ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0352.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Graves’ disease; autoimmunity; dendritic cells; methimazole
Online: 14 December 2020 (15:50:00 CET)
Graves’ disease (GD) is hyperthyroidism associated with organ-specific autoimmune inflammation. GD occurs more frequently in adults than in children, however, pediatric patients are a therapeutic challenge due to cycles of remissions and relapses requiring constant monitoring at every stage of treatment administered. Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered a link between innate and adaptive immunity. DCs as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are involved in antigen presentation to T lymphocytes, thereby, initiate shift towards effector cells. In accordance, DCs participates also in the modulation of tolerance to specific antigens. To date, the data on DC role in Graves’ pathological processes are scarce. Therefore, here we evaluated frequencies and role of circulating DCs in GD pediatric patients treated with methimazole. Flow cytometric analysis was implemented to evaluate mDC1, mDC2 and pDC cells and their correlation with clinical GD-related parameters. We found significantly higher levels of DC subsets in patients at admission. Furthermore, methimazole treatment seemed to effectively reduce subsets of DCs which, in addition, were found to differentialy correlate with thyroid function. Our study shed a new light on DCs role in pediatric GD pathomechanism. Further studies are required for mechanistic assessment of DCs exact role in disease progression and influence on thyroid function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0186.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: transcription factors; cytokines; autoimmunity; dendritic cells
Online: 15 December 2019 (13:16:35 CET)
Tolerogenic dendritic cells are crucial to control development of autoreactive T cell responses and prevention of autoimmunity. We have reported that NOD.CD11cStat5b-CA transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active form of Stat5b under the control of CD11c promoter are protected from diabetes and that Stat5b-CA-expressing DCs are tolerogenic and halt ongoing diabetes in NOD mice. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Stat5b-CA modulates DC tolerogenic function is not fully understood. Here, we used bone marrow-derived DCs from NOD.CD11cStat5b-CA transgenic mice (Stat5b-CA.BMDC) and found that Stat5b-CA.BMDC displayed high levels of MHC class II, CD80, CD86, PD-L1 and PD-L2 and produced elevated amounts of TGFβ but low amounts of TNF and IL-23. Stat5b-CA.BMDCs upregulated Irf4 and downregulated Irf8 genes and protein expression and promoted CD11c+CD11b+ DC2 subset differentiation. Interestingly, we found that the histone methyltransferase Ezh2 interacted with Stat5b-CA complex that bound GAS sequences in the Irf8 enhancer whereas Ezh2 did not interact with GAS sequences in the case of the Irf4 promoter. Injection of Stat5b-CA.BMDCs to prediabetic NOD mice halted progression of islet inflammation and protected against diabetes. Importantly, inhibition of Ezh2 in tolerogenic Stat5b-CA.BMDCs reduced their ability to prevent diabetes development in NOD recipient mice. Taken together, our data suggest that the active form of Stat5b induces tolerogenic DC function by modulating IRF4 and IRF8 expression through recruitment of Ezh2 and highlight the fundamental role of Ezh2 in Stat5b-mediated induction of tolerogenic DCs function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0125.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: allergy; IgE; IgG2c; anaphylaxis; dendritic cells
Online: 11 August 2019 (07:32:32 CEST)
Elevated levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) are associated with allergies and other immunological disorders. Experimentally, sensitization with alum adjuvant favors IgE production while CpG-ODN adjuvant, a synthetic toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, inhibits it. The cellular mechanisms underlying TLR-regulation of immunoglobulin production are still controversial. Specifically, TLR-mediated IgE regulation in vivo is not yet known. We show that augmented levels of IgE induced by sensitizations to OVA with or without alum adjuvant or with OVA-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) were inhibited when sensitization to OVA was performed in the presence of CpG. Notably, CpG-mediated suppression of IgE production required MyD88-expression on DCs but not on B-cells. This contrasts with previous reports of in vitro regulation IgE where CpG acted directly on B cells via MyD88 pathway. In addition, CpG also inhibited IgE production in a MyD88-dependent manner when sensitization was performed with OVA-pulsed DCs. Finally, CpG signaling through MyD88 pathway was also necessary and sufficient to prevent anaphylactic antibody production involved in active cutaneous anaphylaxis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: nutraceutic; dendritic cells; T lymphocytes; anti-inflammatory response; autophagy; apoptosis
Online: 5 June 2023 (12:50:29 CEST)
Background: Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate of vegetables origin with potent antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. The pleiotropic activities characterization in human dendritic cells (DCs) is poorly summarized. The aim of this work was the study of the immunomodulatory power of SFN in response to an inflammatory microenvironment on human monocyte derived DCs (moDCs). Methods: The immunological response induced by SFN was studied, evaluating apoptosis and autophagy assays by flow cytometry in moDCs and cancer cell line (THP-1), including moDCs maturation, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokines production under different experimental conditions associated or not with an inflammatory microenvironment, which was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results: Our results demonstrated that SFN can interact with moDCs, significantly reducing autophagy process and enhancing apoptosis, such as THP-1 cells, in chronic inflammatory microenvironment. Under this chronic inflammation, SFN modulated the phenotypical characteristics of moDCs, which reduction the expression of all markers (CD80, CD83, CD86, HLA-DR and PD-L1), and significantly reduced the Th2 proliferative response together with the reduction of the IL-9 and IL-13 levels. Although we did not find changes in the regulatory proliferative response, we observed an increase in IL-10 levels. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that SFN exerts protective effects against LPS-induced inflammation through moDCs/T-cells modulation towards a regulatory profile. Therefore, SFN may be a potential candidate for use in the treatment of pathologies with an inflammatory profile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0118.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Receptor-specific antibodies; targeting; nanoparticles; dendritic cells; cross-presentation
Online: 10 April 2019 (07:46:18 CEST)
Abstract Optimal targeting of nanoparticles (NP) to dendritic cells (DCs) receptors to deliver cancer-specific antigens is key to an efficient induction of anti-tumor immune responses. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing tètanus toxoid and gp100 melanoma-associated antigen, toll-like receptor adjuvants were targeted to the DC-SIGN receptor in DCs by specific humanized antibodies or by ICAM3-Fc fusion proteins mimicking natural ligand. Despite higher binding and uptake efficacy of anti-DC-SIGN antibody-targeted NP vaccines than ICAM3-Fc ligand, no difference were observed in DC activation markers CD80, CD83, CD86 and CCR7 induced. DCs loaded with NP coated with ICAM3-Fc appeared more potent in activating T cells via cross-presentation than antibody-coated NP vaccines. This fact could be very crucial in the design of new cancer vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0357.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Astragalin galactoside, hydrophilic modification, Th1 cell, Dendritic cell, adjuvant
Online: 20 August 2018 (12:58:07 CEST)
A flavonoid Astragalin (kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, Ast) has several biological activities including anti-oxidant, anti-HIV, and anti-allergic effects. Nonetheless, its insolubility in hydrophilic solvents imposes restrictions on its therapeutic applications. In this study, we investigated the effects of water-soluble astragalin-galactoside (kaempferol-3-O- β-D-isomaltotrioside, Ast-Gal) on dendritic cell (DC) maturation and T helper (Th) cell-mediated immune responses. Ast-Gal significantly increased maturation and activation of DCs through up-regulation of surface markers, such as CD80, CD86, and MHC II in a dose-dependent manner, while Ast had little effects. Also, Ast-Gal-treated DCs markedly secreted immune-stimulating cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12. Importantly, Ast-Gal strongly increased expression of IL-12, a polarizing cytokine of Th1 cells. In a co-culture system of DCs and CD4+ T cells, Ast-Gal-treated DCs preferentially differentiates naïve CD4+ T cells into Th1 cells. The addition of neutralizing IL-12 mAb to cultures of Ast-Gal-treated DCs and CD4+ T cells significantly increased IFN- γ production, thereby indicating that Ast-Gal-stimulated DCs enhance the Th1 response through IL-12 production by DCs. Injection with Ast-Gal-treated DCs in mice increased IFN-γ-secreting Th1 cell population. Collectively, these findings indicate that hydrophilically modified astragalin can enhance Th1-mediated immune responses via DCs, and point to a possible application of water-soluble astragalin-galactoside as an immune adjuvant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0564.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Dendritic cell; Rapamycin; Mitochondria; Acute kidney injury; Ischemic Reperfusion Injury
