orientation, the substructure in the single track of austenitic stainless steel 316L is distinguished between the cell-like dendrite and the cell. It is found that, with the increase of scanning velocity, the substructure transits from cell-like dendrite to cell. When the power is 200 W, the critical growth rate of the transition in the single track can be around 0.31 ms^-1.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0349.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: hybrid machines; hybrid manufacturing; additive manufacturing; subtractive manufacturing; Directed Energy Deposition; Powder Bed Fusion
Online: 15 November 2018 (08:21:29 CET)
Hybrid machine tools combining additive and subtractive processes have arisen as a solution to the increasing manufacture requirements, boosting the potentials of both technologies, while compensating and minimizing their limitations. Nevertheless, the idea of hybrid machines is relatively new and there is a notable lack of knowledge in the field. Therefore, in the present paper, an insight into the advancements of hybrid machines is given, identifying their real capabilities, together with the latest developments from an industrial context. In addition, the current situation and future perspectives of hybrid machines from the point of view of process planning, monitoring and inspection are discussed. Finally, the challenges that must be overcome and the opportunities that the hybrid machines will provide in the forthcoming years are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0028.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Fe-Mn-Si alloy; isothermal holding time; powder sintering; density; weight loss; tensile properties
Online: 9 February 2017 (07:06:14 CET)
This work investigated the isothermal holding time dependence of the densification, microstructure, weight loss and tensile properties of Fe-Mn-Si powder compacts. Elemental Fe, Mn and Si powder mixtures with a nominal composition of Fe-28Mn-3Si (in weight percent) were ball milled for 5h and subsequently pressed under a uniaxial pressure of 400 MPa. The compacted Fe-Mn-Si powder mixtures were sintered at 1200 ℃ for 0, 1, 2 and 3 h, respectively. In general, the density, weight loss and tensile properties increased with the increase of isothermal holding time. A significant increase in density, weight loss and tensile properties occurred in the compacts isothermally holding for 1 h, as compared to those with no isothermal holding. However, further extension of isothermal holding time (2 and 3 h) only played a limited role in promoting the density and tensile properties. The weight loss of the sintered compacts was mianly caused by the sublimation of Mn in Mn depletion region on the surface layer of the sintered Fe-Mn-Si compacts. The length of the Mn depletion region increased as isothermal holding time increased. A single α-Fe phase was detected on the surface of all the sintered compacts, and the locations beyond the Mn depletion region were comprised of a dual dominant γ-austenite and minor ε-martensite.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; directed energy deposition; laser metal deposition; powder stream; melt pool; microstructure; residual stresses
Online: 22 November 2022 (02:47:47 CET)
Laser Powder Directed Energy Deposition (LP-DED) is an Additive Manufacturing process in which a laser beam is used to generate a melt pool onto a substrate. The additional material, in form of powder material, is fed into the generated melt pool and a raised track is obtained. The LP-DED process is very powerful for different applications such as the repair operations and the production of functionally graded material, however the application is still limited and one of the main reasons is related to the lack of knowledge in the physics of the process mechanisms. The process is influenced by a huge number of parameters and three main mechanisms can be identi-fied. These mechanisms are the powder flow, the generation of the molten pool and the solidifica-tion process and for each of these mechanisms the process parameters have a different relevance. In this paper, a review of the main mechanisms and the relationship between the process parame-ters and the outcome of each step of the process is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0688.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Selective Laser Sintering; Metal powder manufacturing; post processing; Eulerian model; Computational Fluid Dynamics; granular flow
Online: 29 June 2021 (07:54:57 CEST)
A critical challenge underpinning the adoption of Additive Manufacture (AM) as a technology is the postprocessing of manufactured components. For Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) this can involve the removal of powder from the interior of the component, often by vibrating the component to fluidise the powder to encourage drainage. In this paper we develop and validate a computational model of the flow of metal powder suitable for predicting powder removal from such AM components. The model is a continuum Eulerian multiphase model of the powder including models for the granular temperature; the effect of vibration can be included through appropriate wall boundaries for this granular temperature. We validate the individual sub-models appropriate for AM metal powders by comparison with in-house and literature experimental results, and then apply the full model to a more complex geometry typical of an AM Heat Exchanger. The model is shown to provide valuable and accurate results at a fraction of the computational cost of a particle-based model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: lattice structures; additive manufacturing; selective laser melting; powder bed fusion; energy absorption; dynamic compression; crashworthiness
