Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Automatic Quality Assessments of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Builds from Photodiode Sensor Measurements

Version 1 : Received: 5 April 2020 / Approved: 6 April 2020 / Online: 6 April 2020 (12:41:05 CEST)

How to cite: Jayasinghe, S.; Paoletti, P.; Sutcliffe, C.; Dardis, J.; Jones, N.; Green, P. Automatic Quality Assessments of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Builds from Photodiode Sensor Measurements. Preprints 2020, 2020040055 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202004.0055.v1). Jayasinghe, S.; Paoletti, P.; Sutcliffe, C.; Dardis, J.; Jones, N.; Green, P. Automatic Quality Assessments of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Builds from Photodiode Sensor Measurements. Preprints 2020, 2020040055 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202004.0055.v1).

Abstract

This study evaluates whether a combination of photodiode sensor measurements, taken during laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) builds, can be used to predict the resulting build quality via a purely data-based approach. We analyse the relationship between build density and features that are extracted from sensor data collected from three different photodiodes. The study uses a Singular Value Decomposition to extract lower-dimensional features from photodiode measurements, which are then fed into machine learning algorithms. Several unsupervised learning methods are then employed to classify low density (< 99% part density) and high density (≥ 99% part density) specimens. Subsequently, a supervised learning method (Gaussian Process regression) is used to directly predict build density. Using the unsupervised clustering approaches, applied to features extracted from both photodiode sensor data as well as observations relating to the energy transferred to the material, build density was predicted with up to 93.54% accuracy. With regard to the supervised regression approach, a Gaussian Process algorithm was capable of predicting the build density with a RMS error of 3.65%. The study shows, therefore, that there is potential for machine learning algorithms to predict indicators of L-PBF build quality from photodiode build-measurements. Moreover, the work herein describes approaches that are predominantly probabilistic, thus facilitating uncertainty quantification in machine-learnt predictions of L-PBF build quality.

Subject Areas

Laser powder bed fusion; automatic quality assessment; machine learning; automatic relevance determination

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