Online: 21 April 2021 (09:13:27 CEST)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are unique immune cells that can link innate and adaptive immune responses and Immunometabolism greatly impacts their phenotype. Rapamycin is a macrolide compound that has immunosuppressant functions and is used to prevent graft loss in kidney transplantation. The current study evaluated the therapeutic potential of ex-vivo Rapamycin treated DCs to protect kidneys in a mouse model of acute kidney injury (AKI). For the Rapamycin single (S) treatment (Rapa-S-DC), Veh-DCs were treated with Rapamycin (10 ng/ml) for 1 hour before LPS. In contrast, Rapamycin multiple (M) treatment (Rapa-M-DC) were exposed to 3 treatments over 7 days. Only multiple ex-vivo Rapamycin treatments of DCs induced a persistent reprogramming of mitochondrial metabolism. These DCs had 18-fold more mitochondria, had almost 4-fold higher oxygen consumption rates, and produced more ATP compared to Veh-DCs (Veh treated control DCs). Pathway analysis showed IL10 signaling as a major contributing pathway to the altered immunophenotype after Rapamycin treatment compared to vehicle with significantly lower cytokines Tnfa, Il1b, and Il6, while regulators of mitochondrial content Pgc1a, Tfam, and Ho1 remained elevated. Critically, adoptive transfer of Rapamycin treated DCs to WT recipients 24 hrs before bilateral kidney ischemia significantly protected the kidneys from injury with a significant 3-fold improvement in kidney function. Last, the infusion of DCs containing higher mitochondria numbers (treated ex-vivo with healthy isolated mitochondria (10 µg/ml) one day before) also partially protected the kidneys from IRI. These studies demonstrate that pre-emptive infusion of ex-vivo reprogrammed DCs that have higher mitochondria content has therapeutic capacity to induce an anti-inflammatory regulatory phenotype to protect kidneys from injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis; elementary bodies; human dendritic cells; in vitro; reticulate bodies
Online: 4 May 2023 (08:57:52 CEST)
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen known to cause trachoma, sexually transmitted infections, and reactive arthritis. The more serious sequelae of these diseases, blindness from trachoma and pelvic inflammatory disease from chlamydial STD are immunopathological responses to chronic infections. With the abundance of dendritic cells in CT infection sites and their central importance in immune regulation, the susceptibility of dendritic cells to CT infection was investigated in vitro. CT (serovar F) was grown and extracted from HeLa 229 cells for infection of human dendritic cells (DCs). Human DCs were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4. Infected DCs were harvested at 0, 4, 24, and 48 h after infection and immunostained. Results from fluorescence microscopy showed that DC can be infected and can support the growth of CT in vitro. Intracellular elementary and reticulate bodies of CT were detected, and reticulate bodies were shown to multiply over the 48 h-cycle in DC. At 48 h, intracellular elementary bodies were detected in some DCs. These results may provide new insights into the possible participation of DC in sustaining chronic or latent infection, or even dissemination of CT infection to other sites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0422.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: inertial spiral microfluidics; dendritic cell separation; resource-limited microfluidics
Online: 28 February 2020 (11:54:44 CET)
Microfluidics technology has not impacted the delivery and accessibility of point of care health services like diagnosis of infectious disease diagnosis, monitoring health or delivering interventions. Most microfluidics prototypes from academic research are not easy to manufacture with industrial scale fabrication techniques and cannot be operated without complex manipulations of supporting equipment and additives such as labels or reagents. We propose a label- and reagent-free inertial spiral microfluidic device to separate red blood, white blood and dendritic cells from blood fluid for applications in health monitoring and immunotherapy. We demonstrate that using larger channel widths in the range of 200 to 600 µm allows separation of cells into multiple streams according to different size ranges and we utilize a novel technique to collect the closely separated focused cell streams without constricting the channel. When tested on actual human blood cells, 77% of dendritic cells were separated and 80% of cells remained viable after our assay. Our contribution is a method to adapt spiral inertial microfluidic designs to separate more than two cell types in the same device which is robust against clogging, simple to operate and suitable for fabrication and deployment in resource-limited populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0268.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Real-time cell characterization; electrode polarization; cell membrane capacitance; cytoplasm resistance; dendritic gold nanostructures
Online: 16 December 2021 (11:39:56 CET)
Dielectric spectroscopy (DS) is a promising cell screening method that can be used for diagnostic and drug discovery purposes. The primary challenge of using DS in physiological buffers is the electrode polarization (EP) that overwhelms the impedance signal within a large frequency range. These effects further amplify with miniaturization of the measurement electrodes. In this study, we present a microfluidic system and the associated equivalent circuit models for real-time measurements of cell membrane capacitance and cytoplasm resistance in physiological buffers with 10s increments. The current device captures several hundreds of biological cells in individual microwells through gravitational settling and measures the system’s impedance using microelectrodes covered with dendritic gold nanostructures. Using PC-3 cells (a highly metastatic prostate cancer cell line) suspended in cell growth media (CGM), we demonstrate stable measurements of cell membrane capacitance and cytoplasm resistance in the device for over 15 minutes. We also describe a consistent application of the equivalent circuit model, starting from the reference measurements used to determine the system parameters. The circuit model is tested using devices with varying dimensions, and the obtained cell parameters between different devices are nearly identical. Further analyses of the impedance data have shown that accurate cell membrane capacitance and cytoplasm resistance can be extracted using a limited number of measurements in the 5 MHz to 10 MHz range. This will potentially reduce the timescale required for real-time DS measurements below 1s. Overall the new microfluidic device can be used for dielectric characterization of biological cells in physiological buffers for various cell screening applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0299.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; Hyalomma marginatum; human cutaneous immune response; Langerhans cells; dermal dendritic cells; tick-borne virus; tick-virus-host interface
Online: 19 June 2018 (11:50:54 CEST)
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus is one the most important and wide spread tick-borne viruses. Very little is known about the transmission from the tick and the early aspects of pathogenesis. Here, we generate human cutaneous antigen presenting cells: dermal dendritic cells and Langerhans cells, from umbilical cord progenitor cells. In order to mimic the environment created during tick feeding, tick salivary gland extract was generated from semi-engorged Hyalomma marginatum ticks. Our findings indicate that human dermal dendritic cells and Langerhans cells are susceptible and permissive to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection, however, to different degrees. Infection leads to cell activation and cytokine/chemokine secretion, although these responses vary between the different cell types. Hyalomma marginatum salivary gland extract had minimal effect on cell responses, with some synergy with viral infection with respect to cytokine secretion. However, salivary gland extract appeared to inhibit antigen presenting cell (APC) migration. Based on the findings here we hypothesize that human dermal dendritic cells and Langerhans cells serve as early target cells. Rather affecting Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus replication, tick saliva likely immunomodulates and inhibits migration of these APC from the feeding site.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1923.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Dendritic Mesoporous Organisilica Nanoparticles; siRNA; FVIII Factor
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:47:14 CEST)
Dendritic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanoparticles (DMON) are a new class of biodegradable nanoparticles suitable for biomolecules delivery. In order to escape from the endosomes-lysosomes and to deliver biomolecules in the cytoplasm of cells, we studied photochemical internalization (PCI) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of DMON. We added photosensitizers in the framework of DMON. DMON were also loaded with siRNA or FVIII factor protein. We made four formulations with four different photosensitizers, The photosensitizers allowed to perform imaging of DMON in cancer cells, but the presence of the tetrasulfide bond in the framework of DMON quenched the formation of singlet oxygen. Fortunately one formulation allowed to efficiently deliver proapoptotic siRNA in MCF-7 cancer cells leading to 31% of cancer cell death, without irradiation. For FVIII protein, it was loaded in two formulations with drug loading capacities (DLC) up to 25%. In conclusion DMON are versatile nanoparticles which allowed to load siRNA and to deliver it in cancer cells, and to load FVIII protein with good DLC. Due to the presence of tetrasulfide, it was not possible to perform PDT and PCI.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0493.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: mRNA-LNP vaccines; side effects; dendritic cells
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:51:51 CET)
Vaccines based on mRNA-containing lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) pioneered by Katalin Karikó and Drew Weissman at the University of Pennsylvania are a promising new vaccine platform used by two of the leading vaccine candidates against coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are many questions regarding their mechanism of action in humans that remain unanswered. Here we consider the immunological features of LNP components and off-target effects of the mRNA, both of which could increase the risk of side effects. We suggest ways to mitigate these potential risks by harnessing dendritic cell (DC) biology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0250.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: microRNAs; exosomes; astrocytes; hippocampal neurons; dendritic complexity
