REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0180.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: antibiotic resistance; food chain; antimicrobial peptides; food safety; food pathogens
Online: 10 January 2023 (07:56:04 CET)
Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is concerning issue due to its direct and indirect repercusions on public health, since decreased therapeutic effect of certain antibiotic to treatment complications that can cause death. There are several mechanism as to how ABR can be transferred from one microoorganisms to another, and many of them are dependant many environmental factors. The food supply chain is a environment in which ABR gene transfer can occur is multiple pathways, which generate concerns regarding food safety. Here, we summarize relevant mechanisms which are implied in ABR in food supply chain but also we are addressing routes of transmission and prevalence of ABR, implications on public health, and the application of new alternatives to antibiotics such as antimicrobial peptides, mainly bacteriocins, in order to countermeasure ABR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0603.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: brewer’s spent grains; brewing; fungal biovalorization; food waste; malt
Online: 27 July 2021 (11:47:31 CEST)
The beer industry is a major producer of solid waste globally, primarily in the form of brewer’s spent grains (BSG), which due to its low value has historically been diverted to livestock as feed or to landfills as waste. Its high moisture content and chemical composition positions BSG as an ideal candidate for further processing with microbial fermentation, and recent research has focused on filamentous fungi and the ability of some species therein to degrade the predominant recalcitrant cellulolignin components of BSG to produce valuable compounds. Many species have been investigated to biovalorize this waste stream, including those in the genuses Aspergillus, Pennicillium, Rhyzopus, and Trichoderma, which have been used to produce a wide array of highly valuable enzymes and other functional compounds, and to increase the nutritional value of BSG as an animal feed. This review of recent developments in the application of filamentous fungi for the valorization of BSG will discuss the biochemical makeup of BSG, the biological mechanisms underlying fungi’s primacy to this application, and the current applications of fungi in this realm. As the majority of these studies are at lab-scale, the challenges to scale-up and more widespread application and will be discussed as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0577.v1
Subject: Keywords: HACCP; baking; food safety; critical control points; prerequisite program; hazard analysis.
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:01:44 CEST)
The study aims to provide technical information on the development and application of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) in one of Dhaka's popular baking (cake) industries. A generic HACCP plan in accordance with legal requirements was created after a detailed analysis of data collected from the company. Every step of the production was examined for biological, chemical, and physical hazards. The prerequisite program was designed to address some hazards prior to production, thereby simplifying the HACCP plan. The critical control points were determined by answering the questions in the decision trees. Finally, the HACCP control chart was created to include critical limits, monitoring, and corrective action as components of several HACCP principles. One critical control point (CCP) and two operational pre-requisite programs (oPRPs) were identified throughout the manufacturing process.
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19 pandemic; food industry; disinfection trade-offs; one-health
Online: 15 December 2020 (12:58:18 CET)
Industries of the food sector have made a great effort to control SARS-CoV-2 indirect transmission, through objects or surfaces, by updating cleaning and disinfection protocols previously focused on inactivating other pathogens, as well as food spoilage microorganisms. The information, although scarce at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, has started to be sufficiently reliable to avoid over-conservative disinfection procedures. This work reviews the literature to propose a holistic view of the disinfection process where the decision variables, such as type and concentration of active substance, are optimised to guarantee the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 and other usual pathogens and spoilage microorganisms while minimising possible side-effects on the environment and animal and human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0291.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: food availability; food access; food utilization; food stability; Asia
Online: 14 July 2020 (05:39:54 CEST)
Food insecurity has adverse consequences on women and child health in a developing country. This study aims to fill the existing research gap by examining the dynamic impacts of food insecurity on women and child health outcomes, this study adds fresh large scale panel data; and unlike the existing studies, this study estimates the short-run dynamics on food insecurity on women as child health of developing countries. We found that there was a positive association between health expenditure, women's fertility rate, women, and child health outcomes. There was a negative and statistically significant impact of food insecurity on women anemia in developing countries of Asia. Overall, the empirical analysis found that there was a strong strength to be a negative correlation between food insecurity and women and child health outcome, particularly in relation to women’s participation as a productive labor force. The study suggests that there is need to multidimensional approaches such as women and child health outcome, is needed to advance this type of research areas and should be followed broad-spectrum policy interventions to improve the women and child health status as part of sustainable development goals.
Online: 22 March 2021 (13:13:25 CET)
Consumer food environments have transformed dramatically in the last decade. The number of food outlets has increased, and a large proportion of the UK population now purchase food from a takeaway or restaurant at least once a week. Despite these developments, national spending on food control has reduced and many Local Authorities struggle to meet health inspection targets. This work presents a data driven approach to enhance current inspection processes with a view to reduce consumer risk of foodborne illness whilst eating outside the home. We explore the utility of three machine learning algorithms to predict non-compliant food outlets in England and Wales as defined by Food Hygiene Rating Scheme scores >= 2. Using socio-demographic, business type and urbanness features we experiment with under and over sampling strategies at five ratios to address problems of class imbalance in the dataset prior to analysis. We find that Synthetic Minority Over Sampling Technique alongside a Random Forest algorithm with a 1:1 sampling strategy provides the best predictive power. Our final model retrieves 84% of total non-compliant outlets in a test set of 92,595 (sensitivity=0.843, specificity=0.745, precision=0.274). We discuss the utility of machine learning algorithms to prioritise high risk establishments for inspection by Local Authority officials and make recommendations for weighting outcomes to improve their appropriateness in an applied setting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Food; feeding style; eating trends; food interactions, food intake; food preparation; food management; food insecurity; meal planning; parent; child; family food environment; COVID-19; systematic review
Online: 4 August 2022 (05:26:38 CEST)
Home confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic has been accompanied by dramatic changes in household food dynamics that can significantly influence health. This systematic literature review presents parental perspectives of the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on food preparation and meal routines, as well as other food-related behaviors, capturing both favorable and unfavorable changes in the family food environment (FFE). Themes and trends are identified and associations with other lifestyle factors are assessed. In overall, families enjoyed more time together around food, including planning meals, cooking, and eating together. Eating more diverse foods and balanced meals was combined with overeating and increased snacking, as parents became more permissive towards food; however, food insecurity increased among families with the lowest income. Adoption of meal planning skills and online shopping behavior emerged alongside behaviors aimed at self-sufficiency, such as bulk purchasing and stockpiling. These results are an important first step in recognizing how this pandemic may be affecting the FFE, including low-income families. Future obesity prevention and treatment initiatives, but also ongoing efforts to address food management, parental feeding practices, and food insecurity, can account for these changes moving forward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0481.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: food insecurity; food provision; food assistance program,; impact assessment
Online: 18 November 2020 (14:16:49 CET)
Introduction In 2016 the European Union setup its first structured food provision program to combat food insecurity. We aimed to measure the program’s capacity in assisting its beneficiaries to achieve a healthy diet and measure their satisfaction. Methods A computational study was carried out to calculate daily food provision per person under the program for January 2016-December 2017. A cross sectional survey in 3942 beneficiaries took place in December 2017-June 2018 collecting anthropometric, sociodemographic and program satisfaction data. Descriptive statistics were performed and reported as relatively frequencies, mean ± standard deviation. Results Dairy, fresh meat, legumes, sugar, olive oil and tomato concentrate were the most commonly procured items. The program’s contribution to vegetable, dairy and cereal intake was the lowest (3.4%, 6.1%, 6.0% respectively) as opposed to free sugars (12.2%) and oils (24.5%). The program’s algorithm favors greatly (almost 3-fold) single person applications compared to 4+ persons applications. The monetary value was estimated at 21.23±23.4 euros/food provision, however 64.4% of beneficiaries reported a high positive impact on the household budget. 50.7% and 41.6% reported high positive impact on feelings of anxiety and security, respectively. ~70% of the beneficiaries were highly satisfied with the foods provided, with lower scores for quality and shelf-life (50.7% and 58.8% high respectively). Conclusions The program is met by high beneficiary satisfaction and is perceived as a substantial assistance. Increases in the amounts and variety of foods delivered, with a focus on fruit, vegetables and fish should be considered, to further improve the program’s dietary impact.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: foodshed; archipelago; city-region; food modelling; food self-sufficiency; self-reliance; food security; agricultural diversification; food planning; regional food system
Online: 11 December 2020 (11:36:05 CET)
Regionalization of food systems for shortening supply chains and developing local agriculture to feed city-regions presents particular challenges for food planning and policy. Existing foodshed approaches enable to assess the theoretical capacity of food self-sufficiency of a specific region, but they struggle to consider the diversity of existing crops in a way that could be usable for informing decisions and support urban food strategies. Most studies are based on the definition of the area required to meet local consumption, obtaining a map represented as an isotropic circle around the city, without considering the site-specific pedoclimatic, geographical and socio-economic conditions, which are essential for the development of local food supply chains. In this study we propose a first stage to fill this gap by combining the Metropolitan Foodshed and Self-sufficiency Scenario (MFSS) model, which already considers regional yields and specific land use covers, with spatially explicit data on cropping pattern, soil and topography. We use European-wide available data and apply the methodology in the city-region of Avignon (France), initially considering a foodshed with a radius of 30 Km. Our results show that even though a theoretical high potential self-sufficiency could be achieved for the whole food commodities consumed (>80%), when considering the specific pedological conditions of the area, this could be suitable only for domestic plant-based products, whereas for animal products an expansion of the initial foodshed to a radius of 100Km was required to provide >70% of self-sufficiency. We conclude that it is necessary to shift the analysis from the size assessment to the commodity-group specific spatial configuration of the foodshed based on biophysical and socio-economic features, and discuss avenues for further researches enabling to develop a foodshed assessment as a complex of complementary pieces: the foodshed archipelago.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0287.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: foodshed archipelago; proximity food supply chains; spatial signature; city-region; food self-sufficiency; regional food security; agricultural diversification; food planning; regional food system; food policy
Online: 17 December 2021 (11:37:50 CET)
: Foodshed approaches allow the assessment of the theoretical food self-sufficiency capacity of a specific region based on biophysical conditions. Recent analyses show that the focus needs to be shifted from foodshed size portrayed as an isotropic circle to a commodity-group-specific spatial configuration of the foodshed that takes into account the socio-economic and biophysical conditions essential to the development of local food supply chains. We focus on a specific animal product (beef) and use an innovative modeling approach based on spatial analysis to detect the areas of the foodshed dedicated to beef feeding (forage, pasture, and grassland), considering the foodshed as a complex of complementary areas called an archipelago. We use available statistical data including a census to address the city-region of Avignon (France) covering a 100 km radius. Our results show that the factors driving the use of short supply chains for beef feeding areas are the foodshed archipelago’s number of patches, the connectivity between them, and the rugosity of the boundaries. In addition, our beef self-sufficiency assessment results differ depending on geographical context. For instance, being located within the perimeters of a nature park seems to help orient beef production towards short supply chains. We discuss possible leverage for public action to reconnect beef production areas to consumption areas (the city) via short supply chains (e.g. green, home-grown school food programs) so as to increase local food security through increased local food self-sufficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0274.v1
Online: 19 January 2022 (14:21:46 CET)
The general objective of the study is to analyze food insecurity determinants mainly related to food price at macro level. The study used a time series data from the year 1988 quarter one to 2018 quarter four. Our empirical finding on the macroeconomic model show the short term consequence of food price change is positive with food security (negative with food insecurity). The long term consequence of food price change is, however, negative with food security (positive with food insecurity) at macro level. From the variance decomposition, it can be learned that the speed by which the undernourished people decrease in number in the short term because of the inflation happened is higher than the speed by which the number of undernourished people increase in the long run. At macro level, concern should be made to the supply side for food security improvement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0429.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Agri-Food; Food Supply Chain; Blockchain; IoT; Big Data; Sustainability; Food Security; COVID-19; Food Safety; Digitalization
Online: 23 November 2021 (14:52:59 CET)
Technological advances such as blockchain, artificial intelligence, big data, social media, geographic information systems represent a building block of the digital transformation that supports the resilience of the food supply chain (FSC) and increases its efficiency. This paper reviews the literature surrounding digitalization in FSCs. A bibliometric and key-route main path analysis was carried out to objectively and analytically uncover the knowledge development in digitalization within the context of sustainable FSCs. The research began with the selection of 2140 articles published nearly over five decades. Then, the articles were examined according to several bibliometric metrics such as year of publication, countries, institutions, sources, authors, and keywords frequency. A keyword co-occurrence network was generated to cluster the relevant literature. Findings of the review and bibliometric analysis indicate that research at the intersection of technology and the FSC has gained substantial interest from scholars. On the basis of keyword co-occurrence network, the literature is focused on the role of information communication technology for agriculture and food security, food waste and circular economy, and the merge of the Internet of Things and blockchain in the FSC. The analysis of the key-route main path uncovers three critical periods marking the development of technology-enabled FSCs. The study offers scholars a better understanding of digitalization within the agri-food industry and the current knowledge gaps for future research. Practitioners may find the review useful to remain ahead of the latest discussions of technology-enabled FSCs. To the authors’ best knowledge, the current study is one of the few endeavors to explore technology-enabled FSCs using a comprehensive sample of journals articles published during the past five decades.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0038.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: food; commons; epistemologies of food; commons epistemologies; food narratives; food values; public good theory; academic schools; paradigms
Online: 7 April 2017 (04:13:41 CEST)
Commons and food are experiencing a revival in recent years and yet the links between both are almost absent in academic and political discourses. Commons are often portrayed as historical and yet innovative governing mechanisms that can challenge the State-Market hegemony. On the other side, food is both a relevant agent of change and a major driver of planetary destruction, being thus cause and solution to multiple crises that affect humankind. Departing from the commodification of food as one root cause of the broken global food system, this text firstly situates and discusses the different schools of thought (or epistemologies) that have addressed the private/public, commodity/commons nature of goods in general, and then explores how those schools have considered food in particular. To do so, the author has defined five epistemologies, four academic (economic, legal, historical and political) and one non-academic (grassroots activists). The analysis highlights how those epistemologies have yielded incommensurable understandings and conflicting vocabularies, hence creating confusion in the socio-political realm and even rejection around the idea of food being considered as a commons. The economic epistemic regard has reigned over the others by applying an approach to commons, public and private goods that is theoretical, reductionist and ontological instead of phenomenological, therefore preventing or obscuring other scholarly or practical understanding of commons. When applied to food, the iron law of economics dictated that food, a private good based on rivalry and excludability, shall be better allocated through market mechanisms with absolute proprietary rights and valued as a pure commodity. This reductionist view collides with the plurality of meanings of food in different societies, civilisations and historical periods, as other schools of thought indicate. The author uses diverse epistemic tools to re-construct food as a commons, based on its essentiality to human beings and societies and the customary and contemporary praxis to produce, consume and govern food collectively through non-market mechanisms for more than 2000 centuries. As commoning has instituting power to create different political and legal frameworks, if food is valued differently the entire architecture of the global food system would change, as the grassroots activist school claims. Re-commoning food defies the legal and political scaffoldings that sustain the hegemony of market and state decision-makers over eaters and food producers and informs sustainable forms of food production (agro-ecology), new collective practices of governance (food democracies) and alternative policies to regain control over the food system (food sovereignty). Food as a commons is an agent of change with transformative power, no matter what economists say.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0163.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: food security; food waste; nutrition; overconsumption; sustainable and healthy food choices/systems
