ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0166.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: innovation and invention: processes and incentives; management of technological innovation and R&D; diffusion orocesses; open innovation
Online: 13 September 2022 (09:50:32 CEST)
In this article we estimate the value of “Non-R&D Innovation Expenditures” in Europe. We use data from the European Innovation Scoreboard-EIS of the European Commission from the period 2010-2019. We test data with the following econometric models i.e.: Pooled OLS, Dynamic Panel, Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, WLS. We found that “Non-R&D Innovation Expenditures” is positively associated among others to “Innovation Index” and “Firm Investments” and negatively associated among others to “Human Resources” and “Government Procurement of Advanced Technology Products”. We use the k-Means algorithm with either the Silhouette Coefficient and the Elbow Method in a confrontation with the network analysis optimized with the Distance of Manhattan and we find that the optimal number of clusters is four. Furthermore, we propose a confrontation among eight machine learning algorithms to predict the level of “Non-R&D Innovation Expenditures” either with Original Data-OD either with Augmented Data-AD. We found that Gradient Boost Trees Regression is the best predictor for OD while Tree Ensemble Regression is the best Predictor for AD. Finally, we verify that the prediction with AD is more efficient of that with OD with a reduction in the average value of statistical errors equal to 40,50%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0380.v1
Online: 14 April 2021 (13:51:32 CEST)
Sustainability transition theories analyse a systematic shift towards sustainability at micro (niche), meso (regime) and macro (landscape) level. The assessment of technological systems and structures at the firm level in sustainability transition literature is scant. The present study, taking the technological assessment perspective at the firm level, finds answers to questions like (a) how do established corporations move towards sustainable practices? (b) what role does technological innovation play in the firm’s transition towards sustainability? (c) what technological modes are adopted for sustainability transition? We find answers to these questions through an in-depth case analysis of two multi-national companies in the consumer goods industry. Internally developed and externally acquired technologies by firms in the last 15 years are plotted using qualitative and quantitative indicators on pre-designed templates. Technologies for all three sustainability dimensions, namely, environmental, social and economic, are mapped and the impact assessed. The analysis finds a sustainability transition landscape that shows the use of protected (patents, trademarks, designs) and unprotected technologies (open innovation) to generate impacts like production efficiency, consumption reduction, emission reduction, reduce-recycle-reuse among others. Companies implementing sustainable technologies do observe positive impacts. Implementation of reduce-reuse-recycle (3R)-based technologies enhance the achievement of sustainable development targets. Furthermore, the use of trademarks seems common in differentiating their technologies and identities. These and other results are detailed and used to comment on the role of managing intellectual property and harnessing the effect of technological innovations in sustainability transition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0012.v2
Online: 9 September 2016 (07:42:15 CEST)
Solid waste management in Accra is a major challenge to the Metropolitan Authorities and inhabitants. The rapidly increasing population coupled with poor capacity of the municipal and private waste management companies to management waste effectively has created issues of environmental concern. Due to poor waste managements systems, most household dispose waste indiscriminately leading to floods and health issues. The study showed that about 60% of household waste is organic materials which has the potential to be converted to compost for agriculture purpose. Meanwhile plastics and rubbers which litters the environment as well as blocking major storm drains and gutters hence creating huge environmental hazard is made of 11% of the total component of most household waste generated daily. The study also revealed that among the methods of disposing waste, dumping waste in skip containers located at authorized places was the preferred means of disposing waste by household though others also dispose waste by other means such as burying and burning. Inadequate skip containers per population of household in an area coupled with irregularity of tracks picking these containers makes skip containers dumping site ugly scene, hence creating health issues. Among the constraints that impact negatively on sustainable waste management in Accra Metropolis, economic constraints was perceived as the main challenge which affect efficient waste management. Currently the country is going through serious economic challenges so government does not release money timely to fund projects which waste management is key. Most donor partners that use to support the government with funds have either reduced or redrawn their services as they have no confidence in the state of Ghana economy. Aside the constrains, the study also indicated that factors such as poor public attitude towards waste management, poor enforcement of sanitation by-laws, inadequate and untimely release of government funds were also seen as the main factors affecting waste management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0101.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: biodiversity conservation, livelihood, co-management, stakeholder, law enforcement
Online: 18 November 2016 (15:20:07 CET)
Despite of being an exceptionally biodiversity rich country, the forest coverage of Bangladesh is declining at an alarming rate. Declaration and management of protected areas in this regard is one of the efforts from government side to tackle the loss of biodiversity. The limited numbers of forest-protected areas (FPA), established to conserve the dwindling forest biodiversity of the country with high pressure on them for timber, non-timber forest products, and fuelwood - makes their management challenging. Moreover, most of the FPAs of the country declared only in the recent decades with very limited infrastructure, manpower and policy support for monitoring and governance. Some people-centred approaches for the management of FPAs and alternative livelihood and income generation subsidies although made available through a few project interventions, their number are still inadequate and performance remains less than satisfactory. This chapter provides a critical review of the FPAs of Bangladesh looking at their role in biodiversity conservation, management challenges, and key lessons from previous management interventions with recommendations for the future. It has been revealed that the FPA system of Bangladesh still poorly represents the diverse forest ecosystems with relatively small forest size and lack of corridors for the movement of wildlife. There are ample opportunities to render co-management of FPAs an effective strategy to minimize the conflicts in FPAs management in the country. It is, however, important to ensure the access of local forest-dependent people to different alternative income generating options that may adequately support their livelihoods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: isoflavones; menopause management; endometrial thickness; mammary density; liver function; plant extracts
Online: 27 October 2016 (12:21:59 CEST)
Long-term safety of a nutraceutical combination based on agnus castus and magnolia extracts combined with soy isoflavones (SI) and lactobacilli, and effectiveness on vasomotor symptoms and sleep disorders in postmenopausal women, were assessed. A controlled study was carried-out in menopausal women comparing this nutraceutical combination (ESP group) with formulation containing isoflavones alone (C group), at the dosage recommended. Kuppermann index, PSQI, and SF-36 were determined at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. Endometrial thickness, mammary density and liver function were evaluated at baseline and after 12 months. 180 women (100 in ESP group and 80 in C group, mean age 55.5 years, in menopause for about 36 months) were enrolled in the study. At the treatment end, mammary density, endometrial thickness, and hepatic function did not show substantial differences between groups. Kuppermann index, and particularly hot flushes, were progressively and significantly decreased in frequency and severity during ESP versus C treatment. No adverse events were observed. Agnus castus and magnolia, combined with SI + lactobacilli, can effectively and safely be used in symptomatic postmenopausal women, mainly when quality of sleep is the most disturbing complaint. Endometrium, mammary glands and liver function, were unaffected after 12 months treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0123.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: co-management; livelihoods; conflicts; biodiversity conservation; sustainable development
Online: 24 November 2016 (11:25:34 CET)
Good governance in natural resource management (NRM) is one of the most challenging issues in developing countries that often inappropriately embedded in national policies and political agendas. It is, in fact, even more important for countries like Bangladesh with exceptionally high pressure and dependence on its natural resources for sustaining rural livelihoods. Globally, nowadays, good governance is considered as one of the key factor for achieving the goal of sustainable development and biodiversity conservation. Bangladesh, of late has responded to that global zeal by involving local communities in the management of country’s declining forest and other natural resources. The colonial legacy of the forestry sector of Bangladesh was planned and, managed as interim projects through donors’ prescriptions. Thus, institutions, management processes and conservation outcomes were problematic. The conventional approach adopted by colonial and post-colonial regimes for forest management also proved to be inefficient due to its top-down management system. The absolute dependency on donor support, and their prescription sometimes worsened the situation both ecologically and socially. Global, regional and local trends supported the need for a different dimension in the governance paradigms. The introduction of a pluralistic approach, known as co-management in protected areas (PAs) is an example of an attempt whereby shared governance mechanism are implemented to attain the desired goals of conservation that will also address the livelihoods and aspirations of communities living in and around PAs of the country. However, in designing future forest and PA regimes the concern of the external aid support and attached conditions remain a reality that needs to be addressed. Adequate attention should be given to our vanishing biodiversity, culture and community livelihoods through devising an appropriate governance mechanism recognizing and supporting local rights, access and participation in the environmental management. It is now time to mainstream the adhoc nature of governance according to our national conservation strategy and policy frameworks in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the Bangladesh NRM sector addressing the human and community right of people in the specific context of forest protected areas management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0081.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: resilience, land management, wildfire, Mediterranean dry forest
Online: 27 July 2016 (10:01:44 CEST)
Wildfires have always been a part of the history of Mediterranean forests. However, forest regeneration after a wildfire is not certain. It depends on many factors, some of which may be influenced by land management activities. Failure of regeneration will cause a regime shift in the ecosystem, reducing the provision of ecosystem services and ultimately leading to desertification. How can we increase Mediterranean forests’ resilience to fire? To answer this question, we did a literature review, investigating chains of processes that allow forests to regenerate (which we label “regeneration mechanisms”), and assessed the impact of selected management practices documented in the WOCAT database on the regeneration mechanisms. We identified three distinct regeneration mechanisms that enable Mediterranean forests to recover, as well as the time frame before and after a fire in which they are at work, and factors that can hinder or support resilience. The three regeneration mechanisms enabling a forest to regenerate after a fire consist of regeneration (1) from a seed bank; (2) from resprouting individuals; and (3) from unburned plants that escaped the fire. Management practices were grouped into four categories: (1) fuel breaks, (2) fuel management, (3) afforestation, and (4) mulching. We assessed how and under what conditions land management modifies the ecosystem’s resilience. The results show that land management influences resilience by interacting with resilience mechanisms before and after the fire, and not just by modifying the fire regime. Our analysis demonstrates a need for adaptive – i.e. context- and time-specific – management strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0091.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: sustainable waste management behaviors; protection motivation theory; pro-environmental behaviors; threat appraisal, coping appraisal
Online: 9 August 2016 (10:29:00 CEST)
This study aims to explain individual engagement in sustainable waste management behaviors (SWMBs) based on the application of protection motivation theory (PMT). SWMBs include waste avoidance, green purchasing behavior, reuse and recycle, and waste disposal behaviors. This study applies PMT to explore how individuals’ SWMBs are influenced by their perceived threats caused by environmental contamination from waste disposal and their perceived coping capability. The Bangkok metropolitan area was selected as a case study because it has faced serious waste management problems caused by massively increasing amounts of solid waste during the last ten years. Questionnaire surveys were conducted with 193 public and private officers residing in the city of Bangkok. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to justify the effect of individual threat appraisal and coping appraisal on the engagement in SWMBs. The results demonstrated that respondents’ self-efficacy highly influenced all types of SWMBs. The perceived probability of being impacted from pollutants influenced all of the SWMBs except green purchasing behaviors. Response efficacy did not influence all SWMBs; however, the perceived severity of adverse consequences caused by pollutants highly influenced reuse and recycle behaviors. It could be suggested that PMT is well suited for investigating low-cost and simple SWMBs. It could also be suggested that different communication campaigns should be established to enhance citizens’ engagement in each type of SWMB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0059.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: water footprint; bottled water; groundwater; Africa; water resource management; urban
Online: 10 December 2016 (08:41:51 CET)
Packaged water consumption has grown rapidly in urban areas of many low and middle income countries, but particularly in Ghana. However, the sources of water used by this growing packaged water industry and its implications for water resource management and transport-related environmental impacts have not been described. This study aimed to assess the spatial distribution of regulated packaged water production in Ghana, both in relation to demand and for natural mineral water, to hydrogeological characteristics. 764 addresses for premises licenced to produce packaged water from 2009-2015 were mapped and compared to regional sachet water consumption and beverage import/export data examined. We find evidence to suggest packaged water is transported shorter distances in Ghana than in developed countries. For natural mineral waters, producers should be able to address the most widespread water quality hazards (including high salinity, iron and nitrates) in aquifers used for production through reverse osmosis treatment. The study suggests there is scope to integrate beverage product and groundwater regulatory databases to support groundwater management.