Online: 17 February 2020 (15:53:24 CET)
In the last decades, it has been established that astrocytes play key roles in the regulation of neuronal morphology. However, the contribution of astrocyte-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) to morphological differentiation of neurons has only recently been addressed. Here, we showed that cultured astrocytes expressing a GFP tagged version of the stress-regulated astrocytic enzyme Aldolase C (Aldo C-GFP) release small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) which are transferred into cultured hippocampal neurons. Surprisingly, Aldo C-GFP-containing sEVs (Aldo C-GFP sEVs) displayed an exacerbated capacity to reduce the dendritic complexity in developing hippocampal neurons compared to sEVs derived from control (i.e. GFP-expressing) astrocytes. Using bioinformatics and biochemical tools, we found that the total content of overexpressed Aldo C-GFP correlates with an increased content of endogenous miRNA-26a-5p in both total astrocyte homogenates and sEVs. Notably, neurons magnetofected with a nucleotide sequence that mimics endogenous miRNA-26a-5p (mimic 26a-5p) not only decreased the levels of neuronal proteins associated to morphogenesis regulation and also reproduced morphological changes induced by Aldo-C-GFP sEVs. Furthermore, neurons magnetofected with a sequence targeting miRNA-26a-5p (antago 26a-5p) were largely resistant to Aldo C-GFP sEVs. Our results support a novel and complex level of astrocyte-to-neuron communication mediated by astrocyte-derived sEVs and the activity of their miRNA content.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mast cells; adaptive immunity; dendritic cells; T cells
Online: 2 November 2020 (10:27:12 CET)
Although Mast cells are known as key drivers of type I allergic reactions, there is increasing evidence for their critical role in host defense. MCs do not only play an important role in initiating innate immune responses, but also influence the onset, kinetic and amplitude of the adaptive arm of immunity, or fine-tune the mode of the adaptive reaction. Intriguingly, MCs have been shown to affect T cell activation by direct interaction or indirectly by modifying properties of antigen-presenting cells, and can even modulate lymph node-borne adaptive responses remotely from the periphery. In this review, we provide a summary of recent findings that explain how MCs act as a link between the innate and the adaptive immunity, all the way from sensing inflammatory insult to orchestrating the final outcome of the immune response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0156.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Sporothrix schenckii; bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells; vaccine; sporotrichosis
Online: 8 August 2018 (04:32:10 CEST)
Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis affecting humans and other animals that can be transmitted a zoonosis with cats as the main vector. The conventional anti-fungal therapy is especially inefficient in immunocompromised patients, who tend to develop the most severe forms of the disease, thus prompting the search for alternative therapies. Given their antigen-presenting properties, dendritic cells (DCs) have been used in both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination strategies. Hence, this study aims to assess the use of DCs as a prophylactic tool in sporotrichosis by evaluating the immune profile induced by Sporothrix schenckii cell wall proteins (SsCWP)-stimulated bone-marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). Mouse BMDCs were stimulated with SsCWP for 24 hours and analyzed for the surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules and TLR-4, as well as the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and IL-10. Following that, activated BMDCs were cocultured with splenocytes for 72 hours and had the same cytokines measured in the supernatant. SsCWP-stimulated BMDCs showed higher expression of CD80, CD86, and CD40, but not TLR-4, and higher secretion of IL-6, IL-17A, and TNF. On the other hand, higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-2 were found in the supernatants of the coculture as compared with the BMDCs alone; TNF secretion was almost completely abrogated, whereas IL-6 was only partially inhibited and IL-17A was unaffected. Our results thus suggest SsCWP-stimulated BMDCs are able to induce a Th1-prone cytokine profile, known to be protective against other fungal diseases. This result could lead to evaluate the development of prophylactic and/or therapeutic DC-based tools against sporotrichosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0438.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: neuromorphic engineering; neuromorphic computing; dendritic computation; silent synapse; motion perception
Online: 6 June 2023 (10:04:05 CEST)
Most neuromorphic technologies use a point-neuron model, missing the spatiotemporal nature of neuronal computation performed in dendrites. Dendritic morphology and synaptic organization are structurally tailored for spatiotemporal information processing, enabling various computations like visual perception. Here, we report on a neuromorphic computational model termed ‘dendristor’, which integrates functional synaptic organization with dendritic tree-like morphology computation. The dendristor presents bioplausible nonlinear integration of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs with silent synapses and diverse spatial distribution dependency. We show that the dendristor can emulate direction selectivity, which is the feature to react robustly to a preferred signal direction on the dendrite. We discover that silent synapses can remarkably enhance direction selectivity, turning out to be a crucial player in dendritic computation processing. Finally, we develop neuromorphic dendritic neural circuits that can emulate a cognitive function such as motion perception in the retina. Using dendritic morphology, we achieve visual perception of motion in 3D space by various mapping of spatial information on different dendritic branches. This neuromorphic dendritic computation innovates beyond current neuromorphic computation and provides solutions to explore new skylines in artificial intelligence, neurocomputation, and brain-inspired computing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0212.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Corrosion; Solidification; Dendritic growth; Al-Si-Fe alloys; Modification; Intermetallics
Online: 15 March 2022 (11:37:13 CET)
The corrosion behavior of Fe-containing directionally solidified (DS) and centrifugally cast (CC) Al-Si-Cu-Zn alloys with either Co or Ni additions has been investigated. Electrochemical and immersion corrosion methods were used to investigate the corrosion behavior in 0.6 M NaCl after short (1-hour) and long (30-day) exposure periods. The employed solidification methods allowed the production of samples with a wide range of secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) while preserving Si and Fe-containing phases. The 0.5 wt.% Ni and Co additions led to the growth of the AlFeSi(Ni) and AlFeSi(Co) phases, but no binary AlNi nor AlCo intermetallic par-ticles have been generated. Potentiodynamic polarization studies at early exposure revealed an increase in the corrosion potential as the Ni was added for either fast or slow solidified samples. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at early exposure demonstrated that the Ni-modified alloy, on the other hand, was associated to smaller charge transfer resistances, in-dicating a reduction in corrosion resistance after short elapsed time into the electrolyte. Howev-er, 30-day immersion tests revealed much lower corrosion rate of the Ni-modified alloy than the other alloys, while the corrosion rates of the Co-modified and non-modified alloys were simi-lar. In the Ni-containing alloy, decreased corrosion rate under long-term corrosion process was attributed to the formation of a thick and dense alumina layer, effectively protecting the surface under such conditions. This work contributes to a better knowledge of the corrosion behavior of Ni- and Co-corrected Al industrial scrap compositions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0244.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; antigen; monovalent; oligovalent; protein; kilodalton (kDa); Th1 response; Th2 response; B cell activation; B cell receptor (BCR); macrophage; dendritic cell; apoptosis; subcapsular sinus; immunoglobulin; interleukin; cytokine; Cytokine Storm Syndrome (CSS); allergen; immune paralysis; vaccine; polymer
Online: 14 May 2020 (15:19:53 CEST)
COVID-19 sepsis immune response remains unclear. Here we propose a new perspective in host response against pathogenic proteins that may lead to a vaccine design by polymerization of antigens of <70 kDa. In COVID-19, initial Th1 response kills infected cells releasing viral proteins. SARS-CoV-2 viral structural proteins are Spike (140 kDa), Nucleocapsid (50 kDa), Membrane (25 kDa) and Envelope (10 kDa). B cell receptor cannot capture antigens >70 kDa. The Spike protein (140 kDa) cannot be captured by B cells and triggers inflammatory Th1 response via the macrophages. Only proteins with a size <70 kDa can activate B cell receptor and trigger Th2 adaptative humoral response. Moreover, M-25 kDa and E-12 kDa glycoproteins can activate IgM-BCR like oligovalent or monovalent antigens. The sustained infected cells lysis overfeeds high levels of viral proteins <70 kDa, increases B cells activation and, in the shift from Th1 to Th2 immune response, triggers the cytokine storm. The continuous BCR activation increases IL-10 releasing and may lead to immune paralysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0502.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: mushroom; immune checkpoints; Axl receptor; lung cancer; dendritic cells; immune response.