Online: 7 May 2020 (08:45:00 CEST)
Nine variants of regular lattice structures with different relative densities have been designed and successfully manufactured. The produced structures have been subjected to geometrical quality control, and the manufacturability of the implemented selective laser melting SLM technique has been assessed. It was found that the dimensions of the produced lattice struts differ from those of the designed struts. These deviations depend on the direction of geometrical evaluation. Additionally, the microstructures and phase compositions of the obtained structures were characterized and compared with those of conventionally produced 316L stainless steel. The microstructure analysis and X-Ray Diffraction XRD patterns revealed a single austenite phase in the SLM samples. Both a certain broadening and a displacement of the austenite peaks were observed due to residual stresses and a crystallographic texture induced by the SLM process. Furthermore, the mechanical behavior of the lattice structure material has been defined. It was demonstrated that under both quasi-static and dynamic testing, lattice structures with high relative densities are stretch-dominated, whereas those with low relative densities are bending-dominated. Moreover, the linear relationship between the energy absorption and relative density under dynamic loading conditions has been defined
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: ilicosis; silicon powder; crystalline silica (SiO2); construction workers; occupational exposure; occupational exposure limit; occupational hygiene
Online: 8 April 2020 (04:22:26 CEST)
Chronic exposure of workers to powder containing crystalline silica (SiO2) can lead to chronic lung diseases (lung cancer, silicosis, etc.). The aim of the study was to evaluate the exposure of Greek construction workers to SiO2 and describe their pulmonary function. The study involved 86 outdoor and underground workers. Medical and professional history was obtained, and breath samples were collected at morning hours through a mask for the determination of SiO2 levels. Pulmonary function tests, radiological examination and evaluation of radiographs were, also performed. During the examination of the pulmonary function, the majority of the workers were within normal range (61.4%) while the rest were diagnosed with mild (26.5%) and more severe impairment (7.2%). Working conditions (underground-outdoor) were statistically significantly related to the categorization of pulmonary function (p = 0.038). During radiological examination, the type of working conditions (underground-outdoor) were statistically significantly related to the categorization of these findings (p = 0.044). Of the 69 employees, 52 did not present findings (75.4%) and five (5) were diagnosed with findings specific to occupational diseases (7.2%). The environmental exposure to RCS (Respirable crystalline silica) was detected at 0,0125 mg/ m3 in the workplace, which is not beyond the legal limits. Underground workers with more than 15 years of exposure to SiO2 are more likely to present chronic silicosis compared to the workers of outdoor activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0082.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; powder-bed fusion; laser sintering; polypropylene; process parameter optimization; mechanical properties; computer tomography
Online: 5 November 2018 (03:50:51 CET)
The use of commodity polymers such as polypropylene (PP) is key to open new market segments and applications for the additive manufacturing industry. Technologies such as powder-bed fusion (PBF) can process PP powder; however, much is still to learn concerning process parameters for reliable manufacturing. This study focusses in the process-property relationships of PP using laser-based PBF. The research presents an overview of the intrinsic and the extrinsic characteristic of a commercial PP powder as well as fabrication of tensile specimens with varying process parameters to characterize tensile, elongation at break, and porosity properties. The impact of key process parameters, such as power and scanning speed are systematically modified in a controlled design of experiment. The results were compared to the existing body of knowledge; the outcome is to present a process window and optimal process parameters for industrial use of PP. The computer tomography data revealed a highly porous structure inside specimens ranging between 8.46% and 10.08%, with porosity concentrated in the interlayer planes in the build direction. The results of the design of experiment for this commercial material show a narrow window of 0.122 ≥ Ev ≥ 0.138 J/mm3 led to increased mechanical properties while maintaining geometrical stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0616.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: laser powder bed fusion; additive manufacturing; X-ray tomography; in-situ imaging; Ti6Al4V; lattice structures
