REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0052.v1
Online: 2 November 2022 (09:41:59 CET)
Monkeypox virus (MPXV), causing zoonotic diseases in humans, is a member of Orthopoxvirus under Poxviridae family. The virus was first reported in monkeys in 1959 in Denmark and in humans in 1970 in the Congo. Outside Africa, the virus first appeared in the USA in 2003 and since then occurred sporadically. The virus reemerged in 2017 and now spreading globally. African wild rodent mammals are thought to be the reservoir of MPXV. Exotic trade of animals and international travel favors the dissemination of MPXV. Genetic analysis shows two clades of the MPXV. Smallpox vaccine shows cross-protection and people who never in contact with Orthopoxvirus affected more than exposed ones. Fever, muscle pain, headache, and vesicle formation are the dominant clinical sign. Guarnieri-like inclusions and Ballooning degenerations are important pathognomic lesion of MPXV. It may produce case fatality rate up to 11%. Genetic materials alterations may favor the reemergence of the virus. The continuing occurrence over 73437 cases in 109 countries shows that MPXV can spread among humans competently and can be a serious issue of global public health concern. Here, we summarize the existing knowledge about re-emergence and insights into MPXV which will be of useful to curb its occurrence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0093.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Wild fruits, phytochemicals, malnutrition and health
Online: 5 November 2018 (09:15:58 CET)
Widely consumed forest fruits in Gabon, were analyzed for nutrient and bioactive compositions and their potential contributions to meeting the nutrient requirements of consumers. Edible pulps of Panda oleosa, Gambeya lacourtiana and Poga oleosa contained substantial amounts of bioactive compounds; flavonoids (13.5–22.8 mg/100g), proanthocyanins (2.4–7.6 mg/100g), polyphenols (49.6-77.3 mg/100g) and vitamin C (6.7–97.7 mg/100g). The highest content of β-carotene (76.6 µg/100g) was registered in fruits of Pseudospondias longifolia. The fruits of P. oleosa had the highest essential minerals Fe, Zn and Se. If a child aged 1 to 3 years consumed about 200g or if a non-lactating and non-pregnant woman consumed 300g of P. oleosa, A. lepidophyllus, G. lacourtiana, P. longifolia and P. oleosa, they could obtain substantial RDI ranging between 20-100% for energy, vitamins C and E, iron, magnesium, iron and zinc. Forest fruits can considerably contribute towards the human nutrient requirements. Based on the results of this study, forest foods should be considered in formulating policies governing food and nutrition security in Gabon.
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: animal suffering; animal welfare; fires; wild animals
Online: 28 August 2020 (08:50:40 CEST)
Animals living in the wild are exposed to numerous challenges, such as fires, that can lead to animal suffering. The impacts of fire have been studied in different branches of ecology, but studies of its effects on the welfare of individual animals remain scarce. The current review aims to synthesize a sample of relevant aspects regarding fire’s negative effects on wild animals. This review provides a better understanding of how fire compromises animal welfare, providing an example of how to use the knowledge gathered in ecology studies to examine the welfare of wild animals. It can help raise concern for the situation of wild animals as individuals, and to develop the field of welfare biology, by identifying promising future lines of research. The fundamentals of carrying out future work to design protocols for rescuing animals or preventing the harms they can suffer in fires is also explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0016.v1
Online: 2 November 2016 (07:03:29 CET)
We interviewed 48 people including local communities, ex hunters and protected area management professionals. The purpose of the interviews was to understand the motivations for, and the nature of, illegal hunting of prey species of iconic predators - tigers and leopards - in the northern section of Bardia National Park. Participants reported that hunting of prey species occurs mostly in spring and autumn and is less common during the summer. In the past, hunting was primarily for the purposes of obtaining meat for household consumption. Since the introduction of a road network in the region, opportunities to sell wild meat at ad-hoc ‘highway markets’ have developed. The purported medicinal properties of wild meat was also cited as a driver for illegal hunting. Mostly, locally hand-made guns are used for hunting and the use of dogs in hunting was often reported. Protected area managers informed that illegal hunting problems in the study area are associated with a lack of presence of park authorities, remoteness and underdevelopment and poverty of the community. Our study suggested that skills development training for local community members might reduce dependency on wild meat for household consumption and earning thereby reducing illegal hunting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0011.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: auxin herbicide; herbicide tolerance; wild germplasm; GR50; HR50; I50
Online: 1 December 2021 (11:57:04 CET)
A greenhouse dose-response study was conducted to determine the tolerance of three wild tomato accessions (TOM199, TOM198, TOM300) in comparison to a commercial cultivar (Better Boy) against the dicamba application at five rates (0, 70, 140, 210, and 280 g ae ha-1) at 14 and 28 days after treatment (DAT). Several physiological traits were evaluated at 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 DAT. Wild accessions and cultivar were killed at all rates above 70 g ae ha-1 at 14 and 28 DAT, which is why differences between accessions and cultivar were only evident at 70 g ae ha-1. The GR50 (the herbicide rate that causes 50% reduction in dry weight) of Better Boy was 4.4 g ae ha-1 at 28 DAT, and this cultivar was approximately 11-fold more sensitive than wild accessions. At 7 DAT, the levels of H2O2 for wild accessions were lower than Better Boy up to 5 at 70 g ae ha-1 of dicamba. Furthermore, wild accessions showed lower herbicide absorption than Better Boy at all dicamba doses at 1, 3, and 7 DAT. All the three wild accessions expressed tolerance to the dicamba application at the dose of 70 g ae ha-1. At the same time, Better Boy and wild accessions were susceptible to dicamba application at rates of 140, 210, and 280 g ae ha-1.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0542.v1
Subject: Keywords: climate change； vegetables； crop wild relatives； nitrogen use efficiency
Online: 23 September 2020 (07:51:18 CEST)