Online: 21 July 2021 (15:43:11 CEST)
Agaricus blazei Murrill or Himematsutake is an edible and medicinal mushroom. Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body extracts have anticancer properties, although the mechanism is unknown. Basic or organic solvents, which are hazardous for human health, are generally used to prepare Agaricus blazei Murrill's extracts. Inhibition of immune checkpoint molecules and Axl receptor is an effective therapy in cancer. This study assessed whether subcritical water extracts of the Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body or mycelium affect the expression of Axl and immune checkpoint molecules in lung cancer cells. We used A549 cells and mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in the experiments. We prepared subcritical water extracts from the Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body or mycelium. The subcritical water extracts from the Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body or mycelium significantly inhibited the expression of immune checkpoint molecules and Axl compared to saline-treated cells. Also, the hot water extract, subcritical water extract, and the hot water extraction residue subcritical water extract from the Agaricus blazei Murrill's mycelium significantly enhanced the expression of maturation markers in dendritic cells. These observations suggest that the subcritical water extract from Agaricus blazei Murrill's mycelium is a promising therapeutic tool for stimulating the immune response in cancer.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0959.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: mature plasmacytoid dendritic cell proliferation, T lymphoblastic lymphoma, myeloid neoplasms, case report
Online: 14 September 2023 (07:22:23 CEST)
To the best of the author’s knowledge, studies of mature plasmacytoid dendritic cell proliferation associated with T lymphoblastic lymphoma were extremely rare in the literature. Here, we report a patient who underwent both mature plasmacytoid dendritic cell proliferation and T lymphoblastic lymphoma. With the findings of lymph node biopsy taken from the right cervical and inguinal regions, we identified eye-catching mature plasmacytoid dendritic cells that were considered to be responsible for this lesion at the beginning, until the immunostaining of Ki67 and TDT showed a small group of positive cells hiding in these plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Bone marrow biopsy was also performed in this patient. Microscopically, the hematopoietic tissue was almost completely replaced by lymphoblastoid cells with condensed chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli and scanty cytoplasm, which were basically the same as those seen in the lymph nodes in morphology. However, there was no sign of plasmacytoid dendritic cells or Langerhans cells in the bone marrow biopsy. With the help of bone marrow biopsy, our final diagnosis of the lymph node was T lymphoblastic lymphoma coexisting with mature plasmacytoid dendritic cell proliferation . Although accumulations of plasmacytoid dendritic cells may occur in some infections or reactive lymphadenopathy, the presence of extensive nodules or infiltration of plasmacytoid dendritic cells strongly reminds the pathologist to carefully evaluate the bone marrow or peripheral blood status of the patient to exclude a hidden myeloid or other neoplasm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1396.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Cdkl5 KO mice; voluntary exercise; brain development; dendritic pathology; neuronal survival; neuroinflammation
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:25:05 CEST)
Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) deficiency disorder (CDD) is a rare neurodevelopmental disease caused by mutations in the X-linked CDKL5 gene. CDD is characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, including early-onset refractory epileptic seizures, intellectual disability, hypotonia, visual disturbances, and autism-like features. The Cdkl5 knockout (KO) mouse recapitulates several features of CDD, including autistic-like behavior, impaired learning and memory, and motor stereotypies. These behavioral alterations are accompanied by diminished neuronal maturation and survival, reduced dendritic branching and spine maturation, and marked microglia activation. There is currently no cure or effective treatment to ameliorate the symptoms of the disease. Aerobic exercise is known to exert multiple beneficial effects in the brain, not only by increasing neurogenesis, but also by improving motor and cognitive tasks. To date, no studies have analyzed the effect of physical exercise on the phenotype of a CDD mouse model. In view of the positive effects of voluntary running on the brain of mouse models of various human neurodevelopmental disorders, we sought to determine whether voluntary daily running, sustained over a month, could improve brain development and behavioral defects in Cdkl5 KO mice. Our study showed that long-term voluntary running improved hyperlocomotion and impulsivity behaviors, and memory performance of Cdkl5 KO mice. This is correlated with increased hippocampal neurogenesis, neuronal survival, spine maturation, and inhibition of microglia activation. These behavioral and structural improvements were associated with increased BDNF levels. Given the positive effects of BDNF on brain development and function, the present findings support the positive benefits of exercise as an adjuvant therapy for CDD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2231.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: neurodevelopmental disorders; hippocampus; long-term potentiation; dendritic spines; prenatal nicotine exposure model
Online: 30 June 2023 (12:16:05 CEST)
Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with high incidence in children and adolescents characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. MRI-based evidences support that neuroanatomical abnormalities as the volume reduction of neocortex and hippocampus are shared by several neuropsychiatric diseases as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder and ADHD. In addition, it is well documented the abnormal development and postnatal pruning of dendritic spines of neocortical neurons in schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. A recent report using the prenatal nicotine exposure murine model of ADHD support a delay in spine maturation in CA1 neurons correlated with impaired working memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). In vivo spine imaging show that dendritic spines are dynamic structures exhibiting Hebbian and homeostatic plasticity triggering intracellular cascades involving glutamate receptors, calcium influx and remodeling of F-actin network. The LTP-induced insertion of postsynaptic glutamate receptors is associated to the enlargement of spine head and long-term depression (LTD) to the spine shrinkage. In this review, we summarize recent evidence emerged from meta-analysis of brain imaging data from ADHD patients, risk loci from global genome-wide analysis and new reports focused on spine molecular structure and dynamics using in vivo imaging in neocortex and hippocampus.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ovarian cancer metastasis, chemokines, cytoreductive surgery, Cytotoxic T cells, BDCA3 Dendritic cells.
