ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0405.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: municipal incinerator bottom ash, sewage sludge ash, SEM, NMR,
Online: 18 May 2021 (10:02:57 CEST)
Two secondary waste materials, municipal incinerator bottom ash (MIBA) and sewage sludge ash (SSA), were mixed with clay for ceramic manufacturing in this study. Specimens with 5 different MIBA replacement amount of 0%, 5%,10%, 15%, and 20%(wt) and 3 different SSA replacement amount of 0%, 10%, and 20%(wt) were prepared and then a series of tests and analysis were conducted to investigate how the two materials affect the quality of the final product and to what extent. It concludes that a mix with up to 20% of SSA and 5% of MIBA could result in quality tiles complying with specifications for interior or exterior flooring applications at certain kiln temperatures.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0174.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Emerald Ash Borer; EAB; Ukraine; Europe; Fraxinus pennsylvanica; ash trees; invasive pest; plant quarantine
Online: 16 September 2019 (16:53:04 CEST)
Agrilus planipennis is a devastating invasive pest of ash trees. This wood-boring insect native to Asia and established in European Russia about 20 years ago poses a serious threat to ash trees all over Europe. In 2019 we first detected Agrilus planipennis in Ukraine. More than 20 larvae have been collected from under the bark of Fraxinus pennsylvanica trees on 5 September 2019 in Markivka District of Luhansk Region. Coordinates of the localities of collection: 49.614991 N, 39.559743 E; 49.614160 N, 39.572402 E and 49.597043 N, 39.561811 E. The photos of damaged trees with larval galleries, exit holes and larvae are presented. There is no doubt that the pest is established in Ukraine. This fact is important for development of quarantine protocols to prevent or at least slow the further spread of this invasive pest in Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1468.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: scrub; milling; pelletisation; emissions; ash content
Online: 21 September 2023 (11:39:49 CEST)
Biomass storage is an essential requirement in the supply chain of bio-refineries and power plants. This research aims to evaluate the influence of long-term outdoor storage (1 year) of baled rockrose (Cistus laurifolius L.) shrub biomass on biofuel´s quality, pre-treatment processes and on combustion emissions in an industrial boiler. The raw material was obtained from different rockrose shrublands in North-center Spain. 233 tWM (tones of wet matter) of biomass were used to produce biofuels (30 mm milled biomass and Ø 8 mm pellets) in the pre-treatment pilot plants at CEDER-CIEMAT. The combustion tests were conducted in an industrial moving grate boiler with a thermal power of 50 MWth, in a 17 MWe power plant. Outdoor storage improved some quality biofuels parameters, mainly the reduction in ash content, what allowed to classify 30 mm milled material as class I1 (ISO 17225-9:2022) and pellets as class I3 (ISO 17225-2-2021). No significant differences were observed in the total specific mass flow and energy consumptions in the pre-treatment processes. The combustion tests had similar results, being the emissions below the limits established in the Directive (EU) 2015/2193. The results obtained indicated that 1-year outdoor store of rockrose-baled biomass under Mediterranean conditions was feasible for its subsequent use as biofuel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0139.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: ash plume; course; eruption; PM2.5; Semeru
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:41:58 CET)
Recently on the December 4, 2021 at 03:00 PM, 3676 m high Mount Semeru located in the East parts of Java Island has erupted. To our best knowledge, an immediate and rapid systematic analysis of the volcanic ash plume courses, PM2.5 emissions, and environmental impacts based on Mount Semeru eruption has not been implemented so far. Then, this research aims to provide and fill the research gap on the rapid assessment of recent Mount Semeru eruption. From the result, it is clearly visible that for 12 hours the volcanic ash plume course was eastward. The volcanic ash plume can travel a distance of 0–10 km to the North and South directions, and more than 10 km to the East direction. The size of the volcanic ash plume was large at 02:00 AM on December 5, 2021. The smallest size of a volcanic ash plume was recorded at 09:00 PM on December 4, 2021. Most parts of the ash plume (55.98%) or equals 39.01 km2 contain fallen volcanic material amounts ranged from 1 kg/m2 to 10 kg/m2. The fallen volcanic material amount peaked between 08:00 PM and 11:00 PM. Based on the estimation, the PM2.5 content in the atmosphere increased after the eruption. The mean of PM2.5 before the eruption was 48.5 ± 19.3(95%CI: 29.2 to 67.8 ug/m3). While after eruption the mean of PM2.5 was 79.4 ± 32.2(95%CI: 47.2 to112 ug/m3). It indicated that the Mount Semeru eruption has increased the PM2.5 equals 63.65%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0439.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: geopolymer; plasma; surface treatment; fly ash; wettability
Online: 1 March 2022 (12:42:26 CET)
This paper deals with investigation of changes in geopolymer wettability with increasing mass fraction of high-carbon fly ash and surface treatment by cold atmospheric plasma (CAP). In this study, multiple samples of geopolymers were prepared, including those with 5% and 10% of high-carbon fly ash from coal-fired power station. Wettability of samples was then measured before and after plasma treatment, both on surface and cut surface. While addition of fly ash only had low effect on the wettability, as in most cases, it only lowered the initial contact angle without speeding up the speed of soaking for compact geopolymer and actually slowed the soaking for foamed geopolymer, plasma treatment had significant impact and made the geopolymer hydrophobic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0159.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: ash; brightness temperature; Cumulonimbus; eruption; TIR,; volcano
Online: 7 December 2020 (13:45:54 CET)
Mount Semeru is one of the most active volcanoes in the Java Island. This article presents the results of observations and detections of volcanic ash cloud after Mt Semeru eruptions on 1 December 2020 at 01:23 AM. Volcanic ash cloud detection was conducted by analyzing thermal infrared (TIR) satellite images acquired by the NOAA-20 and SNPP with MODIS and VIIRS instruments. The TIR instruments have detected the presence of volcanic ash cloud. The results show increasing ash cloud brightness temperature (BT) from 240 to 270 Kelvin (K) several hours after eruptions. Increasing BT indicated the development of volcanic Cumulonimbus (Cb) at lower altitude. Northeast movements of 270 K BT clouds were observed at 06:12 AM. Presences of volcanic Cb and SO2 were confirmed using IR bands of 12.0-10.8 µm, 11.0-8.5µm and 11.0 µm. This Cb cloud was observed moving northeast directions. The data acquired from the TIR imagery resulted from this study is thought be used in future to support and complement ground-based observations and detections of active volcanoes mainly in Java Island.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0244.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: HOCM; SAS; Subaortic Membrane; LVOTO; ASH; SAM
Online: 12 October 2020 (13:27:11 CEST)
Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is an autosomal dominant disorder leading to left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO). It can present with chest pain, syncope, breathlessness, or in some cases sudden cardiac death. Primarily, it is diagnosed based on echocardiographic findings but cardiac computed tomography (CT) or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be helpful in selected cases. In this case report, we discuss a case of a young-aged female patient previously diagnosed as HOCM and presented with chest pain, shortness of breath, and palpitations. Her echocardiography revealed severe asymmetrically hypertrophied left ventricle (LV) with normal function and systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve was present and a subvalvular aortic membrane was also seen. The computed tomography (CT) was also performed showing severe asymmetrical hypertrophied and thickened trileaflet tricommissural aortic valve with no calcification or significant valvular aortic stenosis but there was a subaortic membrane (concentric only sparing anteriorly). The presence of subaortic membrane with HOCM is a rare finding and it can be a diagnostic challenge and untreated cases are susceptible to progressive heart failure and worsening of the symptoms by further increasing left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO). A thorough investigation and planning before surgical intervention is required to achieve optimal results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0214.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: geopolymers; metakaolin; biomass bottom ash; mechanical properties
Online: 16 December 2019 (11:15:41 CET)
In this research, the feasibility of using bottom ashes generated by the combustion of biomass (olive pruning and pine pruning) as a source of aluminosilicates (OPBA) has been studied, replacing the metakaolin precursor (MK) in different proportions (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 wt. % substitution) for the synthesis of geopolymers. As alkaline activator an 8 M NaOH solution and a Na2SiO3 have been used. The geopolymers were cured 24 hours in a climatic chamber at 60 ° C in a water-saturated atmosphere, subsequently demoulded and cured at room temperature for 28 days. The results indicated that the incorporation of OPBA waste, which have 19.7 wt. % of Ca, modifies the characteristics of the products formed after alkaline activation. In general terms, the incorporation of increasing amounts of calcium-rich ashes results in geopolymers with higher bulk density. The compressive strength increases with the addition of up to 50 wt. % of OPBA with respect to the control geopolymers, contributing the composition of the residue to the acquisition of a better behaviour mechanical. The results indicate the potential use of these OPBA waste as raw material to produce unconventional cements with 28-day curing strengths greater than 10 MPa, and thermal conductivities less than 0.35 W/mK.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2233.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: Sugarcane bagasse ash; solid state reaction; sodium silicate
Online: 30 June 2023 (11:09:15 CEST)
To reduce environmental impacts from sodium silicate synthesis it was suggested the use of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) as a source of silicon dioxide and sodium carbonate using the ceramic method. Although the production of sodium silicate is carried out on a large scale, it should be noted that its process requires temperatures above 1000 °C or the use of highly corrosive agents such as sodium hydroxide and chlorine gas used to neutralize the remaining sodium hydroxide. In the present work, the synthesis temperatures were reduced to 800 °C with a reaction time of 3 hours by pressing equimolar mixtures of previously purified SCBA and sodium carbonate, then heat treatment was carried out under the indicated conditions. The resulting materials were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Among the crystalline phases, calcium disodium silicate was identified, in addition to sodium silicate, so it was inferred that the other components of the ash can interfere with the synthesis of silicate. Therefore, to obtain the highest composition of sodium silicate, a leaching treatment of the SCBA is required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0148.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Alkali-activated; Microstructure; Fly ash; Binary activator; Crosslinking