Online: 12 October 2022 (05:41:27 CEST)
Food security is a matter of global concern, as the supply of food is one of the basic needs, ensuring the survival of the species. The trend of globalization and development of the global economy has shifted the responsible, local consumption patterns towards an increased homogeneity of diets, with food products being disconnected from their source, leading to two major results: (1) increased global consumption, driven by the extensive availability of affordable seasonal foods throughout the year and (2) increased uncertainty in the supply chain – susceptible to disruptions, causing food insecurity. To determine what the nutritional model is in the case of the present study – Romania – we developed a questionnaire of 32 questions and distributed it to 1,053 respondents from Romania. The survey was conducted during 2021 and 2022, both in urban and rural areas with the aim of investigating the consumption pattern of the population. The analysis of the questionnaire data reveals overconsumption of animal products, starchy vegetables and bread and pastry products. This nutritional pattern with a high intake in animal protein, correlated with a lack of diversification, is extremely unsustainable, having a negative impact on human health and environmental health.behaviour towards a careful approach to food, environment and personal health, aims to identify consumption patterns that have the potential to increase the sustainability of the food system and a positive correlation with food security. Adopting sustainable dietary patters, based on short supply chains and mindful consumption, has great potential in restoring food security and resilience to adversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0110.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: food security; food waste; nutrition; overconsumption; sustainable and healthy food choices/systems
Online: 8 June 2022 (03:35:57 CEST)
Food security is a matter of global interest, as the provision of food resources is the primary determinant of human existence. Food is one of the basic needs, ensuring the survival of the species. The trend of globalization and development of the global economy has shifted the responsible local consumption patterns to an increased homogeneity of diets, food products being disconnected from their source. This disconnection led to two major results: (1) increased global consumption, with seasonal foods now available throughout the year, and a decrease in food prices on the global market, and (2) increased uncertainty in the supply chain, susceptible to disruptions, as was the case during the Covid-19 pandemic. The present study, based on the research and analysis of third-party data on food security, sustainable diets, consumption patterns and recommended actions to change the current unsustainable consumer behaviour towards a careful approach to food, environment and personal health, aims to identify consumption patterns that have the potential to increase the sustainability of the food system and a positive correlation with food security. Adopting sustainable dietary patters, based on short supply chains and mindful consumption, has great potential in restoring food security and resilience to adversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0017.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: food safety; local health departments; food inspection; primary prevention; food safety policy
Online: 4 May 2022 (15:38:09 CEST)
(1) Background: Several agencies in the United States play a primary role in ensuring food safety, yet foodborne illnesses result in about 3,000 deaths and cost more than $15.6 billion each year. The study objectives included analyzing local health departments’ (LHDs) level of engagement in food safety and other related services, and LHDs’ characteristics associated with those services. (2) Methods: We used data from 1,496 LHDs that participated in the 2019 National Profile of Local Health Departments Survey, administered to all 2,459 LHDs in the United States. Logistic regression analyses were performed to model multiple dichotomous variables. (3) Results: An estimated 78.9% of LHDs performed food safety inspections, 78.3% provided food safety education, 40.7% provided food processing inspections, and 48.4% engaged in policy and advocacy. The odds for LHDs to directly provide preventive nutrition services were 20 times higher if the LHD had one or more nutritionists on staff (Adjusted Odds Ratio or AOR=20.0; Confidence Interval, CI=12.4-32.2) compared to LHDs with no nutritionists. Other LHD characteristics significantly associated with the provision of nutrition services (p<.05) included population size, state governance (rather than local), and LHD having at least one registered, licensed, practical, or vocational nurse. The odds of providing food processing services were lower for locally governed than state governed LHDs (AOR=0.5; CI=0.4-0.7). The odds of performing food safety inspections varied by LHD’s population size, whether a nutritionist was on staff or not, state governance (vs. local), and having completed a community health assessment (CHA) within 5 years. (4) Conclusions: LHDs play a critical role in ensuring safe food for Americans, yet variations exist in their performance, based on their specific characteristics. Adequate funding and a competent workforce are essential for LHDs to utilize evidence-based practices and engage in policymaking and advocacy concerning food safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0483.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Bombyx mori; silk fibroin; food safety; shelf-life; toxicity; mutagenicity; allergenicity; silk; protein; silk protein; food; food access; food waste; nutrition; food technology
Online: 23 October 2020 (10:41:54 CEST)
Recent studies have demonstrated silk fibroin’s ability to extend the shelf life of foods by mitigating the hallmarks of spoilage, namely oxidation and dehydration. Due to the potential for this protein to become more widespread, its safety was evaluated comprehensively. First, a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test) was conducted in five bacterial strains. Second, an in vivo erythrocyte test was conducted with Sprague Dawley rats at doses up to 1,000mg/kg-bw/day. Third, a range-finder study was conducted with Sprague Dawley rats at the highest consumption amount given solubility and oral gavage volume constrains (500mg/kg-bw/day). Fourth, a 28-day study in Sprague Dawley rats was conducted at the 500mg/kg-bw/day amount. Fifth, an in vitro pepsin digestion assay was performed to assess the potential for protein allergenicity. Sixth, allergenic potential was further assessed using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy for detection of allergenic insect proteins. Seventh, the protein sequences were subjected to bioinformatic analyses. Together, these studies raise no mutagenic, carcinogenic, toxicological, or allergenic concerns with the oral consumption of silk fibroin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0436.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: FIBROMYALGIA; FOOD INTOLERANCE; FOOD SENSITIVITY; AUTISM; HYPERMOBILITY
Online: 25 January 2023 (03:17:18 CET)
Introduction People are presenting with chronic musculoskeletal pain at a younger age, and many fulfil criteria for fibromyalgia. We have recently shown a strong association between fibromyalgia symptoms and autistic traits in a self-selected community population, with the relationship mediated in part by the presence of hypermobility. Many respondents also described food sensitivities and intolerances. This study explores relationships between food issues and fibromyalgia symptoms in this population Methods The study used a nonexperimental, correlational design with data collected from a volunteer sample of 442 adults (aged 18-60) who completed online self-report questionnaires assessing each of fibromyalgia symptoms (ACR criteria), autistic traits (RAADS score) and hypermobility (Beighton’s test). Subjects were also asked to record any food sensitivities, allergies, or intolerances, along with their consequences. Correlation analyses and linear regressions were used to test the relationships between these features and each of fibromyalgia, autistic traits and hypermobility. Data was analysed using parametric and non-parametric techniques to assess the strength and significance of relationships, causes of variance and the potential mediating effect of food-related symptoms in the correlation between fibromyalgia features and autistic traits Results Our self-selected community population had a mean age of 24 years and was 77% female. The prevalence of fibromyalgia, autistic traits and hypermobility was 40%, 65% and 44% respectively. Half of all subjects reported food sensitivity and 31% reported food intolerance. The incidence of food-related symptoms was higher among subjects who met criteria for fibromyalgia than those who reported autistic traits or hypermobility. Food sensitivity and food intolerance were both more significantly associated with fibromyalgia (r=0.24, p>0.001 and r=0.38, p>0.001) than with autistic traits (r=0.15, p>0.01 and r=0.17, p>0.01). Discussion This is the first community study to provide evidence for a direct association between features of fibromyalgia and reported food intolerance and sensitivity. Although self-selected, the findings in our predominantly young population suggest that gluten and lactose consumption may be associated with higher levels of musculoskeletal pain. Avoidance of these foodstuffs was commonly reported to reduce symptoms. Dietary adjustment may merit further investigation as a therapeutic modality for some patients with fibromyalgia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0058.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Rural; Food System; Inequities; Disparities; Food Security
Online: 5 July 2020 (09:13:17 CEST)
We seek to elucidate an aspirational vision for the food system and explore whether the characteristics of such a system inadvertently set unattainable standards for rural, low wealth communities. We apply discourse analysis to the following qualitative datasets: (1) interviews with food experts and advocates, (2) scholarly and grey literature, (3) industry websites, and (4) email exchanges between food advocates. The analysis revealed eight aspirational food system discourses: Production, Distribution, and Infrastructure; Healthy, Organic, Local Food; Behavioral Health and Education; Sustainability; Finance and Investment; Huger Relief; Demand Side Preferences; Romanticized, Community Led Transformations. Study findings reveal that of eight discourses only three encompass the experiences of rural, low wealth residents. This aspirational food system may result in the disempowerment of the needs of rural, low wealth groups; a perpetuation of the failure of groups who will be unable to reach the aspirational food vision; silencing of discourses that might question those that play a role in the inequitable distribution of income while sanctioning discourses that focus on personal or community solutions; and the absence of other policy-based solutions that address issues located within the food system. Further research is needed to inform policies and programs to mitigate food insecurity in rural, low wealth populations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0114.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: food security; sustainable and healthy food choices/systems; metabolic food waste; nutrition; overconsumption
Online: 8 June 2022 (05:21:51 CEST)
The Metabolic Food Waste [MFW (kg of food)], first time developed in 2016 as a new indicator by Serafini and Toti, indicates the amount of food consumed over the nutritional requirements and the impact of this overconsumption on the environment. It is necessary to identify the causes and to develop potential methods to prevent and reduce MFW, at the same time with increasing consumer awareness about unsustainable diets and changing diet habits toward more environmentally conscious consumption patterns. By analysing and corroborating external data available for food waste, nutritional requirements, environmental impact of food waste and consumer behaviour, we identified as primary causes for MFW the lack of nutritional education and little understanding of the nutritional requirements amongst all categories of consumers, no access to appropriate food resources or reduced availability of fresh produced food. We conclude that for the quantification of the negative impact of MFW on both the environment and human health, we need a decisive action to raise consumer awareness for healthy and sustainable diets, together with an uniform worldwide distribution of the nutritious food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: household food waste; diets; food choices; dietary patterns
Online: 28 October 2022 (08:53:01 CEST)
Starting from an original survey conducted in eight countries in 2021 (Canada, China, Germany, Italy, Russia, Spain, UK, and USA), this research explores the relationship between household food waste and dietary habits in a cross-country comparative perspective. 8,000 questionnaires were recorded from samples representative of adult population of each country through an online survey conducted between the 13th and the 24th of August. The questionnaires were built on the work of Waste Watcher International Observatory on Food and Sustainability, an international observatory of social, behavioral and lifestyles dynamics behind household food waste. Relationship between per capita self-reported amount of food waste (expressed in kilocalories) and self-declared dietary habits (Traditional, Healthy and Sustainable, Vegetarian, Smart, Confused) was estimated using multiple linear regression models. Results show that Smart diets are associated with higher values of food waste in Canada, Spain, UK and USA. Vegetarian diets are associated to lower food waste values in China, Germany, UK and USA but not in Italy, Russia and Spain. Since the share of population adopting a Smart diet is on average 2.7% of the sample, interventions for food waste reduction should focus on this specific type of consumers, often associated to larger amounts of food waste.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0221.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Artificial intelligence; machine learning; food security; food assistance
Online: 14 July 2022 (12:12:01 CEST)
Background: Machine learning has revolutionized situational awareness during disaster management by classifying, clustering, and predicting impacted locations and people. Despite its importance, no review has been conducted on machine learning tools for food assistance efforts during emergency or non-emergency situations. The purpose of this scoping review is to address that gap. Methods: Keywords were defined within the concepts of food assistance and machine learning. After the database searches, PRISMA guidelines were followed to perform a partnered, two-round scoping literature review. Text mining and Latent Dirichlet Allocation topic modeling algorithms were used to determine trends. Results: 28 articles met criteria and were included in the analysis. The types of study designs included: model development (42.9%), non-study (i.e., text and opinion) (28.6%), qualitative research (14.3%), case study (10.7%), and meta-analysis (3.6%). There were no quantitative studies. The machine learning tools’ main functions were improving SNAP programs (32.1%), detecting needs and resources (25%), predicting food insecurity (21.4%), and situational awareness of current food insecurity issues (21.4%). None of these studies took place during a disaster or explicitly addressed emergency mitigation, preparedness, or recovery. All of the studies were in early phases of development and implementation. Conclusion: Machine learning tools for improving situational awareness, resource allocation, policymaking, and prediction have the potential to improve food assistance, but there is a lack of implementation and evaluation during all disaster phases. Also needed is more formative work on generating food-related queries and defining variables and features of food security.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0113.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Probiotics; food matrices; food stress; cell viability; model digestion
Online: 5 July 2021 (15:59:51 CEST)
The aim was to evaluate the influence of model (alcohol, sugar, salt, protein and acid) and real foods and beverages on the viability of probiotics during incubation and artificial digestion. Viability of monocultures Lactobacillus acidophilus CCM4833 and Bifidobacterium breve CCM7825T and commercial mixture of 9 probiotic bacterial strains were tested by cultivation assay and flow cytometry. In model foods, the best viability was determined in the presence of 0.2 g/L glucose, 10% albumin and 10% ethanol. As the most suitable real food for probiotic survival complex protein and carbohydrate substrates were found, such as beef broth, potato salad with pork, chicken with rice, chocolate spread, porridge and yoghurt. The best liquid was milk and meat broth, followed by coca-cola, beer and coffee. Viability of probiotics was higher when consumed with meals than with beverages only. Addition of prebiotics increased the viability of probiotics especially in presence of instant and fast foods. Generally, the highest viability of probiotics during artificial digestion was observed in mixed culture in presence of protein, sugar and fat or their combination. The increase of cell viability observed in such foods during model digestion may further contribute to the positive effect of probiotics on human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0122.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: food allergy, food allergen, fruits, seafood, nut and milk
Online: 8 July 2019 (14:32:18 CEST)
Food allergy has been recognised by the World Health Organisation as a chronic disease that could lead to fatality. The symptoms can mediate from mild to severe consequences. Some cases have reported that food allergy sufferers are bullied and are discriminated at workplace, thus increasing their stress level, apart from facing difficulty in consuming certain food due to allergy. This has an adverse effect on the quality of life amongst food allergy sufferers. Medical bills are increased when food allergy sufferers become unknowingly exposed to food allergen. Hence, this study investigated food allergens among food allergy sufferers in order to make their lives better. A total of 250 respondents participated in an online survey. Surprisingly, apart from chicken, soybean and other food allergens that have been listed under the Big Eight Allergens, the respondents mentioned some fruits that could trigger allergic reactions, such as rambutans and watermelons. Food allergy sufferers can be allergic to seafood and seafood products as well, such as shrimp paste or locally known as belacan, which refers to fermented shrimp paste cured under the sun. It is a common food ingredient used among Malaysians. The study findings offer practical insights, such as avoidance of food allergens amidst food allergy sufferers and help the government to carefully manage for menu planning. The knowledge contribution of this study reveals several specific food and fruits, as aforementioned, which appear to be common and nutritious food, yet harmful to food allergy sufferers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0434.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: food intake; food diversity; kidney stone disease; social epidemiology