Online: 10 June 2019 (16:03:23 CEST)
Nowadays the positive immune involvement in the eradication of tumor cells is assigned to the adaptive immune response. By awakening of in vivo responding T cells that are suppressed by the tumor and prevents immunological cure of the cancer. The adaptive immune response is a complex of different cells and protein molecules. Normally activated T cells are well-ordered by several late occurring inhibitors to contain the response to the unknown invaders and spare the normal cells. The tumor strengthens this inhibitory response to escape from immune elimination. Immunotherapy is to unleash the full capacity of the adaptive immune system by blocking this inhibitor response by monoclonal antibodies but with the potential drawback of autoimmune phenomena. Seen the success of the immunotherapy another feature of the immune system is overlooked. Cytokines and chemokines became in oblivion after their suspected necrosis of the tumor (TNF) did not fulfil their initial hope. When patients seek help for their complaints the ovarian cancer is in most cases already metastasized to the peritoneum and omentum. Here, we show that on the one hand chemokines produced by Th2, CD8 and NK cells inhibit cancer spreading and thus leads to a better operability and thus better survival. On the other hand, chemokine receptors are expressed by the tumor that are a decoy by binding chemokines that normally should attract antigen cross-presenting dendritic cells, which start an adaptive T cell response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0007.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: dendritic cells; Th2 immunity; genetic factors; environmental factors; Th2 disorders; therapeutic approaches
Online: 1 April 2019 (10:14:44 CEST)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the professional antigen-presenting cells that recognize and present antigens to naïve T cells to induce antigen-specific adaptive immunity. Among the T-cell subsets, T helper type 2 (Th2) cells produce the humoral immune responses required for protection against helminthic disease by activating B cells. DCs induce a Th2 immune response at a certain immune environment. Basophil, eosinophil, mast cells, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells also induce Th2 immunity. However, in the case of DCs, controversy remains regarding which subsets of DCs induce Th2 immunity, which genes in DCs are directly or indirectly involved in inducing Th2 immunity, and the detailed mechanisms underlying induction, regulation, or maintenance of the DC-mediated Th2 immunity against allergic environments and parasite infection. A recent study has shown that a genetic defect in DCs causes an enhanced Th2 immunity leading to a severe atopic dermatitis. We summarize the Th2 immune-inducing DC subsets, the genetic and environmental factors which involved in DC-mediated Th2 immunity, and current therapeutic approaches for Th2-mediated immune disorders. This review is to provide an improved understanding of DC-mediated Th2 immunity and Th1/Th2 immune balancing, leading to control over their adverse consequences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0295.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: dendritic polymers; ceramic compounds; biomimetic; nanomaterials; dendrimers; hyperbranched polymers; silica composites; hybrid materials
Online: 10 November 2020 (09:22:43 CET)
As the field of nanoscience is rapidly evolving, interest for novel, upgraded nanomaterials with combinatory features is also inevitably increasing. Hybrid composites, offer simple, budget-conscious and environmental-friendly solutions that can cater multiple needs at the same time and be applicable in many nanotechnology-related and interdisciplinary studies. The physicochemical idiocrasies of dendritic polymers have inspired their implementation as sorbents, active ingredient carriers and templates for complex composites. Ceramics are distinguished for their mechanical superiority and absorption potential that render them ideal substrates for separation and catalysis technologies. The integration of dendritic compounds to these inorganic hosts can be achieved through chemical attachment of the organic moiety onto functionalized surfaces, impregnation and absorption inside the pores, conventional sol-gel reactions or via biomimetic mediation of dendritic matrices, inducing the formation of usually spherical hybrid nanoparticles. Alternatively, dendritic polymers can propagate from ceramic scaffolds. All these variants are covered in detail. Optimization techniques as well as established and prospected applications are also presented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0120.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: reelin; lis2; adlte; autism; schizophrenia; translational models; gabaergic interneurons; dendritic spines; forebrain; cerebellum
Online: 10 October 2019 (15:31:12 CEST)
The Reeler mutation was described in mouse more than fifty year ago. Later, its causative gene (reln) was discovered in mouse, and its human orthologue (RELN) was demonstrated to be causative of lissencephaly 2 (LIS2) and about 20% of the cases of autosomal-dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE). In both human and mice the gene encodes for a glycoprotein referred to as Reelin (Reln) that plays a primary role in neuronal migration during development and synaptic stabilization in adulthood. Besides LIS2 and ADLTE, RELN and/or other genes coding for the proteins of the Reln intracellular cascade have been associated more or less substantially to other conditions such as spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 and 37, VLDLR-associated cerebellar hypoplasia, PAFAH1B1-associated lissencephaly, autism and schizophrenia. According to their modalities of inheritances and with substantial differences among each other, these neuropsychiatric disorders can be modeled in the homozygous (reln-/-) or heterozygous (reln+/-) mouse. The usefulness of these mice as translational models is discussed, with focus on their construct and face validity. The latter is mainly treated directing the attention to the histological, neurochemical and functional observations in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of Reeler mice and their human counterparts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0062.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: dendritic cell; cancer vaccine; vaccination; acquired immunity; granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; tetramer analysis
Online: 5 August 2019 (12:35:50 CEST)
Significant recent advances in cancer immunotherapeutics include the vaccination of cancer patients with tumor antigen-associated peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs). DC vaccines with homogeneous, mature, and functional activities are required to achieve effective acquired immunity; however, the yield of autologous monocyte-derived DCs varies in each patient. Priming with a low dose of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) 16–18 h prior to apheresis resulted in 50% more harvested monocytes, with a significant increase in the ratio of CD11c+CD80+ DCs/apheresed monocytes. The detection of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes after Wilms’ tumor 1-pulsed DC vaccination was higher in patients treated with rhG-CSF than those who were not, based on immune monitoring using tetramer analysis. Our study is the first to report that DC vaccines for cancer immunotherapy primed with low-dose rhG-CSF are expected to achieve higher acquired immunogenicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1132.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: coagulopathy; COVID-19; CXCL; dendritic cells; ICU; IL6; IL7; IFN; sex differences and similarities
Online: 16 August 2023 (07:57:44 CEST)
COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC) and ICU admissions were recognized as critical health issues that contributed to the morbidity and mortality in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Here, we analyzed publicly available data from the Yale IMPACT cohort to address immunological misfiring and sex differences in early COVID-19 ICU patients by taking various biological variables into account that were not considered. In 2020, SARS-CoV-2 was considered far more pathogenic and lethal than other circulating respiratory viruses, and it is thus surprising that published studies failed to confirm whether all patients were indeed SARS-CoV-2+ at least by one method, thereby confounding many findings/conclusions. Several key findings were further missed or misinterpreted due to lack of consideration of several important biological variables such as days from symptoms onset (DFSO), risk factors, including obesity, and treatments that influence the immunological measures evaluated. The immune profile in the early phase of infection will differ vastly from mid-to-late phases of infection, which likely coincides with recovery or is the tipping point for progression to severe illness, and thus grouping patients from different phases/DFSO into one single group is not the right approach. Taken together, our analysis shows that interferon responses were dampened and none of the early treatments were effective in reducing levels of IL6, and that obese patients exhibited highest mortality and worst clinical scores. The opportunity to understand the contribution of biological sex, risk factors, and early treatments with respect to COVID-19-related ICU admission and progression to morbidity and mortality was missed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1710.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: prostate cancer; immunotherapy; dendritic cell-based vaccines; castration-resistant prostate cancer; tumor microenvironment; biomarkers