Online: 2 June 2023 (07:28:53 CEST)
An attempt to investigate the effect of binary composite activators on the microstructure of fly ash-based geopolymers is conducted through the comparison of 24 experiments, which consisted of Na2SiO3•9H2O, Na2CO3, K2CO3, NaOH, and KOH through a facile preparation technique. The results show that the activator of Na2SiO3•9H2O+KOH presents the highest mechanical strength, due to the synergy activation between the inherent ≡Si-O-Si≡ chains derived from Na2SiO3 and K+’s catalysis. It reveals that the K+ plays a crucial role in Na2SiO3-activated fly ash geopolymer, which is the rate-determining step of the enhanced crosslinking and propagation of N-(C)-A-S-H chains, leading to an increase in weight loss temperatures of specimens from TG/DTG results. Furthermore, the adding silica fume facilitates as-formed amorphous silicates, which also could fill into the pores of N-(C)-A-S-H amorphous gels and present a uniform and compact morphology, leading to an increase in the pore volume of the pore diameter less than 100 nm. It explores an efficient and cost-effective preparation of fly ash-based geopolymer for developing solid-waste recycling techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0634.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: flexural strength; modulus of elasticity; Fly Ash; Slag
Online: 25 November 2020 (11:12:58 CET)
The use of Supplementary Cementitious Material (SCM) is widely used in production of sustainable concrete. Blended cements, incorporating SCM such as Pulverized Fly Ash (PFA) and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) have been widely used to reduce the cement contents and avoid adverse environmental impacts of CO2 produced during cement manufacturing. The analysis of various structural properties of concrete such as compressive strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity is important for its structural application. In this research, flexural strength of 100mmx100mmx500mm beams made from blended cement were tested under three curing conditions i.e. winter, summer and under water and the flexural strength was calculated using EN-12390-5 at the ages of 28 days and 56 days. For modulus of elasticity, concrete cylinders 150mmx300mm were tested as per procedure described in BS 1881-121(1983) at the age of 28 days. The compressive strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity for blended cement incorporating PFA and GGBFS has been increased under summer curing environment. The experimental values of Modulus of Elasticity are compared with the provision of BS 1881.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0421.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: strength; stiffness; clay; stabilization; microstructure; wood ash; waste
Online: 19 July 2020 (18:49:54 CEST)
The world’s population is growing at a rapid pace, thus increasing the need for shelter, which, because of increased carbon emissions, is making our planet less inhabitable. Thus, supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) are used to reduce the embodied carbon emissions in the building sector. Wood ash, as a replacement for cement in soil treatment, seems to be a promising material. In this study, we considered the strength, stiffness, and microstructural behavior of marine clay treated with cement and wood ash as a cement replacement. Since clay is abundant in nature, it could help stabilize waste to improve the mechanical behavior of produced composites. Portland cement (7%, 10%, and 13%) was replaced with various amount of wood ash (5% and 10%) with two different dry densities (1400 and 1600 kg/m3) and three distinct curing periods (7, 28, and 60 days). Unconfined compressive strength, direct shear, porosity, pulse velocity, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy tests were performed on selected specimens to evaluate the structural and microstructural effect of clay–wood ash–cement interaction. The results revealed that the replacement of cement with 5% of wood ash yielded superior performance. The microstructure investigation of wood ash–cement–clay blends further showed the formation of a densified matrix with stable bonds. Furthermore, the porosity and strength properties of blends developed unique relationships, which were further confirmed by other supplementary materials and soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0245.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: bottom ash; basalt fiber; paste; strength; durability; sustainability
Online: 15 March 2020 (14:15:01 CET)
Extinction of natural resources builds up pressure on governments to invest in research to find more sustainable resources for construction sector. Earlier studies on mortar and concrete show that bottom ash and basalt fiber are independently alternative binder in the concrete sector. This study aims to use bottom ash and basalt fiber blends as alternative novel-based composites in pure cement paste. Strength and durability properties of two different percentages of bottom ash (40% and 50%) and three volume fractions of basalt fiber (0.3%, 0.75%, and 1.5%) were used at three curing periods (7, 28, and 56 days). In order to measure physical properties of the basalt-reinforced bottom ash cement paste composites flowability, dry unit weight, porosity and water absorption measurements at 7, 28, and 56 days of curing were performed. Furthermore, mechanical properties of composites determined by unconfined compressive strength and flexural strength tests. Finally, to assess the durability sulfate-resistance and seawater-resistance tests have been performed on composites at 28 and 56 days of curing. Results showed that addition of basalt fiber improves physical, mechanical and chemical stability properties of paste up to a limiting basalt fiber addition (0.3% volume fraction) where above an adverse effect have been monitored. It is clear that observed results can lead to development of sustainability strategies in the concrete industry by utilizing bottom ash and basalt fiber as an alternative binder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0072.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: bioretention; fly ash; structures; submerged zone; nutrient removal
Online: 7 April 2019 (12:50:05 CEST)
Both sand and fly ash were found to be promising for phosphorus removal in bioretention systems. However, nutrient removal in bioretention systems with sand, soil and fly ash was still uncertain due to a lack of data about the influence of layer structure and submerged zone. In this study, a mixture with sand, soil and fly ash (1:1:1) was selected as the base in bioretention systems with different packed layer structures and heights of submerged zone. The comparison of multi-layered structure with mixed structure implied that the used bioretention system with multi-layered structure was superior to that with mixed structure for nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The investigation of the influence of submerged zones on nutrient removal indicated that the submerged zone could significantly improve nitrate removal efficiency with 67.52%-86.32%, while sharply reduce the removal of ammonia nitrogen (from 95.15% to 51.81%) and TP (from 88.66% to 44.50%). Overall evaluation of the effect of packed layer structures and submerged zones suggested that the bioretention system with multi-layered structure at the height of submerged zone at 20-40cm was the most satisfactory, due to its microbial environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0085.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: ash; power plant; neutron activation analysis; neutron; DGNAA
Online: 5 November 2018 (05:28:33 CET)
In this article the methodology for the determination of the theoretical gamma spectrum originated by applying DGNAA (delayed gamma neutron analysis activation) techniques for the elemental analysis of ash from thermal power plants is exposed. This is a study must be prior to the experimentation in order to define the parameters of the test to obtain the optimal conditions for the detection of each element present in the sample.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0351.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Ash; ash dieback; disease management; Fraxinus excelsior; fungal plant pathogen; Hymenoscyphus fraxineus; mycology; plant pathology; plant pathogen; plant science; tree disease
Online: 24 January 2022 (11:50:43 CET)
Ash trees have considerable economic, cultural and environmental value on the island of Ireland. However, European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) is currently under threat from the invasive ascomycete pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. This pathogen is the causal agent of ash dieback disease, which was initially reported in Poland in 1992. Hymenoscyphus fraxineus has since spread across Europe and the first recorded case of the disease on the island of Ireland was in 2012 at a forestry plantation in Co. Leitrim. The pathogen is now present in all 26 counties in Ireland and 6 counties in Northern Ireland, and it is considered unfeasible to eradicate. The spread of ash dieback disease is reflected in recent policy changes, which focus on management rather than eradication strategies. Since the first formal description of H. fraxineus in 2006, considerable research efforts have been made by the international scientific community to understand the biology of the pathogen and to develop management strategies against it. This review provides an update of current knowledge of H. fraxineus biology and infection. We then explore examples of mitigation techniques that have been trialled in Europe, in order to identify strategies that are feasible for disease management at a local level on the island of Ireland. Finally, we outline five key avenues of research that have the potential to provide breakthroughs in methods to protect valuable F. excelsior resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0562.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: alkali-activated; freezing-thawing; fly ash; geopolymer; silica fume
Online: 7 June 2023 (13:34:14 CEST)
Benign design of alkali-activated slag/FA geopolymer paste has intriguing increasing attention for optimizing its service performance. Therefore, the replacement of fly ash (FA) with 10 wt% silica fume (SF) is investigated by mechanical strength after freeze-thawing cycles and microstructure characterization. The results show that an appropriate dosage (30 wt%) of slag is necessary to attain alkali-activated slag/FA geopolymer paste with excellent mechanical performance, and the SF/slag/FA (SF: slag: FA= 10:30:60, wt%) geopolymer paste exerts the compressive and flexural strength of 95.2 and 3.2 MPa, respectively. Meanwhile, the doped 10 wt% SF facilitates the propagation of (N, C)-A–S–H chains, rather than the formation of C-S-H gels, evidenced by the absent exothermic peak at about 861oC from the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves, leading to the increases in the pores volume with a pore diameter<20 nm and tortuosity by mercury intrusion porosimeter (MIP) results, corresponding to an improved freezing-thawing resistance with the residual compressive strength of 52.8 MPa and the weight loss of 10.5% after 300 freeze-thawing cycles. It explores a cost-effective and benign facile approach to designing heating curing-free alkali-activated slag/FA geopolymer paste with good freezing-thawing resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2244.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: alkali-activated; silica fume; elevated temperatures; slag; fly ash
Online: 31 May 2023 (12:10:38 CEST)