COMMENTARY | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0150.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Environmental Assessment Report (EAR); environmental health; Environmental Management/Environmental Management Systems (EM/EMS) Model; Environmental Management Plan (EMP); Multinational oil companies (MOCs); Niger Delta; Ogoni; Ogoniland; Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC); United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP)
Online: 30 December 2016 (07:39:30 CET)
In August 4 2011, United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) submitted an unprecedented, scientific, groundbreaking Environmental Assessment Report (EAR) of Ogoniland, to the Nigerian government. This was the outcome of a 14–month intensive evaluation of the extent of pollution. It was intended that UNEP’s recommendations would be implemented to restore the devastated environment, on the one hand, and on the other, counteract the numerous environmental health issues that have for decades, plagued Ogoniland. However, five years post EAR, and, despite the seriousness of the situation, no significant resolution has occurred, both on the part of the government, and on the part of Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) or Shell. To date, millions of Niger Delta residents, particularly those living in the oil-bearing communities, continue to suffer severe consequences. Although, the assessment was conducted in Ogoniland, other communities in the Niger Delta are also affected. This article explores prevailing issues, using Ogoniland (a microcosm of the Niger Delta) as an example. A multidisciplinary approach for sustainable mitigation of environmental health risks in the Niger Delta is paramount, and Environmental Management tools offer valuable strategies. Adopting UNEP’s recommendations for addressing environmental health problems requires implementing the Environmental Management/Environmental Management System (EM/EMS) model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0094.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: entrepreneurship; innovation; management; performance; sustainability
Online: 31 July 2017 (15:43:49 CEST)
The study examines how the South African construction industry can nurture an entrepreneur and a large successful entrepreneurial construction company, even though the founder had no formal education and the company was founded during the Apartheid era. The question of whether entrepreneurs are born or are made is based on the age-old question of nurture and nature. The paper presents the narratives of a successful entrepreneur Mr. Sam Lubbe. The narratives presented are collected through a case study research approach. The data collected suggests that although Sam does not have any formal education, he succeeded based on nurturing given to him when he had the opportunity to work for a large South African construction company, his innate characteristics of self-confidence, task-result orientation, originality, future direction, and a unique business model which also helped him access international construction work opportunities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0131.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: adaptation; mental model refinement; food systems; knowledge management participatory modeling; system dynamics; systems thinking
Online: 27 November 2016 (04:12:49 CET)
Food systems will need to undergo considerable transformation. To be better prepared for and resilient to uncertainty and disturbances in the future, resource users and managers need to further develop knowledge about the food and farming system, with its dominating feedback structures and complexities, and to test robust and integrated system-based solutions. This paper investigates how participatory system dynamics modeling can be adapted to groups at the community level with low or no formal educational background. The paper also analyzes the refinement of workshop participants’ mental models as a consequence of a participatory system dynamics intervention. For this purpose, we ran two workshops with small-scale farmers in Zambia. Analysis of workshop data and post-workshop interviews shows that participatory system dynamics is well adaptable to support an audience-specific learning-by-doing approach. The use of pictures, objects and water glasses in combination with the basic aspects of causal loop diagramming makes for a well-balanced toolbox. Participants acquire understanding that is also relevant beyond systems thinking in that is offers a range of practical insights such as a critical evaluation of common food security strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0232.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: mHealth; ODK scan; mobile health application; digitizing data collection; data management processes; paper-to-digital system; technology-assisted data management; treatment adherence
Online: 2 September 2016 (03:17:38 CEST)
The present grievous situation of the tuberculosis disease can be improved by efficient case management and timely follow-up evaluations. With the advent of digital technology this can be achieved by quick summarization of the patient-centric data. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of the ODK Scan paper-to-digital system during testing period of three months. A sequential, explanatory mixed-method research approach was employed to elucidate technology use. Training, smartphones, application and 3G enabled SIMs were provided to the four field workers. At the beginning, baseline measures of the data management aspects were recorded and compared with endline measures to see the impact of ODK Scan. Additionally, at the end, users’ feedback was collected regarding app usability, user interface design and workflow changes. 122 patients’ records were retrieved from the server and analysed for quality. It was found that ODK Scan recognized 99.2% of multiple choice bubble responses and 79.4% of numerical digit responses correctly. However, the overall quality of the digital data was decreased in comparison to manually entered data. Using ODK Scan, a significant time reduction is observed in data aggregation and data transfer activities, however, data verification and form filling activities took more time. Interviews revealed that field workers saw value in using ODK Scan, however, they were more concerned about the time consuming aspects of the use of ODK Scan. Therefore, it is concluded that minimal disturbance in the existing workflow, continuous feedback and value additions are the important considerations for the implementing organization to ensure technology adoption and workflow improvements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: railway infrastructure; high-speed rail; tracks; risk; management and monitoring; climate change; global warming; adaptation; operational readiness
Online: 5 August 2016 (05:11:02 CEST)
Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and many of the observed changes are unprecedented over five decades to millennia. Globally the atmosphere and ocean is increasingly getting warmer, the amount of ice on the earth is decreasing over the oceans, and the sea level has risen. According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the total increasing temperature globally averaged combined land and surface between the average of the 1850-1900 period and the 2003 to 2012 period is 0.78 °C (0.72 to 0.85). But should we prepare for such the relatively small change? The importance is not the mean of the warming but the considerable likelihood of climate change that could trigger extreme natural hazards. The impact and the risk of climate change associated with railway infrastructure have not been fully addressed in the literature due to the difference in local environmental parameters. On the other hand, the current railway network in Malaysia, over the last decade, has been significantly affected by severe weather conditions such as rainfall, lightning, wind and very high temperatures. Our research findings point out the extremes that can lead to asset system failure, degraded operation and ultimately, delays to train services. During the period of flood, the embankment of the track can be swept away and bridge can be demolished, while during drought, the embankment of the track can suffer from soil desiccation and embankment deterioration, high temperature increases the risk of track buckling and high winds can result in vegetation or foreign object incursion on to the infrastructure as well as additional quasi-static burden exerted. This review is of significant importance for planning and design of the newly proposed high speed rail link between Malaysia and Singapore.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: waste management; economic instruments; pay-as-you-throw; municipal solid waste; recycling; environmental management
Online: 3 November 2016 (10:28:43 CET)
The “Pay-as-you-throw” scheme, PAYT, is an economic instrument of waste management that implements the “polluter pays” principle by charging inhabitants of municipalities according to the amount of residual, organic and bulky waste they send for third-party waste management. When combined with well-developed infrastructure to collect the different waste fractions (residual waste, paper and cardboard, plastics, bio waste, green cuttings, many recyclables) as well as with a good level of citizen’s awareness, its performance has frequently been linked to high collection rates of recyclables. However, the establishment and operation of PAYT systems can require significant resource inputs from municipalities. In this paper, PAYT is analysed through a case study from the German County of Aschaffenburg, covering nearly 20 years of implementation across 173,000 inhabitants. Key performance indicators applied include temporal trends in the county’s recyclables collection rate, waste treatment fees for residents and municipal waste management costs, benchmarked against German municipalities not implementing PAYT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0216.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: innovation and invention: processes and incentives; management of technological innovation and R&D; diffusion processes; open innovation
Online: 25 April 2022 (04:40:06 CEST)
The following article analyzes the determinants of the innovation index in Europe. The data refer to the European Innovation Scoreboard-EIS of the European Commission for the period between 2010 and 2019 for 36 countries. The data are analyzed using the following econometric techniques: Panel Data with Random Effects, Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Dynamic Panel Data, Pooled OLS, WLS. The results show that the Innovation Index is negatively connected to some variables, among which the most significant are "GDP per capita", "R&D expenditure public sector", "Venture capital", "Tertiary education", and positively connected to some variables among which the most relevant are: "Government procurement of advanced technology products", "Average annual population growth", "Finance and support", "Human resources", "Marketing or organisational innovators", "Linkages". A clustering was then carried out using the unsupervised k-Means algorithm optimized with the Silhouette coefficient which shows the presence of 2 clusters per value of the Innovation Index. Eight machine learning algorithms has been used for prediction with real data. The Tree Ensemble Regression algorithm has been chosen as best performer. A further prediction has been made with the augmented data. The result shows that the best performing algorithm is Linear Regression with an innovation index value predicted to grow by approximately 3.38%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Reflux; Laryngopharyngeal; Clinical; Atypical; Nasal; Otological; Respiratory; Management; Treatment; Diagnosis
Online: 15 April 2021 (12:08:19 CEST)
Background: Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a common disease in otolaryngology characterized by an inflammatory reaction of the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract caused by digestive refluxate enzymes. LPR has been identified as etiological or favoring factor of laryngeal, oral, sinonasal or otological diseases. In this case-series, we reported atypical clinical presentation of LPR in patients presenting in our clinic with reflux. Methods: A retrospective medical chart review of 351 patients with LPR treated in the European Reflux Clinic in Brussels, Poitiers and Paris was performed. In order to be included, patients had to report atypical clinical presentation of LPR, consisting of symptoms or findings that are not described in reflux symptom score and reflux sign assessment. The LPR diagnosis was confirmed with 24-hour hypopharyngeal-esophageal impedance pH-study and patients were treated with a combination of diet, proton pump inhibitors and alginates. The atypical symptoms or findings had to be resolved from pre- to posttreatment Results: From 2017 to 2021, 21 patients with atypical LPR were treated in our center. The clinical presentation consisted of recurrent aphthosis or burning mouth (N=9), recurrent burps and abdominal disorders (N=2), posterior nasal obstruction (N=2), recurrent acute suppurative otitis media (N=2), severe vocal fold dysplasia (N=2), and recurrent acute rhinopharyngitis (N=1), tearing (N=1), aspirations (N=1) or tracheobronchitis (N=1). Abnormal upper aerodigestive tract reflux events were identified in all of these patients. Atypical clinical findings resolved and did not recur after an adequate anti-reflux treatment. Conclusion: LPR may present with various clinical presentations including mouth, eye, tracheobronchial, nasal or laryngeal findings, which may all regress with an adequate treatment. Future studies are needed to better specify the relationship between LPR and these atypical findings through analyses identifying gastroduodenal enzyme in the enflamed tissue.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Shariah; hospital; healthcare; management; Islam
Online: 7 September 2020 (10:52:33 CEST)
The Ministry of Health evaluates hospital management in accordance with the standard of quality of service. The concept of Shariah hospitals offers management services that exceed the standard of quality of hospital care. The study aims to illustrate the concept of Shariah hospitals in Indonesia. We collect related literature from various media via online search with the keywords “Shariah hospitals,” “implementation of Shariah hospitals,” and “application of Shariah hospitals.” Main findings: The study finds that the Shariah hospitals built by the philosophy of Islam are willing to provide the best health-care services to patients. A code of conduct must be fulfilled by the hospital management in Shariah hospitals: (1) general liability, (2) obligations to society and the environment, (3) obligations to patients, (4) obligations to the leaders, staff, and employees, and (4) relationships with related institutions. The foremost challenges include the improvement of health personnel performance and the quality of services in addition to perceptions that are not inclusive of the system of Shariah hospitals. This implementation should run consistently and with the commitment of all parties. Such insight, in turn, can be counted as an input to an approach to health services, particularly in increasing the performance rates, such as hospital. This study is the first to provide new insight into discussion about shariah hospital by presenting its focuses on Islamic approaches in meeting the quality standards of health services in hospitals so as to obtain more value. However, exclusive principles—Islamization, heterogeneity, and the performance of health workers—challenge the implementation of this hospital system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0348.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: social entrepreneurship; responsible innovation; sustainable management; Mexican SMEs.
Online: 29 May 2019 (10:44:35 CEST)
Responsible innovation combines philanthropic and economic aspects and it is common to refer to entrepreneurs who lead it as "social entrepreneurs". The present study of 100 Mexican SMEs, provides knowledge of exploratory nature about what the models of organization are conducive to SMEs in the generation and development of responsible innovations. Through the statistical technique of cluster analysis, this study identified and characterized four models of organization according to the level of social entrepreneurship reached: (1) “The techno-scientific organization”, (2) “The techno-social organization”, (3) “The capitalist-social organization” and (4) “The capitalist organization”. While in Europe the dominant discourse about responsible innovation focuses on the control of the risk of social rejection of the advance of science and technology; in contexts such as the Mexican, the phenomenon is configured as the mechanism through which entrepreneurs articulate its technological and scientific capabilities to solve priority and specific problems of the society, however, the social impact does not crucially affect their business initiatives. The techno-scientific organization (50% of studied SMEs) is proposed as the model of organization with greater viability for Mexican entrepreneurs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0007.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Crop production, Soil management, Soil Organic Carbon, Soil productivity
Online: 2 January 2017 (14:25:02 CET)
Crop productivity is directly dependent to soil fertility. High soil organic carbon (SOC) content in soil is vital as it leads to improved soil quality, increased productivity, and stable soil-aggregates. In addition, with the signing of the climate agreement, there is growing interest in carbon sequestration in landscapes. This paper looks at how SOC can be increased so that it not only contributes to reduction of CO2, but also translates to increased food production thereby enhancing food security. This synergy between mitigation and enhancing food security is even more relevant for mountain landscapes of the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region where there remains huge potential to increase CO2 sequestration and simultaneously address food security in the chronic food deficit villages. Soil samples were collected from seven transects each in Bajhang and Mustang and from 4 land use types in each transect. Samples of soils were taken from two depths in each plot; 0-15 cm below the soil surface and 15-30 cm below the soil surface to compare the top soil and subsoil dynamics of the soil nutrients. The lab analysis was performed to assess the soil texture, soil color, soil acidity in 'power of hydrogen' (pH), macro-nutrients as soil fertility. Secondary data was used to analyze the level of food deficit in the villages. The result shows that most of the sample soils from Mustang were clay (82.1%) which is 46 samples out of 56. The pH value of soil from Bajhang ranged from 5.29 to 9.09. The pH value of soil ranged from 5.65 to 8.81 in Mustang. SOC contents of sampled soils from Bajhang ranged from 0.20% to 7.69% with mean amount of 2.47% ± 0.17. SOC contents of sampled soils from Mustang ranged from 0.51% to 8.56% with mean amount of 2.60% ± 0.25. By land use type, forest land had the highest carbon (C) content of 53.61 t ha-1 in Bajhang whereas in Mustang, agricultural land had the highest C content of 52.02 tons ha-1. Based on these data, we can say that there is potential for increasing SOC through improved soil health and crop production and soil. Sustainable soil management should be practiced for higher productivity. Livestock may also provide farmyard manure, which can be used to fertilize cultivated soils, which increases soil productivity. Increasing productivity would aid in increasing the access and availability of food in these mountain villages.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: mucositis; radiotherapy; chemotherapy; pathophysiology; management; melatonin
Online: 9 March 2017 (04:46:30 CET)
The current treatment for cervico-facial cancer involves radio and/or chemotherapy. Unfortunately, cancer therapies can lead to local and systemic complications such as mucositis, which is the most common dose-dependent complication in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Mucositis can cause a considerably reduced quality of life in cancer patients already suffering from physical and psychological exhaustion. However, melatonin, whose role in the treatment of mucositis has recently been investigated, offers an effective alternative therapy in the prevention and/or management of radio and/or chemotherapy-induced mucositis. This review focuses on the pathobiology and management of mucositis in order to improve the quality of cancer patients’ lives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: cyber physical systems; industry 4.0; MDE; hardware and software co-design; lifetime verification & validation; dependability; correctness; flexibility; self-management; self-adapting; self-healing
Online: 17 July 2017 (10:27:33 CEST)
Though Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) become very popular in last the decade, dependability of CPS is still a critical issue and related survey is rare. We try to spell out the jigsaw of technologies and figure out the technical trends of dependable self-managing CPS. This survey first recalls the motivation and the similar concepts. By analyzing four generic architectures, we summarize the common characteristics and related assurance technologies, and propose a more generic environment-in-loop processing flow of CPS and a formal interaction flow between physical space and cyber space. Further, the similarity between correctness and dependability is formally analyzed and the new five research questions of dependable self-managing CPS are presented. Then we review the critical technologies and related correctness verification & validation (V&V) methods, the architectures for dependable self-managing CPS. Further, the detail dependability management and V&V technologies are surveyed, which covers the areas of running-time fault management methods and whole life cycle V&V technologies, maintenance and available tool sets. For holistic CPS development, Modeling techniques and MDE (model driven engineering) based V&V methods are analyzed in detail. Then we complete the jigsaw of technologies and figure out the missing part. Further, we propose the technical challenges and the further direction. To our best knowledge, this is the first comprehensive survey on dependable self-managing CPS development and evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Innovation, and Invention: Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Diffusion Processes; Open Innovation.