Online: 24 May 2023 (10:47:44 CEST)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second most common cause of death due to cancer. About 30% of patients with PCa who have been castrated develop a castration-resistant form of the disease (CRPC), which is incurable. In the last decade, new treatments that control the disease have emerged, slowing progression and spread, and prolonging survival while maintaining the quality of life. These include immunotherapies; however, we do not yet know the optimal combination and sequence of these therapies with the standard ones. All therapies are not always suitable for every patient due to co-morbidities or adverse effects of therapies or both, so there is an urgent need for further work on new therapeutic options. Advances in cancer immunotherapy with an immune checkpoint inhibition mechanism (e.g., ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA-4 inhibitor) have not shown a survival benefit in patients with CRPC. Other immunological approaches have also not given clear results, which has indirectly prevented breakthrough for this type of therapeutic strategy into clinical use. Currently, the only approved form of immunotherapy for patients with CRPC is a cell-based medicine, but it is only available to patients in some parts of the world. Based on the experience gained from recently completed clinical research on immunotherapy with dendritic cell-based immunohybridomas, the aHyC dendritic cell vaccine, for patients with CRPC, we highlight the current status, and possible alternatives that should be considered in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0807.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: rabies; RABV; PRV; single-stranded RNA; RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase; viral self-camouflaging; glycoprotein; innate immunity; interferon system; natural lymphocytes; adaptive immunity; adaptive lymphocytes; dendritic cells; IgA; IgM; IgG; primary dendritic cells; macrophages
Online: 10 July 2023 (10:09:23 CEST)
Despite being a rare disease worldwide, rabies has the highest morbidity and mortality rates, with nearly all symptomatic cases leading to coma and death. Rabies represents an infectious disease caused by the Rabies virus (RABV), which is part of the Lyssavirus group and the Rhabdoviridae family, and it mainly spreads through the bite and scratch of an infected mammal, but particularly of wild animals, such as bats, foxes, wolves and racoons, and of domestic animals, such as dogs and cats, in rabies-prone areas of the world. Airborne transmission has been deemed as extremely rare, and no clinical case as such has been recorded worldwide yet, except in the enclosed environment, such as research laboratories and caves where infected bats are present. Domestic mammals, such as dogs and ferrets, represent other important reservoirs of disease transmission, and the human cases of Asia and Africa amount approximately 95% of all human cases worldwide. Infected animals most commonly start transmitting the virus once the first symptoms have occurred, and if they experience disease aggravation and death within 10 days, a case of rabies is registered, more easily if the incidence occurred in the urban area and then, any person or animal that had been potentially exposed are strongly recommended to receive the inoculation. It is rare for asymptomatic mammals to transmit the illness. Most First-World and several Second-World countries have recently been declared dog rabies-free by the World Health Organization. The disease can only be treated prophylactically, with three doses of a vaccine containing an inactivated form of RABV, or with five doses of the vaccine and two doses of anti-RABV immunoglobulins within 28 days if the patient is believed to have been exposed to the virus beforehand. It has been projected that, once the viral load reaches elements of the central nervous system, prophylactic approaches are no longer effective, even if symptoms have not begun yet, and this highlights the urgent trait of the medical condition, strongly recommending exposed people to receive the prophylactic doses immediately after the potential exposure to the virus. The pathogen first infects the bodily fluids, before reaching the peripheral nervous system, from where it will gradually move toward the spinal cord or the encephalon, at a speed of movement ranging from 1 to 40 cm per day. It was also found, in extremely rare circumstances, to infect the nasopharyngeal cavity and the lungs. The primary cause of a successful, gradual advance of the viral load toward the point of clinical no-return for the patient - the CNS - is a complex mechanism of induced innate immune evasion, with the interferon system being heavily targeted and silenced by RABV proteins. The ‘Milwaukee’ protocol is locally believed to decrease the mortality rate of the clinical illness to approximately 80%, although significantly more research is required in this sense. First-line immune evasion represents the central mechanism developed by viruses during their evolutionary process to gain control over human immunity, so it could be the development and adjustment of a counter-offensive to this evolutionary operating system that could address the core elements of the problem. Human recombinant Type I and Type III Interferons were found to be significant vaccine adjuvants and to considerably delay the clinical onset of the disease. Despite their central role in natural immunity-based prophylaxis, vaccine support and, in often cases, vaccination per se, a local administration of IFNs as such may not be enough to tackle the core problem of the endemic disease, and a specific and systemic treatment of potential host cells with IFN I and III, as well as IFN-stimulating proteins, may constitute a major research requirement in the coming years of disease investigation, as the inoculation efforts with the inactivated virus and immunoglobulin administration continue. The administration of a relatively low dosage of somatic Natural Killer cells, gamma-interferon and perhaps, of somatic helper CD4+ and somatic cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes treated with alpha-, beta- and lambda-interferon could be merged with the administration of a similar dosage of alpha-, beta- and lambda-interferon during the efforts to develop an effective and less costly prophylactic vaccine against rabies. A combination of a nasal substance containing a low dosage of IFN I and III with a reduced concentration of neutralized RABV copies, and/or with a low dose of anti-RABV IgA antibodies, could also be tested for humans for the purposes of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0069.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Cognitive deficit; Alzheimer’s disease; Cholinergic septo-hippocampal innervation system; Dendritic spine; Hippocampus; Morris water maze
Online: 2 October 2023 (10:32:03 CEST)
Women are at higher risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) after menopause when the estrous cycle becomes irregular and begins to taper off. Numerous studies have shown that estrogen deficiency, especially estradiol (E2), has been shown to play a key role in this phenomenon. Recently, a novel polymeric drug, hyaluronic acid-17β-Estradiol conjugate (HA-E2), has been developed which has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), facilitate a longer E2 release profile and lower risk of estrogen supplement related side effects. In this study, we used an ovariohysterectomy (OHE) rat model of postmenopausal cognitive deficits and explore whether HA-E2 treatment can improve the cholinergic septo-hippocampal innervation system, synaptic transmission in the hippocampal pyramidal neuron and cognitive impairment. Our results show that OHE rats after HA-E2 administration have increased expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the medial septal nucleus (MS nucleus) and the hippocampus, increased spine density in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and improved spatial learning and memory. Therefore, HA-E2 has great potential as a new novel class of drugs for estrogen-deficiency-induced cognitive impairment and AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0461.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy; Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction; single nucleus RNA-sequencing; dendritic cells; integrin-b1.