Online: 19 November 2018 (09:20:49 CET)
Food intake plays a pivotal role of human growth, which necessarily contributes 45% of global economy and wellbeing in general. Consumption of balanced food is elementary for overall good health while a shift of equilibrium can lead to malnutrition, prenatal death, obesity, osteoporosis and bone fractures, coronary heart diseases (CHD), idiopathic hypercalciuria, diabetes and many more. Though CHD, osteoporosis, malnutrition, obesity are being classified thoroughly in the literature, there are fragmented findings in the regime of kidney stone diseases (KSD) and the correlation with food intake therein. KSD associated with hematuria and renal failure poses an increasing threat to the healthcare and global economy while its emergence of Indian populations is being affected with multi-factorial urological disorder resulting from several factors. In this realm, epidemiological, biochemical, macroeconomic situations been portrayed when food intake is also a paramount importance which rarely been forecasted. Hence, in this article we will be reviewing the corollary connotation with diverse food consumption and the efficacy it plays in KSD extrapolating in Indian context.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0101.v1
Online: 5 January 2021 (16:54:04 CET)
The internationals guidelines about food intolerances, allergy and immunity provide for rigorous steps in which ultrasonography is not provided. However there is evidence in literature about an ancillar role of ultrasonography in these conditions. In this report we analyze the main pathologies with allergic or immune pathogenesis
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0244.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; food insecurity; psychological impact; socioeconomics; food access; Nigeria
Online: 13 January 2023 (09:05:34 CET)
The COVID-19 disease has infected many countries with generalised impacts on the different income categories. To test this hypothesis, we carried out a survey among households (n = 412) representing different income groups in Nigeria. We used validated food insecurity experience and socio-psychologic tools. We analysed the data obtained using descriptive and inferential statistics. The earning capacities of the respondents range from US$145/month for the low-income earners to US$1945/month for high-income earners. A total of 173 households (42%) ran out of food during the COVID-19 pandemic. All categories of households have experienced increasing dependency from the general public and perception of increasing insecurity, with the high-income earners having the greatest shift. In addition, increasing levels of anger and irritations have been experienced with all categories. Of the socio-demographic variables, only gender (p = 0.012), level of education of household head (p = 0.000), work hours per day (p = 0.006), and family income based on society class (p = 0.000) were significantly associated with food security and hunger due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Household heads with medium (OR: 4.36, 95% CI: 2.64 – 7.21, p < 0.001) and high (OR: 30.27, 95% CI: 3.99 – 229.90, p < 0.001) family income based on society class were more likely to have satisfactory experience on food security and hunger than respondents with low family income. Irrespective of the social class of the respondents, some respondents had negative experiences such as movement/change of location within the same city (17.68%), begin a new relationship (14.43%), recent change of job/loss of job (11.55%), movement to another city (10.81%), and separation from spouse or long-term relationship (10.07%). However, 231 (60.16%) reported satisfaction with their jobs despite the pandemic. Psychological stress due to impact of COVID-19 was observed to be more in the low income earning group than others. It is recommended that socio-economic groups should be mapped and support systems should target each group as per the needed support in terms of health, social, economic, and mental wellness; the government should show political commitments and transparency in food security and counselling supports. National authorities should prioritize empirical-based interventions on resources allocation during crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0067.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; nutritional intake; rural China; food consumption; food security
Online: 6 June 2022 (08:22:25 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic introduced risks and challenges to global food and nutrition security. In this paper, we examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the nutritional intake of China's rural residents using panel data and a fixed effect model. The data were collected in 2019 and 2020 and covered nine provinces and 2,631 households in rural China. The results reveal that an increase of 100 confirmed cases in a county resulted in a 1.48% (p<0.01), 1.46% (p<0.01), 1.77% (p<0.01), and 1.23% (p<0.01) decrease in per capita intake of dietary energy, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, respectively. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic only had a significant and negative effect on dietary energy intake in the low-income group at the 5% level of significance. Our study indicates that the potential insufficient nutrition situation, nutritional imbalance, and dietary imbalance of low-income rural residents should be addressed appropriately.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: lifestyle diseases; food processing; ultra-processed food; NOVA classification; nutrition
Online: 6 April 2022 (13:44:53 CEST)
The modern diet, which consists of food produced with high level of industrial processing, is associated with an increased risk of the development of lifestyle diseases. Current nutritional science is, however, focused on chemical composition of food, and not on the type and degree of processing used during the food production. Here, we take a fresh perspective on the relationship between the extent and type of food processing, and evaluate its impact on consumer health. We argue that the preference for consumption of minimally processed foods, and restriction of ultra-processed foods should be an essential part of a healthy lifestyle, disease prevention, and even treatment. We also present a simple, user-friendly consumer guide, which is intended to be used as a practical, ready-to-go identifier of ultra-processed foods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0378.v1
Subject: Keywords: agriculture economy; mono-cropping; food import; sustainable agriculture; food security
Online: 22 September 2021 (11:42:38 CEST)
Malaysia is a developing country and agro-industries contribute country’s economy. However, it is largely unknown the scenarios of agricultural practice and food supply over the years. To understand the fact, this study was designed to explore the agricultural land use changes and domestic food supply for last 50 years in Malaysia. The result showed that oil palm plantation area and yield, both are increased by folds, conforming “oil palm” mono-culture practice. Rice cultivation area remained almost unchanged but the yield increased. However, both area of plantation and yield in case of rubber, coca and coconut were decreased. When, it comes to domestic food supply, in 1973 food grain (Rice, Wheat, Maize) import was lower than domestic production. However, the import increased more than 3 times than the domestic production in 2013. Domestic production of vegetables and vegetables import was almost 50:50. Fruits import increased almost 3 times of domestic production, though domestic production was increased. In conclusion, it is understood that Malaysian agriculture economy is standing on “oil palm” wearers domestic food supply is import dependent. It is high time to reshuffle the policy for sustainable development and achieving food sovereignty.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Urban household, migration, connectivity, food remittances, food security, Nairobi, Kenya
Online: 28 June 2021 (11:55:04 CEST)
This paper draws on data from a representative city-wide household food security survey of Nairobi conducted in 2017 to examine the importance of food remitting to households in contemporary Nairobi. The next section of the paper provides an overview of urbanization and the rapid growth of Nairobi which has led to growing socio-economic inequality, precarious livelihoods for the majority, and growing food insecurity, as context for the more detailed empirical analysis of food security and food remittances that follows. It is followed by a description of the survey methodology and sections analyzing the differences between migrant and non-migrant households in Nairobi. Attention then turns to the phenomenon of food remitting, showing that over 50% of surveyed households in the city had received food remittances in the previous year. The paper then uses multivariate logistic regression to identify the relationship between Nairobi household characteristics and the probability of receiving food remittances from rural areas. The findings suggest that there are exceptions to the standard migration and poverty-driven explanatory model of the drivers of rural-urban food remitting and that greater attention should be paid to other motivations for maintaining rural-urban connectivity in Africa.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0572.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption; Food businesses; Food environments; Asia
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:23:57 CET)
Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption benefits the health of populations, particularly those in East and Southeast Asian countries, which have undergone an unprecedented change in their food environments in the last decade. This current systematic review is the first to study determinants—facilitators, barriers, and moderators—associated with FV consumption in East and Southeast Asia. In a search of the literature, we consulted five electronic academic databases of English peer-reviewed papers published between 2010 and 2020 and found 31 studies. Results of these studies show that individuals strongly perceive FVs as being higher quality and safe and trust in their benefits, and food businesses with modernized systems have significantly fostered the consumption of FVs. A main barrier to FV consumption, however, is financial concerns, exacerbated by food businesses with FV unavailability and urbanization-induced FV price inflation and dietary patterns. Further hindering FV consumption are demographics and shopping patterns. The fragmented and conditionalized findings of the 31 studies require standardized FV consumption measurements. Unlike the impact of FV consumption determinants and their interactions in Western countries, those in Asia, particularly countries other than China, have been substantially understudied. Therefore, as the research gaps in studies of food environments and FV consumption in East and Southeast Asia urgently demand scholarly attention, this paper proposes recommendations that favour the consumption of FVs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0309.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; foodborne illness; food safety; food security; sustainable development
Online: 23 February 2020 (02:21:34 CET)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens to reverse the essential benefits of antibiotics not only in humans, where decades of advancements in healthcare outcomes are endangered but also in the food production industry. The emergence of AMR in the pre- and post-harvest systems presents a serious risk of contamination or infection directly by antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and genes (ARGs) for farmers, agricultural practitioners, abattoir workers, food handlers and their associated contacts as well as consumers at the end of the food chain. Any breach in the food safety barrier leading to the emergence and spread of ARB and ARGs has severe multi-sectorial implications and threatens to reverse decades of human and animal health improvements globally. As the world moves towards Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), food safety is a critical element to improve and strengthen global health, security and ensure sustainable development. This paper presents the challenge of AMR through the lens of food safety, by highlighting its multi-sectoral and multi-dimensional implications not only the SDG on food safety but also on food security, public health, animal health and welfare, the environment and climate and socio-economic development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0282.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Physical Activity; Exercise; Sedentary Behaviour; Hyperpalatable Food; Obesity; Food Addiction
Online: 19 February 2020 (11:52:42 CET)
Obesity is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality, and food addiction has been considered one of its phenotypes. The study aims to determine the effectiveness of physical activity (PA), exercise, and sedentary behaviour management in attenuating food addiction in obese and overweight healthy adults. A search strategy was undertaken using MEDLINE, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, and CINAHL until April 2019. A total of 295 studies were found from which seven studies, after duplicates were removed, were included. The acute effect of PA of moderate intensity had an effect on attentional bias, craving, and sweet taste perception, although no difference was observed between genders and body mass index groups. No effect was observed on the hedonic and reward value. The acute effects of PA of moderate intensity may be a useful tool to control the levels of food addiction. More research is needed to clarify if this effect also occurs during chronic application, at different doses and types of PA, and for all populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0172.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: epidemiological survey; foodborne illnesses; food contamination; food safety; public health
Online: 16 August 2019 (05:50:39 CEST)
This study aimed to assess the foodborne diseases (FBD) outbreaks reported in Brazil between 2000 and 2018, based on data from the Brazilian Ministry of Health (official data) and from the scientific literature. According to official data, 13,163 FBD outbreaks were reported in the country during this period, involving 247,570 cases and 195 deaths. The largest prevalence of FBD outbreaks was observed in the Southeast region of Brazil (45.6%). In most outbreaks it was not possible to determine the food implicated (45.9%) but among those identified, water was the most frequently associated (12.0%). The etiological agent was not identified in most outbreaks (38.0%), while Salmonella (14.4%) was the most frequently reported, among those identified. Homes were the main site of FBD occurrence (12.5%). Regarding data obtained from the scientific literature, 57 articles dealing with FBD in the country throughout the same period were selected and analyzed. Based on these articles, mixed foods were the most prevalent in the outbreaks (31.6%), Salmonella spp. was the pathogen most frequently reported (22.8%) and homes were also the main site of FBD occurrence (45.6%). Despite under-notification, the records of FBD outbreaks that have occurred in Brazil in the past recent years show alarming data, requiring attention from health authorities. The notification of outbreaks is essential to facilitate public health actions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0098.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: food composition tables; lipid profile; trans fat; fast food; spreads
Online: 20 June 2017 (11:34:57 CEST)
The lipid fraction of margarines and fast-food French-fries, two types of foods traditionally high in trans fatty acids (TFA), is assessed. TFA data reported worldwide during the last 20 years have been gathered, and show that some countries still report high TFA amounts in these products. The content of TFA was analysed in margarines (2 store and 4 premium brands) and French-fries from fast-food restaurants (5 chains). Margarines showed mean values of 0.68% and 0.43% (gTFA/100g fat) for store and premium brands, respectively. French-fries values ranged from 0.49% to 0.89%. All samples were lower than the 2% set by some European countries as the maximum legal content of TFA in fats, and contained less than 0.5g/serving, so they could also be considered “trans free products”. This work confirmed that the presence of TFA is not significant in the two analysed products and contributes to update food composition tables, key tools for epidemiological and nutrition studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0005.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: potential markets; improved forages; food systems; food security; forage hybrids; nutrition
Online: 1 February 2023 (02:45:07 CET)
The cattle sector is strategic sector for both the economic development and food security of Africa. However, the low availability and quality of forage puts the most vulnerable population in the field at risk. Hybrid forages have proven to be a real alternative for enhancing both the food security and sustainability of the sector. They are the product of genetic improvements and combine the superior traits of different materials. In 1987, the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) began this line of research and together with the private sector various ma-terials have been released until today. Despite their beforementioned potential, forage hybrid adoption levels are still low in Africa, which is related to various factors among which the availability of seeds and planting material stands out. This document analyzes the potential markets for new forage hybrids adapted to the environmental conditions of eastern Africa and partially western Africa. Likewise, an estimation of the commercial value of these markets is provided. The results show a potential market of 414,388 ha for new interspecific hybrids of Urochloa and 528,409 ha for potential hybrids of Megathyrsus maximus, with approximate values of 73.5 and 101.1 million dollars, respectively. Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Kenya have a 70% market share for Urochloa, while South Sudan, Ethiopia, and Tanzania have a 67% share for Megathyrsus maximus. The results will help different actors in decision-making, i.e., regarding private sector investments in forage seed commercialization or public sector incentives supporting adoption processes, and thus contribute to increasing food security and sustainability in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0210.v2
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Food safety; Fresh-cut produce; salads; Food borne pathogens; Microbiological safety
Online: 29 June 2022 (09:47:27 CEST)
The consumption and sale of fresh-cut products and salads have been growing tremendously in the present era. Therefore, the microbial safety of such products is of great concern. In the current study, a survey of general microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and salads at quick-service restaurants (QSR) was undertaken across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. These findings were compared with microbiological criteria for foodstuffs by Saudi standards, metrology, and quality organization SASO-GSO-1016. Of the 82 samples of fresh-cut produce, 7% of samples were found to be unsatisfactory or beyond the acceptable limits. TPC count was unsatisfactory at 22%, coliform at 48%, and Staphylococcus aureus at 4%. For 108 samples for fresh salads, 11% of samples were found to be unsatisfactory or beyond the acceptable limits,13%, 27%, 4%, and 27% of samples showed an unsatisfactory range of TPC, coliforms, S. aureus, and Escherichia coli, respectively. The fresh-cut produce and salads were microbiologically safe in the central region compared to the eastern region followed by the western region. The relatively higher count was found in green pepper, mixed vegetables, and lettuce followed by fresh-cut onions and coleslaw salads. No Salmonella was detected in both fresh-cut produce and salads. The restaurants should be more stringent in their processing to ensure the consumer safety. Washing and sanitization of produce is the only way to reduce the diffusion of food borne pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0793.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Food insecurity, Food insufficiency, Household Hunger, Coping Strategy, COVID-19, Pandemic