Online: 5 September 2022 (08:56:35 CEST)
In this article we investigate the determinants of “New Doctorate Graduates” in Europe. We use data from the EIS-European Innovation Scoreboard of the European Commission for 36 countries in the period 2010-2019 with Pooled OLS, Dynamic Panel, WLS, Panel Data with Fixed Effects and Panel Data with Random Effects. We found that “New Doctorate Graduates” is positively associated, among others, with “Human Resources” and “Government Procurement of Advanced Technology Products” and negatively, associated among others, with “Total Entrepreneurial Activity” and “Innovation Index”. We apply a clusterization with k-Means algorithm either with the Silhouette Coefficient either with the Elbow Method and we found that in both cases the optimal number of clusters is three. Furthermore, we use the Network Analysis with the Distance of Manhattan, and we find the presence of seven network structures. Finally, we propose a confrontation among ten machine learning algorithms to predict the value of “New Doctorate Graduates” either with Original Data-OD either with Augmented Data-AD. Results show that SGD-Stochastic Gradient Descendent is the best predictor for OD while Linear Regression performs better for AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0254.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0; HMLV; LMHV; Production scheduling; Digital Manufacturing; Computer aided production management (CAPM); Smart Manufacturing; MCDM
Online: 17 March 2022 (11:47:59 CET)
Sustainability is the core concern of every business; The exploration of avenues to maintain sustainability while staying competitive with high level of productivity remains a vital endeavor. Production flexibility is a key area that can enhance the sustainability of manufacturing industries as it can ensure product availability, scalability, agility/fault tolerance as well as disaster recovery potentials. Technological advancements have provided avenues where companies can enhance virtually all aspects of their operations for efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity. This paper uses both quantitative and qualitative research approach to identify the capability requirements for smart and effective production management and subsequent analysis is done using Multi-Criteria Decision-Making methodology to identify and rank various industry 4.0 technologies and concepts that can provide these smart capabilities in in manufacturing industries to aid the businesses to achieve sustainability with production flexibility. The paper identifies over 12 smart capabilities and 9 Industry 4.0 Technologies which are applicable to production management. It also compares results from the analytics of historical I4.0 implementation as discussed in literatures with the current state as deduces from survey feedbacks from various manufacturing industries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0063.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: engagement; adolescents; obesity; diet; prevention; management
Online: 5 June 2018 (11:21:25 CEST)
Obesity is one of the greatest health challenges facing today’s adolescents. Dietary interventions are the foundation of obesity prevention and management. As adolescents are digital frontrunners and early adopters of technology, digital health interventions appear the most practical modality for dietary behaviour change interventions. Despite the rapid growth in digital health interventions, effective engagement with adolescents remains a pertinent issue. Key strategies for effective engagement include co-designing interventions with adolescents, personalisation of interventions, and just-in-time adaptation using data from wearable devices. The aim of this paper is to appraise these strategies, which may be used to improve effective engagement and thereby improve the dietary behaviours of adolescents now and in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0207.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Aquaculture; Climate change; Davao Oriental; FishVool; Management; Mati City; Shrimp culture
Online: 17 March 2022 (10:58:39 CET)
The impacts of climate change on shrimp aquaculture can vary widely and can have environmental and socioeconomic consequences. This study assessed the vulnerability to climate change impacts of selected small-scale shrimp farms of Penaeus vannamei and shrimpfish market vendors in Davao region, Philippines using a modified Fisheries Vulnerability Assessment Tool (FishVool). Shrimp farmers and vendors were interviewed using two separate semi-structured questionnaires. A total of thirty-nine (N=39) shrimp farmers and forty-eight (N=48) market vendors from various market areas within the region were interviewed. Data regarding exposure (E), sensitivity (S), and adaptive capacity (AC) were collected following the FishVool parameters with modifications. Results revealed that overall climate change vulnerability of the shrimp farmers was medium (M), where both exposure and adaptive capacity were low (L) while sensitivity was medium (M). In addition, the shrimp market vulnerability of the various sites examined revealed medium (M) scores for markets in Pantukan, Mabini, Tagum, Maco, Lupon, Davao City, and Digos. But high (H) vulnerability scores for the markets in Panabo and Sta Cruz. Overall, the study provided a better understanding about shrimp farming in relation to climate change impacts and vulnerability and provided information for future shrimp farm management, marketing and climate change adapation in the region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0285.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: cyber physical systems; industry 4.0; MDE; lifetime verification & validation; dependability; correctness; flexibility; real-time self-adaptation, self-management; self-healing
Online: 29 January 2019 (04:45:47 CET)
Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) has been a popular research area in the last decade. The dependability of CPS is still a critical issue, and rare survey has been published in this domain. CPS is a dynamic complex system, which involves various multidisciplinary technologies. To avoid human error and to simplify management, self-management CPS (SCPS) is a wise choice. And to achieve dependable self-management, systematic solution is necessary to verify the design and to guarantee the safety of self-adaptation decision, as well as to maintain the health of SCPS. This survey first recalls the concepts of dependability, and proposes a generic environment-in-loop processing flow of self-management CPS, and then analyzes the error sources and challenges of self-management through the formal feedback flow. Focus on reducing the complexity, we first survey the self-adaptive architecture approaches and applied dependability means; then we introduce a hybrid multi-role self-adaptive architecture, and discuss the supporting technologies for dependable self-management at the architecture level. Focus on dependable environment-centered adaption, we investigate the verification and validation (V&V) methods for making safe self-adaptation decision and the solutions for processing decision dependably. For system-centered adaption, the comprehensive self-healing methods are summarized. Finally, we analyze the missing pieces of the technology puzzle and the future directions. In this survey, the technical trends for dependable CPS design and maintenance are discussed, an all-in-one solution is proposed to integrate these technologies and build a dependable organic SCPS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive survey on dependable SCPS building and evaluation.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0031.v1
Online: 2 September 2020 (06:09:34 CEST)
Each sport has its specific rules, which determine what is allowed (or not) impacting directly on the sport demands. Studies involving physiological and time-motion measurements have shown that soccer is a highly demanding sport. The new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a world health crisis. Soccer seasons were interrupted worldwide to avoid spreading the virus. Leagues resumed the season (no fans at the arenas) after several weeks of interruption, causing overlay of schedule. This overlay (e.g., games every Sunday and Wednesday) will cause accumulated fatigue on players, raising the risk of injuries. Considering this condensed calendar, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) has changed (temporarily) up to five substitutions during elite games (instead of three as the regular rule allows). Considering the already published scientific evidence, clearly, the change in the soccer substitution rule due to COVID-19 is insufficient. Implementing unlimited substitutions may benefit soccer players' health, coaches’ jobs, more entertainment for fans and sponsors (e.g., keeping intensity during all game, including on the second half) and eventually prolonging the useful life of the players. A real game-changer!
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0393.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Innovation; and Invention: Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Diffusion Processes; Open Innovation
Online: 26 September 2022 (10:39:02 CEST)
In this article we have estimated the value of “Opportunity Driven Entrepreneurship” in Europe. We use data from European Innovation Scoreboard-EIS of the European Commission for 36 countries in the period 2010-2019. We use Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, WLS, Pooled OLS, and Dynamic Panel. Our results show that “Opportunity Driven Entrepreneurship” is positively associated, among others, to “Innovation Friendly Environment” and “Turnover Share Large Enterprises”, while it is negatively associated, among others, to “Sales Impacts” and “R&D Expenditure Business Sectors”.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0039.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: knowledge management; tacit knowledge; explicit knowledge
Online: 4 August 2016 (08:30:38 CEST)
In this paper I take the book by Michel Serres “Thumbelina” as the occasion for a reflection on the conceptual basis of knowledge management, as it was built by Ikujiro Noanka and co-workers. The direct access to knowledge that Thumbelina practices together with her peers is, in fact, for me, a god observation point to bring the reflection of Nonaka further, towards the discovery of a new understanding of knowledge and knowing processes. If the digital revolution is third step after writing and printing, in the soft changes in the relations between human beings and knowledge, then it poses in an urgent manner the problem to deepen our understanding of what knowledge and intelligence are and to change our practice at the education level and to design new digital tools to support our knowledge management processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0021.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: electrical and electronic waste; recycling; legislative frameworks; environmental management; landfilling
Online: 3 August 2016 (12:33:45 CEST)
Households and businesses are generating unprecedented levels of electrical and electronic wastes (e-waste), fueled by modernisation and rapid obsolescence. While the challenges imposed by e-waste are similar everywhere in the world, disparities in progress to deal with it exists; with developing nations such as South Africa lagging. The increase in e-waste generation increases the need to formulate strategies to manage it. This paper presents an overview of e-waste management on a global and South African scenarios with a specific case for Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) waste management practices in South Africa. CRTs present the biggest problem for recyclers and policy makers because they contain hazardous elements such as lead and antimony. Common disposal practices have been either landfilling or incineration. The research into the South African practices with regards to CRT waste management showed that there is still more to be done to effectively manage this waste stream. This is despite clear waste regulatory frameworks in the country. However, recent developments have placed e-waste as a priority waste stream, which should lead to intensified efforts in dealing with it. Overall, these efforts should aim to maximise diversion from landfilling and to create value-addition opportunities, leading to social and environmental benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0001.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: weed management; population dynamics; simulation model; gross margin; environmental impact; decision making.
Online: 1 September 2022 (02:23:49 CEST)
A crop-weed simulation model is presented to compare and evaluate Integrated Weed Management (IWM) strategies. Specifically, the model was parameterized for soybean crops in competition with Euphorbia davidii Subils. We used both, weed and crop demographic data surveyed in agronomic fields of the central zone of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina, throughout two crop cycles (2011/2012 and 2013/2014). The proposed model underwent a calibration process and subsequent validation with 70/30 % data split respectively (N=37). Two annual-based and one multiannual-based case studies were simulated to demonstrate the performance of the model. Different IWM strategies were compared under both, operational and tactical planning horizons through the evaluation of different model outcomes (i.e. crop yield, interspecific competition, economic return, and environmental impact). Our case studies results suggest that the inclusion of cultural management practices could reduce weed interspecific competition by 46 to 97 % and weed seed production by 40 to 89%. An increment in both expected crop yield, by 6 to 20%, and annual gross margin, by 44 to 199 US$.ha-1, were obtained in silico for similar levels of environmental impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0066.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: learning management system; integrated planning and advising system; information system; field education; social work; graduate education
Online: 6 August 2016 (11:28:58 CEST)
In graduate programs such as social work, field education is the signature pedagogy of education. As such, student placement with an appropriate field education agency is critical to ensure academic success and career readiness. A variety of Learning Management System (LMS) and Integrated Planning and Advising Service (IPAS) technologies have been developed to fully integrate technology into the educational system and streamline and improve the learning experience for students, educators, and administrators. Few (if any) of the existing solutions have capabilities to match students with field educators on the basis of an individual student’s completed coursework and area of specialization, as well as field educator needs and opportunities. This paper describes our experience developing a custom LMS/IPAS system—the School of Social Work information System (SSWiS)—that was designed specifically for student learning, faculty advising, and academic administration within our social work graduate program. We present the challenges that motivated the design of the SSWiS before describing the architecture and functionality of our solution. We then discuss our preliminary evaluation results. We conclude with a discussion of the benefits and limitations of our system in the context of today’s technical needs in graduate education in social work and other fields.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0232.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: citizen science; crowdsourced data; ecotourism; natural Resource management; social media; photo-elicitation; photovoice; wildlife conservation; wildlife tourism
Online: 22 August 2019 (11:32:08 CEST)
This data descriptor summarizes the process applied and data gathered from 50 publications/papers reporting on the use of photography generated by tourists, tour operators and members of the public, with a particular focus on the crowdsourcing of photographs through online platforms and social networking sites (SNSs) as a method of research for wildlife conservation and ecotourism. The papers were collected in a systematic literature review to inform a pilot study of the feasibility of using SNSs to crowdsource georeferenced photographs of endangered Bornean Pygmy Elephants (Elephas maximus borneensis) taken by ecotourists along the Lower Kinabatangan River region of Sabah, Malaysia. Papers were sourced using the Murdoch University Findit online-search tool to search over 100 databases, including Proquest, Scopus and Web of Science. The criteria for a paper to be included in the review (and shared via the dataset attached to this this data descriptor) were that it was peer-reviewed, published in English, between 1997 and the 31 December 2017, had the full text accessible online and reported on a study or studies that utilized photographs that tourists, tour operators and/or members of the public generated and shared via SNSs or online platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0551.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Risk analysis, risk assessment, biological invasions, regulations, policy, risk management
Online: 22 November 2018 (14:44:57 CET)
This report presents a framework for analysing the risk of alien taxa under South Africa's National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act of 2004, and the Alien and Invasive Species Regulations of 2014. While the report was initially designed to meet a specific South Africa need, the risk analysis processes developed can, we believe, be transferred to any specified geographic region. In outlining a series of questions related to a taxon’s likelihood of invasion and the consequences thereof, i.e. the potential impacts, the report provides a structure for collating data relevant to the process of listing taxa as well as a process for developing recommendations that is both mathematically sound, transparent, and that explicitly takes uncertainty into account. The framework is based on collating information according to international standards in biological invasions (specifically the IUCN Environmental Impact Classification of Alien Taxa Scheme, the CBD's scheme for classifying invasion pathways, and the Unified Framework for Biological Invasions proposed by Blackburn et al. 2011). The risk analysis framework is currently being implemented in South Africa in an effort to underpin national regulatory lists of invasive species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0130.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: demand management; European Supergrid; peak loads; residential electricity demand
Online: 17 March 2017 (04:41:25 CET)
The creation of a Europe-wide electricity market combined with the increased intermittency of supply from renewable sources calls for an investigation into the risk of aggregate peak demand. This paper makes use of a risk model to assess differences in time-use data from residential end-users in five different European electricity markets. Drawing on the Multinational Time-Use Survey database, it assesses risk in relation to the probability of electrical appliance use within households for five European countries. Findings highlight in which countries and for which activities the risk of aggregate peak demand is higher and link smart home solutions (automated load control, dynamic pricing and smart appliances) to different levels of peak demand risk.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Leadership; schools; education for sustainable development; ESD; management strategies; principals
Online: 2 April 2020 (11:23:23 CEST)