Online: 29 December 2021 (09:43:00 CET)
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common inherited disorder characterized by unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy, with or without left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. Single nuclei RNA-sequencing (snRNA-seq) of both obstructive and nonobstructive HCM patient samples have revealed alterations in communication between various cell types but a direct and integrated comparison between the two HCM phenotypes has not been reported. We performed a bioinformatic analysis of HCM snRNA-seq datasets from obstructive and nonobstructive patient samples to identify differentially expressed genes and distinctive patterns of intercellular communication. Differential gene expression analysis revealed 37 differentially expressed genes, predominantly in cardiomyocytes but also in other cell types, relevant to aging, muscle contraction, cell motility and the extracellular matrix. Intercellular communication was generally reduced in HCM, affecting the extracellular matrix, growth factor binding, integrin binding, PDGF binding and SMAD binding, but with increases in adenylate cyclase binding, calcium channel inhibitor activity, and serine-threonine kinase activity in nonobstructive HCM. Increases in neuron to leukocyte and dendritic cell communication, in fibroblast to leukocyte and dendritic cell communication and in endothelial cell communication to other cell types, largely through changes in expression of integrin-b1 and its cognate ligands, were also noted. These findings indicate both common and distinct physiological mechanisms affecting the pathogenesis of obstructive and nonobstructive HCM and provide opportunities for personalized management of different HCM phenotypes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1211.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Uranyl Cations; Dendritic Polymers; Silica Xerogels; Composites; Nanoparticles; water purification; radioactive wastewater; Uranium removal; Dendrimers; Biomimetic
Online: 29 April 2023 (04:48:19 CEST)
Two different silica conformations (Xerogels and Nanoparticles) both formed by the mediation of dendritic poly (ethylene imine) were tested at low pHs on the problematic uranyl cation sorption. The effect of crucial factors i.e., temperature, electrostatic forces, adsorbent composition, accessibility of the pollutant to the dendritic cavities and MW of the organic matrix was investigated to conclude the optimum formulation for water purification under these conditions. This was attained with the aid of UV-Visible and FTIR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), ζ-potential; Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) porosimetry, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TG) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Results highlighted that both adsorbents have extraordinary sorp-tion capacity. Xerogels are cost-effective since they approximate the performance of na-noparticles with much lesser organic content. Furthermore, they are more practicable materials since they may penetrate the pores of a metal or ceramic solid substrate in the form of a precursor, gel-forming solution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0451.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Dendritic Polymers; Dendrimers; Metal Nanoparticles; Photocatalysis; Water Purification; dye discoloration; pollutant degradation; nanoparticle catalysis; decomposition; semicoductors
Online: 28 December 2021 (14:19:11 CET)
Radially polymerized dendritic compounds are nowadays an established polymer category next to their linear, branched and cross-linked counterparts. Their uncommon tree-like architecture is characterized by adjustable internal cavities and external groups. They are therefore exceptional absorbents and this attainment of high concentrations into their interior renders them ideal reac-tion media. In this framework they are applied in many environmentally benign implementa-tions. One of the most important among them is water purification though pollutant decomposi-tion. Simple and composite catalysts and photo-catalysts containing dendritic polymers and ap-plied in water remediation will be discussed jointly with some unconventional solutions and fu-ture prospects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0228.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: pancreatic cancer; PDAC; lymph node metastases; WNT; dendritic cells; M2 macrophages; XAV-939; tumour immune-microenvironment
Online: 22 June 2019 (16:50:32 CEST)
Over the past several years there has been much debate with regards to the prognostic and clinical significance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with lymph nodes metastasis. The PDAC gene-expression knowledge and the biologic alterations underlying the lymph node involvement convey a clinical implication in dealing with the theranostic window.To this end, we provide an original bioinformatic dissection of the gene-expression differences of PDAC according to the nodal involvement from a large public available dataset. Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis from 143 RNA-seq patient’s derived samples indicated that WNT increased activation and a peculiar immune-microenvironment identify subjects with nodal involvement.In frame of this thinking, we validated the WNT pathway role in increasing the likelihood of lymphatic dissemination in vitro. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time in a PDAC model the potential therapeutic window that XAV-939, a specific WNT pathway inhibitor, has in re-educating a tumour permissive immune system. Finally, we outline the potential implication on bystander molecular drivers exerted by WNT molecular inhibition, providing a picture of the proteomic oncogenic landscape changes elicited by XAV-939 on PDAC cells and their clinical implication. Our findings hold the promise to identify novel immune-based therapeutic strategies targeting WNT to enhance PDAC cytotoxicity and restore anti-PDAC immunity in nodes-positive disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0155.v4
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: covid-19; pandemic; immune evasion; first-line immunity; viral evolution; interferon; dendritic cells; cytokines; chemokines; innate immunity; adaptive immunity; vaccinology
Online: 21 February 2023 (02:38:38 CET)
The SARS–CoV-2 infection has caused both acute and chronic COVID–19 disease during the recent pandemic with emerging more transmissible SARS–CoV–2 Omicron variants (BQ1 and XBB1) that have increased demands for more effective immunogens and therapeutic approaches to protect the lives of numerous SARS–CoV-2 affected individuals and reduce overall disease burden that could be affected by concurrent other pathogens causing diseases. Following a worldwide campaign of mass vaccination, there is still a significant demand to quell the harmful effects of novel SARS–CoV–2 infections due to higher mutation rates within specific areas of the SARS–CoV-2 domain, leading to enhanced viral entry, especially within individuals with one or more significant comorbidities, and there is still a dilemma of how prevention of future pandemics will occur as within host animal mutations and cross species transfer naturally occurs. Concerns intersect at a specific point; a gained evolutionary ability of several viruses over the previous centuries to remain undetected during the first stages of infection by means of capping the 5' end of their DNA and RNA genes respectively. This may occur by reducing the rate of host Type I and Type III Interferons (IFN) cellular synthesis, that would usually occur and affect both apoptotic pathways, that facilitate viral replication and clearance, as well as immune cells, that process and present pathogenic antigen epitopes. Furthermore, although methods of vaccination exist, other methods in clinical development remain that could evoke an immune response in different cellular, serum or mucosal compartments being cellular, serum and mucosal that evoke differential antibody responses. Antibodies are classed as natural and synthetic. Natural antibodies are further classified into neutralizing and non-neutralizing, whilst synthetic antibodies are also further classified into monoclonal and polyclonal. As a result of single cell study transcriptome research, viruses do utilize an array of protein receptors for receptor-mediated cellular entry. This, therefore suggests that potential differential production of antibody immunoglobulins (Ig) within serum and mucosal areas remains affected by cytokines, adhesion molecules and chemokines that can be upregulated or downregulated upon host viral infection. Serum plasma antibodies can be multimeric that may not efficiently cross the nasal epithelium cell layer, therefore offering less protection against mucosal inflammation due to mucin proteins. On the other hand, antibodies produced by mucosal plasma cells at epithelial surfaces are known to provide effective immune responses in some viral infections. The existence of developments that stimulate mucosal immune responses has so far only been seen with influenza nasal immunogens. Nevertheless, scientists developed ways of immunization and early treatment worldwide that generally showed good success rates and fewer risks of adverse events, and the still early present stages of COVID-19 research should also be taken into consideration. For example, the administration of human interferons I and III into the nasal mucosa cellular layer, as key mediators of anti–viral activity, can stimulate cellular activity to train the innate and adaptive immune system cells to develop and appropriately stimulate an adequate immune response through B and T cells. Recently, it was discovered that specific plants secrete proteins that also stimulate the production of Type I Interferons. It might be that focusing on directly offering the immune system the information about the genetics and protein structure of the pathogen, rather than training its first-line mechanisms to develop faster, excessively increases its specificity, making it reach a level that brings the virus the opportunity to evolve and escape previously-developed host immune mechanisms. Naturally-selected polymorphic viruses through genetic recombination pose challenges to traditional concepts of cellular and molecular immune system neutralization of these viruses during the first stages of cellular infection. It is until the scientific community realizes this potentially crucial aspect that we will probably continue to face serious epidemics and pandemics of respiratory diseases over the coming several decades, evidenced with dengue fever and more recently monkeypox. Type I IFNs tend to be produced faster than Type III IFNs, and the first induce slightly more abundant pro-inflammatory signals than the latter, meaning that type III IFNs, if produced early, may further decrease the extent of excessive proinflammatory signals. Hence, we believe that nasal sprays containing a low dosage of Type I and Type III IFNs not only represent a relevant COVID-19 therapeutic, but also a potential unknown modulatory therapy of the future. Of note, it has been indicated that IFN I and / or III display significant immunizing and early therapeutic effects for other viral evoked diseases like Influenza (Influenza (A)H1N1), rabies (Rabies lyssavirus), measles (Measles virus), rubella (Rubivirus rubellae), Hepatitis B, HIV-induced AIDS, Ebola, Marburg, as well as bacterial diseases, such as lower respiratory tract infectious diseases induced by Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, and a number of oncological diseases, like hepatic melanoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0246.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Oxytocin, Oxytocin Receptor, Autism, Nepsys Scale, MAST Immune System Disease, Dendritic Spines, Magnocellular Neurons, Desensitization, Labor, Down Regulation