Online: 2 September 2021 (15:13:20 CEST)
The present study measured household hunger in South-East Nigeria amidst COVID-19 lockdown. A total of 1209 households (urban and rural locations) were sampled. Household hunger was determined using Radimer/Cornel hunger scale, while Chi-square test was done with significance of P<0.05. Results of this study revealed 82.7% prevalence of hunger among households before Covid-19 pandemic, while during Covid-19 lockdown, hunger prevalence rose to 98.6%. It was also observed that covid-19 lockdown significantly affected food prices.The major coping strategy employed by households was relying on less expensive foods (81.14%). High household hunger was identified as a short term cost of Covid-19 lockdown in Southeast Nigeria. Only few households benefited from the food aid programs and other forms of palliatives by Government. It is recommended that the Government should setup a formidable unit which will develop physical and digital plans for effective implemention during Covid-19 lockdown situation or other emergencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0301.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Food and non-food inflation; Threshold; TAR model; Economic Growth; Ethiopia
Online: 13 December 2020 (21:32:13 CET)
Economists have long been interested in examining inflation-growth nexus. Nevertheless, the nature of their relationship and the optimal level of inflation threshold for economic growth have still remained controversial in both theoretical and empirical works. Accordingly, this study investigates the existence of threshold effects of inflation on economic growth in Ethiopia over the period 1975-2018 using a Two-regime Threshold Auto-regressive (TAR) model. The study mainly departs from previous works since it estimates sector-specific inflation threshold level in food and non-food sectors. Our preliminary analyses clearly reveal that inflation in food sector has become more volatile, less-persistent and key contributor to the general inflation as compared to its non-food counterpart. Further, The TAR model results and robustness checks indicate the existence of inflation threshold in a range of 9-10%. In particular, the threshold level for food inflation is 10% and 8% for non-food inflation. In all cases, our results robustly confirm growth-detrimental effects of inflation after the threshold levels. After all, this study suggests the need for considering specific behaviors of food and non-food prices, and implementing appropriate fiscal and monetary policies to bring inflation down to a single-digit level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0020.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: High homogenization pressure; food functionality; bioactive components; agri-food waste; sustainability
Online: 3 July 2020 (08:39:05 CEST)
The interest in high homogenization pressure technology has grown over the years. It is a green technology with low energy consumption, not generating high CO2 emissions or polluting effluents. The main food applications derive from its effect on particle size, causing a more homogeneous distribution of fluid elements (particles, globules, droplets, aggregates, etc.) and favouring the release of intracellular components; and its effect on the structure and configuration of chemical components such as polyphenols and macromolecules such as carbohydrates (fibres) and proteins (also microorganisms and enzymes). The challenges of the 21st century lead food industry processing towards obtaining food with high nutritional quality and taking advantage of waste to obtain ingredients with specific properties. For this purpose, soft and non-thermal technologies such as high pressures homogenization have a huge potential. The objective of this work is to review how the need to combine safety, functionality and sustainability in food industry has conditioned the last decade applications of high-pressure homogenization technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0340.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: alternative food; resilient food; distributed production; edible plants; existential risk; food security; global catastrophic risk; leaf concentrate; leaf protein; non-target screening; resilience; sustainable food systems; toxins
Online: 19 January 2023 (01:57:51 CET)
In the event of an abrupt sunlight reduction scenario there is a time window that occurs between when food stores would likely run out for many countries (~6 months or less) and ~1 year when resilient foods are scaled up. A promising temporary resilient food is leaf protein concentrate (LPC). Although it is possible to extract LPC from tree biomass (e.g. leaves and needles), neither the yields nor the toxicity of the protein concentrates for humans from the most common tree species has been widely investigated. To help fill this knowledge gap, this study uses high-resolution mass spectrometry and an open source toolchain for non-targeted screening of toxins on five common North American coniferous species: Western Cedar, Douglas Fir, Ponderosa Pine, Western Hemlock, and Lodgepole Pine. The yields for LPC extraction from the conifers ranged from 1% to 7.5%. The toxicity screenings confirm that these trees may contain toxins that can be consumed in small amounts and additional studies including measuring the quantity of each toxin are needed. The results indicate that LPC is a promising candidate to be used as resilient food, but future work is needed before LPCs from conifers can be used as a wide-scale human food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0556.v1
Online: 25 August 2020 (13:42:09 CEST)
This paper analyzes calorie consumption in Vietnam using the household survey data. The data suggest that food insecurity is still a major problem in Vietnam, with nearly 40 percent of the population being unable to meet their calorie requirement. Employing nonparametric and parametric estimation techniques, the paper examines the relationship between household calorie consumption and per capita household expenditure in Vietnam. The analysis indicates a positive and significant relationship between per capita expenditure and per capita calorie consumption. The mean calorie elasticity is estimated to be between 0.21 and 0.31 by the parametric method and 0.20 by non-parametric method. In addition, simulated income and food price changes indicate that undernutrition is very responsive to changes in income and food prices
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0136.v1
Online: 31 October 2016 (07:59:32 CET)
Food is one of the basic necessities for all living things in this globe to grow, maintain life and develop. It is a source of energy for almost all bodily functions and it directly affects our health status and how we feel each day and the future. Yet, there are millions of people around the globe who do not have the sumptuousness to provide enough food to themselves and their beloved ones. Ethiopia is one of the highly food insecure countries in the world, it's name has been illustrious for famine and drought for decades. The study's main aim is to assess the livelihood resources and strategies of the smallholding farmers in their strive to achieve food security at household level. For this particular study, from Tigray region, Kilte Awelalo was taken as a study area and three Tabias were selected; Ayenalem, Genfel and Tahetay Adikesanded. The total sample number of households from these three Tabias was 370 and a formal interview schedule was employed to collect relevant primary inputs for the study. The study found that farmland holding size and its fertility as major impacting factors behind the livelihood strategies and food security condition of the smallholding farmers. It was also found that about one third of the total sample population were chronically food insecure, whereas about half of the population were transitory food insecure and rest very little number of households were food secure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0363.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Traditional food crops; Climate change; Food security; Omics; Translational genomics; Gene editing
Online: 14 June 2021 (13:02:24 CEST)
The indigenous communities across the globe especially in the rural areas consume locally available plants known as Traditional Food Plants (TFPs) for their nutritional and health-related needs. Recent research shows that many of the traditional food plants are highly nutritious as they contain health beneficial metabolites, vitamins, mineral elements and other nutrients. Excessive reliance on the mainstream staple crops has its own disadvantages. TFPs are nowadays considered important crops of the future and can act as supplementary foods for the burgeoning global population. They can also act as emergency foods in times of pandemics and other situations like COVID-19. The current situation necessitates locally available alternative nutritious TFPs for sustainable food production. To increase the cultivation or improve the traits in TFPs, it is essential to understand the molecular basis of the genes that regulate some important traits such as nutritional components and resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses. The integrated use of modern omics and gene editing technologies provide great opportunities to better understand the genetic and molecular basis of superior nutrient content, climate-resilient traits and adaptation to local agroclimatic zones. Recently, realising the importance and benefits of TFPs, scientists have shown interest in the prospection and sequencing of traditional food plants for their improvements, further cultivation and mainstreaming. Integrated omics such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and ionomics are successfully used in plants and have provided a comprehensive understanding of gene-protein-metabolite networks. Combined use of omics and editing tools has led to successful editing of beneficial traits in few TFPs. This suggests that there is ample scope of integrated use of modern omics and editing tools/techniques for improvement of TFPs and their use for sustainable food production. In this article, we highlight the importance, scope and progress towards improvement of TFPs for valuable traits by integrated use of omics and gene editing techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0510.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: start-up; innovation ecosystem; food system; transformation; Germany; food science; entrepre-neurship; food technology; sustainable development goals; learning from other countries
Online: 31 December 2021 (11:14:06 CET)
The food system represents a key industry for Europe and particularly Germany. However, it is also the single most significant contributor to climate and environmental change. A food system transformation is necessary to overcome the system's major and constantly increasing challenges in the upcoming decades. One possible facilitator for this transformation are radical and disrup-tive innovations that start-ups develop. There are many challenges for start-ups in general and food start-ups in particular. Various support opportunities and resources are crucial to ensure the success of food start-ups. One aim of this study is to identify how the success of start-ups in the food system can be supported and further strengthened by players in the innovation ecosystem in Germany. There is still room for improvement and collaboration toward a thriving innovation ecosystem. A successful innovation ecosystem is characterised by a well-organised, collaborative, and supportive environment with a vivid exchange between the members in the ecosystem. The interviewees confirmed this, and although the different actors are already cooperating, there is still room for improvement. The most common recommendation for improving cooperation is learning from other countries and bringing the best to Germany.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0055.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Food reward; Liking; Wanting; Food preferences; Bariatric surgery; Eating behavior; Total Weight Loss
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:49:34 CET)
Changes in food preferences after bariatric surgery may alter its effectiveness as a treatment for obesity. We aimed to compare food reward for a comprehensive variety of food categories between patients who received a sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and to explore whether food reward differs according to weight loss. In this cross-sectional exploratory study, food reward was assessed using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire (LFPQ). We assessed liking and wanting of eleven food categories. Comparisons were done regarding type of surgery and Total Weight Loss (TWL; based on tercile distribution). Fifty-six patients (30 SG and 26 RYGB) were included (women: 70%; age: 44.0 (11.1) y). Regarding the type of surgery, scores were not significantly different between SG and RYGB, except for ‘non-dairy products – without color’ explicit liking (p = 0.04). Regarding TWL outcomes, explicit liking, explicit wanting and implicit wanting, scores were significantly higher for Good responders than Low responders for ‘No meat – High fat’ (post-hoc corrected p-value: 0.04, 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Together, our results failed to identify major differences in liking and wanting regarding the type of surgery and tended to indicate that higher weight loss might be related to a higher reward for high protein-content food. Rather to focus only on palatable foods, future studies should also consider a broader range of food items, including protein reward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0143.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: COVID-19; Corona virus; Aquatic food system; Food security; Small-scale fisheries; Bangladesh
Online: 12 June 2020 (08:25:09 CEST)
COVID-19 is now a major global health crisis, can lead to severe food crisis unless proper measures are not taken. Though a number of scientific studies have addressed the possible impacts of COVID-19 in Bangladesh on variety of issues, problems and food crises associated with aquatic resources and communities are missing. Therefore, this study aimed at bridging the gap in the existing situation and challenges of COVID-19 by linking its impact on aquatic food sector and small-scale fisheries with dependent population. The study was conducted based on secondary data analysis and primary fieldwork. Secondary data focused on COVID-19 overview and number of confirmed, recovered and death cases in Bangladesh; at the same time its connection with small-scale fisheries, aquatic food production, demand and supply was analyzed. Community perceptions were elicited to present how the changes felt and how they affected aquatic food system and small-scale fisheries and found devastating impact. Sudden illness, reduced income, complication to start production and input collection, labor crisis, transportation abstraction, complexity in food supply, weak value chain, low consumer demand, rising commodity prices, creditor’s pressure were identified as the primary affecting drivers. Dependent people felt the measures taken by the Government should be based on protecting the health and food security, although it could be detrimental to economic growth in the short term. The study provides insight into policies adopted by the policy makers to mitigate the effects of the pandemic on aquatic food sector and small-scale fisheries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0341.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Listeria spp.; food; food contact surfaces; genotyping; virulence genes; toxin-antitoxin system mazEF
Online: 29 January 2020 (03:42:54 CET)
This study aimed to evaluate the hazards posed by foodborne bacteria of the Listeria genus by analyzing prevalence, diversity and virulence of Listeria spp. in food and food manufacturing plants. Seventy five isolates obtained from the routine analysis of 653 samples by three diagnostic laboratories in Northern Italy were genotipically differentiated by Repetitive Extragenic Palindrome (rep) PCR with the GTG5 primer, identified by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and examined by specific PCR tests for the presence of L. monocytogenes virulence determinants occasionally found to occur in other species of the genus. The identity of the amplification products was confirmed by sequencing. Fifty seven isolates were identified as L. innocua, 12 as L. monocytogenes, 5 as L. welshimeri and one as L. seeligeri. All L. monocytogenes isolates belonged to the serotype 1/2a and were predicted to be virulent for the presence of the inlJ internalin gene. Potentially virulent strains of L. innocua, L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri, carrying the L. monocytogenes inlA gene and/or hly gene, were identified, and most isolates were found to possess the toxin-antitoxin system mazEF for efficient adaptation to heat shock. Results indicated the need to reinforce food contamination prevention measures against all Listeria species by efficiently defining their environmental distribution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0125.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: business models; business model innovation; food supply chain; food security; systematic literature review
Online: 12 January 2020 (15:41:18 CET)
This paper investigates the contribution of business model innovations in improvement of food supply chains. Through a systematic literature review, the notable business model innovations in the food industry are identified, surveyed, and evaluated. Findings reveal that the innovations in value proposition, value creation processes, and value delivery processes of business models are the successful strategies proposed in food industry. It is further disclosed that rural female entrepreneurs, social movements, and also urban conditions are the most important driving forces inducing the farmers to reconsider their business models. In addition, the new technologies and environmental factors are the secondary contributors in business model innovation for the food processors. It is concluded that digitalization has disruptively changed the food distributors models. E-commerce models and internet of things are reported as the essential factors imposing the retailers to innovate their business models. Furthermore, the consumption demand and the product quality are two main factors affecting the business models of all the firms operating in the food supply chain regardless of their positions in the chain. The findings of the current study provide an insight into the food industry to design a sustainable business model to bridge the gap between food supply and food demand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0251.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: monolithic column; porous shell column; food additive; dye; food colorant; chromatography; fast chromatography
Online: 9 November 2018 (15:32:18 CET)
Food analysis demands fast methods for routine control and high throughput of samples. Chromatographic separation enables simultaneous determination of numerous compounds in complex matrices, several approaches increasing separation efficiency and speed of analysis were involved. In this work, modern types of column with monolithic rod or superficially porous particles were employed and compared for determination of eight synthetic food dyes, their chromatographic performance was evaluated. During method optimization, cyano stationary phase Chromolith Performance CN 100 × 4.6 mm and Ascentis Express ES-CN 100 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm were selected for the separation of polar colorants. The separation was performed by gradient elution of acetonitrile/methanol and 2% water solution of ammonium acetate at flow rate 2.0 ml min-1. Mobile phase composition and the gradients were optimized in order to enable efficient separation on both columns. The method using fused-core particle column provided higher separation efficiency, narrow peaks of analytes resulted in increased peak capacity and shortening of analysis time. After the validation, the method was applied for analysis of colored beers, soft drinks and candies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0042.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: products labeling; organic food products labeling; labeling innovation; sustainable food consumption; buying decision