Education is expected to support the development of a more sustainable way of thinking, working, and living. Although there is a broad range of literature on Education for Sustainable development (ESD), the role of principals in the implementation of sustainability and ESD in schools has rarely been taken into consideration. However, based on the results of school effectiveness research, one can assume that school principals exert a significant influence on ESD. Sustainability is a leadership issue. When a school aims at integrating sustainability and ESD, the principal plays a pivotal role. She or he has to support the endeavor wholeheartedly and credibly, organize a participative process of school development, push ahead sustainability and ESD in the daily life of the school, support teaching staff in the application of ESD, involve students and offer them opportunities to launch their own initiatives. This article seeks to support principals in leading their schools towards sustainability. Four stages of the integration of Sustainability and ESD in a school are defined. For each of these stages, a number of actions and management strategies are suggested and explained in detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0156.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: rule-based system; reservoir management model; land management model; SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool)
Online: 10 May 2018 (06:27:38 CEST)
Decision tables have been used for many years in data processing and business applications to simulate complex rule sets. Several computer languages have been developed based on rule systems and they are easily programmed in several current languages. Land management and river-reservoir models simulate complex land management operations and reservoir management in highly regulated river systems. Decision tables are a precise yet compact way to model the rule sets and corresponding actions found in these models. In this study, we discuss the suitability of decision tables to simulate management in the river basin scale Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT+) model. Decision tables are developed to simulate automated irrigation and reservoir releases. A simple auto irrigation application of decision tables was developed using plant water stress as a condition for irrigating corn in Texas. Sensitivity of the water stress trigger and irrigation application amounts were shown on soil moisture and corn yields. In addition, the Grapevine Reservoir near Dallas, Texas was used to illustrate the use of decision tables to simulate reservoir releases. The releases were conditioned on reservoir volumes and flood season. The release rules as implemented by the decision table realistically simulated flood releases as evidenced by a daily NSE (Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency) of 0.52 and a percent bias of -1.1%. Using decision tables to simulate management in land, river and reservoir models was shown to have several advantages over current approaches including: 1) mature technology with considerable literature and applications, 2) ability to accurately represent complex, real world decision making, 3) code that is efficient, modular and easy to maintain, and 4) tables that are easy to maintain, support, and modify.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0137.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Aquaculture; Davao Oriental; management; Mati City; shrimp farms; water quality
Online: 25 April 2022 (05:52:22 CEST)
The shrimp industry in the Philippines play a vital role in the local and national economy through exports with markets abroad such as in South Korea, Japan, the USA, and others. This study aimed to describe the various cultural and operational characteristics of small-holder and commercial shrimp farms (P. vannamei) in the Davao region. It also evaluated the current risks and challenges faced by the shrimp farmers. A semi-structured questionnaire that focused on shrimp farmers, and operators in the region was used to collect data with N=41 farmers and operator. The results showed that respondents were engaged in small-holder farming activities which had an average yield of 10 tons/ha. On the other hand, the commercial farms that operate intensively had an average yield of 24 tons/ha. Most small-holder operators used electric generator machines to conduct aeration in their farms using paddlewheels and blowers. For the commercial farms, more paddlewheels and blowers were employed per pond compared to small-holder farms. Generally, the income of a farm was related to the yield of farms or the number of fries rather than social factors or size of farms cultivated. In terms of input costs, feeds were found to have the highest input costs, followed by the fry, fuel, labor, and others (fertilizers and water treatment chemicals). Most of the farmers mentioned that they are affected by diseases such as white spot syndrome (60%), black gills (35%), and red tail (5%). They perceived that the main contamination come from the water source (31%). The main threats mentioned are declining shrimp prices in the market, source of fry, water disposal, and overstocking, and water quality. Based on this study, farmers should follow good shrimp aquaculture practices and there is a need for them to regularly monitor their water quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0042.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: fitness; life table; cotton bollworm; corn earworm; toxin; resistance management
Online: 5 July 2020 (04:42:07 CEST)
Insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are valuable tools for pest management worldwide, contributing to the management of human disease insect vectors and phytophagous insect pests of agriculture and forestry. Here, we report the effects of dual and triple Bt toxins expressed in transgenic cotton cultivars on the fitness and demographic performance of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), a noctuid pest known as cotton bollworm and corn earworm. Life-history traits were determined for individuals of three field populations from a region where H. zea overwintering is likely. Triple-gene Bt cotton cultivars expressing Cry and Vip3Aa toxins killed 100% of the larvae in all populations tested. In contrast, dual-gene Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac+Cry1F and Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab2 allowed population growth with the intrinsic rate of population growth (rm) 38% lower than on non-Bt cotton. The insects feeding on Bt cotton plants expressing Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab2, Cry1Ac+Cry1F, or Cry1Ab+Cry2Ae exhibited reduced larval weight, survival rate, and increased development time. Additionally, fitness parameters varied significantly among the insect populations, even on non-Bt cotton plants, likely because of their different genetic background and/or previous Bt toxin exposure. This is the first report of the comparative fitness of H. zea field populations on dual-gene Bt cotton after the recent reports of field resistance to certain Bt toxins. These results document the population growth rates of H. zea from an agricultural landscape with 100% Bt cotton cultivars. Our results will help to refine models designed to predict resistance evolution and improve insect resistance management for Bt crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0415.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Patkos; sustainable development; knowledge sharing; knowledge management; Homo Technologicus; Homo Sustainabiliticus; conceptual model; quantum organizational decision-making
Online: 18 February 2021 (12:09:03 CET)
This conceptual, interdisciplinary paper will start by introducing the commencement of a new era in which human society faces continuously accelerating technological revolutions, named for short ‘Padkos’. In this context, a conceptual model of sustainable development with a focus on knowledge sharing and management will be proposed. The construct of knowledge management will be unpacked into a three-layer model with a focus on the knowledge-human and data-machine spheres. Then, each sphere will be discussed with concentrating on the learning and decision- making processes, the digital supporting systems and the human actors’ aspects. Moreover, the recombination of new knowledge development and contemporary knowledge management into one amalgamated construct will be proposed. The holistic conceptual model of knowledge sharing for sustainable development is comprised by time, cybersecurity and two alternative humanistic paradigms (Homo Technologicus and Homo Sustainabiliticus). Two additional particular models are discussed in depth. First, a recently proposed model of quantum organizational decision-making is elaborated. Next, a boundary management and learning process is particularized. The paper ends with several implications for the future based on the deliberations in the paper and the models discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0479.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: real monitoring; energy efficiency management system; wsan; majmaah university
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:58:31 CEST)
This research presents alternative solutions for an Energy Efficiency Management System (EEMS) serving as a framework for optimizing the energy consumption algorithm and lowering energy consumption. First, a monitoring Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (WSAN) is used for sensing, measuring, gathering data, and modeling all the dynamic disturbance parameters of the rooms in the building. Second, integrated software for metering and controlling the processes of digital data flow is used. Third, an alternative solution is proposed to reduce energy consumption. The primary benefits of this system are real-time monitoring; rapid, alternative solutions; and the ability to make a prudent decision on how to lower energy consumption. The system shows instant and accumulated solutions for short and long-term time planning. The solutions identified can be implemented in the same buildings under the same circumstances. The universities of Majmaah and Philadelphia have buildings with similar infrastructure. The system was applied to the buildings at Philadelphia University. The results were generalized to both universities. After implementation, the energy consumption of the EEMS using WSAN (based on the monitoring was reduced up to 23% when compared to that of the initial state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0102.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Water Framework Directive; Implementation; Deterioration Ban; Exemptions; Water Management; European Law; Environmental Law; Netherlands; Lower Saxony
Online: 4 December 2020 (11:14:41 CET)
The sustainable use of precious water resources requires effective water management. In the European Union, water management is mainly regulated by the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), introducing an integrated river basin management approach. As EU directive, the legislation needs to be implemented in the Member States, entailing not only legal transposition, but also application and enforcement in Member States. One major instrument introduced by the Water Framework Directive is the environmental goal achievement obligation of art. 4 WFD, containing also a deterioration ban with several exemptions. This study compares transposition, application and enforcement of the exemption of permanent deterioration (art. 4 (7) WFD) in the context of the environmental goal achievement obligation regime in Lower Saxony (Germany) and the Netherlands. The study rests on a legal analysis of literature, policy documents and jurisprudence. Although based on the same EU directive wording and case law of the European Court of Justice, the deterioration ban and the exemption of permanent deterioration are implemented rather differently: While the deterioration ban is predominantly understood as planning obligation in the Netherlands, it became an important permit requirement in Lower Saxony since the Weser-ruling of the European Court of Justice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0365.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Model predictive control; Mixed-integer linear programming; Multi-objective optimization; Energy storage management; Load management; More electric aircraft; Demand-side flexibility
Online: 25 October 2021 (15:43:38 CEST)
Abstract: Safety issues related to the electrification of more electric aircraft (MEA) need to be addressed because of the increasing complexity of aircraft electrical power systems and the growing number of safety-critical sub-systems that need to be powered. Managing the energy storage systems and the flexibility in the load-side plays an important role in preserving the system’s safety when facing an energy shortage. This paper presents a system-level centralized operation management strategy based on model predictive control (MPC) for MEA to schedule battery systems and exploit flexibility in the demand-side while satisfying time-varying operational requirements. The proposed online control strategy aims to maintain energy storage (ES) and prolong the battery life cycle, while minimizing load shedding, with fewer switching activities to improve devices lifetime and to avoid unnecessary transients. Using a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) formulation, different objective functions are proposed to realize the control targets, with soft constraints improving the robustness of the model. Besides, an evaluation framework is proposed to analyze the effects of various objective functions and the prediction horizon on system performance, which provides the designers and users of MEA and other complex systems with new insights into operation management problem formulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0157.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: crop-improvement; population genetics; weed suppression; sustainable weed management; Palmer amaranth; glyphosate
Online: 9 December 2021 (14:50:33 CET)
Increasing agricultural productivity is indispensable to meet future food demand. Crop im-provement programs rely heavily on genetic diversity. The success of weeds in the ecosystem can be attributed to genetic diversity and plasticity. Weedy rice, a major weed of rice, has diverse morphology and phenology, implying wide genetic diversity. Study was conducted to genotype weedy rice accessions (n =54) previously phenotyped for herbicide tolerance and allelopathic potential using 30 SSR markers. Cultivated rice (CL163, REX) and allelopathic rice (RONDO, PI312777, PI338047) were also included in the study. Nei’s genetic diversity among weedy rice (0.45) was found to be higher than cultivated rice (0.24) but less than allelopathic rice (0.56). The genetic relationship and population structure based on herbicide tolerance and allelopathic po-tential were evaluated. Herbicide-tolerant and susceptible accessions formed distinct clusters in the dendrogram, indicating their genetic variation, whereas no distinction was observed between allelopathic and non-allelopathic weedy rice accessions. Weedy rice accession B2, which was previously reported to have high allelopathy and herbicide tolerance, was genetically distinct from other weedy rice. Results from the study will help leverage weedy rice for rice improvement programs as both rice and weedy rice are closely related, thus having a low breeding barrier.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: No-show; Medical Appointments; Healthcare; Artificial Intelligence; Data processing and management
Online: 1 September 2022 (08:57:07 CEST)
No-show appointments in healthcare is a problem faced by medical centers around the world, and understand the factors associated with the no-show behavior is essential. In the last decades, artificial intelligence took place in the medical field and machine learning algorithms can work as a efficient tool to understand the patients behavior and to achieve better medical appointment allocation in scheduling systems. In this work, we provide a systematic literature review (SLR) of machine learning techniques applied to no-show appointments aiming at establishing the current state-of-the-art. Based on a SLR following the Kitchenham methodology, 24 articles were found and analyzed, in which the characteristics of the database, algorithms and performance metrics of each studies were synthesized. Results regarding which factors have a higher impact on missed appointment rates were analyzed too. The results indicate that the most appropriate algorithms for building the models are decision tree algorithms. Furthermore, the most significant determinants of no-show were related to the patients age, whether the patient missed a previous appointment, and the distance between the appointment and the patients scheduling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: GIS in solid waste collection; waste vehicle routing; ArcGIS Network Analyst; waste bin allocation; municipal solid waste management
Online: 1 April 2021 (11:04:58 CEST)
Vehicle routing is a critical factor in municipal solid waste (MSW) collection planning and operations. Poor routing can introduce inefficiencies and cause targeted levels of services or performance to be missed irrespective of the level of resource application. Trial and error approaches have been proven to be not the best in the planning and prediction of expected performance. This study explores various Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and analysis techniques, and how they can be applied to optimizing vehicle routes in light of challenging site conditions. Using Adentan West residential area, suburb of Accra Ghana as a case study, current performance of the trial and error method was measured and a GIS computer model was used to evaluate various optimization scenarios to determine the level of savings that can be made. Field measurements were taking with Global Positioning System (GPS) devices for waste collection activities in areas with varying characteristics and conditions, and data analysed for one selected vehicle operating four days per week. It was found that, for a scenario where only the bin collection order was optimized while route selection was restricted by the ArcGIS Network Analyst, 2.6% of travel distance and 2.21% of travel time were saved. For the second scenario where only the route selection was optimized while order of bin collection was restricted, 4.1% and 1.5% of travel distance and time respectively were saved. For a third scenario where both the order of collection and route selection were together optimized, 10.9% and 3.7% of travel distance and time respectively were saved. Lastly, by regrouping all the bins for daily collection, 4.5% and 1.2% of travel distance and time respectively were saved. The results demonstrated that there is always room for optimization of solid waste collection routing irrespective of site constraints and other challenges that the nature of bin distribution pose to drivers. In developing countries like Ghana, where there is high demand for services in the face of limited road network access, application of GIS in optimization of routes will guide providers in planning and subsequently make more savings in fuel consumption, vehicle maintenance and cost of man-hours.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: expanded carrier screening; prenatal diagnosis; pregnancy management; clinical utility; at-risk couple
Online: 1 August 2018 (12:07:35 CEST)
Purpose: Expanded carrier screening (ECS) informs couples of their risk of having offspring affected by certain genetic conditions. Limited data exists assessing the actions and reproductive outcomes of at-risk couples (ARCs). We describe the impact of ECS on planned and actual pregnancy management in the largest sample of ARCs studied to date. Methods: Couples who elected ECS and were found to be at high risk of having a pregnancy affected by at least one of 176 genetic conditions were invited to complete a survey about their actions and pregnancy management. Results: Three hundred ninety-one ARCs completed the survey. Among those screened before becoming pregnant, 77% planned or pursued actions to avoid having affected offspring. Among those screened during pregnancy, 37% elected prenatal diagnostic testing (PNDx) for that pregnancy. In subsequent pregnancies that occurred in both the preconception and prenatal screening groups, PNDx was pursued in 29%. The decision to decline PNDx was most frequently based on the fear of procedure-related miscarriage, as well as the belief that termination would not be pursued in the event of a positive diagnosis. Conclusions: ECS results impacted couples’ reproductive decision-making and led to altered pregnancy management that effectively eliminates the risk of having affected offspring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0138.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Smart Grid; Random Forest; Internet of Things; Power management; Machine Learning; Smart Meter; Priority Power Scheduling.