Online: 23 April 2019 (11:12:19 CEST)
This paper develops mathematical models examining possible roles of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in the development of autism. This is done by demonstrating that mathematical operations on normalized data from the Stanford study (K.J. Parker, 2016), which establishes a correspondence between severity of autism in children and their oxytocin blood levels, generates a graph that is the same as the graph of mathematical operations on a normalized theoretical model for the severity of autism. This procedure establishes the validity of the theoretical model and the significance of oxytocin receptors in autism. A steady-state model follows, explaining the constant baseline concentrations of oxytocin observed in the cerebral spinal fluid and blood in terms of the neuromodulation by oxytocin of oxytocin receptors on the magnocellular neurons that produce oxytocin in nuclei in the hypothalamus. The implications of these models for possible roles of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in autism is considered for several unrelated conditions that may be associated with autism. These are: oxytocin receptor desensitization and down-regulation as factors during labor in offspring autism development; reductions in the oxytocin receptor numbers in the fixed oxytocin receptor expression that occurs before birth; MAST Immune System disease; and the excess number of dendritic spines from lack of pruning observed in brains of autistic people. Research into the feasibility of generating magnocellular neurons and other neurons from adult stem cells is suggested as a way of doing invitro studies of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors to assess the validity of theories presented in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0224.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs); dendritic cells (DCs); M1 macrophages; M2 macrophages; xenograft tumor; allograft tumor; lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
Online: 27 March 2018 (12:03:56 CEST)
Macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) acquire functionally distinct properties in response to various environmental stimuli; the interaction of these cells with myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in tumor microenvironments regulates cancer progression. Immunodeficient mice lacking T cells are less likely to reject human cancer cells because of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) mismatches. The xenograft tumor microenvironment, comprising human cancer and mouse host cells, exhibits more complex bidirectional signaling and function than a syngeneic tumor microenvironment. Here human and mouse colorectal cancer cells were transplanted into nude mice to elucidate differences in macrophage, DC, and MDSC functions in human xenograft and mouse allograft tumor models. Plasma interferon-γ and interleukin-18 concentrations in the former model after intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration were significantly higher than those in the latter model and non-transplanted control group. Splenic MHC class I, II, and CD80 expression increased in CD11b+ and MDSC populations after LPS administration in only the xenograft tumor model. The number of CD80- and MRC1-expressing cells decreased upon LPS administration in only the xenograft tumor. These results suggxest that macrophages and DCs function normally in xenograft tumor models, whereas their functions in response to LPS administration vary in allograft tumor models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0860.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: gastrointestinal cancer; immunotherapy; cancer vaccines; dendritic cell vaccine; adoptive cell treatment; cytokine-induced killer cells; immune checkpoint inhibitors; angiogenesis inhibition
Online: 13 September 2023 (10:07:21 CEST)
Malignant neoplasms arising from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are among the most common cancer types with a high mortality rate. Despite advances in treatment in a small subgroup harboring targetable mutations, the outcome remains poor, accounting for one in three cancer-related deaths observed globally. As a promising therapeutic option in various tumor types, immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors has also been evaluated in GI cancer, albeit with limited efficacy except for a small subgroup expressing microsatellite instability. In the quest for more effective treatment options, energetic efforts have been placed to evaluate the role of several immunotherapy approaches comprising of cancer vaccines, adoptive cell therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors. In this review, we report our experience with personalized dendritic cell cancer vaccine and cytokine-induced killer cell therapy in three patients with GI cancers and summarize current clinical data on combined immunotherapy strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2086.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: community-acquired pneumonia; cardiovascular events; dendritic cells; macrolides; macrophages; mannose receptor C-type1; platelets; pneumolysin; pro-inflammatory cytokines; Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Online: 30 May 2023 (08:27:31 CEST)
Despite innovative advances in anti-infective therapies and vaccine development technologies, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains the most persistent cause of infection-related mortality globally. Confronting the ongoing threat posed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus), the most common bacterial cause of CAP, particularly to the non-immune elderly, remains challenging due to the propensity of the elderly to develop invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), together with the predilection of the pathogen for the heart. The resultant development of often fatal cardiovascular events (CVEs), particularly during the first seven days of acute infection, is now recognized as a relatively common complication of IPD. The current review represents an update on the prevalence and types of CVEs associated with acute bacterial CAP, particularly IPD. In addition, it is focused on recent insights into the involvement of the pneumococcal pore-forming toxin, pneumolysin (Ply), in subverting host immune defenses, particularly the protective functions of the alveolar macrophage during early-stage disease. This, in turn, enables extra-pulmonary dissemination of the pathogen, leading to cardiac invasion, cardiotoxicity and myocardial dysfunction. The review concludes with an overview of the current status of macrolide antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial CAP in general, as well as severe pneumococcal CAP, including a consideration of the mechanisms by which these agents inhibit the production of Ply by macrolide-resistant strains of the pathogen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: mucosal immunization; mucosal vaccine; vaccine delivery; administration volume; targeted vaccines; M cell targeting; dendritic cell targeting; C5aR1; C5a1R; CD88; EP54; EP67
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:17:30 CEST)
Generating long-lived mucosal and systemic antibodies through respiratory immunization with protective antigens encapsulated in nanoscale biodegradable particles could potentially decrease or eliminate the incidence of many infectious diseases but requires incorporation of a suitable mucosal immunostimulant. We previously found that respiratory immunization with a model protein antigen (LPS-free OVA) encapsulated in PLGA 50:50 nanoparticles (~380 nm diameter) surface modified with complement peptide-derived immunostimulant 02 (CPDI-02; formerly EP67) through 2kDa PEG linkers increases mucosal and systemic OVA-specific memory T-cells with long-lived surface phenotypes in young, naïve female C57BL/6 mice. Here, we determined if respiratory immunization with LPS-free OVA encapsulated in similar PLGA 50:50 microparticles (~1 μm diameter) surface modified with CPDI-02 (CPDI-02-MP) increases long-term OVA-specific mucosal and systemic antibodies. We found that, compared to MP surface modified with inactive, scrambled scCPDI-02 (scCPDI-02-MP), intranasal administration of CPDI-02-MP in 50 μL sterile PBS greatly increased titers of short-term (14 days post-immunization) and long-term (90 days post-immunization) antibodies against encapsulated LPS-free OVA in nasal lavage fluids, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and sera of young, naïve female C57BL/6 mice. Thus, surface modification of biodegradable microparticles with CPDI-02 is likely to increase long-term mucosal and systemic antibodies against encapsulated protein antigen after respiratory and possibly other routes of mucosal immunization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0614.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Am-241 and U-232; dendritic polymers; silica xerogels; composites; dendrimers; water purification; radioactive wastewater; radionuclide removal; thermodynamic; environmental remediation; water decontamination
Online: 9 August 2023 (07:25:25 CEST)
The binding of actinide ions (Am(III) and U(VI)) in aqueous solutions by hybrid silica-hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine) nanoparticles (NP) and xerogels (XG) has been studied by means of batch experiments at different pH values (4, 7 and 9) under ambient atmospheric conditions. Both materials present relatively high removal efficiency at pH 4 and pH 7 (> 70%) for Am(III) and U(VI). The lower removal efficiency for the nanoparticles is basically associated with the compact structure of the nanoparticles and the lower permeability and access to active amine groups compared to xerogels, and the negative charge of the radionuclide species formed under alkaline conditions (e.g. UO2(CO3)34- and Am(CO3)2-). Generally, the adsorption process is relatively slow due to the very low radionuclide concentrations used in the study and is basically governed by the actinide diffusion from the aqueous phase to the solid surface. On the other hand, the adsorption is favored with increasing temperature assuming that the reaction is endothermic and entropy-driven, which is associated with increasing randomness at the solid-liquid interphase upon actinide adsorption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on hybrid silica-hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine) nanoparticle and xerogel materials used as adsorbents for americium and uranium at ultra-trace levels. Compared to other adsorbent materials used for binding americium and uranium ions, both materials show far higher binding efficiency. Xerogels could remove both actinides even from seawater by almost 90%, whereas nanoparticles could remove uranium by 80% and americium by 70%. The above, along with their simple derivatization to increase the selectivity towards a specific radionuclide and their easy processing to be included in separation technologies, could make these materials attractive candidates for the treatment of radionuclide/actinide contaminated water.