The fireproof design of geopolymer has intriguing increasing attention by adjusting multi-component metallurgical solid wastes, due to its low-carbon emission, cost-effectiveness, and environmental conservation. Herein, the effects of silica fume (SF) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of alkali-activated slag/FA (fly ash) pastes subjected to elevated temperatures (150, 500, 850, and 1200℃) are investigated, to clarify the fact that whether or not the SF generates positive roles in mechanical strength of slag/FA (slag: FA=30:70, wt.%) geopolymers during building fires. The results show that the replacement of FA with 10 wt% SF (silica fume) promotes the increasing pore volume with a diameter of 0.2~3 μm, leading to an increase in the compressive or flexural strength below 850℃, “right shifts” of the endothermic peak, appearing uniform and compact fracture surfaces. Meanwhile, the gehlenite and labradorite generate after exposure above 850℃. While the bloating effect of the SF-containing sample occurs at 1200℃, leading to a greater deformation, due to the further restructuring of the amorphous geopolymer chain N-A-S-H or N-(Ca)-A-S-H composed from the [SiO4]4− and [AlO4]5−. It explores an effective approach for improving geopolymer’s fireproof performance by adjusting the solid-waste formulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0285.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: fly ash; silica fume; supplementary cementitious materials; pozzolans; strength
Online: 16 February 2023 (10:04:09 CET)
Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) are increasingly used in precast concrete industry to enhance concrete strength and durability. SCMs of large market share in precast concrete in-dustry include silica fume, also known as micro-silica and class C fly ash. The main objective of this research is to develop non-proprietary high strength concrete mixes for precast/prestressed concrete industry. Two SCMs are used simultaneously in partial replacement of portland cement to develop ternary mixes. Class c fly ash and silica fume incorporation in the mix design, in ad-dition to low water-to-powder ratio resulted in the successful development of high strength mixes with minimum 24-hour strength in excess of 70 MPa and a final compressive strength ex-ceeding 100 MPa at 28 days. Mechanical properties testing of developed concrete mixes showed that SCMs incorporation resulted in increased values for hardened concrete modulus of elasticity (MoE) and modulus of rupture (MoR). The enhanced concrete properties, mainly high early strength, are highly required in precast concrete industry as it allows for increased productivity of precast facilities and the possibility of pouring high strength slender sections for prestressed concrete applications
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0052.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: Vertisols; Volcanic Ash; Field Capacity; Air Porosity; Volumetric Swelling
Online: 2 December 2022 (13:44:59 CET)
The research aims to improve some of the physical and hydro-physical properties of some Vertisols in the southern region (part of the eastern Houran Plateau) in Sweda Governorate at the south of Syria. Using different quantities of volcanic ash, soil samples were collected from the Al-Thahallah village from a depth of (0-30) cm, The experiment was designed according to the complete random design with one factor that represents the ash quantity (1.25, 2.5, 5) %, with three replicates for each treatment in addition to the control treatment a0. The experiment was carried out within the plastic pots during agricultural season 2018/2019, in which the wheat of the Sham variety 3 were cultivated as a cover plant. The results showed that the addition of volcanic ash at the quantity of 5% led to a significant increase in the infiltration rate by (328.60) %,%, where the filtration rate increased from 0.42 cm/hr -1 to 1.80 cm.h-1, as well as for each of the air porosity by (89) % and the volume of infiltrate water by (40) %, compared with the control. The above-mentioned addition also resulted in a decrease in both dry bulk density, total soil porosity and volumetric swelling coefficient by (18.60, 5.80, 314) % Respectively, compared to the control. The addition also contributed to the reduce in the weighted moisture content when saturation and the field capacity, at the level of significance of 5%. The research recommends adding volcanic ash to the soil at a quantity of 5%, and adding enhancements with volcanic ash at various levels such as organic waste.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0123.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: fly ash waste; platinum nanoparticles; industrial dyes; adsorption; photodegradation
Online: 3 March 2021 (10:03:12 CET)
New materials are obtained by transforming fly ash wastes into a valuable composite, with tandem adsorption and photodegradation properties. Mild hydrothermal synthesis, from titanium dioxide, Platinum nanoparticles and zeolite materials obtained from a waste, fly ash, as support, was involved in the composite preparation. The Platinum nanoparticles extended the photocatalytic activity of the composite in Visible range (Eg = 2.1 eV). The efficiency of tandem adsorption and photocatalytic activity of the new composite were evaluated to 80.70% for Bemacid Blau and 93.89% for Bemacid Rot, after 360 min, the irradiation time, with H2O2 addition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0233.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Portland cement; Zinc; Isothermal calorimetry; Isoperibolic calorimetry; Fly ash
Online: 12 October 2020 (11:55:07 CEST)
Increasing utilization of secondary raw materials and alternative fuels results in increasing contents of metals in cements. One of elements, the content of which keeps rising in cement is zinc. It comes to cement with secondary raw materials such as slag or fly ash or by the utilization of used tires as an alternative fuel. Zinc ions significantly prolong the hydration process in cement. This work deals with the influence of zinc ions in the form of very poorly soluble ZnO salt and easily soluble ZnCl2 and Zn(NO)3 on the hydration of cement blended with fly ash. Zinc was dosed in the range of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 a 1% of cement weight. Final products were next analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0250.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: carbon fiber; cement; sustainability; marble powder; bottom ash; paste
Online: 15 March 2020 (15:56:26 CET)
The damage caused by global warming is rapidly increasing, and its adverse effects become more evident with each passing day. Although it is known that the use of alternative binder materials in concrete would decrease this negative effect, reluctance to new composites continues. Waste use plays a vital role in sustainability studies. In this study, pure cement paste was prepared and enriched with carbon fiber. This study investigated the wide range of volume fraction of carbon fiber in cement-based composites. Two different industrial wastes, marble dust, and bottom ash were chosen and mixed with cement and four different (0.3%, 0.75%, 1.5%, and 2.5%) carbon fiber volume fractions. Based on physical, mechanical, and durability tests at 7, 28, and 56-days of curing, the composites were resistant to sulfate and seawater attack. The 0.75% carbon fiber addition seems to be an optimum volume percentage beyond which both physical and mechanical properties were adversely affected. The composites with 0.75% carbon fiber have reached 48.4 MPa and 47.2 MPa at 56-days of curing for marble dust and bottom ash mixture groups, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0365.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: alkali-activated; silica fume; elevated temperatures; bloating effect; fly ash
Online: 14 April 2023 (10:23:42 CEST)
Recycling of metallurgical solid waste has intriguing increasing attention for fabricating cementitious materials, due to its low-carbon emission, cost-effectiveness, and environmental conservation. Herein, the effects of silica fume (SF) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of alkali-activated slag/FA (fly ash) pastes subjected to elevated temperatures (150, 500, 850, and 1200℃) are investigated, to clarify the fact that whether or not the SF generates positive roles in mechanical properties of slag/FA geopolymers. The results show that the replacement with 10 wt% SF (silica fume) promotes the increasing pore volume with a diameter of 0.2~3 μm at room temperature, leading to an increase in the compressive or flexural strength, “right shifts” of endothermic peak and the initial-final temperature of mass loss, presenting a denser and compact fracture surface. Meanwhile, the mineral phase of gehlenite and labradorite emerges after exposure above 850℃ from the XRD results. Furthermore, the bloating effect of the incorporated SF occurs due to the formation of a liquid phase altogether with the amorphous silicates after exposure to 1200℃, leading to a greater deformation and enhancement of restructuring involved in the [SiO4]4− and [AlO4]5−. It explores an effective recycling approach for fabricating paste binders using metallurgical solid wastes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0372.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Pozzolan; Limestone-Calcined Clay; Fly Ash; Compressive Strength; Hydration Heat
Online: 31 May 2019 (08:14:34 CEST)
This study aims to investigate the hydration and strength characteristics of green cementitious mortars with ultrahigh-volume limestone-calcined clay as well as two kinds of Class F fly ash. Using the ASTM C311 strength activity index test method, the effect of different pozzolan replacement levels of cement (0%, 20%, 50%, and 80%, by weight) were investigated. Compressive strength at 3, 7, 14, 28 and 90 days under standard curing was recorded, and hydration heat of the 20% and 80% replacement mixes was studied using iso-thermal calorimetry. It was observed that the effectiveness of the pozzolan in mortars depends on particle size distribution, glassy or amorphous nature, surface area and replacement level. The sum of all these effects can be captured by the strength activity test only if the standard recommended 20% pozzolan mix is substituted with the actual mix composition. The results in this study provide insights into the mix design and applications of ultrahigh-volume pozzolanic cementitious materials specifically made with limestone-calcined clay, and promote greener cement and concrete in construction industry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0215.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: fly ash; nanocomposite; environmental pollution; volatile organic compounds; heavy metal
Online: 16 April 2018 (16:15:22 CEST)
Air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), as well as water pollutants including heavy metal, are harmful to human and environment. Effective control and reduction of their pollution is therefore an important topic for today’s scientists. Fly ash (FA) is a type of industrial waste that can cause multiple environmental problems if discharged into the air. On the other hand, because of its high porosity, large specific surface area, and other unique characteristics, the FA can also be used as a low-cost and high efficient adsorbent with some simple modifications. This paper reviews the effects of FA on treatment of the above air and water pollution based on our research experience over many years, including to the current status of global FA utilization, physicochemical properties, principle of adsorption, and the application direction of FA in the future. It focuses on the use of nanocomposite technology to fabricate functional FA fibrous membranes to adsorb VOCs from air, and treat heavy metal wastewater. This present review first describes the fabrication technology of FA nanocomposites and their mechanism of adsorption VOCs from air. Utilization of nanofiber technology to fabricate multi-functional FA emerging composite materials to mitigate air and water pollution has great potential in the future, especially use of pollutant material to control other pollutants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1470.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: Coal ash; mineral acids; organosulfonic acids; lixiviants; hydrometallurgy; rare earth elements