Online: 30 August 2018 (06:12:34 CEST)
This paper reports on the production and mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V micro-lattice structures, with strut thickness nearing the single-track width of the laser-based powder bed fusion (LPBF) system used. Besides providing new information on the mechanical properties and manufacturability of such thin-strut lattices, this paper also reports on the in-situ deformation imaging of micro-lattice structures with 6 unit cells in every direction. LPBF lattices are of interest for medical implants, due to the possibility of creating structures with an elastic modulus close to that of the bones and small pore sizes which allow effective osseointegration. In this work four different cubes were produced by laser powder bed fusion and subsequently analyzed using microCT, compression testing and one selected lattice was subjected to in-situ microCT imaging during compression. The in-situ imaging was performed at 4 steps during yielding. The results indicate that mechanical performance (elastic modulus and strength) correlate well with actual density and that this performance is remarkably good, despite the high roughness and irregularity of the struts at this scale. In-situ yielding is visually illustrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0508.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: polylactide microspheres; thermal conditioning; sintering window; laser sintering; powder morphology and flowability; crystalline structure; additive manufacturing
Online: 22 March 2021 (10:18:23 CET)
Comparison of the influence of conditioning temperature of microspheres made of medical grade poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and polylactide with 4wt.% of D-lactide content (PLA), on its thermal and structural properties is presented. The microspheres were fabricated by solid-in-oil-in-water method for application in additive manufacturing. The microspheres were annealed below glass transition temperature (Tg), above Tg but below onset of cold crystallization, and at two temperatures selected from the range of cold crystallization corresponding to crystallization of α’ and α form of poly(L-lactide) respectively, i.e., at 40°C, 70°C, 90°C and 120°C, in order to verify the influence of conditioning temperatures on sinterability of microspheres set as sintering window (SW). Based on differential scanning calorimetry measurements SW of microspheres were evaluated with consideration of existence of cold crystallization and reorganization of crystal polymorph. The results indicate that the conditioning temperature influence on availability and range of SW that depending on the D-lactide presence. We postulate the need for an individual approach for polylactide powders in determining the SW as a temperature range free of any thermal events. Moreover, other core powder characteristic, such as residual solvent content, morphology, particle size distribution, powder flowability and thermal conductivity, as a key property for successful laser sintering, are characterized. The microspheres are close to sphere and the size of microspheres are below 100 µm. Residual solvents content decreases with the increase of annealing temperature. The thermal conductivity is 0.073 W/mK and 0.064 W/mK for PLA and PLLA microspheres, respectively, and it depends on the spherical shape of the microspheres. Furthermore, the WAXD studies prove that an increase in the conditioning temperature causes a slight increase in crystallinity degree for PLLA microspheres and clear increase in crystallization for PLA microspheres.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0387.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: alkali activated materials; construction and demolition waste; brick powder; acid resistance; extruded polystyrene aggregates lightweight materials
Online: 25 June 2018 (12:26:06 CEST)
The annual construction and demolition waste (CDW) generated from EU construction sector was 850 million tons, which represented 31% of the total waste generation and about 28% of CDW was ceramics (bricks and tiles). In this study, the feasibility of using CDW brick powder as the precursor of alkali activated mortar (AAM) and extruded polystyrene (XPS) as the lightweight aggregates to form lightweight brick powder AAM (LW-BP-AAM) for non-structural applications was investigated. The thermal conductivity of LP-BPAAM was 0.112 W/m·K with density of about 1,135 kg/m3 which was lower than the counterparts with similar density in literature. The acid resistance of LW-BP-AAM is comparable to conventional fly ash based AAM and superior than ordinary Portland cement. From the scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, there was no severe damage on the surface of LW-BP-AAM but aluminate was removed from the matrix which was further verified in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The mass and strength loss of LP-BP-AAM was 1.5% and 33%, respectively. Although the compressive strength of the LP-BP-AAM was low (about 1.8 MPa), it can be improved by optimising the particle size of the XPS aggregates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0169.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Ni-based superalloys; electron beam melting; additive manufacturing; Argon gas atomized; plasma rotation electrode process; powder characteristics