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:01:08 CET)
Presently power control and management play a vigorous role in information technology and power management. Instead of non-renewable power manufacturing, renewable power manufacturing is preferred by every organization for controlling resource consumption, price reduction and efficient power management. Smart grid efficiently satisfies these requirements with the integration of machine learning algorithms. Machine learning algorithms are used in a smart grid for power requirement prediction, power distribution, failure identification etc. The proposed Random Forest-based smart grid system classifies the power grid into different zones like high and low power utilization. The power zones are divided into number of sub-zones and map to random forest branches. The sub-zone and branch mapping process used to identify the quantity of power utilized and the non-utilized in a zone. The non-utilized power quantity and location of power availabilities are identified and distributed the required quantity of power to the requester in a minimal response time and price. The priority power scheduling algorithm collect request from consumer and send the request to producer based on priority. The producer analysed the requester existing power utilization quantity and availability of power for scheduling the power distribution to the requester based on priority. The proposed Random Forest based sustainability and price optimization technique in smart grid experimental results are compared to existing machine learning techniques like SVM, KNN and NB. The proposed random forest-based identification technique identifies the exact location of the power availability, which takes minimal processing time and quick responses to the requestor. Additionally, the smart meter based smart grid technique identifies the faults in short time duration than the conventional energy management technique is also proven in the experimental results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0198.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: behavior change; fertilizer application; theory; systems science; sugarcane; social norms; extension services; agronomy; management practices.
Online: 8 December 2020 (10:06:35 CET)
Research focused on understanding wider systemic factors driving behavioral change is limited with a dominant focus on the role of individual farmer and psychosocial factors for farming practice change, including reducing fertilizer application in agriculture. Adopting a wider systems perspective, the current study examines change and the role that supporting services have on fertilizer application rate change. A total of 238 sugarcane growers completed surveys reporting on changes in fertilizer application along with factors that may explain behavior change. Logistic regressions and negative binomial count-data regressions were used to examine whether farmers had changed fertilizer application rates and if they had, how long ago they made the change, and to explore the impact of individual and system factors in influencing change. Approximately one in three sugarcane growers surveyed (37%) had changed the method they used to calculate fertilizer application rates for the cane land they owned/managed at some point. Logistic regression results indicated growers were less likely to change the basis for their fertilizer calculation if they regarded maintaining good relationships with other local growers as being extremely important, they had another source of off-farm income, and if they had not attended a government-funded fertilizer management workshop in the five years preceding the survey. Similar drivers promoted early adoption of fertilizer practice change; namely, regarding family traditions and heritage as being unimportant, having sole decision-making authority on farming activities and having attended up to 5 workshops in the five years prior to completing the survey. Results demonstrated the influence of government-funded services to support practice change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0615.v1
Subject: Keywords: Building management system; Smart building; Energy consumption management; Demand response management; Energy consumption optimization
Online: 25 May 2021 (14:19:32 CEST)
Considering the increasing rate of energy consumption and its environmental detrimental effects, as well as considering the use of non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels, energy management issues have become more important. Given the 40% share of the building industry's total energy consumption, as well as the 80% share of energy consumed during the operation period, attention to the areas of energy management and optimization during the operation period of the buildings can have a major impact on buildings’ energy performance. In this research, through identifying building energy management tools and studying previous studies and assessing the effects of building energy management systems, the economic and environmental impacts of using building energy management systems on the annual energy consumption in an office building in Tehran as a case study has been investigated. The results indicate a 32 percent reduction in energy consumption and a significant reduction in the release of the environmental pollutants in smart mode compared to the base mode. Moreover, considering the social costs associated with the emitted pollutants as well as the return period, it has been attempted to identify the factors contributing to the economic justification of using smart heating and cooling systems. According to the results, the use of smart energy management systems can be considered as an effective step in optimizing and managing energy consumption in the construction sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0346.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: environmental health; risk communication; risk management; particulate matter; risk analysis; mass event
Online: 27 April 2018 (05:15:54 CEST)
Atmospheric pollution arising from diesel-powered engines can result in acute and chronic diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The annual carnival festival that takes place in the city of Salvador, Bahia-Brazil, is a large-scale event that gathers approximately 2 m revelers and 170,000 workers who accompany dozens of sound-trucks, or trios elétricos, for a period of seven days. These slow-moving sound-trucks run on diesel fuel, constantly exposing those around them to exhaust fumes. The present study aimed to evaluate air quality along the approximately 10km-long carnival parade circuit and determine possible impacts on human health. We applied a three-phase risk analysis strategy from 2007–2009: 1) hazard identification, 2) risk characterization and 3) risk management. Our quantification of atmospheric particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations revealed variable levels of PM2.5 ranging from 19 µg/m3 to 580 µg/m3, with peaks of up to 800 μg/m3 at sound-truck concentration areas. We then assessed the effects of air pollution on human health using ophthalmologic parameters obtained from 28 carnival volunteers, who often presented symptoms of eye irritation. Finally, we established strategies to communicate the study’s objectives and obtained results to the population through media outlets and open discussions with government agencies. According to our risk analysis, carnival sound-trucks represent the main source of atmospheric PM2.5 and NO2 pollution during the annual 7-day carnival festival. As a consequence of our research, the municipal government of Salvador issued an addendum to its carnival legislation mandating organizers to monitor atmospheric pollution, and, subsequently, all large-scale public events. Municipal government authorities have also promoted a shift from petroleum-based diesel fuel to biodiesel, a less-polluting fuel, for all adapted carnival sound-trucks. Our approach, which employed easily accessible and inexpensive methodology, provided substantial scientific evidence to support improvements in the regulation of air quality during large-scale public events held in the city of Salvador.Keywords: environmental
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0006.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Management; Improvement; System; Production process; Technologies; management methods
Online: 1 August 2022 (05:22:28 CEST)
Managers are often faced with the task of improving the management of the production 17process in order to maintain the sustainability of production efficiency in a highly competitive en-18vironment. The submitted contribution deals with the design of a system that will support them in 19the selection of progressive methods and technologies in order to improve the management of pro-20duction processes. Managers often follow new trends in this issue, but it is not easy to work on the 21knowledge that proven progressive technologies can bring them higher efficiency. The presented system is based on the use of knowledge of existing solutions of manufacturers of automotive components, where companies solve similar problems in production management. The mix of methods and technologies used in the management of production processes brings companies different results in the achieved efficiency. The proposed system for supporting the selection of the production management method and technology is designed from blocks of data collection, benchmarking of the performance of production processes of industrial enterprises, and further from data mining technology to obtain knowledge about the effect on efficiency from already implemented technologies. The last blocks help to examine the differences in the implementation of the same methods and technologies and allow to present the obtained results to the manager in the form of recommendations for choosing a suitable progressive method and technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0405.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: management methods; management; system; technologies; production process; process improvement
Online: 29 June 2022 (10:16:24 CEST)
The contribution deals with the selection of progressive methods and technologies to improve the management of production processes in the industrial area. The first chapter of the contribution summarises the theoretical starting points for the management of production processes and their progressive concepts. Chapter 2 deals with the analysis of the current state of play in the use of methods and technologies in production management and summarise its problem areas. Chapter 3 presents the design of a system for selecting the appropriate method and technology to improve the management of the production process. The system presented is designed from data collection blocks, a benchmark for the performance of industrial enterprises' production processes, and data mining to gain knowledge of the impact of the methods and technologies used on the performance of production processes. The last block of the system allows the presentation of the obtained results, which sets out the recommendation for the choice of progressive method and technology. The system is partially verified in the last chapter of the contribution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0103.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Covid-19; shoes; smart management; shoemaking machinery; sustainable management
Online: 7 July 2022 (03:48:28 CEST)
During the Covid-19 pandemic in Taiwan, analytical tools of PEST (political, economic, social-cultural, and technological), SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, threat), nine building blocks of a business model canvas, and knowledge management were combined to develop a theoretical framework, and used to assess business, smart and sustainable management of two case companies: Tung Sheng Company Limited and its subsidiary, Strong Basic Enterprise Limited. A heuristic inquiry research design was adopted. In addition to secondary data from the two case companies, major top managers were interviewed to reveal constructive questions about the existing business models and to re-interpret strategy. The results showed that case companies own capabilities of R & D (research and development) as a foundation to further apply new smart ICT (information and communication technology) and execute green manufacturing. Additionally, strong key partnerships are used to diversify business investment for leveraging on limited resources given current insufficient qualified employees. Resilient practices adopted new and green technology to help mitigate the negative impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic. This study provides a useful framework and practical information about how to examine business models, smart and sustainable management processes of the two case companies and to make adjustments in strategies for the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0201.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: diabetes mellitus; obesity; meta-analysis; patient education; self-management; disease management
Online: 13 July 2022 (15:19:53 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity account for the highest burden of non-communicable diseases. There is increasing evidence showing therapeutic patient education (TPE) as a clinically and cost-effective solution to improve biomedical and psychosocial outcomes among people with DM and obesity. The present systematic review and meta-analysis presents a critical synthesis of development of TPE interventions for DM and obesity and the efficacy of these interventions across a range of biomedical, psychosocial and psychological outcomes. A total of 54 of these RCTs were identified among patients with obesity and diabetes and were thus, qualitatively synthesized. Out of these, 47 were included into quantitative synthesis. There was substantial heterogeneity in reporting of these outcomes (I2= 88.35%, Q= 317.64), with significant improvement (SMD=0.36, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.49) noted in biomedical outcomes in the intervention group. The effect sizes were comparable across interventions delivered by different modes and delivery agents. These interventions can be delivered by allied health staff, doctors or electronically as self-help programs, with similar effectiveness (P < 0.001). These interventions should be implemented in healthcare and community settings to improve health of patients suffering from DM and obesity.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: liquid biopsy; ctDNA; cell free DNA; non-operative management; neoadjuvant therapy
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:52:27 CET)
As non-operative management (NOM) of esophageal and rectal cancer is becoming more prevalent, blood-biomarkers such as circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may provide clinical information in addition to endoscopy and imaging to aid in treatment decisions following chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In this feasibility study, we prospectively collected plasma samples from locally advanced esophageal (n=3) and rectal cancer (n=2) patients undergoing multimodal neoadjuvant therapy to assess the feasibility of serial ctDNA monitoring throughout neoadjuvant therapy. Using the DIDA-Seq error-correction method, we serially interrogated plasma cell-free DNA at 28-41 tumor-specific genomic loci throughout therapy and in surveillance with an average limit of detection of 0.016% mutant allele frequency. In both rectal cancer patients, ctDNA levels were persistently elevated following total neoadjuvant therapy with eventual detection of clinical recurrence prior to salvage surgery. Among the esophageal cancer patients, ctDNA levels closely correlated with tumor burden throughout and following neoadjuvant therapy, which was associated with a pathologic complete response in one patient. In this feasibility study, patient and tumor-specific ctDNA levels correlated with clinical outcomes throughout multi-modality therapy suggesting that serial monitoring of patient ctDNA has the potential to serve as a highly sensitive and specific biomarker to risk-stratify esophageal and rectal cancer patients eligible for NOM. Further prospective investigation is warranted.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0041.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: uncertainty management; risk management; safety; ISO 31000:2009; ISO 31010:2009; risk management framework; risk-sentience; safety culture; risk culture; enterprise risk management
Online: 19 June 2018 (12:58:28 CEST)
The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a new auxiliary enterprise risk management framework and process to serve as an enabler to the global ISO 31000 risk framework and ISO 31010 processes. This framework has been designed particularly for use within high-risk environments and those characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA). This paper proposes a methodology for optimization of structured sharing and grass-roots management of all available risk-sentience information with the assessed potential to develop into an identifiable risk in the future. The author introduces new risk terminology including risk-sentience, risk-sentience information, and risk-sentience management. The process involved the development of the Theory of Risk-Sentience (ToRS), Risk-Sentience Auxiliary Framework (RSAF) and a risk-sentience management process referred to as LUOMEAR (Learning from Uncertainties, Others Mistakes, Experiences and Anecdotal Reporting). Manchester Patient Safety Framework (MaPSaF), SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis, and a newly developed Risk-Sentience Fertility Checklist were used to conduct pre and post-trial evaluations. The findings include positive adjustments in safety culture, components of commitment to quality, communication and team-working around safety issues, access to evolving risk-information, and efficient sharing and management of recorded risk-information. Recommendations are made for more extensive application of both the proposed auxiliary risk framework and process within high-risk sectors to further explore its effectiveness and scope.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0294.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: vehicular networks; performance management; design of vehicular networks; mobile networks; vehicle-to-infrastructure; roadside units; infrastructure for vehicular networks
Online: 13 November 2018 (04:55:58 CET)
Over the past few decades, the growth of the urban population has been remarkable. Nowadays, 50% of the population lives in urban areas, and forecasts point that by 2050 this number will reach 70%. Today, 64% of all travel made is within urban environments and the total amount of urban kilometers traveled is expected to triple by 2050. Thus, seeking novel solutions for urban mobility becomes paramount for 21st century society. In this work, we discuss the performance of vehicular networks. We consider the metric Delta Network. The Delta Network characterizes the connectivity of the vehicular network through the percentage of travel time in which vehicles are connected to roadside units. This article reviews the concept of Delta Network and extends its study through the presentation of a general heuristic based on the definition of scores to identify the areas of the road network that should receive coverage. After defining the general heuristic, we show how small changes in the score computation can generate very distinct (and interesting) patterns of coverage, each one suited to a given scenario. In order to exemplify such behavior, we propose three deployment strategies based on simply changing the computation of scores. The results show that the strategies derived from the general heuristic are very interesting, all of them deploying roadside units in a circle pattern around the traffic epicenter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0057.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: tomato cultivar; allelopathy; competitive ability; plant-plant interactions; weed suppression; sustainable agriculture; weed management; vegetable
Online: 3 September 2021 (10:33:20 CEST)
The present study aims to identify tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars with weed-suppressive ability against target weed species in the tomato growing season. A greenhouse study was conducted with 17 tomato cultivars and target weeds Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.), and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.). Tomato plants and weed species were grown in the same pot. The height, chlorophyll, and dry weight biomass of the weeds were measured 28 days after sowing. The largest effect of tomato interference was on Palmer amaranth. Cultivar 15 reduced Palmer amaranth height, chlorophyll, and biomass by 58, 28, and 83%, respectively. Chlorophyll percentage of yellow nutsedge seedlings was suppressed by 15% by cultivar 64, whereas 13% of its height was reduced by cultivar 20. Cultivar 15 reduced biomass of yellow nutsedge by 40%. The percentage of chlorophyll of large crabgrass was reduced by 22% with cultivar 5, whereas the height and biomass were reduced by 35 and 44% with cultivars 38 and 63, respectively. Factoring all parameters evaluated, cultivars 38, 33, and 7 were most suppressive against the problematic weed species in tomato.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0079.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Systems Management, Biomedical Research Policy, Organizational Development, Quality Management
Online: 6 March 2019 (11:42:47 CET)