Online: 23 November 2023 (04:50:51 CET)
The orbital elactronic structure of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) contains many unpaired electrons which render them capable of storing large amount of magnetic energy in addition to being critical for hitech applications. Geological deposits are their conventional sources, and the current supply chain relies on production from these deposits. However, given their critical roles in the anticipated global energy transition, there is the need to explore other viable sources to supplement current and future supplies chains. REEs occur in coal as accessory minerals and their concentration in coal ash to levels that rival those of geological deposits has been estab;ished by sophisticated analytical chemical methods. Conmventional hydrometallurgical processes rely on acid leaching, using tioxic mineral acids. Meanwhile, organosulfonic acids have pKa values that rival those of conventional minerals acid and can, therefore, be used in hydrometallurgy but their uses in this regard are not well documented in the literature. In this extensive review, we have covered geological sources of REEs exaustively in addition to showing the potential of organosulfonic acids as environmentally benign lixiviants for REEs extraction from coal ash. We have also shown how process optimization can be achieved using advance technologies while using organisulfonic acids. Moreover, we have shown current and future global market trends regarding the production of select organosulfonic acids, and the anticipated global increase in their production motivates the use of organosulfonic acids as viable lixiviants for REEs extraction from caol ash deposits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1292.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Kuznetsk Basin; Permian; ash bed; U-PB dating; Geochronology; Biostratigraphy; Angaraland
Online: 21 November 2023 (10:40:38 CET)
The Kuznetsk Basin (Kuzbass) is one of the largest coal basins in Siberia and a reference area for the ancient Angaraland continent. The proximity of the Kuzbass and Siberian platform caused their biotic similarities in the Late Palaeozoic. However, due to biota endemism, the Kuzbass Upper Palaeozoic does not correlate directly with the International Chronostratigraphic Chart (ICC). This paper discusses radioisotopic (CA-ID-TIMS) dating of zircons from a volcanic tuff located in the Starokuznetsk Formation. This level matches the interval of the Balakhonka/Kolchugino (B/K) floral change in Kuzbass, i.e. the gradual replacement of cordaitoid-dominated wet forests (Balakhonka flora) by more arid fern-pteridosperm-cordaitoid assemblages (Kolchugino flora). New age (276.9 ± 0.4 Ma) directly correlates the Starokuznetsk Fm with the Upper Kungurian of the ICS. We compared the Kuzbass data with data of the Western Verkhoyanie, where Middle Permian ammonoids (Sverdrupites assemblage) occur in strata recording the B/K floral change. Available (ICC) and new datings indicate the lag between the B/K floral change in low (Kuzbass) and high (Verkhoyanie) latitudes of Angaraland. The B/K floral change in the Kuzbass began in the early Late Kungurian and was completed by the end of this age. In contrast, the B/K floral change in Verkhoyanie began at the end of the Late Kungurian and was completed in the Late Wordian. The delay in the floral changes at different latitudes of Angaraland suggests that existing interregional correlations need further improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: Fly ash; mortar; compressive strength; Portland cement; structural evolution; compressive strength
Online: 3 May 2023 (12:57:10 CEST)
Samples of mortar mixtures were prepared substituting the cement Portland (CPC-30R) by 0 (standard), 10 and 15% of fly ash and the structural evolution and compressive strength at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days were determined. The results for standard mortar samples showed the mineralogi-cal species portlandite, calcite, ettringite, iron oxide, silicon oxide and sillimanite. Magnetite was identified in the mixtures of mortars with portland cement substitution by 10% and 15% fly ash. The peaks corresponding to the portlandite, and ettringite showed an increase in their intensities with increasing curing time attributed to the consolidation of mineral species. The SEM tech-nique results showed that the mortar samples without fly ash addition contained mainly port-landite and ettringite while the samples with cement substitution by 10 and 15% of fly ash at 28 days further contained particles of fly ash coated with portlandite and ettringite, particles with a smooth surface and particles of fly ash with signs of attack on its surface. An increase inc was observed when the age of the mortar and the substitution of Portland cement by fly ash were increased from 3 to 28 days and from 0 to 15% respectively. The maximum value of c was reg-istered for the mortar sample with Portland cement substitution by 15% fly ash at 28 days of curing with 17.38 Mpa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0103.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Arboriculture; Canker and Cracking; Emerald Ash Borer; Tree Biology; Urban Forestry
Online: 9 October 2022 (03:13:32 CEST)
Field observations of external wounds associated with two common tree injection methods compared open (plug-less) and sealed (plug) systems in green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) trees . A wound from any cause within 1.37 meters above the ground was common with 28.8% of all trees. The open system had statistically fewer (p<0.001) trees with at least one wound (11.6% of trees) than the sealed system (47.4% of trees). The open system had fewer (P<0.001) wounds (0.17, 0.04 SE) per tree and a smaller (P<0.001) total wound area (25.5 cm2, 8.7 SE) per tree, compared to the sealed system wounds (1.14, 0.13 SE) per tree and the total wound area (99.7 cm2, 16.2 SE) per tree. The incidence of a tree with a wound(s) within 1.37 m above the ground was 7.2 times more likely with trees treated though the sealed system. Wounds in the sealed system were observed to appear to have a high rate of improper application of plugs, which was associated in 77% of the cases to explain the wounds. Implications of study results are further provided to best protect ash trees, while at the same time reducing the incidence external wounding on ash trees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0198.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation And Radiography Keywords: radioactive waste; radioactive waste recycling; industrial slag; industrial ash; aerospace industry
Online: 16 May 2022 (07:50:42 CEST)
The article discusses an alternative way of recycling radioactive waste (RW), presented in the form of radioactive building materials - concrete and reinforced concrete structures and metal fittings, with the further use of materials, obtained during recycling, in the space industry. That is, it is supposed to send radioactive waste into space not as a passive ballast, but as a payload that will operate in space under conditions of increased radiation.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hematite nanoparticles; fly ash blended cement; cement hydration; compressive strength; workability
Online: 19 March 2021 (15:30:18 CET)
Several types of hematite nanoparticles (α-Fe2O3) have been investigated for their effects on the structure and properties of fly ash (FA) blended cement. All synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical shape, but of different particle sizes from 10 to 195 nm depending on the surfactant used in their preparation. The cement hydration with time showed 1.0% α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles was an effective accelerator for FA blended cement. Moreover, adding α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles in FA blended cement enhanced the compressive strength and workability of cement. Nanoparticle size and size distribution were important for optimal filling of various size of pores within the cement structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0519.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: fly ash; Geopolymer; silicon dioxid; sodium silicate; sand dune; egg Shell
Online: 22 September 2020 (10:25:07 CEST)
In recent years, the dominant cementitious materials have been industrial by products such as fly ash. This present paper describes some of the cementitious products that are attracting attention in the global research community and the properties and characteristics of these materials that affect their performance such durability, mechanically properties and reduction of carbon dioxid (CO2). The present investigation deals with the chemical synthesis of cementitious material using fly ash of eggs shell rich in calcium(Ca) and sand dune(southern of Algeria) rich in silica(SiO2).The composition is the most compressive resistant with a maximum stress of 49.71 MPa, the most flexible (E = 2.63 GPa) and the most ductile (εr = 65.42 %).The characteristic properties of the chemically synthesized cementitious materials were analyzed by the chemical composition analysis XRF, XRD and SEM analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0510.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Aerated concrete; ultimate load; finite element analysis and rice husk ash
Online: 22 July 2020 (09:56:53 CEST)
Aerated concrete, which is manufactured from binding material, sand, foaming agent and water, is currently being utilized in the construction industry because of its lightweight and durability. The binding material, cement, along with other materials used in the concrete produces huge carbon footprints during its fabrication. The utilization of natural aggregates name as coarse aggregates depletes the natural resources of the country. Therefore, huge amounts of agricultural wastes have led scholars to investigate the effectiveness of replacing conventional materials used in concrete with agricultural wastes. In the current study, rice husk ash (RHA) was used as supplementary cementing material, thereby reducing the amount of cement used in aerated concrete (AC) mixture will reduce carbon footprints. The experimental and numerical analysis were conducted to investigate structural behavior of reinforced RAC- B beams subjected to flexural load. Parametric study on structural performance of RAC- B beam under flexure were conducted using finite element analysis (FEA). From the experiment and FEA. Results from the parametric study showed that RAC-10%RHA-B with higher depth structurally performed better compared to RAC-B under flexure with greater load carrying capacity, lesser maximum deflection, and less cracks developing in the tension area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0227.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: coal fly ash; leachates; chemical species; pot culture experiments; translocation; bioconcentration
Online: 9 November 2018 (03:12:39 CET)