Online: 12 July 2022 (04:10:22 CEST)
A Chinese superalloy GH4099 (~20 vol.% γ' phase), which can operate for long periods of time at temperatures of 1173-1273 K, was fabricated by electron beam melting (EBM). Argon gas atomized (AA) and plasma rotation electrode process (PREP) powders with the similar composition and size distribution were used as raw materials for comparison. Microstructure and mechanical properties of both the as-EBMed and post-treated alloy samples were investigated. The results show that the different powder characteristics resulted in the different build temperatures for AA and PREP samples, which were 1253 K and 1373 K, respectively. With increasing the building temperature, the EBM processing window shifted towards the higher scanning speed direction. Furthermore, intergranular cracking was observed for the as-fabricated PREP sample as a result of local enrichment of Si at grain boundaries. The cracks were completely eliminated by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) and did not re-open during subsequent solution treatment and aging (STA). Fine spherical γ' phase precipitated uniformly after STA. The tensile strength of the HIP+STA samples was ~920 MPa in the building direction and ~850 MPa in the horizontal direction, comparable with that of the wrought alloy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0025.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: additive manufacturing; selective laser melting; AlSi10Mg; Al6061; SLM process parameters; powder characterization; density, surface topology; dimensional accuracy
Online: 2 November 2018 (06:19:40 CET)
Additive manufacturing (AM) of high strength Al alloys promises to enhance the performance of critical components related to various aerospace and automotive applications. The key advantage of AM is its ability to generate lightweight, robust, and complex shapes. However, the characteristics of the as-built parts may represent an obstacle to satisfy the part quality requirements. The current study investigates the influence of selective laser melting (SLM) process parameters on the quality of parts fabricated from different Al alloys. A design of experiment (DOE) is used to analyze relative density, porosity, surface roughness, and dimensional accuracy according to the interaction effect between the SLM process parameters. The results show a range of energy densities and SLM process parameters for the AlSi10Mg and Al6061 alloys needed to achieve “optimum” values for each performance characteristic. A process map is developed for each material by combining the optimized range of SLM process parameters for each characteristic to ensure good quality of the as-built parts. The second part of this study investigates the effect of SLM process parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the same Al alloys. This comprehensive study is also aimed at reducing the amount of post-processing needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0622.v1
Subject: Keywords: LPBF; Laser Powder Bed Fusion; SLM; Selective Laser Melting; High-speed steel; tool steel; high carbon content; preheating temperature
Online: 29 January 2021 (13:09:59 CET)
Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is an additive manufacturing process employed in many industries, for example for aerospace, automotive and medical applications. In these sectors, mainly nickel-, aluminum- and titanium-based alloys are used. In contrast, the mechanical engineering industry is interested in more wear-resistant steel alloys with higher hardness, both of which can be achieved with a higher carbon content, like in high-speed steels. Since these steels are susceptible to cracking, preheating needs to be applied during processing by LPBF. In a previous study, we applied a base plate preheating temperature of 500 °C for HS6-5-3-8 with 1.3 % carbon content. We were able to manufacture dense (p > 99.9 %) and crack-free parts from HS6-5-3-8 with a hardness > 62 HRC (as built) by LPBF. In this study, we investigate the influence of preheating temperatures up to 600 °C on hardness and microstructure dependent on part height for HS6-5-3-8. The microstructure was studied by light optical microscopy (LOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The analysis of hardness and microstructure at different part heights is necessary because state-of-the-art preheating systems induce heat only into the base plate. Consequently, parts are subjected to temperature gradients and different heat treatment effects depending on part height during the LPBF process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: respirable agglomerates; inhaled corticosteroids; ciclesonide; particle engineering; dry powder inhaler; extrafine; total lung dose; Alberta Idealized Throat; Idealized Child Throat