Online: 2 May 2018 (13:10:20 CEST)
The present context regarding development of the food products trade at European Union level presumes manifestation of some tendencies and challenges meant to claim at the highest level the adaptation capacity of economical agents - both producers and traders. Among these we can take into account their need to comply with organic product labeling standards as an integral part of food products safety policies at Union level. In order to be able to implement a proper label type, not only from the point of view of standards but especially from the perspective given by the consumers perception and motivation toward a healthy sustainable food consumption, producers have to constantly innovate, to find new design solutions for food products labels. This article propose an exploratory research in the form of a field survey that highlights the perceptions of Romanian and Serbian consumers, altogether from the urban environment in relation to organic food labeling and how they influence purchasing decision-making. A random number of 373 Serbian consumers’ questionnaires, respectively 1262 Romanian consumers’ questionnaires have been validated, the results showing interesting results from the point of view of national consumption profile differences due to different cultural, economic and social factors as well as different levels of integration within European economy for the both countries. Main conclusions of the research stress the fact that perceptions regarding organic food products labels are constructed around variables like: type of information to appear within the label, category of information that are missing from labels, degree of producers interest in proper labeling of organic food products, relevance of the information on the organic food labels as regards the decision to purchase the products etc. Conclusions propose some possible developments for innovative future characteristics for organic food products labels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: campus dining; food purchases; food environment, univerity dining environment; more healthful; less healthful
Online: 20 February 2018 (15:34:07 CET)
The purpose of this study is to determine the availability of "more healthful" (MH) versus "less healthful" (LH) entrée items in the campus dining and if students' purchases are reflective of what is offered. This is an observational study in which students' purchases of the available entrée items in the campus dining at a Midwestern university in one academic year were collected and categorized as either MH or LH according to the American Heart Association guidelines. Chi-square tests were used to determine the differences between the proportion of purchased MH and LH versus those available. Odds ratio estimates with 95% confidence limits were used to determine the associations between the demographics and MH and LH purchases. Of the total entrée items available, 15.0% were MH and 85.0% were LH. In the fall, 8.0% of purchases were MH and 92.0% purchases were LH as compared to 8.9% MH and 91.1% LH in the spring. Whites were less likely than non-whites to purchase a MH entrée. Females were two times more likely to choose MH entrées than males. The campus dining offerings and students' purchases of entrees were primarily LH. Work with campus dining providers to create profitable, yet healthful, dining entrees is needed to improve the healthfulness of entrée offerings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0468.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Irrigation; Food security; Poverty; SDGs
Online: 25 November 2022 (05:56:01 CET)
Ethiopia has 51.3 million hectares of arable land and an irrigation potential of 3,088,395 hectares. Despite the country's vast irrigation potential, it hasn’t benefited much. Studies have confirmed the role of irrigation in increasing crop production, alleviating poverty, and promoting food security. Given such importance of irrigation in poverty and hunger alleviation, it’s believed that the development of the sector contributes to the realization of sustainable development goals (SDGs). Therefore, this review looked into the progress of the irrigation sector over the past seven years, between 2015 (the launch of the SDGs) and 2021 (the midterm of the SDGs period). During this period the number of smallholder irrigators increased by 15.21% and the total increase in irrigated land was only 1.4%. Vegetables, root crops, fruits and stimulant crops showed an increase of 153.8%, 66 %,16.6% and 1% in the irrigated production area, respectively. On the other hand, irrigated production areas of cereal, pulse and oil crops declined by 8.0%, 44.6% and 90.5%, respectively. Among cereals, only Teff showed a slight 4.3% overall increase in the irrigated production area, whereas Barley, Wheat, Maize and Sorghum decreased by 12.5% and 3.3%. 11.3%, 12.9%, respectively. This shows that the irrigation sector is characterized by a decline or underachievement during this period. Hence, there is a need for studies into why the sector experienced such a disappointing performance, in order to come up with strategies to improve the sector in the remaining periods of the SDGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0430.v3
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: cat; Tehran; weight loss; food access; waste reduction
Online: 13 October 2022 (11:34:42 CEST)
This study aimed to investigate the effect of reducing the amount of organic waste on the weight of cats in Tehran. The weight of 4192 cats was measured from spring 2016 to the end of winter 2020. They were classified into 6 age groups, 2 gender groups, and 13 geographical areas. Their weight was measured for 48 months (16 seasons). The statistical parameters analysis showed no weight loss in 2017, but since 2018, cats have been losing weight every year. They had lost about 178g of their weight in 2018. The sharpest annual decrease was observed in 2019 when about 301g of weight loss was recorded. In the winter of 2020, 115g of weight loss took place. In the spring of 2017, no weight change was observed, but in the spring of 2018, the cats lost 155g of their weight. Their weight loss intensified in the spring of 2019 and about 299g of weight loss was observed. In the summer of 2017, as in the spring of the same year, no weight loss was recorded, but for the summer of 2018, the weight loss was evident and about 205g of the weight of the cats had been reduced. The weight loss in the summer of 2019 not only continued but intensified and about 304g of weight loss was recorded for cats. Weight change was not observed in the fall of 2017 as in the spring and summer of the same year. In the fall of 2018, weight loss was recorded for cats. They had lost about 324g of their weight in the fall of 2018. Also, they experienced a weight loss of about 218g in the fall of 2019. During the spring, summer, and autumn of 2017, no weight loss was observed in the cats for the winter of 2018, but in the winter of 2019, the cats faced the most severe weight loss (seasonally). They lost about 401g of weight in the winter of 2019. Of course, in the winter of 2020, about 186g of weight loss was observed in cats. The results showed that female cats did not lose weight in 2017 but experienced weight loss in 2018 with a weight loss of 181g. The weight loss of females intensified in 2019 and 294g of weight loss was recorded. Female cats lost 186g of their weight in the winter of 2020. Male cats did not lose weight like female cats in 2017. But in 2018, a weight loss of 166g was observed in male cats. The weight loss of male cats continued in 2019 and 311g of weight loss was recorded for them. However, in 2020, unlike females, weight loss was not observed in male cats. It can be said that both sexes lost more weight in the winter of 2019 than in other seasons. In 2017, weight loss was observed only for the region of 10, and in the same year, weight gain was recorded for the region of 15. But in 2018, except for regions 3, 4, 15, and 19, weight loss was observed in other regions. In 2019, the weight loss of cats spread and weight loss was observed in all regions except the region of 12. In winter 2020, weight loss was recorded only in the region of 4. In the end, it can be concluded that the weight of cats has decreased since the spring of 2018 because the beginning of the decrease in the amount of organic waste has been recorded since the winter of 2018. So, there is a direct relationship between the weight of cats and the amount of organic waste (access to food). The amount of garbage has been decreasing since the winter of 2018, and the average weight of cats has also been decreasing since the spring of 2018 due to the decrease in access to food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0049.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Agroecology; territorial agroecologycal food systems.
Online: 2 June 2021 (07:20:43 CEST)
The health emergency caused by Covid 19 highlighted the food dependency of many cities in the world and Cali and the cities of Valle del Cauca were no exception as they depended on food flows from other regions and countries, so these Entities are part of the corporate food system, to which their rulers delegated food security for their inhabitants. In the same territory and for the last nine years, a second-level organization has been consolidating that brings together 14 peasant agroecological markets and that despite strict confinement measures was able to continue supplying food to consumers in the municipalities of influence that have supported this initiative. The foregoing leads to think that said organization can become a platform for an agroecological food system of regional scope, for which the characteristics that said system should have according to a model based on the principles of agroecology were evaluated.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0740.v1
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:01:15 CEST)
Highlights: A new material with a bending strength higher than that of concrete was developed using vegetable or fruit waste. The new material maintains the color, taste, and flavor of the original vegetable or fruit. Without water resistant treatment, the material is edible and can be conditioned with seasonings
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0153.v2
Online: 13 January 2021 (11:06:00 CET)
This study clearly shows that the corona pandemic has a significant impact on consumers’ eating habits. More food is eaten overall, and more convenience products such as ready meals and canned food with a longer shelf life are purchased. The consumption of alcohol and confectionery has also increased. In return, the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables has declined. It becomes clear that families who are financially affected by the pandemic represent a vulnerable group. With the increasing duration of the pandemic, repeated lockdowns, corona-related closings of schools and kindergartens, health consequences are to be expected in the medium to long term, especially for this population group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0091.v1
Online: 8 July 2019 (08:16:23 CEST)
Texture has long been considered an important attribute for food acceptance. However, which specific textural characteristics contribute to overall acceptance of a food is not well understood. It has been suggested that texture contrasts and combinations are a universal feature in giving foods a desirable texture, yet this notion is largely based upon anecdotal data. This study uses multiple survey research methods to assess the importance of texture contrast and combinations across cultures (Poland, U.S.A., and Singapore). Participants (n = 288) completed a survey that included overt measures of food texture contrast importance as well as free response questions regarding texture. The overall importance of texture for food liking was not different across the populations. However, the participants from Singapore and Poland gave more importance to a desirable food having multiple textures than the U.S.A. cohort. When looking at free responses, participants were twice as likely to mention combinations (multiple textures) with a texture contrast when describing foods they liked, in comparison to foods they disliked. This was observed across all 3 cultures. However, the type and quantity of texture terms used within combinations were different among cultures. For instance, Asians enjoyed more texturally diverse food combinations than the other two cultures. These findings highlight the importance of texture contrasts and combinations in three distinct cultures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0229.v1
Online: 22 April 2019 (10:29:32 CEST)
The goal of the project was to gain an understanding of the secondary school youth experience with food literacy and school gardens on their mental well-being. Over the course of five months, sixteen youth participated in a photovoice research project in which they expressed their personal experiences about food and gardening through photography and writing. The aspects of secondary school youths’ life experiences affected by exposure to food literacy and school gardens and their impact upon their well-being were identified. These included emotions and feelings, having a safe place, nutrition and relaxation. The youth explicitly connected relaxation with the themes of love and connectedness, growing food, garden as a place, cooking, and food choices. This was linked to nature, beauty, environment and sustainability. Youth clubs or groups were also identified as a key enabler for connection. Youth shared their food literacy experiences, observing that their engagement improved some aspect of their mental well-being. They identified food literacy and gardens as being the most important to mental well-being including: connecting, personal health and personal growth. The youth recognized that connecting comes from having community, relationships and respect. Fostering opportunities for food literacy such as growing and preparing food contributes to resiliency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0188.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: resilience; participation; planning; food systems
Online: 28 February 2018 (04:55:45 CET)
Resilience has emerged as a buzzword among researchers and practitioners. However, despite its popularity, there has been little progress in moving it from an elaborate metaphor describing an idyllic state of the system to a tool for planning and managing adaptation. While case study research is rich with examples of systems that have proven to be resilient or are striving to develop resilience, there is no defined approach that operationalises concepts described in the literature into the planning process. This paper helps close this gap by illustrating how facilitated modelling can be used for resilience planning in socio-ecological systems. The paper summarizes our experience using facilitated system dynamics to inform a model-based discussion of food security resilience to climate change in Guatemala. We identify at least three positive outcomes from the intervention, which a) helped to build consensus about the meaning of resilience, b) improved stakeholders understanding of adaptation and c) outlined potential policies to enhance resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0092.v1
Online: 14 December 2017 (11:45:48 CET)
The number of families sheltered in the Paris region (France) increased by a factor of 5 between 1999 and 2009. In 2013, a survey was performed on homeless families in order to characterize their living conditions, their health needs and the developmental problems in children. This random survey was conducted in 17 languages among homeless families sheltered in emergency centers for asylum-seekers, emergency housing centers, social rehabilitation centers and social hotels in the Paris region. The situation was particularly worrying regarding their food security. Indeed, only 14.0% of people were with food security, whereas 43.3% were with low food security and 9.8% very low food security (a situation where children are also affected). Stratified multivariate robust Poisson models showed that some characteristics can lead homeless families to be at higher risk of food insecurity and/or at higher risk of falling into very low food security, such as residential instability, single parenthood, having more than 3 children, depressive symptoms, housing in social hostels, difficult access to cheap or free food locally. These harmful situations are intolerable in such a wealthy region as the Paris region. They argue for a better detection of these families, a closer social follow-up and an increase in food aid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0029.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: hunting invasive locusts; food security; entomophagy; pest; entry of toxins into the food chain
Online: 2 February 2023 (04:35:05 CET)
Locust is a pest that attacks human and animal food and endangers national security by threatening food security. Spraying is the easiest and fastest way to deal with them. But the easiest way is not always the best way. With chemical resistance, not only will permanent immunity from locust attacks not arise, but they will also become resistant to poisons. While we have to pay billions of dollars annually for this strategy, we will also cause water and soil pollution. Therefore, the research results of other researchers were used and modeled to measure the possibility of hunting invasive locusts to investigate the possibility and benefits of this action. So, this study was conducted in the field method. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to hunt invasive locusts. If traps are placed on time and in the right place, the possibility of preserving crops after the pest attack increases by 2.3 times more in protected fields than in unprotected fields. By hunting locusts, fields and even pastures are preserved, poisons are prevented from entering the food chain and ecosystem, part of the economic loss of farmers affected by the invasion of locusts will be compensated, and by providing animal feed through hunting locusts, water consumption will be reduced, soil erosion and energy consumption are saved.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0420.v3
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Non-targeted methods; method validation; food fraud; food authenticity; mass spectrometry; spectroscopy; NGS; NMR
Online: 23 May 2022 (11:10:00 CEST)
Through its suggestive name, non-targeted methods (NTMs) do not aim at a predefined "needle in the haystack". Instead, they exploit all the constituents of the haystack. This new form of analytical methods is increasingly finding applications in food and feed testing. However, the concepts, terms, and considerations related to this burgeoning field of analytical testing needs to be propagated for the benefit of ones associated in academic research, commercial development, and official control. This paper addresses the frequently asked questions around notations and terminologies surrounding NTMs. The widespread development and adoption of these methods also necessitates the need to develop approaches to NTM validation, i.e., evaluating the performance characteristics of a method to determine if it is fit-for-purpose. This work aims to provide a roadmap to approaching NTM validation. In doing so, the paper deliberates on the different considerations that influence the approach to validation and provides suggestions thereof.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0632.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: school catering; sustainable food; public procurement; parents; children; food choices; involvement; Covid-19 pandemic.