This study evaluated the physicochemical, mineralogical properties, mobile chemical species’ bioavailability and translocation in Brassica juncea and Spinacea oleracea L plants of a South African coal fired power utility. Coal fly ash (CFA) disposal is associated with various environmental and health risks including air, soil, surface and ground water pollution due to the leaching of toxic chemical species; these ends up in food webs affecting human health, while repeated inhalation causes bronchitis, silicosis, hair loss and lung cancer. The morphology, chemical, and mineralogical composition of CFA were determined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray Diffraction, respectively. In pot culture experiments, S. oleracea L and B. juncea plants were grown in three sets of pots containing CFA (set 1), soil (set 2) and a mixture of CFA plus soil at ratio 1:1 (50% CFA: 50% soil) (set 3), while no plants were grown in set 4 as a control for the leachate samples. SEM showed that surface morphology of CFA has a lower degree of sphericity with irregular agglomerations of many particles. The XRF results revealed that CFA contains 43.65%, 22.68% and 10.89% of SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 respectively which indicate that the CFA is an alumino-silicate material. While XRD showed that the coal CFA contains mullite as a major phase followed by quartz mineral phases. Chemical species such as Fe, Mn, B, Ba and Zn were accumulated highly in most parts of the plant species. However, B. juncea showed higher potential to accumulate chemical species as compared to S. oleracea L. The bioconcentration and translocation factors (BF and TF) showed that B. juncea was the most effective in terms of bioconcentration and translocation of most of the chemical species. This indicates that B. juncea has potential in application for phytoremediation of CFA dumps and could contribute to remediation of CFA dumps and reduction of potential health and environmental impacts associated with CFA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0264.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: mesoporous silica; surface area; rice husk ash; hydrolysis-ageing time, hydrophobicity
Online: 18 June 2018 (13:38:56 CEST)
This work describes the preparation of mesoporous silica by the green reaction of rice husk ash (RHA) with glycerol, followed by the modification and the potential use as a drug carrier. The reaction was carried out at 215 °C for 2 h. The solution was further hydrolyzed with deionized water and aged for various times (24, 48, 120, 360, 528 and 672 h) before calcinations at 500 oC for 24 h. Further treatment of prepared mesoporous silica was performed using trimethylmethoxysilane (TMMS) to obtain hydrophobic Mesoporous silica. For all synthesized silica, silica contents were as high as 95%wt, whereas organic residues were less than 3%wt. RHA-glycerol showed the highest specific surface area with smallest pore diameter (205.70 m2/g, 7.46 nm) when aged for 48 h. The optimal hydrolysis-ageing period of 120 h resulted in 500.7 m2/g BET surface area, 0.655 cm3/g pore volume and 5.23 nm pore diameter. The surface modification of RHA-glycerol was succeeded through the reaction with TMMS as confirmed by FTIR. Ibuprofen was selected as a model drug for the adsorption experiments. The adsorption under supercritical CO2 was carried out at isothermal temperature of 40 ˚C and 100 bar, % ibuprofen loading of TMMS modified mesoporous silica (TMMS-g-MS) was 6 times less than mesoporous silica aged for 24 h (MS-24h) due to the hydrophobic nature of modified mesoporous silica, not surface and pore characteristics. The release kinetics of ibuprofen-loaded mesoporous silicas were also investigated in vitro. The release rate of ibuprofen-loaded MS-24h was much faster than that of ibuprofen-loaded TMMS-g-MS, but comparable to the crystalline ibuprofen. The slower release rate was attributed to the diffusion control and the stability of hydrophobic nature of modified silica. This would allow the design for the controlled release drug delivery system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0042.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: high volume fly ash, high fluidity concrete, early strength, field application
Online: 13 February 2017 (11:44:54 CET)
In the recent concrete industry, high fluidity concrete is being widely used for the pouring of dense reinforced concrete. Normally, in the case of high fluidity concrete, it includes high binder contents, so it is necessary to replace part of the cement through admixtures such as fly ash to procure economic feasibility and durability. This study shows the mechanical properties and field applicability of high fluidity concrete that using mass of fly ash as alternative materials of cement. The high fluidity concrete mixed with 50% fly ash was measured to manufacture concrete that applies low water/binder ratio to measure the mechanical characteristics as compressive strength and elastic modulus. Also, in order to evaluate the field applicability, high fluidity concrete containing high volume fly ash was evaluated that fluidity, compressive strength, heat of hydration and drying shrinkage of concrete.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0001.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass; levulinic acid; fly ash zeolite; γ -valerolactone; Co-Ni alloy
Online: 1 December 2023 (04:52:49 CET)
Monometallic (Ni, Co, Cu) and bimetallic (Ni-Co, Ni-Cu) 10-20 wt. % metal containing catalysts supported on fly ash zeolite were prepared by post-synthesis impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, N2 physisorption, XPS and H2-TPR methods. Finely dispersed metal oxides and mixed oxides were detected after the decomposition of impregnating salt on the relevant zeolite support. By reduction intermetallic, NiCo and NiCu phases were identified in the bimetallic catalysts. Hydrogeoxygenation of lignocellulosic biomass-derived levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone (GVL) was studied. Bimetallic, 10 wt. % Ni, 10 wt. % Cu or Co containing fly ash zeolite catalyst showed higher catalytic activity than monometallic ones. Their selectivity to GVL reached 70-85 % at 100 % conversion. The reaction proceeds through formation of 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid, as the only intermediate compound.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0079.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Hydrogen production; Photothermal catalysis; Dry reforming of methane; Biomass waste; Bagasse ash
Online: 2 May 2023 (10:50:49 CEST)
Conventional hydrogen production, as an alternative energy resource, has relied on fossil fuels to produce hydrogen, releasing CO2 into the atmosphere. Hydrogen production via the dry forming of methane (DRM) process is a lucrative solution to utilize greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, by using them as raw materials in the DRM process. However, there are a few DRM processing issues, with one being the need to operate at a high temperature to gain high conversion of hydrogen, which is energy intensive. In this study, bagasse ash, which contains a high percentage of silicon dioxide, was designed and modified for catalytic support. Modification of silicon dioxide from bagasse ash was utilized as a waste material and the performance was explored of bagasse ash-derived catalysts interacting with light irradiation and reducing the amount of energy used in the DRM process. The results showed that the performance of 3%Ni/SiO2 bagasse ash WI was higher than that of 3%Ni/SiO2 commercial SiO2 in terms of the hydrogen product yield, with hydrogen generation initiated in the reaction at 300 °C. Using the same synthesis method, the current results suggested that bagasse ash-derived catalysts had better performance than commercial SiO2-derived catalysts when exposed to an Hg-Xe lamp. This indicated that silicon dioxide from bagasse ash as a catalyst support could help improve the hydrogen yield while lowering the temperature in the DRM reaction, resulting in less energy consumption in hydrogen production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0429.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: supplementary cementitious materials; fly ash; pozzolan; binder; Portland cement; geopolymers; concrete; cement
Online: 24 January 2023 (10:25:08 CET)
This paper discusses the use of fly ash in concrete construction industry. Fly ash is incorporated as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM) in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete in partial replacement of cement, and is recently used as a geopolymer cement in the development of geopolymer concrete (GPC) mixes. Class C and Class F fly ash high aluminosilicate content, and fine granular size contributes to concrete improved workability, lower permeability, and reduced heat of cement hydration. Due to its chemical properties, the use of fly ash in producing OPC and GPC results in increased compressive strength, higher tensile strength evaluated by measuring hardened concrete modulus of rupture (MOR), and higher modulus of elasticity (MOE). The fine size of fly ash particles increases the concrete mix packing order, and reduce the ingress of moisture, and mitigates the impact of aggressive environmental attacks through the reduction of sulfates and chlorides rate of concrete penetration. Thus, fly ash improves concrete resistivity to alkali-aggregate reactions (AAR), and reduces the corrosion of reinforcing steel, and prestressing strands. Fly ash as an economic byproduct of coal industry results in reduced material cost, increased durability, and a higher sustainability of concrete construction projects.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0282.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: fly ash, process mineralogy, minerals, rare and precious metals, separation and enrichment
Online: 25 April 2019 (11:24:23 CEST)
The separation and enrichment can be targeted to enrich the rare and precious metals in fly ash and reduce the cost of leaching and recovering of fly ash. Regarding their different properties, the single-component separation was used to obtain uncompleted burned carbon, glass microbeads, minerals, and other characteristic components from the ash. Also, the mineral composition of each component was analyzed by electron microscopy. The metal minerals were mainly concentrated in the mineral components. Besides, the electron probe micro-analysis shows that the Pt content in the minerals of fly ash was significantly correlated with the metal contents of Ni and Cu. After the obtainment of the characteristics of fly ash metal enrichment, the heavy minerals with Cu, Ni, Pt, Pd, and other target metal elements were enriched by gravity separation and flotation. The enrichment coefficients of Cu, Ni, Pt, and Pd were 1.45, 1.33, 1.90 and 1.60, respectively, and the recovery rates were 77%, 81%, 97% and 88% respectively. Since the yield of heavy minerals obtained by separation was 62.24%, it indicated the physical separation method could significantly reduce the cost of leaching and recovering of fly ash metal resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0203.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: MSWI fly ash; cold sintering process; heavy metal solidification; resource utilization; Taguchi method
Online: 8 August 2023 (05:48:19 CEST)
Municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI FA) predominantly consists of compounds comprising elements such as calcium, aluminum, silicon, sodium, and others. Additionally, it encompasses a complex mixture of heavy metals, chlorides, sulfates, organic pollutants, and other constituents. The effective and economically viable treatment of MSWI FA poses a formidable challenge for the current stage of resource cycling. In this research report, we will adopt a novel low-temperature sintering method called "Cold Sintering Process" (CSP) as a means to immobilize heavy metals within the fly ash. By utilizing a Taguchi orthogonal array, we will adjust five control factors in the CSP, including sintering temperature, uniaxial pressure, sintering time, initial water addition, and sodium carbonate dosage. The leaching of cadmium element from the fly ash, as measured by TCLP, will serve as the quality indicator. Through the application of CSP, the MSWI FA will be transformed into structurally stable ceramic blocks, effectively immobilizing the heavy metals within the blocks. The results of the experiments showed that MSWI FA under the conditions of a temperature of 300℃, uniaxial pressure of 312 MPa, sintering time in 60 minutes, 25 wt% water addition, and 9 wt% Na2CO3 addition could effectively reduce the leaching of cadmium by 77.71%, lead by 21.14%, zinc by 42.37%, and chromium by 99.99%, as compared to the original MSWI FA TCLP results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1263.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: liver disease; inflammation; steatosis; ALD; NAFLD; ASH; NASH; angiogenesis; hepatocellular carcinoma; natural compounds.