Online: 13 October 2021 (10:52:57 CEST)
Current dry powder formulations for inhalation deposit a large fraction of their emitted dose in the upper respiratory tract where they contribute to off-target adverse effects and variability in lung delivery. The purpose of current study is to design a new formulation concept that more effectively targets inhaled dry powders to the large and small airways. The formulations are based on adhesive mixtures of drug nanoparticles and nanoleucine carrier particles prepared by spray drying of a co-suspension of leucine and drug particles from a nonsolvent. The physicochemical and aerosol properties of the resulting formulations are presented. The formulations achieve 93% lung delivery in the Alberta Idealized Throat model that is independent of inspiratory flow rate and relative humidity. Largely eliminating URT deposition with a particle size larger than solution pMDIs is expected to improve delivery to the large and small airways, while minimizing alveolar deposition and particle exhalation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0192.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; powder bed fusion; optimization framework; predictive models; neural network; intelligent parameters selection; energy density optimization; mechanical properties optimization
Online: 13 October 2021 (10:20:29 CEST)
Powder bed fusion (PBF) process is a metal additive manufacturing process which can build parts with any complexity from a wide range of metallic materials. PBF process research has predominantly focused on the impact of only a few parameters on product properties due to the lack of a systematic approach for optimizing a large set of process parameters simultaneously. The pivotal challenges regarding this process require a quantitative approach for mapping the material properties and process parameters onto the ultimate quality; this will then enable the optimization of those parameters. In this study, we propose a two-phase framework for optimizing the process parameters and developing a predictive model for 316L stainless steel material. We also discuss the correlation between process parameters -- i.e., laser specifications -- and mechanical properties and how to achieve parts with high density (> 98%) as well as better ultimate mechanical properties. In this paper, we introduce and test an innovative approach for developing AM predictive models, with a relatively low error percentage of 10.236% that are used to optimize process parameters in accordance with user or manufacturer requirements. These models use support vector regression, random forest regression, and neural network techniques. It is shown that the intelligent selection of process parameters using these models can achieve an optimized density of up to 99.31% with uniform microstructure, which improves hardness, impact strength, and other mechanical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0202.v3
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; 3-D printing; metal additive manufacturing; selective laser melting; SLM; direct metal laser sintering; DMLS; metal powder processing
Online: 4 April 2017 (07:56:07 CEST)
A useful and increasingly common additive manufacturing (AM) process is the selective laser melting (SLM) or direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process. SLM/DMLS can produce full-density metal parts from difficult materials, but it tends to suffer from severe residual stresses introduced during processing. This limits the usefulness and applicability of the process, particularly in the fabrication of parts with delicate overhanging and protruding features. The purpose of this study was to examine the current insight and progress made toward understanding and eliminating the problem in overhanging and protruding structures. To accomplish this, a survey of literature was undertaken, focusing on process modeling (general, heat transfer, stress and distortion, and material models), direct process control (input and environmental control, hardware-in-the-loop monitoring, parameter optimization, and post-processing), experiment development (methods for evaluation, optical and mechanical process monitoring, imaging, and design-of-experiments), support structure optimization, and overhang feature design; approximately 140 published works were examined. The major findings of this study were that a small minority of the literature on SLM/DMLS deals explicitly with the overhanging stress problem, but some fundamental work has been done on the problem. Implications, needs, and potential future research directions are discussed in-depth in light of the present review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0535.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: biomimicry; biomimetic engineering; energy absorption; lattice structure; additive manufacturing; powder bed fusion; X-ray tomography; microCT; non-destructive testing; 3D image analysis
Online: 23 October 2018 (10:10:15 CEST)