Online: 28 June 2021 (09:52:59 CEST)
This paper describes a research project carried out in an Italian public school to assess whether parents were willing to take part in food procurement decisions, as well as their ability to accurately predict what foods children would pick at school lunch and their propensity to support sustainable food choices made by the school. The methodology included a questionnaire to 500 parents and an in-depth study of 138 child/parent pairs. The study comprised: (i) presentation of an innovative recipe in the weekly menu of the school canteen; (ii) meal observations of children’s intake at school lunch during the week of the menu modification; (iii) collection of both parents’ and children’s reports on their choices of recipes from the modified weekly menu. The results are commented in light of two important changes that have recently affected Italian public school food procurement: the opening of school canteens to lunches brought from home and the measures adopted since 2020 to contain the Covid-19 pandemic. Both events go in the direction of delegating to parents the multifaceted role of the school in the food arena. The article concludes that the results of the study should discourage this approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0106.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: polygenic risk; wellness; food frequency; principal component analysis; healthy eating index; obesity; food desert
Online: 7 July 2020 (02:36:11 CEST)
Diet influences, and is influenced by, a wide range of socioeconomic, cultural, geographic, and genetic variables. Here we survey a matrix of such interactions as well as their connection to a variety of health outcomes, in a cohort of 689 diverse adults employed at Emory University and enrolled in the Center for Health Discovery and Well-Being (CHDWB) study. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire revealed seven PC cumulatively explaining 25.8% and each individually at least 2% of the proportional consumption of 110 food items. PC1 is strongly correlated with the Healthy Eating Index-2015 measure, and accordingly healthier scores associate with multiple measures of physical and mental health. It, as well as PC2 (likely a measure of food expense) and PC3 (carbohydrate versus protein consumption) show significant geographic structure across the Atlanta metropolitan area, correlating with race and ethnicity, income level, age and sex. Notably, a polygenic score for body mass index (BMI) consisting of 281 SNPs explains 2.8% of the variance in PC5, which is as strong as its association with BMI itself. PC5 appears to differentiate participants with respect to conscious eating behavior related to the choice of diet or comfort foods. Our analysis adds to the growing literature on factor analysis of socio-demographic influences on nutrition and health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: child nutrition disorders; animal source foods; diet; food and nutrition; dietary diversity; food assistance
Online: 9 January 2019 (07:49:09 CET)
Introduction: Child undernutrition remains a challenge globally and in the geographically diverse country of Ethiopia. Improving dietary diversity and consumption of animal source foods are important for improving child nutrition and corresponding health outcomes. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify household and community factors associated with consumption of animal source foods among 6 to 36-month-old children from four regions of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using multistage probability sampling in eight geographic zones and four regions of Ethiopia took place in 2015 with parents/caretakers of 6 to 36-month-old children. Data was collected on demographic information, proxy indicators of socioeconomic status, and food consumed by the child the day before the survey. Results: Increased child age, pastoral livelihood, Muslim religion, and participation in the Productive Safety Net Program were associated with increased consumption of animal source foods. Odds of animal source foods consumption increased 8% with each 3-month age increase. Children from pastoralist households were the most likely to have consumed animal source foods in the preceding 24 hours as compared with those in agro-pastoralist households (0.21 times as likely) or those in agriculturalist/farming households (0.15 times as likely). The odds of consumption of animal source foods for families with food aid or safety net support was 1.7 times greater among those receiving traditional support from the Productive Safety Net Program and 4.5 times greater for those in the direct support arm of the program. Conclusions: The findings illustrate the importance of accounting for local context and community characteristics, such as livelihood and religion, when undertaking programming designed to improve diversity of children’s diets through increasing animal source foods. In addition, the Productive Safety Net program may be a critical determinant of dietary diversity for young children in these regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0183.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: biocultural resources; biocultural design; alternative food networks; sustainable rural development; local food systems; Bolivia
Online: 8 September 2016 (10:19:43 CEST)
Biocultural heritage-based products, including regional specialty foods, are increasingly part of sustainable rural development strategies. While export-oriented biocultural products are often the most visible, we examine the role of campesino gastronomic heritage in the Central Valley of Tarija, Bolivia, as a case study of a local market-centered biocultural resource-based development strategy reflected in an alternative agri-food network. We develop a biocultural sustainability framework to examine this network from ecological, economic and sociocultural perspectives. Data are drawn from interviews (n=77), surveys (n=89) and participant observation, with primary and secondary producers of traditional and new products, as well as restaurant owners, market vendors and local consumers. We find that campesino biocultural heritage and the alternative agri-food network surrounding it represent an influential territorial project that underpins many household economies, particularly for women. We conclude that the relatively small investments by local governments to promote campesino gastronomic heritage are having positive ripple effects on small-scale producer livelihoods and on biocultural sustainability. We suggest that further support to increase market access and reduce other barriers to participation in alternative food networks will likely increase the options and benefits available to small-scale producers mobilising campesino gastronomic heritage within the local economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0073.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: food valuation; food as commons; food as commodity; transition theory; narratives of transition; agency in transition; transformative agency; counter-hegemonic attitudes; gradual reformers
Online: 16 January 2017 (04:17:20 CET)
The food system, the most important driver of planetary transformation, is in a deep crisis. Therefore, seeking a sustainable and socially-fair transition pathway becomes an issue of utmost priority for our own survival. The consideration of food as a commodity, a social construct that played a central role in driving this crisis, remains the uncontested narrative to lead the different transition pathways what seems rather contradictory. By exploring the normative values in the transition landscape, this paper seeks to understand how relevant is the hegemonic narrative of “food as commodity” and its alternative of “food as commons” to determine transition trajectories and food policy beliefs. Applying the Multi-level Perspective framework and developing the ill-studied “agency in transition”, this research enquired food-related professionals that belong to an online community of practice (N=95) on valuation of food dimensions and agency in food transitions to check whether the valuation of food is relevant to explain personal stances in transition. Results suggest the socially-constructed view of food as commodity is positively correlated to the gradual reforming attitude, whereas food as commons is positively correlated to the counter-hegemonic transformers regardless the self-defined position in the transition landscape (regime or niches). At personal level, there are multiple loci of resistance with counter-hegemonic attitudes in varied institutions of the regime and the innovative niches, many of them holding this discourse of food as commons. Conversely, alter-hegemonic attitudes are not positively correlated to this alternative discourse and they may inadvertently or purportedly reinforce the ‘‘neoliberal narrative’’. Food as commons, a different narrative whose rationale is explained in the paper, seems to be a relevant framework that could enrich the multiple transformative constituencies that challenge the industrial food system and therefore facilitate the convergence of movements that reject the commodification of food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0108.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: sustainable distribution; food perishability; multi-objective optimization; temperature prediction; shelf life; food waste; NSGA-II
Online: 5 August 2020 (04:34:06 CEST)
The food distribution process is responsible for significant quality loss in perishable products. However, preserving quality is costly and consumes a tremendous amount of energy. To tackle the challenge of minimizing transportation costs and CO2 emissions while also maximizing product freshness, a novel multi-objective model is proposed. The model integrates a vehicle routing problem with temperature, shelf life, and energy consumption prediction models, thereby enhancing its accuracy. Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II is adapted to solve the proposed model for the set of Solomon test data. The conflicting nature of these objectives and the sensitivity of the model to shelf life and shipping container temperature settings are analyzed. The results show that optimizing freshness objective degrade the cost and the emission objectives, and the distribution of perishable foods are sensible to the shelf life of the perishable foods and temperature settings inside the container.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Food waste index; Household food waste; Waste characterisation; Waste sorting analysis; Avoidable food waste; Preparation residues; SDG Target 12.3; Methodology development; Assessment of current situation
Online: 15 July 2021 (15:38:01 CEST)
Target 12.3 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) calls for halving per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels, by 2030. The Food Waste Index is suggested as a methodology for grasping the situation. This paper focuses on the consumer level (household food waste). We argue that in order for generating useful information for devising and implementing effective measures for reducing food waste, it should be measured at Level 3 of the Food Waste Index, based on sorting analysis of generated waste, making a distinction between avoidable and non-avoidable food waste. Furthermore, a breakdown by sub-categories that reflect the flow of food in the household could help identify target behaviours. We have developed a categorisation scheme that is internationally agreeable and adoptable, and 1) generates useful information for policy-making and for tackling with reduction of food waste, 2) makes clear the concept of avoidable food waste, and 3) is practical and does not overcomplicate the work of grasping the situation of food wastage. Results of workshops regarding this scheme suggest that the scheme satisfies the criteria. This scheme has been applied to a few sorting analyses of household food waste in Japan, and their results are compared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0565.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: food rewards; children; sport; motivation; participation
Online: 31 January 2023 (02:32:29 CET)
(1) Background: Children who are physically active and involved in organized sport report having the unhealthiest diets. Research suggests excessive calories may be attributed to the prevalence of fast food and candy which are often provided as rewards in sport. This study explored the use of food as a reward in youth sport and the perceived impact it has on children’s motivation to participate in recreational soccer and ice hockey; (2) Methods: A multiple instrumental case study approach was utilized. Children aged 4-12 (n = 64), parents (n = 30), and coaches (n = 18) were recruited within central and northeastern Ontario, Canada to participate in focus groups and individual interviews. Transcribed audio recordings underwent inductive thematic analysis; (3) Results: Key themes included: Fun and fast: The culture of food in youth soccer and hockey; (Un)importance of food rewards: The how and why of motivating children in sport; and Youth sport is expensive: Gratitude for sponsorship in youth sport; (4) Children’s participation and effort would continue without food rewards; however, they continue to be offered food to motivate and celebrate performance in youth sport. Findings highlight the need to increase knowledge and awareness among parents and coaches on what truly motivates children to help foster healthier strategies for celebrating success and supporting lifelong physical activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0310.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: olfactory loss; parosmia; food liking; cooking
Online: 24 May 2022 (02:59:57 CEST)
Olfactory dysfunction affects often has severe consequences on patients’ quality of life. The most common complaint in these patients is their reduced enjoyment of food in both patients with olfactory loss and parosmia. How the different types of olfactory dysfunction differ in relation to food and cooking habits, sensory awareness, and food-related quality of life has not yet received much attention. By applying questionnaires on cooking, food, olfactory function, weight changes, sensory awareness, and food-related quality of life, we investigate how various aspects of eating differ between participants with olfactory loss (n=271), parosmia(n=251), and normosmic controls(n=166). Cooking habits in olfactory dysfunction revealed pronounced differences as compared with normosmic controls. Cooking with olfactory dysfunction was associated with e.g., a lack of comfort and inspiration for cooking and an inability to make new foods successfully. Significant differences in cooking were also found between olfactory loss and parosmia. Food items were less familiar in participants with olfactory loss and parosmia, while the ratings of liking food items differed between olfactory loss and parosmia, indicating the importance of adapting ingredients in meals separately for olfactory loss and parosmia. Parosmia was associated with a higher incidence of weight loss, but we found no difference in the food-related quality of life between participants with olfactory loss and parosmia. While olfactory loss and parosmia have wide-ranging consequences on patients’ cooking and food habits, adapting meals to include ‘safer food items’ and integrating multisensory stimulation may be a possible avenue for improving the enjoyment of food.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0309.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: bacteriophages; biocontrol; food production; bacterial resistance
Online: 29 April 2022 (15:49:21 CEST)
Bacteriophages have been recognized as potential biocontrol agents in the food industry. Bacteriophages have been proposed for a variety of applications within this industry including bio preservation, pathogen detection, and as an alternative treatment method to antibiotics in animal health. The potential applications of bacteriophages are widespread throughout the entire food production process and serve to enhance food quality, prevent foodborne illnesses, and enhance the efficiency of production. The ability of bacteriophages to lyse bacterial targets with high specificity and pose no threat to mammalian cells or natural microbiota is unique and relevant in terms of suitability for food safety. This review will outline potential and current applications of bacteriophages and their respective impacts on the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0213.v1
Online: 12 November 2021 (11:20:39 CET)
Pronematus ubiquitus (McGregor) is a small iolinid mite that is capable of establishing on tomato plants. Once established, this mite has been shown to control both tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici (Tryon) (Acari: Eriophyidae) and tomato powdery mildew (Oidium neolycopersici L. Kiss). In the present study, we explored the nutritional value of various food sources in the laboratory. First, we assessed the reproduction of two food sources that P. ubiquitus can encounter on a tomato crop: tomato pollen and powdery mildew. In a second laboratory experiment, we evaluated the nutritional value of two types of prey mites: the astigmatid Carpoglyphus lactis L. (Acari: Carpoglyphidae) and the tarsonemid Tarsonemus fusarii (Acari: Tarsonemidae). Powdery mildew and C. lactis did not contribute to the reproduction, whereas tomato pollen and T. fusarii did allow egg-laying. However, Typha angustifolia pollen was a superior food source in both experiments. In a greenhouse trial on individual caged tomato plants, we evaluated the impact of pollen supplementation frequency on establishment of P. ubiquitus. Here, a pollen addition frequency of every other week was required to allow populations of P. ubiquitus to establish.