There has been a growing call for reform of the U.S. biomedical community in recent years. As a community, we face a growing list of issues including excessive waste, reproducibility, bias, inadequate training, and the absence of sustainable long-term planning that detract from the overall goal of advancing human health. In response to this debate, biomedical stakeholders have taken positive steps forward to remedy these issues. However, we must continually improve upon these steps to promote the long-term stability of the biomedical enterprise. Given the widespread interest of the scientific community in addressing these issues, there exists a unique opportunity to come together and create a new era of biomedical discovery. The completion of this exciting task requires reflection on our view and management of the system, and what the best route to sustainable change may be. Importantly, a coordinated approach that considers the collective make-up of the biomedical system and how processes and people influence collective output and create value for patients is needed. Here, these three areas and the concepts of systems theory, total quality management, and organizational development and their contribution to the management and effectiveness of biomedical discovery are discussed. Importantly recommendations are made concerning overall management strategy, process efficiency and quality research, administrative tasks, organizational cultural challenges, individual and team development, and funding strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0321.v1
Subject: Keywords: MPS FESTO workstation; production management; cloud computing; process management; Android; iOS; RFID
Online: 10 November 2020 (15:09:37 CET)
Industria 4.0 is present in smart and digital manufacturing, making manufacturing companies improve productivity, reducing delivery time and related costs. The objective of this work is to demonstrate through three integrated MPS Festo stations (Distribution, Pick \& Place and Sorting), using the Internet of Things and Google Analytics technologies, the benefits in relation to remote performance monitoring. The intended objective is achieved through the implementation of the monitoring system at the three MPS Festo stations. The data obtained through the integration of the Festo stations and their respective sensors are processed and analyzed in a cloud infrastructure, so that the main metrics are visualized and transmitted on a panel. This monitoring system improves the perception of process performance, as the main performance metrics are displayed, such as productivity, cycle time and parts produced. The cloud infrastructure allows remote viewing and monitoring of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0173.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: e-reputation management; online management; hotel industry
Online: 13 February 2020 (13:50:11 CET)
The purpose of this study is to find out the e-reputation management of the hotel industry, as well as the social media channels used as the tools of hotel e-reputation building. This study used a qualitative approach by analyzing the in-depth interviews with hotel marketing communication practitioners of 15 hotel companies in Bandung City. The findings identified that e-reputation is considered a crucial factor in determining hotel performance due to the change of customers’ behaviors today and identified also three types of e-reputation management activities implemented by hotel companies, such as online activities, offline activities, and online/offline activities. The results of this study have implications for the hospitality industry, as a reference for formulating their marketing strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0153.v1
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:53:33 CEST)
Large datasets that enable researchers to perform investigations with unprecedented rigor are growing increasingly common in neuroimaging. Due to the simultaneous increasing popularity of open science, these state-of-the-art datasets are more accessible than ever to researchers around the world. While analysis of these samples has pushed the field forward, they pose a new set of challenges that might cause difficulties for novice users. Here, we offer practical tips for working with large datasets from the end-user’s perspective. We cover all aspects of the data life cycle: from what to consider when downloading and storing the data, to tips on how to become acquainted with a dataset one did not collect, to what to share when communicating results. This manuscript serves as a practical guide one can use when working with large neuroimaging datasets, thus dissolving barriers to scientific discovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0153.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: pandemic; green areas; protected areas; urban planning; visitor management; protected area management
Online: 11 January 2022 (18:23:29 CET)
Public green and open spaces fulfil various social, ecological, economic, and aesthetic roles, which complement each another, but can also compete with one another. COVID-19 pandemic catalysed multiple societal changes, including citizens’ perception, needs and expectations posed towards urban green spaces. This article discusses the extent to which the temporally and geographically changed patterns of experiencing these natural spaces also influenced users’ perception and behaviour as well as their appreciation of the conservation areas. The study is based upon two surveys carried out in the greater metropolitan region of Vienna, the capital city of Austria. A quantitative survey (representative online panel) among Viennese population (n=1012), as well as qualitive interviews with experts responsible for conservation areas, administrators of federal parks, along with NGOs representatives were carried out in spring and summer 2021. Our study shows the changed use of urban and suburban large green spaces and conservation areas: first, from the perspective of those responsible for the areas as well as the visitors. Both perspectives supplement one another. They highlight also changed perception of urban citizens towards green spaces during COVID-19 pandemic. An increased importance of time spent in nature (68%) and possibility to visit large green areas (67%) was reported by Viennese citizens. Also, higher recognition of green spaces located close to home was observed among 69% of the respondents. Thus, the presented study contributes to the ongoing international discussion on the transition of societal needs and its effects on urban green spaces induced by the pandemic. Presented results deliver solid arguments highlighting the need of urgent transformation towards a more sustainable, resilient and healthy urban space.
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Bioactive substances; Biopesticide; Blast disease; Disease management; Plant growth promotion
Online: 9 August 2020 (22:38:01 CEST)
Rice is consumed as a staple food by majority of the people in the world and failure in rice crop, due to any reason, poses a severe threat of starvation. Rice blast, caused by a fungus blast has been ranked among the most important plant diseases. It is by far the most threatening disease of ric crop and it is found wherever rice is grown. All of the rice blast disease management strategies that have been employed have limited success and rice blast has never been eliminated from a region in which rice is grown. Hence there is need to look for the best remedy in terms of effectiveness and organic nature of the method etc. This study was aimed to determine the plant growth promoting and biopesticidal effects of bioactive components present in a mixture of Piper caninum and Piper betle var. Nigra leaf extracts. . The extracts were applied in the field to determine their inhibition effects against blast disease, growth and yield improvement.. Extract of both the plants promoted plant growth and exhibited antifungal activity against rice blast fungus, Pyricularia oryzae. However the synergistic effect of the mixture of the two extracts exhibited greater effects than an effect of a single extract. . All treatments reduced the intensity of blast disease on week 15 with disease intensity by 7.90%. The extracts could increase plant height, the numbers of tillers, number of leaves, number of grains per panicle number of heads per panicle, and the full-grain weight hill.. The highest potential yield (t/ha) was observed in the 2% extract treatment, and all treatment results significantly differed from that of the control. The potential grain yield was 3.23 t/ha in the control, while that in the treatment ranged from 3.81 t/ha to 5.61 t/ha. The high grain yield observed with the treatment was caused by the low intensity of blast disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0436.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Water Framework Directive; River Basin Management Plan; Water Resource Management; Water Governance; Stakeholders
Online: 16 June 2021 (10:29:51 CEST)
The River Basin Management Plan (RBMP) is an essential component of the European Union Water Framework Directive that details an integrated approach required to protect, improve and sustainably manage water resources. RBMP were intended to be produced for the periods 2009-2015, 2016-2021 and 2022-2027. However, after two years of delays in the development processes, the Republic of Ireland produced its first RBMP in 2010. The second RBMP cycle was also implemented in 2018 and is expected to run until the end of 2021 to give way to the third RBMP, whose consultation processes have been ongoing since December 2019. This paper contributes to the forthcoming RBMP by assessing stakeholders’ perspectives on the second RBMP through a desk-based review and by conducting interviews with nine institutions (14 interviewees). The qualitatively analysed interviews reveal a broad spectrum of actors associated with water management and governance in the Republic of Ireland through a three-tier governance structure that has been delivered (with amendment) through the first two RBMPs. Organisations such as the An Fóram Uisce|The Water Forum, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Local Authority Waters, and the Agricultural Sustainability Support and Advisory Programme have responsibilities designated in the RBMPs to deliver improved water quality, integrated catchment management, community engagement and awareness-raising. Trust has also been building up among these organisations and other agencies in the water sector. Despite these responsibilities and progress, the interviews identified communication lapses, ineffective collaboration and coordination among stakeholders and late implementation to be hampering the successful delivery of the second RBMP, in addition to significant pressures acting on water bodies from agricultural activities and urban wastewater treatment. Towards the third RBMP, the paper concludes that optimised water sector finance, enhanced and well-resourced communications, and improved stakeholder collaboration are needed to foster effective and efficient water services delivery and quality. More so, given the cross-cutting impact of the Sustainable Development Goals on water resources and the interconnected relations among the goals, the paper further recommends the integration of the SDGs in the various plans of actions and a co-benefits approach to derive the triple benefits from biodiversity, climate change initiatives and water quality measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: distributed generation; demand-side management; hybrid power system; micro grid; renewable energy resources; supply-side management
Online: 15 September 2022 (03:18:48 CEST)
Sources are classified into two depending upon the factor of reviving. These sources, which cannot be revived into their original shape once they are consumed, are considered as nonrenewable energy resources, i.e., (coal, fuel) Moreover, those energy resources which are revivable to the original condition even after being consumed are known as renewable energy resources, i.e., (wind, solar, hydel) Renewable energy is a cost-effective way to generate clean and green electrical energy Now a day’s majority of the countries are paying heed to energy generation from RES Pakistan is mostly relying on conventional energy resources which are mostly nonrenewable in nature coal, fuel is one of the major resources, and with the advent of time their prices are increasing on the other hand RES have great potential in the country with the deployment of RES greater reliability and an effective power system can be obtained In this thesis, a similar concept is being used and a hybrid power system is proposed which is composed of intermixing of renewable and nonrenewable sources The Source side is composed of solar, wind, fuel cells which will be used in an optimal manner to serve load The goal is to provide an economical, reliable, uninterruptable power supply. This is achieved by optimal controller (PI, PD, PID, FOPID) Optimization techniques are applied to the controllers to achieve the desired results. Advanced algorithms (Particle swarm optimization, Flower Pollination Algorithm) will be used to extract the desired output from the controller Detailed comparison in the form of tables and results will be provided, which will highlight the efficiency of the proposed system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Training; competence; incentives; management; performance.
Online: 8 August 2018 (10:55:28 CEST)
Background.Nurse gives professional nursing service to patients according to competence owned. Based on these services in the end of every year, nurses are given incentives for medical services as financial incentive. Purpose. To analyze the impact of competence training and incentives medical services’ distribution upon the achievement of nurse’s performances in General Hospital of W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Matterial and method. Observational survey research with cross sectional design. Population. Nurses in General Hospital of W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Technique. Total sampling technique with number of samples 183 respondents. Inclusive criteria of samples are willing to be interviewed, nurse’s status, permanent offices without limitation from particular working unit or poly in hospital. Independent variable: (1) competence training; (2) Incentives for medical services. Dependent variable; Nurse’s performance achievement. Variables are measured by using Lickert scale. Information are recorded through questionnaire. Analyzes using linier regression. Result. There are impacts of competence training (α=.000;ß=.489)and distribution of incentives for medical services(α=.012; ß=.152)upon nurse’s performances achievement in General Hospital of Prof.W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Conclusion.The training of nursing service status that could increase competences among nurses with affair incentives for medical services’ distribution simultaneously end up in the increasing of nurse’s performances achievement in a hospital
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0104.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: biodiversity; conserved areas; ecosystem services; effectiveness; management; protected areas; representative; targets
Online: 11 January 2020 (10:58:38 CET)
Humanity will soon define a new era for nature – one that seeks to correct decades of underwhelming responses to the global biodiversity crisis. Area-based conservation efforts, which include both protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, are likely to extend and diversify. But persistent shortfalls in ecological representation, management effectiveness and measurable biodiversity outcomes diminish the potential role of area-based conservation in stemming biodiversity loss. Here we show how protected area expansion by governments since 2010 has had limited success in increasing biodiversity coverage, and identify four emergent issues that –if addressed – will enhance the performance of area-based conservation post-2020. We close with recommendations for a broad biodiversity agenda that maximises the potential of area-based conservation. Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity must recognise that area-based conservation primarily focuses on local threats to species and ecosystems, and needs enhanced emphasis on biodiversity outcomes to better track and fund its contribution to global conservation efforts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0164.v1
Online: 14 June 2020 (03:55:08 CEST)
Species of Acacia have been extensively entrenched in the tropical, and semi-arid regions as well as in the southern hemisphere. Acacia species have been bounteous faces the pest and pathogenic pressure. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an immensely important aspect of producing a healthy Acacia plantation without harmful impacts on the environment. Here an attempt was made to determine the possibilities of integrated pest management for Acacia. Overall, this information will be helpful to increase awareness about the integrated pest management of the members of the genus Acacia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: fishery; bioeconomic; sustainability; tuna; management
Online: 2 November 2020 (10:09:47 CET)
Ocean temperatures are increasing. Little work has been done to examine the effects that these changes will have on fishery production. The study at hand seeks to incorporate the influence of climate change into established bioeconomic fishery models. Stock biomass is approximated to be a function of sea surface temperature. Following a feasible generalized least squares regression using data from the Western and Central Pacific, the interaction between fishery effort and temperature is found to be statistically significant. From this model, various functional forms relating effort, catch, and temperature are specified. In particular, a function that returns an effort requirement given a target catch level and temperature forecast is generated.The importance of these tools for fishery management is explored through application to Western and Central Pacific tuna fisheries. Recommendations for extensions into future research are made and the foundation for a model of efficient effort allocation across time and the entirety of a management area, given changing temperatures, is specified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0427.v1
Subject: Keywords: Solid waste management; LED lamp; characterization protocol; recycling; LED waste management
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:25:18 CEST)
Solid-state lighting has been replacing conventional lighting in the market, raising concerns for implementing an efficient end-of-life management system. Since LED waste streams have not been quite dominant, characterization studies (product-level characteristics, component-wise information, bill of materials, diversity, and differences) are inconsistent and having substantial gaps. This study investigates the end-of-life LED lamp literature, focusing on the bill-of-materials, and reveals that the characterization procedure suffers from a severe lack of sample representativeness. Consequently, characterization results are widely varied and not generalizable. Moreover, most of the studies did not inform and document the detailed sample characteristics, precluding the possibility of identifying reasons for variation. Combining available information from the recent studies, we present a mass distribution at the component level, exemplifying the prospect for meeting EU regulatory limit and the need for more insight at the lamp and component level. To fill the disconnection between lamp level characteristics and component and material content, we propose a characterization protocol that carefully documents lamp, component, and material level information by establishing a lamp-component–material composition nexus. The protocol may help researchers, policymakers, and industrial stakeholders conduct a systematic characterization, analyze complexities and prepare for a sustainable solution.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: waste management; civil construction waste; sustainability
Online: 27 October 2019 (10:26:32 CET)
Given the importance of the development of urban infrastructure and environmental impacts produced by the civil construction waste (CCW), it is important to correct the handling of CCW with objective solutions that are more environmentally friendly. In that sense the present study aimed to determine indicators that make it possible to estimate the amount of CCW generated from construction sites in the city of Londrina, Parana State, Brazil. The generation of CCW was estimated in a general way, regarding the composition of its mixture, correlated to the gross areas of the buildings studied and their generated volumes of RCC. This generating rate was evaluated in a general way and specifies two types of sites: the new residential and new non-residential constructions. The data required for the development of these indicators was obtained through extensive survey and interviews carried out at the environment secretariat of the City Hall. The generating rate of CCW obtained for non-residential buildings was 0.2052m3/m2 or 170.44kg/m2, for new residential sites was 0.2054m3/m2 or 170.60kg/m2 and for new commercial or non-residential construction sites, it was 0.20453 m3/m2 or 169.85kg/m2. It was also possible to estimate the amount generated annually per inhabitant in the municipality, which is 0.60m3/inhabit.year or 498.55kg/inhabit.year.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: emergency; hospital; emergency health; medicine; management