Online: 18 May 2023 (03:45:43 CEST)
Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD) and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) are the most common causes of chronic liver disease and are increasingly emerging as a global health problem. Such disorders can lead to liver damage, resulting in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the activation of infiltrating immune cells. These are some of the common features of ALD progression in ASH (alcoholic steatohepatitis) and NAFLD to NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepa-titis). Hepatic steatosis and subsequent fibrosis, whose continuous progression is accompanied by angiogenesis, lead to hypoxia, inducing the activation of vascular factors, which in turn triggers pathological angiogenesis and subsequent fibrosis, resulting in a vicious cycle. This condition further exacerbates liver injury and may contribute to the development of comorbidities, such as metabolic syndrome as well as hepatocellular carcinoma. Increasing evidence suggests that antiangiogenic therapy may have beneficial effects on these hepatic disorders and their exacerbation. Therefore, there is a great interest to deepen the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of natural antiangiogenic products that could both prevent and control liver diseases. In this review, we focus on the role of major natural antian-giogenic compounds against steatohepatitis and determine their potential therapeutic benefits in the treatment of liver inflammation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0110.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Fly ash composites; stir casting; hand lay-up; mechanical properties; correlative microstructural characterisation
Online: 8 February 2022 (12:40:14 CET)
The present decade has witnessed numerous investigations focussed on the determination of the mechanical properties of Fly ash composites. These composites have attracted attention, especially in the form of reinforcements owing to their excellent tensile and compressive properties coupled with impact and hardness response. A number of techniques viz. in-situ deposition, hand-up lay and compo-casting techniques have been reported to fabricate these composites. However, in the context of these composites, a systematic structure-property correlation has not been established till date. The present review is aimed at highlighting the current state of research in the avenue of Fly ash composites from two different viewpoints, viz. (i) fabrication technique and (ii) mechanical properties of the fabricated composites. Moreover, the necessity of establishing systematic structure-property correlation in these materials has also been briefly discussed from the author’s viewpoint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0395.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: blast furnace granulated slag; silica fly ash; alkali-activated materials; denitrification; material engineering.
Online: 26 January 2022 (12:33:00 CET)
This article deals with the possibility of partial replacement of blast furnace slag with fly ash after denitrification by the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) method in alkali-activated materials. In the experiment, the basic physical-mechanical properties and durability properties were tested, the hydration reaction was monitored in a calorimeter and infrared spectroscopy was performed. Results were compared between mixtures prepared with fly ash without denitrification and also with reference mixture based only on alkali-activated blast furnace slag. The basic result is the finding, that hybrid alkali-systems with fly ash after denitrification show similar trends as hybrid alkali-systems with fly ash without denitrification. The significant effect of fly ash is manifested especially in terms of resistance to freeze-thaw. The reactions in the calorimeter show a slower development of reactions with increasing replacement of slag by fly ash. In the case of testing resistance to leaching in demineralised water, a decrease of flexural strength was found, which corresponds to the conclusions of strength testing, that long-term deposition of bodies in water causes deterioration of mechanical properties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: concrete setting time; Coca-cola; silica fume; fly ash; Plastocrete® RT6 Plus
Online: 10 January 2020 (06:55:02 CET)
During the casting in a warmer tropical temperature, a setting time delay is required to maintain the workability of the concrete, commonly achieved by the addition of admixtures i.e. silica fume (SF), fly ash (FA), and Plastrocrete®. However, high sugar content Coca-Cola in niche conditions is proposed as an ingredient for delaying concrete setting time in combination with conventional admixtures. This research aims to compare the setting time of admixtures from Coca-Cola and Plastocrete® RT6 plus in concrete mixing with control data of concrete mixed with SF or FA. The second aim is to measure the compression strengths between combinations of Coca-Cola and Plastocrete® RT6 plus. Concretes were produced with admixtures of SF, FA, Plastocrete® RT6plus, or Coca-Cola. The concrete used to control was f'c20 and f'c 25, while other concrete mixes were produced with the addition of Coca-Cola at 0.15% from the weight of cement at variation of moisture treatments. The first method to produce concrete (f'c20+Plas0.23%+Cola0.15% and f'c25+Plas0.23%+Cola0.15%) did not employ water reduction. The second concrete productions (f'c25+Plas0.46%+Cola0.15% and f'c25+Plas0.46%+Cola0.15%) reduced the addition of water at 8.8% (v/w). The first concrete production method had a setting time 44% longer than control. The reduced water concrete in the second productions had a setting time 34% longer than control. Meanwhile, the Plastocrete® RT6 Plus admixture with the reduced water delayed the concrete setting time by 26% longer than control. The delayed setting time of Plastocrete® RT6 Plus admixture with reduction of water was shorter than in the treatment with Coca-Cola. The combination of the addition of Coca-Cola with Plastocrete® RT6 plus by reducing the amount of adding Coca-Cola to 0.10% with Plastocrete® RT6 plus can delay concrete setting time by 51% longer than normal concrete and increase concrete compressive strength by 13% higher than normal concrete. Mixing Coca-Cola with Plastocrete® RT6 plus not only provided an optimal delay effect on setting time but also significantly increase the compressive strength that was desired during the casting in warm tropical weather applied in building construction of Mulawarman University, Samarinda, Indonesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0591.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Chalara fraxinea; Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus; ash dieback; Narnaviridae; evolution; invasive species; horizontal virus transmission
Online: 25 October 2018 (05:36:25 CEST)
Hymenoscyphus albidus is a native fungus in Europe where it behaves as a harmless decomposer of leaves of common ash. Its close relative Hymenoscyphus fraxineus was introduced into Europe from Asia and currently threatens ash (Fraxinus sp.) stands all across the continent causing ash dieback. H. fraxineus isolates from Europe were previously shown to harbor a mycovirus named Hymenoscyphus fraxineus Mitovirus 1 (HfMV1). In the present study, we describe a conspecific mycovirus that we detected in H. albidus. HfMV1 was consistently identified in H. albidus isolates (mean prevalence: 49.3%) which were collected in the sampling areas before the arrival of ash dieback. HfMV1 strains in both fungal hosts contain a single ORF of identical length (717 AA) for which a mean pairwise identity of 94.5% was revealed. The occurrence of a conspecific mitovirus in H. albidus and H. fraxineus is most likely the result of parallel virus evolution in the two fungal hosts. HfMV1 sequences from H. albidus showed a higher nucleotide diversity and a higher number of mutations compared to those from H. fraxineus, probably due to a bottleneck caused by the introduction of H. fraxineus in Europe. Our data also points to multiple interspecific virus transfers from H. albidus to H. fraxineus, which could have contributed to the intraspecific virus diversity found in H. fraxineus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0504.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: fly ash-based geopolymer composite; long-term properties under cyclic load; fibre-reinforced geopolymer
Online: 8 August 2023 (05:26:25 CEST)
This study investigates the cyclic load application impact on fly ash-based geopolymer composites that are reinforced with a low amount of fibre reinforcement. For reinforcement purposes, PVA and steel fibres are used. For testing purposes, four geopolymer composite mixes were made, 3 of which had fibre reinforcement. Simultaneously specimens were tested for shrinkage, static load-induced creep, and cyclic load-induced creep. For static and cyclic creep testing, specimens were loaded with 20% of their strength. For cyclic creep testing, load application and release cycles were seven days long. When each cycle was introduced, the load was added in steps. In 5 minutes, by 25% steps of the necessary load, the specimens were loaded or unloaded. Only plain specimens show that static creep strains are within cyclic creep strains. For all the other specimens, the static load is higher than the cyclic load-induced creep amplitude. Also, 1% PVA fibre-reinforced specimens show the most elastic characteristics under cyclic load, and 1% steel fibre-reinforced specimens appear to be the most resistant to the cyclic load introduction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1997.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: WRF-Chem model; Mount Etna; VOLDORAD-2B Doppler radar; volcanic ash cloud; aviation hazards
Online: 29 June 2023 (05:31:46 CEST)
Volcanic emissions (ash, gas, aerosols) dispersed in the atmosphere during explosive eruptions generate hazards affecting aviation, human health, air quality and the environment. We document for the first time the contamination of airspace by very fine volcanic ash due to sequences of tran-sient ash plumes from Mount Etna. The atmospheric dispersal of sub-10 μm (PM10) ash is mod-elled using the WRF-Chem model coupled online with meteorology and aerosols and offline with Mass Eruption Rates (MER) derived from near-vent Doppler radar measurements and inferred plume altitudes. We analyse two sequences of paroxysms with widely varied volcanological conditions and contrasted meteorological synoptic patterns in October–December 2013 and on 3-5 December 2015. We analyse the PM10 ash dispersal simulation maps in terms of time-averaged columnar ash density, concentration at specified flight levels averaged over the entire sequence interval, and daily average concentration during selected paroxysm days at these flight levels. The very fine ash from such eruption sequences is shown to easily contaminate the airspace around the volcano within a radius of about 1000 km in a matter of a few days. Synoptic patterns with relatively weak tropospheric currents lead to the accumulation of PM10 ash at a re-gional scale all around Etna. In this context, closely interspersed paroxysms tend to accumulate very fine ash more diffusively in the lower troposphere and in stretched ash clouds higher up in the troposphere. Low-pressure, high-winds weather systems tend to stretch ash clouds into ~100 km-wide clouds forming large-scale vortices 800-1600 km in diameter. Daily average PM10 ash concentrations commonly exceed the aviation hazard threshold up to 1000 km downwind from the volcano and up to the upper troposphere for intense paroxysms. Vertical distributions show ash cloud thicknesses in the range 0.7–3 km, and PM10 sometimes stagnating at ground level, represent a potential health hazard.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0394.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Cement By-Pass Dust; Blast Furnace Granulated Slag; Silica Fly Ash; Alkali-Activated Materials.