Biomimicry in additive manufacturing often refers to topology optimization and the use of lattice structures, due to the organic shape of the topology-optimized designs, and the lattices often looking similar to many light-weight structures found in nature such as trabecular bone, wood, sponges, coral, to name a few. Real biomimetic design however involves the use of design principles taken in some way from natural systems. In this work we use a methodology whereby high resolution 3D analysis of a natural material with desirable properties is “reverse-engineered” and the design tested for the purpose. This allows more accurate replication of the desired properties, and adaption of the design parameters to the material used for production (which usually differs from the biological material). One such example is the impact-protective natural design of the glyptodont body armour. In this paper we report on the production of body armour models in metal (Ti4Al4V) and analyze the resulting mechanical properties, assessing their potential for impact protective applications. This is the first biomimetic study using metal additive manufacturing to date.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0160.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: electron beam powder bed fusion (EBPBF); Inconel 625; microstructure and mechanical properties; layer-thickness effects; heat treatment; duplex grain structure; grain boundary carbides
Online: 12 October 2022 (02:09:35 CEST)
This research program investigated the effects of layer thickness (50 and 100 microns) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of electron beam powder bed fusion (EBPBF) additive manufacturing of Inconel 625 alloy. The as-built 50 and 100 micron layer thickness components were also heat treated at temperatures above 1100 oC, which produced a recrystallized grain structure containing annealing twins in the 50 micron layer thickness components, and a duplex grain structure consisting of islands of very small equiaxed grains dispersed in a recrystallized, large-grain structure containing annealing twins. The heat treated component microstructures and mechanical properties were compared with the as-built components in both the build direction (vertical) and perpendicular (horizontal) to the build direction. Vickers microindentation hardness (HV) values for the vertical and horizontal geometries averaged 227 and 220 for the as-built 50 and 100 micron layer components, and 185 and 282 for the corresponding heat treated components. The yield stress values were 387 MPa and 365 MPa for the as-built layer horizontal and vertical 50 micron layer geometries, and 330 MPa and 340 MPa for the as-built 100 micron layer components. For the heat treated 50 micron components, the yield stress values were 340 and 321 MPa for the horizontal and vertical geometries, and 581 and 489 MPa for the 100 micron layer components, respectively. The elongation for the 100 micron layer as-built horizontal components was 28% in contrast to 65% for the corresponding 100 micron heat treated layer components, an increase of 132% for the duplex grain structure. However, the coarse grains containing annealing twins and the equiaxed small grain islands in the duplex structure for the heat treated components contained continuous carbides in the grain boundaries, and this may indicate sensitization and a reduction in corrosion resistance. These findings point to the potential mechanical property advantage for heat treatment of Inconel 625 alloy 100 micron layer thickness components fabricated by EBPBF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0366.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Magnesium nanoparticles; Laser scan speed, Wearables; Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid; Advanced manufacturing; Flexile sensors; Powder metallurgy; Surface science; Nanoparticle size distributions; Picosecond laser
Online: 25 October 2021 (15:46:16 CEST)
Magnesium nanoparticles of various mean diameters (53 – 239 nm) were synthesized herein via Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid (PLAL) from millimeter sized magnesium powders within iso-propyl alcohol. It was observed via a 3x3 full factorial DOE that the processing parameters can control the nanoparticle distribution to produce three size-distribution types (bimodal, skewed and normal). Ablation times of 2, 5, and 25 minutes where investigated. An ablation time of 2 minutes produced a bimodal distribution with the other types seen at higher periods of processing. Mg nanoparticle UV-Vis absorbance at 204 nm increased linearly with increasing ablation time, indicating an increase in nanoparticle count. The colloidal density (mg/ml) generally increased with increasing nanoparticle mean diameter as noted via increasing UV-vis absorbance. High la-ser scan speeds (within the studied range of 3000 - 3500 mm/s) tend to increase the nanoparticle count/yield. For the first time, the effect of scan speed on colloidal density, UV-vis absorbance and nanoparticle diameter from metallic powder ablation was investigated and is reported herein. The nanoparticles formed dendritic structures after being drop cast on aluminum foil as observed via FESEM analysis. Dynamic light scattering was used to measure the size of the nanoparticles. Magnesium nanoparticles have promising use in the fabrication of wearables, such as in conductive tracks or battery electrodes, owing to their low heat capacity, high melting point and bio-compatibility.