Online: 21 August 2017 (12:47:01 CEST)
Introduction: The management performance of hospitals in emergency departments in coping with clinical hazards is necessary for their success in providing quality services. The purpose of this study is to provide an optimization procedure and applying management performance in health and medical emergency on the rate of emergency preparedness of the suburb city hospitals. Research method: A semi-experimental and interventional descriptive study in the emergency department of Shahid Motahari Hospital in 2015-2016. Data was collected through the standard checklist of hospital emergency responsiveness test to WHO disasters with 90 questions in 9 domains which is codified by the World Health Organization, in the form of interviews and observing evidences , and if necessary a numerical analysis. Initially, the situation was measured according to this checklist. In the next stage, a set of solutions was developed and then the solutions were implemented according to the obtained information. Data analysis before and after proposing the procedure and its application in order to improve the quality of health management performance and emergency preparedness was performed using central indices, and for describing and presenting the survey results, tables and graphs were used. Results: The highest and lowest emergency preparedness rates for disasters and emergencies before the proposed procedure were the Communication Factor (%77/8) and Human resource factor (%2/8) respectively. The degree of preparedness of the medical center was measured in the management performance according to the model (WHO) before proposing the procedure (%77.98). The researcher's procedure provided and applied based on the information obtained from survey environment, location and type of hospital structure. After providing the procedure, the maximum and minimum rates were the continuity of service factor (%58.3) and post-accident rebuilding factor (%100), respectively. Generally, the rate of emergency preparedness of studied medical center in management performance for coping with disasters and medical emergencies was measured (%97.2) according to hospital emergency responsiveness test for accidents and (WHO). The significance level is less than 0.05, so we can say that the effectiveness with confidence (95%) was effective. Conclusion: According to the statistics of accidents and disasters in the suburb cities, the results of the research and the importance of the role of emergency departments in interurban hospitals in controlling accidents, the need for planning and implementation of practical measures such as conducting training courses on health management in disasters and emergencies, having an estimate of critical and essential resources, changing the structure, providing manpower (emergency management) in order to more precise control and ease of service, maintenance and repair of equipment, timely triage and retrofitting of hospitals were effective in improving their preparedness.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: effective anesthesia; earthquake; orthopedic; victim’s management
Online: 25 February 2020 (12:14:03 CET)
Lombok earthquake that occurred in July 2018 has three large magnitude earthquakes that caused huge losses; 564 victims died, 1684 injured, 445 343 refugees, and 215 628 houses were damaged. The role of anesthesiology is very important to give prompt therapy for injured victims. This research gave an overview of the important role of Anesthesiologist and the selection of anesthesia techniques during the natural disasters’ victims’ management. This study was conducted by collecting data of all earthquake victims treated at the emergency room (ER) of RSUD NTB on August 6th and 7th 2018 and all victims operated during August 5 – 25th 2018. All data were recorded, analyzed, and presented in descriptive form using frequency, pie chart, and bar diagrams. The result shown that the highest number of patients treated in ER are during the first seven days after the earthquake and reduced to several weeks. The majority of patients treated are trauma patients who need orthopedic surgery. Since limited number of anesthesiologist should be considered with the right selection of anesthesia techniques, so that the disaster preparedness could be prepared well and the disaster management could run well. General anesthesia was widely used than regional anesthesia, but the different is not significant. The type of regional anesthetic drug usually used is lidodex in combination with catapres. The role of anesthesiologist during disaster is important to handle a safe and optimal surgical condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0086.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis; nature; flood management; disaster
Online: 5 July 2021 (10:08:52 CEST)
A disaster wrecks those affected. It spares many in the affected areas, yet those spared may be indirectly impacted. Specific risks are often inherent within a social system or physical location, but they can also be created due to unavoidable natural or technological hazards. The consequences, however, can be similar in that they wreak havoc in communities and destroy economic systems. The analytical framework of deterrence and coping has ascertained beneficial in many circumstances, but a cost benefit calculation is a must to infer the feasibility of planning strategy and resource allocation. This study points to the Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) of flood management by District Disaster Management Kulgam. The assessment is established on secondary pooled data collected from administration offices, NGOs, published Journals, and local and national newspapers. It also characterised the strategy, the technique adopted, and the sources of flood damage cost information. The totalled benefits report for 78686.18 lakh of rupees, and that of total costs account for 2218.75lakh of rupees. The Benefit-Cost ratio greater than one (>1) indicates that Flood Management in District Kulgam was economically feasible and successfully governed. The State of Jammu and Kashmir put up with necessary prevention and administration measures to break the spell of devastation due to floods to significant status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0191.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: water data management; urban water system; strategic planning; integrated water management
Online: 20 June 2019 (04:02:14 CEST)
Rapid technological advancements in information communication technologies have enabled water resource data collection at greater spatial and temporal scale. However, this water data is often limited to the purposes of its primary collection, and limits decisions made by stakeholders towards sustainable urban water management. This empirically focused research paper examines how water practitioners involved in strategic planning can capture additional values from integrating different water data. Furthermore, the perception of 22 urban water practitioners across Australia are presented, regarding the importance of and difficulty in using water data for strategic planning, and the necessary steps for achieving integrated water management practices. Interviewees perception revealed gaps in available water resource data (i.e. water quality, ground water, stormwater, and urban water use), and limitations of industry guidelines for operating within existing governance frameworks. Overall, the research highlights the Australian urban water sector’s perception of water data’s crucial role in representing stakeholders interest; however, changes made in water data’s collection are required for an integrated water management approach. Implications for future open water data standard are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: offsite construction; housing associations; strategic management
Online: 10 December 2021 (09:02:12 CET)
Offsite construction is increasingly being presented as a way to increase housing delivery and reduce the housing crisis. Housing Associations play a pivotal role in the delivery of affordable homes and therefore offsite construction could be beneficial in alleviating the crisis. For offsite construction uptake to increase, the conceptual and pragmatic advantages and challenges surrounding offsite housing in relation to evolving social domestic needs to be explored and understood. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the viability of offsite construction as not only a full-service solution to social housing provision, but an integral strategic partner for meeting the range of specialised fabrication needs for these new properties. A literature review is carried out to explore the conceptual and pragmatic advantages and challenges encountered by HAs adopting offsite construction methods. The paper also investigates which the housing tenures are most suited to offsite construction technology. The paper highlighted that whilst individual case studies and example homes offer one mode of justification for Housing Associations to move forward, it is the cumulative effect of cost savings, sustainability, specialised skill sets, labour reduction, structural innovation, and rate of construction that should be weighed and incorporated into this consideration-making process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0091.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: cidb; contractor development; entrepreneur; growth; management; sustainability; time
Online: 31 July 2017 (11:57:32 CEST)
The focus of research has mainly been on the life cycle approach to project development, while limited attention has been given to the ageing construction companies that make all these activities/processes happen. This paper examines the organisational factors determining the sustainability and growth of building and civil engineering contractors in South Africa. The paper explores whether there are specific organisational factors that aid the sustainable development and growth of contractors in the South African construction industry. The paper analyses data gathered from face-to-face interviews conducted with four established and twelve upgraded and successful building and civil engineering contractors listed on the Construction Industry Development Board’s (cidb) Register of Contractors. The aim of the study is to identify the organisational factors critical for sustainable contractor development and growth in South Africa. The study found that organizational factors responsible for the sustainable development and growth of construction contractors include the size of the founding team members, management capabilities, strategic decisions made by founders/leaders and the ability of the company to constantly evolve, adapt and respond effectively to threats/challenges whenever they surface, amongst other findings. Capacity to generalise the results of the study to the large cidb registered contractor group is limited by the smallness of the sample size. Future research should make use of a larger sample size to obtain more general findings. The results of the study imply that the founding team size, experience, entrepreneurial and managerial capabilities, capacities and organisational structures that enable the efficient response of companies to external and internal challenges are key components of the definable arrangements that will support the sustainability and growth of construction organisations. The paper is of value to government departments and agencies such as the cidb and contracting firms in the construction industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0237.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: crop diversification; resilience; water management; water efficiency
Online: 15 July 2022 (14:54:43 CEST)
The specialisation and intensification in agriculture have increased the productivity but have also led to the spread of monocultural systems, simplifying production and reducing genetic diversity. The purpose of this study was to propose crop diversification as a tool to increase biodiversity and achieve sustainable and resilient intensive agriculture, particularly in areas with water scarcity. In this paper, a combined Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) was applied to evaluate the environmental and economic sustainability of a differentiated system of cultivation (pomegranate, almond and olive), according to modern intensive and superintensive cropping systems. Based upon the results obtained, it is deduced that pomegranate cultivation generated the highest environmental load, followed by almond and olive. From the financial analysis, it emerged that almond is the most profitable, followed by pomegranate and olive.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0076.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Acanthaster; coral reefs, disturbance; management; population outbreaks; research priorities
Online: 22 August 2017 (10:20:00 CEST)
Research on the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish (CoTS) has waxed and waned over the last few decades, mostly in accordance with the occurrence of population outbreaks at key locations, such as Australia’s Great Barrier Reef. This review considers advances in our understanding of the biology and ecology of CoTS based on the latest resurgence of research interest, which culminated in this current special issue on the Biology, Ecology and Management of Crown-of-Thorns Starfish. More specifically, this review considers progress against 41 specific research questions posed in the seminal review by P. Moran 30 years ago, as well as exploring new directions for CoTS research. Despite the plethora of research on CoTS (>1,200 research articles), there are persistent knowledge gaps that constrain effective management of outbreaks. Although directly addressing some of these questions will be extremely difficult, there have been considerable advances in understanding the biology of CoTS, if not the proximal and ultimate cause(s) of outbreaks. Moving forward, researchers need to embrace new technologies and opportunities to advance understanding of CoTS biology and behaviour, with focus given to key questions that will improve effectiveness of management to reduce the frequency and likelihood of future outbreaks, if not preventing them altogether.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0516.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: benefits; c++; comparative study; execution speed; memory management; python
Online: 21 December 2020 (11:57:01 CET)
In this era of technology, programming has become more significant than ever before. Python and C++ are both widely used programming languages. Python, the most popular programming language in today’s world, is a high-level object-oriented language whereas C++, the language behind most operating systems, is a low-level object-oriented language. In this paper, we present a comparative study of Python and C++. This paper discusses the introduction to these languages, their memory management techniques, and the reasons behind their program execution speed. Furthermore, we analyzed the execution time and memory used by multiple algorithms in both the languages with best, average, and worst cases. They are also compared with respect to the benefits and issues related to them. Results indicate that C++ is faster than Python in execution speed but Python serves as a better language for beginners due to its simplicity. Moreover, for the best results, the language should be selected according to the type of project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0393.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Humble leadership; employee creativity; top management support; project management effectiveness
Online: 19 July 2021 (08:40:27 CEST)
This paper aims to explore the effect of humble leadership on project success by integrating the mediating role of employee creativity. Top management support moderates the direct relationship (humble leadership and project management effectiveness) and indirect relationships through employee creativity. Time-lagged data were obtained from 332 persons working in the matrix organization across the information technology. The results showed that humble leadership enhance project management effectiveness by mediating and moderating processes. This study provides a solution to an underlying research question that has gone unanswered in prior studies. What are the strategies proposed for humble leadership in fostering the effectiveness of the project?
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0295.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: stormwater drainage; urban flood; urban drainage management; food disaster management
Online: 15 October 2020 (12:05:44 CEST)
Stormwater drainage and urban flooding are the popular issues in policy agendas and academia. Although the research on these title increases steadily an integrated review on stormwater drainage and urban flood with a focus on pluvial flooding has yet to be produced. This paper presents a critical review on stormwater drainage and urban flood based on 78 selected journal papers published over the period of 1990 to 2018. The review focus on pluvial flooding to relate urban stormwater drainage management and urban flood disaster management and to show the links between the two. The methods taken to manage urban stormwater drainage and urban flooding as well as the complexity of achieving a comprehensive urban flood disaster management are evaluated and discussed. To better understand the concepts behind urban flood and improve the urban flood risk management strategies, recommendation of future research directions are also provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: risk; resilience; pandemic; prioritization; risk management; Arctic
Online: 4 June 2021 (10:40:38 CEST)
The Arctic is a remote region that has become increasingly globalised yet remains extremely vulnerable to many risks. The COVID-19 pandemic presented new challenges to the region. Using the Search, Appraisal, Synthesis and Analysis (SALSA) approach to conduct a meta-synthesis of the academic and grey literature on the impacts of the pandemic, an assessment is conducted of the types of risks that have been presented by the COVID-19 pandemic, the scales, and the national response strategies for mitigating the risks. Two case studies are explored, Iceland and Greenland, island nations that exemplify the extremes of the Arctic and reliance on tourism, a sector that was nearly entirely suspended by the pandemic. An evaluative matrix is employed which combines five different scales of risk – nano, micro, meso, macro and cosmic – with a sustainability categorisation of impacts. The risks of the pandemic cut across the respective scale and categories, with the potential for macro-scale events (systemic risk) to unfold linked to economic spillover effects driven by the curtailment of tourism and various supply chain delays. Both Iceland and Greenland have exemplified risk mitigation strategies which prioritise health over wealth, very strictly in the case of the latter. Strict border controls and domestic restrictions have enabled Iceland and Greenland to have much lower case and death numbers than most nations. In addition, Iceland has led the way, globally, in terms of testing and accumulating scientific knowledge concerning the genetic sequencing of the virus. The academic contribution of the paper concerns its broadening of understanding concerning systemic risk, which extends beyond financial implications to includes sustainability dimensions. For policymakers and practitioners, the paper highlights successful risk mitigation and science-based measures that will be useful for any nation tackling a future pandemic, regardless of whether they are island states, Arctic nations or another country.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0003.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: grazed grassland, rangelands, grazing management, soil carbon, nutrient cycles
Online: 1 July 2019 (11:08:14 CEST)
The sustainability of grazing lands lies in the nexus of human consumption behavior, livestock productivity, and environmental sustainability. Due to fast growing global food demands, many grazing lands have suffered from overgrazing, leading to soil degradation, air and water pollution, and biodiversity losses. Multidisciplinary efforts are required to understand how grazing lands can be better monitored, assessed and managed to attain predictable outcomes of optimal benefit to society. This paper synthesizes our understanding based on previous work done on impacts of grazing on ecosystem goods and services, identifies current knowledge gaps, and formulates a plan forward. We review the impacts of two contrasting grazing systems, continuous and multi-paddock rotational grazing, on soil carbon (C), nutrient cycling and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). We then extend our review to explore challenges of incorporating spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability into monitoring and modelling C and nutrient cycling in grazing lands. We revisit two process-based models (i.e., DNDC and DayCent) and two watershed models (i.e., SWAT and VIC) widely used to simulate C, nutrient and water cycles of these lands. Finally we identify research directions for improving the knowledge base which is essential to conserve grazing lands and maintain their ecosystem goods and services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Circular economy; sustainability; environmental management; resource management; strategy; motivations; knowledge; challenges.