Online: 15 June 2021 (10:59:34 CEST)
Alkali-activated materials are alternative building binders, where secondary raw materials are processed. Possibility to use landfilled waste materials in their preparation, increases their potential application in construction practice, and therefore they are subject to extensive research, especially in recent years. This paper briefly summarizes interesting results of an experiment aimed at verifying the possibility of applying cement by-pass dust (CBPD) in the preparation of alkali-activated materials. The research work was focused on the possibilities of using these wastes for the preparation of small elements of garden architecture. The paper briefly evaluates in particular the results of X-ray diffraction, which were subjected to three types of binder pastes differing in the amount of used activator. In the experiment, a mixture of blast furnace granulated slag, fly ash and cement by-pass dust was alkali activated with sodium metasilicate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0186.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: tephra in marine sediments; Ash Zone I in North Atlantic; tephrochronology of Termination I
Online: 19 June 2019 (15:38:40 CEST)
Based on the geochemical analysis of the volcanic material from the sediment core AMK-340, central zone of the Reykjanes Ridge, we could detect two ash-bearing sediment units accumulated during the Termination I. They correlate to the Ash Zone I in the North Atlantic Late Quaternary sediments having an age of 12170-12840, within the Younger Dryas cold chronozone, and 13600-14540 years, within and Bølling-Allerød warm chronozone. The ash of the Younger Dryas unit is presented mostly by the mafic and persilicic material originated from the Icelandic volcanoes; Vedde Ash is presented in one sediment sample from this unit. The ash of the Bølling-Allerød unit is presented mostly by the mafic shards which are related to the basalts of the rift zone on the Reykjanes Ridge, having presumably the local origin. A detection of Vedde Ash helped to specify the timing of the previously reconstructed paleoceanographic changes for the Termination I in the point of study: a significant warming in the area could occur as early as 300 years prior to the end of the conventional Younger Dryas cold chronozone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: alkali activated materials; fly ash; ground granulated blast furnace slag; sulfate resistance; cation accompanying sulfate
Online: 8 November 2018 (07:52:29 CET)
In this study, the changes in mass, compressive strength and length were analyzed to investigate sulfate resistance according to ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) blending ratio and type of sulfate solution. All alkali activated mortars showed excellent sulfate resistance when immersed in sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) solution. However, when immersed in magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) solution, different sulfate resistance results were obtained depending on the presence of GGBFS. Alkali activated GGBFS blended mortars showed a tendency to increase mass, increase length and decrease compressive strength when immersed in magnesium sulfate solution, but the alkali activated FA mortars did not show any significant difference depending on the types of sulfate solution. The deterioration of alkali activated GGBFS blended mortars in the immersion of magnesium sulfate solution was confirmed by the decomposition of C-S-H which is the reaction product by magnesium ion and the formation of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and brucite (Mg(OH)2).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2199.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Self-compacting concrete; Calcined clay; Rice husk ash; Reactivity; Time dependent workability; Rheology; Flow resistance; Durability.
Online: 30 June 2023 (09:47:44 CEST)
Durability of concrete requires a dense microstructure which can be achieved by using self-compacting concrete (SCC). Both calcined clay (CC) and rice husk ash (RHA) are promising supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) that can partially replace cement, but their use in SCC is critical due to their higher water demand and specific surface area (SSA) compared to cement. Empirical method of SCC design was adopted considering the physical properties of both CC and RHA. The influence of partially substituting cement at 20 vol-% with binary and ternary blends of CC and RHA were investigated. The fresh properties of SCC were investigated using a variety of tests. The time dependent workability was monitored by plunger method and flow resistance determined based on the rheological measurements of SCC. The evolution of the hydrate phases of the binder in SCC was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, while the durability was evaluated by rapid chloride migration test. Cement partial replacement with 20 vol-% CC has no significant effect on SCC fresh, time dependent, compressive strength and durability properties. 20 vol-% RHA on the other hand requires higher dosage of SP to achieve self-compactability and increased the viscosity of SCC. Its workability retention is only up to 30 min after mixing and exhibited higher flow resistance. It consumes more CH and improves compressive strength and chloride resistance of SCC. The ternary blending with CC and RHA yielded better fresh SCC properties compared to the binary blend with RHA, while an improved chloride penetration resistance could be achieved compared to binary CC blend.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0377.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: solid particle erosion; epoxy resin; thermoset polymers; fly-ash; filled compound; elasticity modu-lus; bending strength
Online: 21 November 2022 (06:38:01 CET)
The solid particle erosion at room and elevated temperatures of pure and filled hot-curing epoxy resin on anhydride hardener was experimentally tested using accelerated method on special bench. Micro-sized dispersed industrial wastes were used as fillers: fly-ash from a power plant and spent filling material from a copper mining and processing plant. The results showed that the unfilled resin wear significantly decreases with increasing temperature, while the dependence on the temperature of the wear intensity at an impingement angle of 45o is linear inversely proportional, and at an angle of 90o non-linear. The decrease in wear intensity is probably due to an increase in elasticity (an increase in the fracture strain limit) because of heating. Solid particle erosion of the examined filled epoxy compounds is considerably higher than that of unfilled compounds at impingement angles of 90o and 45o. Filled compounds showed ambiguous dependences of intensity of wear from temperature (especially at an angle of attack 45o), probably, character of dependence is defined by a filler share and the structural features of the samples caused by distribution of particles of the filler. Intensity of wear of the considered compounds at impingement angles 90o and 45o has high direct correlation with density and the modulus of elasticity (i.e., increases with their increase), and low correlation with bending strength of the considered materials. The data set for determining the correlation between mechanical properties and wear included characteristics due to both compound filling and test temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0244.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: wood combustion; sawdust pellets; solid woods; heat calorific value; ash content; bio-energy; Papua New Guinea
Online: 21 February 2022 (03:23:34 CET)
Burning woody biomass for energy is gaining attention due to environmental issues associated with fossil fuels and carbon emission. The carbon released from burning wood is absorbed by plants and is carbon neutral. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combustion characteristics (heat calorific values and ash contents) of three timbers: Araucaria cunninghamii, Instia bijuga and Pometia pinnata and recommend for fuelwood. The test samples were sawdust particles (treatment) and solid woods (control) extracted from the heartwoods. The sawdust particles were oven-dried, sieved and pelletized into pellets using a hand-held pelletizing device, thus, forming cylindrical dimension (volume 1178.57 mm3, oven dry density 0.0008 g/mm3). While the solid woods were cubed and oven-dried (volume 1000.00 mm3, oven dry density 0.001 g/mm3). Prior to combustion in a semi-automatic bomb calorimeter, 90 test specimens (15 replicates per treatment and control per species) were conditioned to 14 % moisture content (at temperature 105 ºC) and weighed to a constant (unit) mass (1.0 g). The heat energy outputs and ash residues (of treatments) were analyzed statistically. The results indicated variability in heat energy outputs and ash residues between test specimens of the three species. Comparatively, the treatment specimens of A. cunninghamii produced higher calorific value (18.546 kJ/g) than the control (18.376 kJ/g) whilst the treatment specimens of I. bijuga and P. pinnata generated lower heat calorific values (17.124 kJ/g and 18.822 kJ/g) than the control (18.415 kJ/g and 20.659 kJ/g), respectively. According to ash content analysis, A. cunninghamii generated higher residues (6.3%) followed by P. pinnata (4.5%) and I. bijuga (2.8%). The treatment specimens of the three species could not meet the standard heat energy requirement (20.0 kJ/g) and thus, were unsuitable for fuelwood. However, the control specimens of P. pinnata generated equivalent heat energy (20.659 kJ/g) and could be a potential fuelwood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0315.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Cemented aeolian sand-fly ash backfill; Aeolian sand and coal gangue-filled slurry; Rheological; Plasticizer; Particle gradation
Online: 6 July 2023 (09:05:13 CEST)
The use of cemented aeolian sand-fly ash backfill (CAFB) material to fill the mining area to improve the surface subsidence damage caused by underground coal mining is in the development stage. Their performance with large overflow water and strength loss is not well understood. Few research has been conducted to understand the effects of aeolian sand and coal gangue on the rheological properties of CAFB with plasticizers. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a plasticizer on the rheological properties, speciﬁcally yield stress and viscosity, of CAFB prepared with aeolian sand and coal gangue. CAFB mixes containing 0%, 0.05%, and 0.1% plasticizer were prepared, and yield stress and viscosity were determined at different time intervals over the period. Additional tests, such as thermal analysis and zeta potential analysis were also conducted. It was found that the rheological properties of CAFB is the comprehensive manifestation of the composite characteristics of various models. Reasonable particle size distribution and less amount of plasticizer can ensure the stability of slurry structure, reduce the slurry settlement and the risk of pipe blocking. The ﬁndings of this study will be beneﬁcial in the design and production of CAFB material.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0009.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: mineral waste; bio-base waste; natural fiber; biomass; sulfur waste; copper flotation; fly ash; biochar; sustainable construction
Online: 4 May 2022 (13:12:11 CEST)
The new climate law introduces a policy of sustainable construction, the assumption of which is the reduction of CO2 by the construction industry and the use of environmentally friendly materials, such as agricultural, mineral, and recycled waste, while limiting the consumption of natural resources. The article is a literature review that analyzes selected waste materials from various sectors of the economy that can be used as additives or partial substitutes for natural resources in the production of cement and in and cement building materials, the production of which reduces CO2 emissions, producing materials with high mechanical strength and environmentally friendly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0252.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Emerald ash borer; Fraxinus spp.; forest pests; invasive populations; north-west Russia; Saint Pe-tersburg; urban pests
Online: 15 September 2021 (09:46:17 CEST)
Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle of East Asian origin that in North America and Russia killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). In September 2020, EAB was de-tected in Saint Petersburg, becoming resonant event for the metropolitan city. The aim of the present study was to investigate occurrence and ecology of EAB in Saint Petersburg. The presence of two distinct enclave populations of EAB was revealed, each of which has (very likely) been established by separate events of “hitchhiking” transport vehicles. Following the invasion, further spread of EAB in Saint Petersburg was slow and locally restricted, main explanation for which is climatic factor. Due to spread by “hitchhiking”, the possibility of EAB further long-distance ge-ographic spread of EAB in the Baltic Sea region (EU) is high, and not only by ground transport (120–130 km distance from EU borders), but also by ferries transporting cars (traditional means of transportation across the Baltic Sea). In certain cases, development of EAB on F. excelsior was more successful (stem portion colonized, larval densities, number of galleries, exit holes, viable larvae, emerged beetles) than in (adjacent) F. pennsylvanica trees. Observed relatively high EAB-sensitivity of F. excelsior therefore questions the efficacy and benefits of the currently ongoing selection and breeding projects against ash dieback (ADB), caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Inventory, mapping, and monitoring of surviving F. excelsior trees in areas infested by both ADB and EAB are necessary to acquire genetic resource for work on strategic long-term restoration of F. excelsior, tackling (inevitable) invasion of EAB to the EU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1644.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: fly ash; fiber reinforcement; cement stabilization; compressive strength; indirect tensile strength; flexural strength; resilient modulus; subbase and base.
