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Chemokines are Underestimated in Preventing the Metastasizing and the Immune Elimination of Ovarian Cancer
: Received: 6 June 2019 / Approved: 10 June 2019 / Online: 10 June 2019 (16:03:23 CEST)
A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.
Journal reference: Annals of Clinical Oncology 2019
Nowadays the positive immune involvement in the eradication of tumor cells is assigned to the adaptive immune response. By awakening of in vivo responding T cells that are suppressed by the tumor and prevents immunological cure of the cancer. The adaptive immune response is a complex of different cells and protein molecules. Normally activated T cells are well-ordered by several late occurring inhibitors to contain the response to the unknown invaders and spare the normal cells. The tumor strengthens this inhibitory response to escape from immune elimination. Immunotherapy is to unleash the full capacity of the adaptive immune system by blocking this inhibitor response by monoclonal antibodies but with the potential drawback of autoimmune phenomena. Seen the success of the immunotherapy another feature of the immune system is overlooked. Cytokines and chemokines became in oblivion after their suspected necrosis of the tumor (TNF) did not fulfil their initial hope. When patients seek help for their complaints the ovarian cancer is in most cases already metastasized to the peritoneum and omentum. Here, we show that on the one hand chemokines produced by Th2, CD8 and NK cells inhibit cancer spreading and thus leads to a better operability and thus better survival. On the other hand, chemokine receptors are expressed by the tumor that are a decoy by binding chemokines that normally should attract antigen cross-presenting dendritic cells, which start an adaptive T cell response.
ovarian cancer metastasis, chemokines, cytoreductive surgery, Cytotoxic T cells, BDCA3 Dendritic cells.
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