Online: 18 June 2018 (14:15:28 CEST)
The move towards a new Circular Economy (CE) economic model has been advocated and supported in Portugal, however, there is limited research on this topic. To address this gap, a quantitative research based on an online survey was carried out among 99 Portuguese organizations, encompassing a wide range of sectors and sizes. The results show that CE is regarded as a strategic and relevant issue for profitability and value creation. Furthermore, the perception that it requires the adoption of new business models in addition to the classical “reduce, reuse, and recycle” approach is growing. Moreover, based on the hypotheses raised, results suggest that the level of CE adoption is positively impacted by the status of the EMS (Environmental Management System) certification and the willingness to improve the environmental performance and achieve a sustainable business model. However, CE activities are still relatively modest and a friendlier context (fiscal, legal, organizational, etc.) and the stronger support from supply chain agents and consumers are required. Future research should focus on how to design and shape the transition from a linear to a CE economy, and to ascertain if the positive attitude towards CE is materialized in changing the way business is done.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0479.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: CEUS; blunt trauma; non operative management; follow-up.
Online: 30 December 2021 (07:48:03 CET)
Trauma is one of the most common causes of death or permanent disability in young people, so a timely diagnostic approach is crucial. In polytrauma patients, CEUS has been shown to be more sensitive than US for the detection of solid organ injuries, improving the identification and grading of traumatic abdominal lesions with levels of sensitivity and specificity similar to those seen with MDCT. CEUS is recommended for the diagnostic evaluation of hemodynamically stable patients with isolated blunt moderate-energy abdominal traumas and for the diagnostic follow-up of conservatively managed abdominal traumas. In this pictorial review we illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of CEUS and the procedure details with tips and tricks during investigation of blunt moderate-energy abdominal trauma as well as during follow-up in non-operative management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0193.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: pastoral resilience; co-management concept; decentralization; holistic management; water-shed management plan; commercialization of herding; Common Pool Resources
Online: 14 May 2018 (12:10:23 CEST)
This paper addresses pastoral resilience by drawing out the coping strategies and mechanisms utilized by the Maasai Pastoralists through a food system approach, based on the study findings of an anthropological study of pastoralism in Laikipia County, Rift Valley, Kenya. This paper is guided by the specific objectives aimed at establishing actors and their roles, and describing the institutional settings and changes in pastoralism. Using a new institutionalism approach, the paper focuses not only on the actors and their roles in pastoralism but also on how internal and external forces regulate access and use of common pool resources (CPRs) resulting in sustainability of the food system. We argue that this has an impact on the practice of pastoralism that continually defines and redefine the actors’ roles as well as elicit the value of pastoral economies and benefits accrued to a wide range of actors hence reinforcing pastoral resilience. The study also identified institutional settings and changes that lead to pastoral survival resulting from the country’s devolved system of governance. Data collection was through in-depth interviews, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and unstructured observations in the pastoral regions. The findings reveal that actors at the household, state, non-state, and service providers have developed varied coping strategies and mechanisms that sustain pastoralism. The study also identified institutional settings and changes that promote pastoral resilience; notably, private land ownership patterns, co-management of livestock markets, commercialization of herding, decentralization of livestock services, holistic management of pasturelands and the use of water-shed management plans. As a result, increased scholarship and advocacy in regards to the concept of co-management of livestock markets, is recommended as a means of understanding pastoral resilience that the food system exhibits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: telehealth; teleoncology; telerehabilitation; telemedicine; coronavirus disease; management; video conferencing; web-based platforms; breast cancer patients
Online: 6 September 2021 (17:34:49 CEST)
Telehealth is the delivery of many health care services and technologies to individuals at different geographical areas and is categorized as asynchronously or synchronously. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused major disruptions in health care delivery to breast cancer (BCa) patients and there is increasing demand for telehealth services. Globally, telehealth has become an essential means of communication between patient and health care provider. The application of telehealth to the treatment of BCa patients is evolving and increasingly research has demonstrated its feasibility and effectiveness in improving clinical, psychological and social outcomes. Two areas of telehealth that have significantly grown in the past decade and particularly since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic are telerehabilitation and teleoncology. There two technological systems provides opportunities at every stage of the cancer care continuum for BCa patients. We conducted a systematic literature review that examined the use of telehealth services via its various modes of delivery among BCa patients particularly in areas of screening, diagnosis, treatment modalities, as well as satisfaction among patients and health care professionals. The advantages of telehealth models of service and delivery challenges in delivery to patients in remote arears are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0313.v1
Online: 11 March 2021 (11:06:24 CET)
The rapid development of information and communication technologies has led to the use of new and digital technologies in education which involves combinations of text, graphics, audio, video, animations and other eLearning resources such as authoring tools, Learning Management System (LMS), Mobile learning and others. Arguably, using LMS leaves much to be desired. The inherent problem here is that the future of extensive adoption of ICT via LMS to enhance and promote classroom interaction in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) is bleak. This is worrisome given that the country is lagging far behind in the innovative use of this web 2.0 technology to impart knowledge. Further, the low-level application of LMS in instruction connotes the loss of inherent advantages in its adoption. Also, the online setting which makes students less nervous and interactive, sharing of ideas and viewpoints; and a host of other benefit will be lost. While evidence has shown that LMS is not a new phenomenon, the use of LMS in ODL is still at its infancy, particularly in Nigeria. Research in this area is rare. A quick search on prominent research databases could testify that. It is on this thrust that this study investigates University of Ibadan undergraduate students’ perceived roles and readiness towards integration of learning management system into teaching and learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0291.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: information technology; construction project management; cost management; impact factor model; progressive technology; construction industry, life cycle cost management.
Online: 11 December 2020 (16:12:55 CET)
Construction project management and cost management is a difficult process that affects the overall success of construction projects. The success of a construction project can be assessed according to key performance indicators (KPIs). Cost savings and cost optimization over the life of a construction project is one of these KPIs. Cost management is largely performed through intelligent information technology in the construction industry. Information systems and information technologies have seen an increase in use in the management of construction projects. The same goes for cost management. Several studies mentioned in the paper point to this increase in use in recent years also in the management of costs at various stages. Many studies point to the use of information technology and software applications in the field of cost management. Still, to a large extent, there are no surveys focused on the analysis of the impact and impact factor of information technology on cost savings or cost optimization in various phases of construction projects. The research discusses the issue of the impact of information technology on cost management in various phases of a construction project. The main goal of the research is to analyze the influence of information technology factors on cost savings and optimization in individual phases of a construction project. Several statistical methods were used in the research. The resulting model of information technology impact factor was created based on data processing and the use of the AHP method.
Online: 30 October 2020 (15:35:00 CET)
In the information age today, data are getting more and more important. While other industries achieve tangible improvement by applying cutting edge information technology, the construction industry is still far from being enough. Cost, schedule, and performance control are three major functions in the project execution phase. Along with their individual importance, cost-schedule integration has been a significant challenge over the past five decades in the construction industry. Although a lot of efforts have been put into this development, there is no method used in construction practice. The purpose of this study is to propose a new method to integrate cost and schedule data using big data technology. The proposed algorithm is designed to provide data integrity and flexibility in the integration process, considerable time reduction on building and changing database, and practical use in a construction site. It is expected that the proposed method can transform the current way that field engineers regard information management as one of the troublesome tasks in a data-friendly way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0250.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Management; telework; communication; human resource management; business; digitalization; Covid-19 pandemic
Online: 15 August 2022 (05:57:07 CEST)
In the context of the pandemic caused by Covid-19, an important aspect that was affected and changed was the way people communicate. Communication efficiency can be improved by using modern technologies, for example: mobile devices, digital audio and video platforms, text platforms, social media and more. For further economic success, digital skills are needed not only for executives, but also for managers, in order to be able to lead teams and avoid situations of stress and tension in the virtual environment. This scientific paper includes a primary research of how the pandemic affected the communication at the workplace. For this a qualitative analysis was first performed, in which the interview was used as a working tool. Next, on the basis of a questionnaire, a hypothesis was formulated and validated afterwards through multiple linear regression. This research highlighted the particularly important role of communication and, in this context, the role of the remote team leader. In order to keep the team motivated and interested in the virtual environment, the manager must use modern tools to motivate, support and express his appreciation when the team, respectively the members of his team, achieve their goals successfully.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0047.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: change management; decision-making model; risk management; resource management; process improvement; good governance
Online: 4 October 2019 (10:42:05 CEST)
Abstract: Purpose – In this article we lay out the change management practices adopted by financial firms in small states within the Eurozone. We determine whether these organisations have the ability to identify triggers for change (Red Flags) and subject them to eight thematic elements to understand whether management practices can continue to exist and support operational environments, even when unexpected circumstances affect their day to day operations and processes. In doing this we examine the extent to which the eight thematic elements from the model designed by Dalli Gonzi, (2019) (The Dali Model) can assist organisations in risk identification and business continuity planning. Design/methodology/approach – A self-administered questionnaire purposely designed for this study was administered to personnel working in internal controls within financial institutions of small Eurozone states. The participants were asked to grade statements using a 5-point Likert scale, ‘1’ being ‘totally disagree’ and ‘5’ being totally agree’ to the statement posed under the thematic elements forming the basis of the Dali Model. Findings – Factor analysis provided support for the eight hypothesised dimensions of the decision-making model: connection, capacity, governance, network, policy, training, process improvement, standards. Originality/value – The study provides a better understanding and support of “best practice” in change management through an understanding and assessment of the eight factors that are the basis of this model. It addresses practical recommendations to ensure application to a wider frame of use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0455.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Flying-fox, disaster management, heat events, heat stress, roost management, physiology, veterinary management.
Online: 24 September 2018 (12:28:19 CEST)
Flying-fox populations are increasingly threatened by heat events, starvation events and other stressors due to habitat clearing and human/flying-fox conflict.These factors are unlikely to resolve, meaning that a well-coordinated and timely approach to flying-fox disasters is imperative for the mitigation of further flying-fox population impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0249.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Land system science; governance; natural resource management; resource conflict; conservation; development; stakeholder en-gagement; ecosystem management; wicked problems
Online: 15 August 2022 (04:35:26 CEST)
Integrated landscape approaches (ILA) aim to reconcile multiple, often competing, interests across agriculture, nature conservation, and other land uses. Recognized ILA design principles provide guidance for their implementation, yet application remains challenging, and a strong performance evidence-base is yet to be formed. A comprehensive literature review and focus group discussions with practitioners identified considerable diversity of ILA in actors, temporal, and spatial scales, inter alia. This diversity hampers learning from and steering these integrated planning approaches because of its intractable nature. Therefore, we developed a tool—an ‘ILA mixing board’—to structure the complexity of ILA into selectable and scalable attributes in a replicable way to allow planning, diagnostics, and comparative assessment of ILA. The ILA mixing board tool presents seven qualifiers, each representing a key attribute of ILA design and performance such as project flexibility, inclusiveness of the dialogue, and the centrality of the power distribution. Each qualifier has five (non-normative) outcome indicators that can be registered as present or absent. This process in turn guides planners, evaluators and other participating stakeholders involved in landscape management to diagnose the ILA type, and or its performance. We apply the ILA mixing board as a diagnostic tool to three ILA cases in Nicaragua, Madagascar, and the Congo Basin to show some of the many possible configurations of qualifiers on the mixing board. Overall, the tool allows comparative analyses of the complexity of ILA in a structured and manageable way.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: nerve hydrodissection; pain management; ultrasonography; neuropathic pain
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:09:56 CET)
Nerve hydrodissection (HD), a technique used when treating nerve entrapments, involves using an anesthetic or solution such as saline or 5% dextrose solution to separate the nerve from the surrounding tissue, fascia, or adjacent structures. This technique aims to treat neuropathic pain, or pain caused by the nerve. Ultrasound-guided HD of peripheral nerves has gained significant attention in the medical profession and pain management fields in recent years. This is due to a number of high impact publications of randomized control trials demonstrating the efficacy and safety of this technique for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Even the 20th edition of Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine textbook lists injection of 5% dextrose as an alternative local treatment that does not have the side effects of corticosteroids. At present, there is no review of the current literature on this technique. This manuscript will summarize and discuss the following: 1) the different approaches to doing ultrasound-guided HD of nervous structures, 2) its usages in different clinical situations, 3) its clinical pearls, 4) the solution used, and 5) the postulated mechanisms of action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0005.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: School manager; knowledge management practices; Organizational processes
Online: 1 October 2018 (11:38:31 CEST)
Knowledge management gains space within the school organization and can contribute satisfactorily to the quality of teaching. In everyday life the school manager intuitively uses knowledge management practices without exploiting the potentials they offer or allow. In this context, the purpose of this work is to identify the level of implementation of knowledge management practices aimed at structuring the organizational processes used by the public school manager. The methodology adopted was exploratory, with a qualitative and quantitative approach. For data collection, an already validated instrument with twenty-seven questions was used. Respondents to the questionnaires, one hundred and eleven managers of the basic education schools that make up the public school system in a city in the northwestern region of Paraná, Southern Brazil. In analyzing the results, it was only at this point that we investigated only those practices that were related to the structuring of organizational processes. This decision is justified because of the responsibilities of the school manager in the execution of his work. The results indicated that the school in its daily life, makes use of practices of Knowledge Management related to the structuring of the organizational processes and that many are already applied by the managers.