Online: 25 September 2023 (06:36:19 CEST)
It is necessary to address the scarcity of crushed stones for pavement structural layers. So fly ash can be proved to be promising solution as more than 270 tonnes of fly ash is generated in India. Though, numerous research has been conducted for the use of fly ash intreated and untreated form, high volume of fine particles and brittleness of the stabilized fly ash pose a great problem for its use in subbase and base. Moreover, stiffness or modulus of stabilized fly ash is vital elastic parameter which is used for mechanistic pavement design. Hence, in this study an extensive experimental investigation is carried out to study its strength and stiffness properties such as compressive strength, indirect tensile strength and flexural strength, cyclic indirect tensile modulus and flexural modulus of fiber reinforced cement stabilized fly ash, stone dust, aggregate mixtures. The stone dust and aggregates have been added to enhance the gradation of the composite’s mixture. The study presents the effect of fiber on strength and stiffness properties. The experimental result reveals that addition of polypropylene (PP) fibers up to 0.25 wt.% enhances the compressive strength and any further addition of fiber results in decrease of the strength. However, indirect tensile strength and flexural strength increases with increase in fiber percentage up to 0.5 wt.%. Cement content is observed to be the dominant parameter for stabilized materials. Suitable relationships have been developed between strength and modulus parameters for stabilized mixtures. Based on the strength and stiffness study, 70% fly ash and 30% stone dust-aggregate and 60% fly ash and 40% stone dust-aggregate with 6% cement can be considered for the base layer. Based on the indirect tensile strength and flexural strength behavior, 0.35% is considered as the optimum fiber percentage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1447.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: fly ash; precast concrete; compressive strength; steam curing; high alite cement; 3D FEM analysis; drying shrinkage; cracking resistance
Online: 21 September 2023 (08:47:55 CEST)
Fly ash cement has rarely been used in Japan, mainly because its strength development is slower than ordinary Portland cement. In this research, the effect of the new fly ash cement with both high alite (C3S) cement and fly ash modified by electrostatic belt separation method on cracking resistance of precast concrete prepared by steam curing was studied. The mechanical and shrinkage properties of the proposed fly ash concrete were compared with those of concrete made using OPC cement without fly ash. In order to study the cracking tendency of precast concrete with the proposed fly ash cement, thermal stress analysis was conducted taking into consideration of the experimental data of concrete properties with the different concrete mix proportions. A standard precast concrete box culvert model was used in this 3D FEM analysis and the distribution of temperature and relative humidity in cross section and induced restraint stress during and after steam curing were discussed. Steam-cured concrete with fly ash and high alite cement developed higher compressive strength on the first day of age than concrete with OPC. The proposed fly ash concrete developed high cracking resistance in the early days. On the other hand, the results showed that the drying shrinkage at later ages was the main cause of cracking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0747.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: alkali activated; fly ash; blast furnace slag; silica fume; metakaolin; ambient curing; strength development; flexural strength; freeze-thaw resistance
Online: 30 December 2020 (09:03:09 CET)
Concrete is the most commonly used construction material due to its various advantages, such as versatility, familiarity, strength and durability and it will continue to be in demand far into the future. However, with today’s sensitivity to the environmental protection, this material is facing unprecedented challenges due to its high greenhouse gas emission mainly during cement production. This paper investigates one of the promising cement replacement materials, alkali activated cement (AAC) concrete. Being produced mainly from byproduct materials and having a comparable structural performance to conventional concrete, AAC concrete has a potential to transform the construction industry. Mechanical properties such as compressive and flexural strength and the relationship between them are studied. Different source materials such as fly ash (FA), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), silica fume (SF) and Metakaolin (MK) are used. The effect of the source materials and the activator solutions on the concrete performance is studied. Furthermore, the freeze-thaw resistance of the concrete is studied. The results of the study showed that the behavior of AAC depends highly on the source material combinations as well as type used. The effect of the alkaline solution is also dependent on the source material used. Mixes with higher GGBS content in general showed the highest strength while mixes with MK showed the highest flexural strength. The results from the freeze-thaw test showed that proper design of AAC concrete with a lower water content is critical to achieve a good resistance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0523.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: rare earth elements; deposits; alternative sources; marine sediments; river sediments; phospho-rites; red mud; fly ash; acid mine drainage; e-waste; extra-terrestrial
Online: 28 January 2023 (08:38:38 CET)
Currently, there is increasing industrial demand for rare earth elements (REE) as these elements are now integral to the manufacture of many carbon-neutral technologies. The depleting REE ores and increasing mining costs are prompting to look for alternative sources for these valuable metals, particularly from waste streams. Although REE concentrations in most of the alternate resources are lower than current REE ores, some sources such as marine sediments, coal ash, and industrial wastes like red mud are looking promising with significant concentrations of REE in them. This review focuses on the alternative resources for REE such as ocean bottom sediments, continental shelf sediments, river sediments, stream sediments, lake sediments, phosphorites deposits, industrial waste products like red mud, and phosphogypsum, coal, coal fly ash, and related materials, waste rock sources from old and closed mines, acid mine drainage, and recycling of e-waste. Possible future Moon exploration and mining for REE and other valuable minerals are also discussed. It is evident that REE extractions from both primary and secondary ores alone are not adequate to meet the current demand, and sustainable REE recovery from the alternative resources described here is also necessary to meet the growing REE demand. An attempt is made to identify the potential of these alternative resources and sustainability challenges, benefits, and possible environmental hazards to meet the growing challenges in meeting the future REE requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: SO2; unburned carbon; fly ash; activated carbon; adsorption kinetics; kinetics models; linear regression; non-linear regression; statistical error functions; the sum of normalized error method
Online: 1 December 2021 (10:55:30 CET)
Kinetic parameters of SO2 adsorption on unburned carbons from lignite fly ash and activated carbons based on hard coal dust were determined. The model studies were performed using the linear and non-linear regression method for the following models: pseudo first and second-order, intraparticle diffusion, and chemisorption on a heterogeneous surface. The quality of the fitting of a given model to empirical data was assessed based on: R2, R, Δq, SSE, ARE, χ2, HYBRID, MPSD, EABS, and SNE. It was clearly shown that it is the linear regression that more accurately reflects the behaviour of the adsorption system, which is consistent with the first-order kinetic reaction – for activated carbons (SO2+Ar) or chemisorption on a heterogeneous surface – for unburned carbons (SO2+Ar and SO2+Ar+H2O(g)+O2) and activated carbons (SO2+Ar+H2O(g)+O2). Importantly, usually, each of the approaches (linear/non-linear) indicated a different mechanism of the studied phenomenon. A certain universality of the χ2 and HYBRID functions has been proved, the minimization of which repeatedly led to the lowest SNE values for the indicated models. Fitting data by any of the non-linear equations based on the R or R2 functions only, cannot be treated as evidence/prerequisite of the existence of a given adsorption mechanism.