Online: 23 August 2021 (13:51:54 CEST)
Excessive intake of fat and fatty acids is associated with major health hazards such as obesity or chronic diseases. The aim of this study is to provide the first data on total fat, SFA and TFA intakes and their major food sources in Tunisian children. A total of 1200 children, aged 3 to 9 years old, were randomly selected from primary schools and kindergarten under a cross-sectional design. The 24hour recall method and food frequency questionnaire were used to assess dietary intake. The energy percentages of total fat, SFA and TFA in Tunisian children were respectively 29.6, 11.4 and 0.15. No sex differences were found. The WHO recommendations for total fat, SFA and TFA were adopted by 58 %, 39 % and 89 % of the study population, respectively. The leading food groups of fat and fatty acids were ultra-processed foods, bread and cereals and dairy products. The meat, fish, eggs and fish alternatives were the fifth main contributors to the total fat and SFA intakes in Tunisian children. The implementation of a relevant strategy for fat reduction, especially from ultra-processed foods, considered as low nutrient energy-dense products, is needed to promote health among children and prevent diet-related chronic diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0317.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: COVID-19; Africa; food systems; agriculture
Online: 16 August 2021 (10:47:45 CEST)
Emerging information on the interactions between the COVID-19 pandemic and global food systems has highlighted how the pandemic is accentuating food crises across Africa. Less clear, however, are how the impacts differ between farming systems. Drawing on 50 key informant interviews with farmers, village leaders and extension officers, in South Africa and Tanzania, we identify the effects of COVID-19 and associated measures to curb the spread of the disease on farming production systems, the coping mechanisms adopted by farmers, and explore their longer-term plans for adaptation. We focus on a diverse range of production systems, from small-scale mixed farming systems in Tanzania, to large-scale corporate farms in South Africa. Our findings highlight how COVID-19 restrictions have interrupted the supply chains of agricultural inputs and commodities, increasing the storage time for produce, decreasing income and purchasing power, and reducing labour availability. Farmers’ responses were heterogeneous, with highly diverse small-scale farming systems and those less engaged with international markets least affected by the associated COVID-19 measures. Large-scale farmers were most able to access capital to buffer short-term impacts, whereas smaller-scale farms shared labour, diversified to subsistence produce and sold assets. However, compounded shocks, such as recent extreme climate events, limited the available coping options, particularly for smaller-scale and emerging farmers. The study highlights the need to understand the characteristics of farm systems to better equip and support farmers, particularly in contexts of uncertainty. We propose that policy actions should focus on (i) providing temporary relief and social support and protection to financially vulnerable stakeholders, (ii) job assurance for farmworkers, and engaging an alternative workforce in farming, (iii) investing in farming infrastructure, such as storage facilities, digital communication tools, and extension services, and iv) supporting diversified agroecological farming systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0158.v1
Online: 7 December 2020 (13:14:25 CET)
Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between objective chewing ability and nutritional status of Japanese community-dwelling elders. Design: Cross sectional study. Participants: In total, 509 community-dwelling elders living in the Tokyo metropolitan area participated in a comprehensive survey occurring in October 2013. Measurements: Basic characteristics referred to sex, age, and body mass index. Undernutrition was examined through serum albumin levels. Chewing ability was examined through a color-changeable xylitol gum. By evaluating color changes in the chewing gum. Nutritional intake was examined through the semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Results: In the poor chewing ability group, all nutrient intake levels were significantly low, except for carbohydrates and all food groups intake levels were significantly low, except for cereals, confectionery, sugars, seasonings, and spices. Additionally, after adjusting for covariates, chewing ability showed a significant association with undernutrition. Conclusion: We concluded that chewing ability was closely associated with nutrient and different food groups intake as well as undernutrition among Japanese community-dwelling elders. Thus, in order to ensure a comprehensive nutritional management, nutritionists and dentists should collaborate when treating the same patients.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0355.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: microplastics; analysis; waste treatment; food; diet
Online: 23 May 2020 (04:58:22 CEST)
This preprint is focused in the presence of plastics and microplastics in food. We will discuss how many we eat, and how they arrive to the food, and why. We will treat many other things, such as the waste treatment in Europe and in Spain, with updated data; how much plastic waste is generated; what are microplastics and how they are analyzed, I will tell about the experience we have at the University of Alicante (UA); how they can be removed and we will estimate how many we eat over the course of a year.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0034.v1
Online: 2 July 2019 (08:27:16 CEST)
In recent years, several brands have received much negative press coverage when trying to market their food and drink products specifically at women. This is, in part, because the taste preferences/sensitivities of men and women are actually quite similar. In fact, perhaps the one and only area where consumers are willing to accept (or should that be swallow) ingested products explicitly targeted at women or men is in the case of nutritional foods/supplements. Such products are not really sold on the basis of their taste/flavour anyway. Many consumers are also sensitive to the so-called pink tax, when near-identical products cost more when sold to women rather than to men (e.g., as in the case of female razors). As the four recent examples discussed in this review make clear, it can be difficult to roll-out a new food or beverage product, or else extend a pre-existing product line, that is especially for women without coming across as sexist/condescending. As such, marketers need to tread carefully, otherwise they may end-up generating unwanted negative publicity. Ultimately, therefore, adopting an implicit approach to gender-based marketing, should that be the direction that a brand wants to take, will likely have more chance of avoiding negative publicity than the explicit targeting of food/beverage-related products in what is undoubtedly a highly-politicized area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0556.v1
Online: 24 October 2018 (08:01:35 CEST)
Background: Sodium intake has been related to several adverse health outcomes; such as, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Processed foods are major contributors to the population’s dietary sodium intake. The aim of the present study was to determine sodium levels in Mexican packaged foods; also to evaluate the proportion of foods that comply with sodium benchmark targets set by the UK Food Standards Agency (UK FSA) and those set by the Mexican Commission for the Protection of Health Risks (COFEPRIS). We also evaluated the proportion of foods that exceeded the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) targets. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that comprised data collected from the package of 2,248 processed foods from selected supermarkets of Mexico. Results: Many processed food categories contained excessive amount of sodium, being the processed meats (ham, bacon and sausages) those that have the highest concentrations. The proportion of foods classified as compliant in our sample was lower for international targets (FSA UK and PAHO) compared to the Mexican COFEPRIS criteria. Conclusions: These data provide a critical baseline assessment for monitoring sodium levels in Mexican processed foods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0386.v1
Online: 19 September 2018 (13:59:33 CEST)
Menaquinone-7 is a member of the vitamin K family whose interest has considerably increased over the last decade due to its beneficial role in human health mainly in respect to bone and cardiovascular health leading to a growing use in different nutritional supplement. Menaquinone-7 can be produced by synthesis or fermentation and its purity profile can differ depending on methodologies and extraction procedures. Finished formulation show a large heterogeneity of purity profiles as well as frequent discrepancies in the nominal content compared to the actual title. In the present study we compared purity profiles of different raw material and we related them to stability assay in normal (12months/25°C/60%RH) and accelerated conditions (6 months/40°C/75% RH) in order to test their performance in presence of different common excipients. Results show that higher purity profile correlates with enhanced stability and this could explain title discrepancies found in finished products found on the market worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0231.v2
Online: 17 September 2018 (10:35:49 CEST)
In this work, nine fruits cultivated in the northern Amazon were studied: abiu, acerola, araçá, bacupari, biribá, caçarí, fruta-do-conde, graviola and taperebá, with the objective of carrying out a bromatological and nutritional study of the pulps of fruits studied. Of all of them, are the pulps of graviola (76.83 ± 0.02 kcal 100 g-1) bacupari (76.83 ± 0.02 kcal 100 g-1) and fruta-do-conde (46.66 ± 0.02 kcal 100 g-1). Among the macronutrients, the high concentration of potassium stands out, especially in the graviola (541.16 ± 0.24 mg 100 g-1) and the biribá (468.21 ± 0.13 mg 100 g-1). Among the micronutrients, iron concentrations are representative for araçá pulp (3.04 ± 0.02 mg 100g-1), abiu is rich in zinc (3.71 ± 0.02 mg 100 g-1) and manganese (6.61 ± 0.11 mg 100 g-1). The presence of cobalt at the level of traces in some of the pulps studied stands out. The Pearson correlation coefficient was evaluated, as well as the statistical treatment by multivariate analysis PCA to establish the correlation between the variables studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0437.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: functional food; whey; byproducts; beverages; probiotics
Online: 27 June 2018 (09:40:14 CEST)
Whey proteins have excellent nutritional characteristics due to their levels of essential amino acids with high bioavailability. However, it has a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and a considerable polluting potential, thus food manufacturers have opted to add whey to food formulations. The demand for beverages containing vitamins, probiotics, prebiotics, minerals, and bioactive compounds (antioxidants) with health benefits has increased and driven market growth. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a probiotic functional carbonated beverage from cheese whey and evaluate its microbiological, and physicochemical characteristics soon after the production and during storage. The viability and stability of probiotic, the microbiological characteristics, titratable acidity and sedimentation of the beverage were monitored during refrigerated storage for a month. The probiotic to be added to the formulation was established in a preliminary step. The production of this beverage proved to be a simple technology and the product was suitable for incorporation of the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. The probiotic showed good viability and stability during storage. The microbiological quality of the beverage met the Brazilian legal standards. The pH and titratable acidity of the probiotic carbonated beverage remained stable during storage, and slight sedimentation was observed after one week of refrigerated storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0301.v1
Online: 22 May 2018 (11:37:00 CEST)
The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends that individuals should eat as little dietary cholesterol as possible. However, current dietary cholesterol intake and its food sources have not been well-characterized. We examined dietary cholesterol intake by age, sex, race, and food sources using 24-hour dietary recall data from a nationally representative sample of 5047 adults aged 20 years or older who participated in NHANES (2013–2014 survey cycle). We also reported trends in cholesterol intake across the past 7 NHANES surveys. Mean dietary cholesterol intake was 293 mg/day (348 mg/day for males and 242 mg/day for females) in the 2013–2014 survey cycle; 39% of adults had dietary cholesterol intake above 300 mg/day (46% for males and 28% for females). Meat, eggs, grain products, and milk were the highest four food sources of cholesterol, contributing to 96% of the total consumption. Both average cholesterol intake and food source varied by age, sex, and race (each p < 0.05). Mean cholesterol intake of the overall population had been relatively constant at ~290 mg/day from 2001–2002 to 2013–2014 (p-trend = 0.98). These results should inform public health efforts in implementing dietary guidelines and tailoring dietary recommendations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0232.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: food safety; risk assessment; Cannabis sativa; tetrahydrocannabinol; food supplements; cannabidiol; benchmark dose; health-based guidance value (HBGV); liver toxicity
Online: 24 November 2022 (02:53:03 CET)
In the European Union (EU), cannabidiol products require pre-marketing authorisation under the novel food regulation. Currently, 19 CBD applications are under assessment at the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). During the initial assessment of the application files, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) located several knowledge gaps in their 07 June 2022 statement on safety of cannabidiol as a novel food that need to be addressed before the evaluation of CBD can be concluded. Namely, the effect of CBD on the liver, gastrointestinal tract, endocrine system, nervous system, psychological function, and reproductive system needs to be clarified. Nevertheless, the available literature allows a benchmark dose (BMD)-response modelling of several bioassays, resulting in a BMD lower confidence limit (BMDL) of 20 mg/kg bw/day for liver toxicity in rats. Human data in healthy volunteers found increases in the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in a study at 4.3 mg/kg bw/day, which was defined by EFSA NDA panel as a lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL). The EFSA NDA panel currently concluded that the safety of CBD as a novel food cannot be evaluated, leading to a so-called clock stop of the applications until the applicants provide the required data. Meanwhile, the authors suggest that CBD products still available as food supplements on the EU market despite the lack of authorisation must be considered as “unsafe”. Products exceeding a health-based guidance value of 10 mg/day must be considered as being “unfit for consumption” (Article 14(1) and (2) (b) of Regulation No 178/2002), while the ones in exceedance of the human LOAEL must be considered “injurious to health” (Article 14(1) and (2) (a) of Regulation No 178/2002).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0347.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Pachycereus weberi; Escontria chiotilla; bioactive entities; antioxidant activity; phenolic compounds; betalains; food composition; food analysis; cytotoxicity
Online: 29 January 2020 (04:29:42 CET)
Mexico has a great diversity of cacti, however, many of their fruits have not been studied in greater depth. Several bioactive compounds available in cacti juices extract have demonstrated nutraceutical properties. Two cactus species are interesting for their biologically active pigments, which are chico (Pachycereus weberi (J. M.Coult.) Backeb)) and jiotilla (Escontria chiotilla (Weber) Rose)). Hence, the goal of this work was to evaluate the bioactive entities, i.e., betalains, total phenolic, vitamin C, antioxidant activity, and mineral content in the extract of the above-mentioned P. weberi and E. chiotilla. Then, clarified extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity (cancer cell lines) potentialities. Based on the obtained results, Chico fruit extract was found to be a good source of vitamin C (27.19±1.95 mg L-Ascorbic acid/100g fresh sample). Moreover, chico extract resulted in a high concentration of micronutrients, i.e., potassium (517.75±16.78 mg/100 g) and zinc (2.46±0.65 mg/100 g). On the other hand, Jiotilla has a high content of biologically active pigment, i.e., betaxanthins (4.17±0.35 mg/g dry sample). The antioxidant activities of clarified extracts of chico and jiotilla were 80.01±5.10 and 280.88±7.62 (DPPH method), respectively. From the cytotoxicity perspective against cancer cell lines, i.e., CaCo-2, MCF-7, HepG2, and PC-3, the clarified extracts of chico showed cytotoxicity in CaCo-2 (49.7±0.01) and MCF-7 (45.56±0.05). Normal fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) was used as a control for comparison purposes. While, jiotilla extract had cytotoxicity against HepG2 (47.31±0.03) and PC-3 (53.65±0.04). These results demonstrated that Chico and jiotilla are good resources of biologically active constituents with nutraceuticals potentialities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0344.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: PLA; cellulose; yerba mate; kombucha; food packaging.
Online: 20 December 2022 (01:46:15 CET)
Yerba mate waste (YMW) were used to produce kombucha beverage, and the obtained microbial cellulose produced as by product (KMW) was used to reinforce mechanically recycled poly(lactic acid) (r-PLA) matrix. Microbial cellulosic particles were also produced in pristine yerba mate for comparison (KMN). To simulate the revalorization of industrial PLA products rejected during the production line, PLA was subjected to three extrusion cycles and the resultant pellets (r3-PLA) were then plasticized with 15 wt.% of acetyl tributyl citrate ester (ATBC) to obtain optically transparent and flexible films by solvent casting method. The plasticized r3-PLA-ATBC matrix was then loaded with KMW and KMN in 1 and 3 wt.%. The use of plasticizer allowed a good dispersion of microbial cellulose particles into the r3-PLA matrix, allowing to obtain flexible and transparent films which showed good structural and mechanical performance. Additionally, the obtained films showed antioxidant properties, as it was proven by release analyses conducted in direct contact with a fatty food simulant. The results suggest the potential interest of these recycled and biobased materials that are obtained from the revalorization of food waste for their industrial application in food packaging or agricultural films.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0086.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: antimicrobial multidrug resistance; foodborne pathogens; food safety
Online: 6 July 2022 (04:32:25 CEST)
Due to nutritional benefits and perceived humane ways of treating the animals, the demand for antibiotic-free pastured poultry chicken has continued to be on a steady rise. However, despite non-usage of antibiotics in pastured poultry broiler production, antibiotic resistance (AR) is reported in zoonotic poultry pathogens. However, actors that drive multidrug resistance (MDR) in pastured poultry are not known. In this study, we used machine learning and deep learning approaches to predict farm management practices, and physicochemical properties of feces and soil that drive MDR in zoonotic poultry pathogens. Antibiotic use in agroecosystems is known to contribute to resistance. Evaluation of the development of resistance in environments that are free of antibiotics such as the all-natural antibiotic-free, pastured poultry production systems described here is critical to understand the background AR. We analyzed 1,635 preharvest (feces and soil) samples collected from forty-two pastured poultry flocks and eleven farms in the Southeastern United States. CDC National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System guidelines were used to determine antimicrobial/multidrug resistance profiles of Salmonella, Listeria and Campylobacter. A combination of two traditional machine learning (RandomForest and XGBoost) and three deep learning (Multi-layer Perceptron, Generative Adversarial Network, and Auto-Encoder) approaches, identified critical farm/environmental variables that drive multidrug resistance in poultry pathogens, in broiler production systems that represents background resistance. This study enumerates management practices that contribute to AR and recommendations to potentially mitigate multidrug resistance and prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in pastured poultry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0197.v1
Online: 10 November 2021 (08:53:05 CET)
Gelatinization of starch content in pet foods can be impacted by several factors including moisture, retention time, and ingredients used. Starch gelatinization has been associated with digestibility but isn’t well studied using ingredients common in non-traditional canine diets. The objective of this research was to examine the impacts of dietary ingredient profile (traditional vs non-traditional) and assess impacts to total starch content and starch gelatinization. Traditional diets (n = 10) utilizing meat-based ingredients including chicken, chicken by-product meal, meat and bone meal and plant-based ingredients including rice, barley, oats, and corn were examined in comparison with non-traditional diets (n = 10) utilizing meat-based ingredients including alligator, buffalo, venison, kangaroo, squid, quail, rabbit, rabbit and salmon along with plant-based ingredients including tapioca, peas, chickpeas, lentils, potato, and pumpkin. Representative samples were collected via grab sample technique (5 samples/diet) and were assessed for total starch content as well as percent starch gelatinization. Difference between ingredient type was assessed using a Students t-test in SAS 9.4. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Distribution of total starch content based on ingredient type (traditional vs non-traditional) revealed that mean total starch content was higher in traditional diets as compared to non-traditional diets (P <0.0001). Conversely, starch gelatinization was found to be higher in non-traditional diets (P < 0.0001). Total starch content and total gelatinized starch had a strong negative correlation (P < 0.01) in traditional diets, though no correlation was observed in non-traditional diets. This negative correlation indicates a decrease in total gelatinized starch associated with increased total starch content. These novel data reveal important differences between starch content and gelatinization and could impact manufacturing processes for ingredient types as well as feeding recommendations. Unpredicted variation between ingredient formulations could potentially lead to decreased digestibility and absorption and may result in nutrient deficiencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0027.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Blockchain; Agriculture; Traceability; Food Supply chain; Crops.
Online: 1 November 2021 (16:04:00 CET)
In recent years, Blockchain has been favorably adopted in the Supply Chain industry as it provides guaranteed transparency and traceability. The flexibility of Blockchain allows different applications to enable to exchange information; a significant middleweight layer is responsible for information transfer in the Agricultural Sector. The products that are manufactured at a global level in the agriculture industry are improved in safety, validation of some criteria, and quality. In the agriculture industry, the increasing number of complications associated with food safety and impurity risks needs high-level effective traceability solutions that act as necessary quality management tools to make sure satisfactory safety of crops. The agricultural supply chain today has complex ecosystems, consisting of several stockholders to authenticate criteria which are important like crop development stages, monitoring and validation, and compliance with the quality standard. In this proposed research, a systematic literature review will be done that includes smart contracts, Blockchain, and business transactions exclusively for crop production traceability across the agricultural and food supply chain. By using Blockchain in the agriculture sector, productivity, consistency, safety, reliability, and advanced security are increased. All transactions are kept and recorded on the immutable record of Blockchain associates with a decentralized system. Thus, it provides more traceability and clarity in the agriculture system in asafe, trustworthy, and effective way. A systematic literature review is thus enforced to classify the papers which are selected by the following classification: crop traceability, contribution type, research type, and their approach. For this systematic review, the papers which extracted are classified according to defined criteria. The purpose of this study is to fill the gap by collecting and analyzing studies available within the literature aiming to firstly, gain complete insight on the integration of Blockchain in the agriculture sector. Secondly, provide a summary of the present state of research on this area and identify gaps in existing studies. To achieve this aim an SLR was conducted. The findings of this SLR are discussed and researchers were provided with suggestions on possible directions for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0290.v1
Online: 13 August 2021 (08:45:36 CEST)
This article presents the integration of lean 6S methodologies and hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) in the food production sector. Through the study, it is seen that non-food industrial production is not very different from that of food and, in many cases, it assimilates protocols and ideas that are already working in the food industry; Such is the case of risk analysis, critical control points or hygiene, which are part of the food production protocol and, increasingly, of the industry in general. After the integrative analysis, the article proposes a common lean 6S - HACCP model, which can be used both in food production and in non-food industrial production.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Probiotics; food matrices; cell viability; model digestion
Online: 1 December 2020 (11:36:11 CET)
The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of various food and beverages on the viability of probiotic bacteria during passing through artificial digestion. As a model food, solutions with various concentrations of alcohol, sugar, salt, protein and acid were prepared. Different types of real foods and beverages were used as well. Viability in presence of food matrices was tested on monocultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus CCM4833 and Bifidobacterium breve CCM7825T and on mixed commercial culture with 9 different strains of probiotic microorganisms( Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus). The concentration and viability of probiotic bacteria was tested by cultivation assay and flow cytometry. In model foods, the best growth of was determined in the presence of 10% albumin and 10% ethanol. Survival of the probiotics delivered in different food matrices through a simulated gastrointestinal tract was quantitatively different. As the best food environment for probiotics complex food matrices such as pasta with cream sauce, chocolate spread and homemade beef broth were selected, followed by mixed vegetables, potato salad, salted chips, fruits and yoghurt. Among beverages the best option was milk, followed by black tea, coffee and Coca Cola. Probiotic microorganisms are more viable when consumed with meals than with beverages only. In general, the highest viability of probiotic cells has been observed in presence of foods containing high concentration of sugar and fat or their suitable combination. The increase of cell viability observed in such foods during model digestion may further contribute to the positive effect of probiotics on human health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0017.v1
Online: 3 February 2020 (05:37:23 CET)
Synthetic biology (SynBio) is an interdisciplinary field that has developed rapidly in the last two decades. It involves the design and construction of new biological systems and processes from standardized biological components, networks and synthetic pathways. The goal of Synbio is to create logical forms of cellular control. Biological systems and their parts can be re-designed to carry out completely new functions. SynBio is poised to greatly impact human health, environment, biofuels and chemical production with huge economic benefits. SynBio presents opportunities for the highly agro-based African economies to overcome setbacks that threaten food security: The setbacks are brought about by climate change, land degradation, over-reliance on food imports, global competition, and water and energy security issues among others. With appropriate regulatory frameworks and systems in place, the benefits of harnessing SynBio to boost development in African economies by far potentially outweigh the risks. Countries that are already using GMOs such as South Africa and Kenya should find the application of SynBio seamless, as it would be a matter of expanding the already existing regulations and policies for GMO use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0281.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: algorithm; heat-pump; drying; food; design; optimization
Online: 17 September 2019 (15:27:08 CEST)
Drying food involves complex physical atmospheric mechanisms with non-linear relations from the air-food interactions and those relations are strongly dependent on the moisture contents and the type of food. Such dependence makes it complex to design suitable dryers dedicated to a single drying process. To streamline the design of a novel compact food-drying machine, a heat pump dryer component design optimization algorithm was developed as a subprogram of a Computer Aided Engineering tool. The algorithm requires inputting food and air properties, the volume of the drying container and the technical specifications of the heat-pump off-the shelf components. The heat required to dehumidify the food supplied by the heat exchange process from condenser to evaporator, and the compressor’s requirements (refrigerant mass flow rate and operating pressures) are then calculated. Compressors can then be selected based in the volume and type of food to be dried. The algorithm is shown via a flow chart to guide the user through 3 different stages: Changes in drying air properties, Heat flow within dryer and Product moisture content. Example results of how different compressors are selected for different type of produces and quantities (Agaricus Blazei mushroom with 3 different moisture contents or fish from Thunnini tribe) conclude this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0125.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: adults; dietary pattern; fast food; KNHANES; obesity
Online: 11 September 2019 (14:59:00 CEST)
Background: Few studies have examined multifaceted aspects of fast food consumption and dietary patterns for their effects on obesity. We examined the independent associations of obesity with fast food consumption and dietary pattern in Korean adults. Methods: A total of 19,017 adults aged 19–64y participated from KNHANES 2010-2014. Fast food items were removed from diet and then dietary patterns were generated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the odds for overweight/obesity and central obesity according to fast food consumption and dietary patterns. Results: Fast food consumers were about 10% of Korean adults. Both of White rice and kimchi pattern and Meat and alcohol pattern were associated with low intakes of fiber, calcium, vitamin C, grains, fruit, and milk(p<0.05). Fast food consumers had higher the Meat and alcohol pattern and the Grains, fruit, and milk pattern, and they had lower the White rice and kimchi pattern than non-fast-food-consumers. Fast food consumer were not associated with overweight/obesity, whereas the participants with Meat and alcohol pattern had 14% higher overweight/obesity(95%CI:1.01,1.28) and 16% higher central obesity(95%CI:1.00,1.34). Conclusions: Fast food consumption was not directly associated with obesity, whereas the Meat and alcohol pattern had independent associations with overweight/obesity and central obesity among Korean adults.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0011.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: alternative food networks; systematic literature review; sustainability
Online: 29 January 2019 (10:34:36 CET)
In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to individuals organizing themselves and managing food systems in an ‘alternative’ and more sustainable way. Such emerging food initiatives are most commonly known as ‘Alternative Food Networks’ (AFNs). However, there is an ongoing debate concerning the extent to which AFNs facilitate social, economic and environmental change. There are criticisms of the overall sustainability promise of AFNs related to sufficiency of impact, possible counter effects and relevance of impacts. Because often empirical studies only focus on specific sustainability issues or AFNs, it has been difficult to develop more robust theories about the relations between diverse AFNs arrangements and sustainability. Thus, the aim of this paper is to contribute towards reducing this knowledge gap through a systematic literature review on AFNs in relation to sustainability. We summarize main methodological approaches, types of AFNs studied and sustainability dimensions addressed in literature to date. Findings serve as reference to propose opportunities for future research regarding sustainability in AFNs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0029.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: food marketing; sex/gender; personalization; customization; nutrition
Online: 2 November 2018 (07:00:20 CET)
In recent years, food and drink marketers have become increasingly interested in the question of whether there are any meaningful sex/gender differences in the world of taste/flavour perception. However, it turns out that while there are a large number of individual differences in the experience of food/drink, few, if any, fall neatly along sex/gender lines. As such, the marketers of food and drink need to tread very carefully when it comes to marketing food or beverage products specifically at men, or more usually, women. All too often, the brands entering this space soon find their attempts branded crass and/or sexist. Adopting a stealthy or implicit gender-based product development strategy is therefore perhaps more likely to succeed than the explicit targeting of food/beverage-related products in what is undoubtedly a highly-politicized area. That said, the one area where the public appear willing to accept products that are explicitly targeted at men or women is in the case of nutritional foods/supplements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0394.v1
Online: 18 October 2018 (04:09:45 CEST)
The present study set out to explore the option of developing food portion size for nutritional labelling purposes using two European Union (EU) dietary surveys. The surveys were selected as they differed in (a) methodologies (food diary v food frequency questionnaire), (b) populations (Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey: NANS) versus a seven-country based on the pan EU study Food4Me), (c) food quantification (multiple options v, solely photographic album) and (d) duration (4 consecutive days v recent month). Using data from these studies, portion size was determined for 15 test foods, where portion size was defined as the median intake of a target food when consumed. The median values of the portion sizes derived from both the NANS and Food4Me surveys were correlated (r = 0.823; P<0.00) and the mean of the two survey data sets were compared to US values from the Recognized as Customarily Consumed (RACC) database. There was very strong agreement across all food categories between the averaged EU and the US portion size (r = 0.947; P<0.00). It is concluded that notwithstanding the variety of approaches used for dietary survey data in the EU, the present data supports using a standardized approach to food portion size quantification for food labelling in the EU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0234.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: sodium levels; processed meat; food reformulation; Australia
Online: 11 October 2018 (08:12:31 CEST)
High sodium intake increases blood pressure and consequently increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. In Australia, the best estimate of sodium intake is 3840 mg sodium/day, almost double the World Health Organization guideline (2000 mg/day), and processed meats contribute approximately 10% of daily sodium intake to the diet. This study assessed the median sodium levels of 2510 processed meat products, including bacon and sausages, available in major Australian supermarkets in 2010, 2013, 2015 and 2017, and assessed changes over time. The median sodium content of processed meats in 2017 was 775 mg/100 g (IQR 483–1080). There was an 11% reduction in the median sodium level of processed meats for which targets were set under the government’s Food and Health Dialogue (p < 0.001). This includes bacon, ham/cured meat products, sliced luncheon meat and meat with pastry categories. There was no change in processed meats without a target (median difference 6%, p = 0.093). The new targets proposed by the current government’s Healthy Food Partnership, capture a larger proportion of products than the Food and Health Dialogue (66% compared to 36%) and a lower proportion of products are at or below the target (35% compared to 54%). These results demonstrate that voluntary government targets can drive nutrient reformulation. Future efforts will require strong government leadership and robust monitoring and evaluation systems.