Climate variation and change are an unavoidable phenomenon faced by the natural habitat of this planet. For getting potential yield from vegetable crops under the changing climate conditions, the practical strategies at field level can serve as a guideline for the farmers. Moreover, there are several strategies available for mitigating the harmful effects of climate change. In this manuscript, efforts have been made for reviewing the mitigating strategies against the impact of climate change in vegetable crops via conventional approaches. Considering the situation, the information reviewed revealed that significant result of conventional approaches with climate-smart adoptions strategies has a direct bearing on vegetable production for the increasing population in frenziedly changing climate scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0005.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: weather radar; polarimetry; smoke plumes; wild fires; polarimetric characteristics
Online: 2 January 2020 (03:35:31 CET)
Weather surveillance radars routinely detect smoke of various origin. Of particular significance to the meteorological community are wildfires in forests and/or prairies. For example, one responsibility of the National Weather Service in the USA is to forecast fire outlooks as well as to monitor wild fire evolution. Polarimetric variables have enabled relatively easy recognitions of smoke plumes in data fields of weather radars. Presented here are the fields of these variables from smoke plumes caused by grass fire, brush fire, and forest fire. Histograms of polarimetric data from plumes contrast these three cases. Most of the data are from the polarimetric Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D aka Nexrad, 10 cm wavelength) hence the wavelength does not influence these comparisons. Nevertheless, in one case simultaneous observations of a plume by the operational Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR, 5 cm wavelength) and a WSR-88D is used to infer backscattering characteristic and hence sizes of dominant contributors to the returns. In addition, comparisons with observations by other investigators of plumes from urban area but at a 5 cm wavelength are made. To interpret some measurements Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) tools are applied.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0238.v1
Online: 20 May 2019 (10:09:42 CEST)
Several transgenic rice lines have been developed and are currently under field trials around the world. There are future plans for the commercial release of transgenic rice into the environment. Rice is an autogamous plant and therefore not perceived to be a very high candidate for pollen mediated gene flow to wild and weedy relatives. However, in a tropical environment like Ghana, where sexually compatible wild Oryza species which belongs to the AA genome are present within the ecology of cultivated rice, the possibility of gene flow to wild species cannot be overlooked. There is little evidence on gene flow and its consequences on the wild rice species should they acquire useful genes through gene flow. This review discusses the chances of cultivated to wild rice gene flow in Ghana and the biosafety considerations that should be put in place before the commercial release of genetically modified (GM) rice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0123.v1
Online: 10 April 2019 (09:35:16 CEST)
Social media has become a powerful tool for spreading information and awareness campaigns on environmental issues, especially as they pertain to the conservation of wild animals. It is a double-edged sword, however, since it also facilitates the legal and illegal trade of wild animal species as well as the propagation of ‘wild animal selfies.’ This review presents some key literature to date which concerns the impact of social media on public perceptions of animals (such as through ‘viral’ videos), changing trends in animal encounters at wildlife tourism destinations, and the wildlife trade as it is facilitated by social media. Finally, avenues for future research are suggested with urgency, since the impact of social media on the welfare and conservation of wild animal species is most likely underestimated yet bears serious consequences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0517.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: distribution; species; wild chilli pepper; Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum
Online: 21 November 2018 (06:45:41 CET)
Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum, is a variety of wild chili pepper belonging to the family Solanaceae and is considered as the origin for all cultivated chili species of the world. This species is an important genetic resource for agriculture and food, is widely distributed in northeastern Mexico in altitudes from 0 – 1200 m.a.s.l. This species grows mainly at low altitudes and its upper limit reaches 1000m., it prefers temperatures above 18.3O C and its production and harvest may ocurr at two seasons, one during the beginning of the summer and the main one ocurring in the middle of the autumn in northeast México. It is estimated that the main production occurs in the state of Tamaulipas with 84 tons per year and is harvested from 23 municipalities. Concentration of capseicins and dihydrocapsaicine from wild populations may vary considerably from one location to another in the municipalities, ecotypes and diverse climatic conditions from this wide geographic zone. The high demands of wild chili as well as the variability on concentration of capseicins in fruits are considered as some of the main reasons why intensive cultivation of this species should be carried out in Northeastern Mexico.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0096.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Qinling mountains; Wild Chinese prickly ashes; HPLC fingerprint; Resource evaluation.
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:55:32 CEST)
Wild Chinese prickly ash with elevated antioxidants is a valuable genetic resource for Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim improvement. There are rich wild germplasm resources in the Qinling Mountains. In a study with wild germplasm resources from different altitudes and six cultivated varieties, the phenolic and flavonoid compounds were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The chromatograms of them were basically the same, although their chemical composition content was greatly different. The thirty samples were divided into three categories through the hierarchical clustering analysis. And catechin, hyperoside and quercitrin were considered to be key compound for the quality evaluation, by contrast, the wild samples with an altitude of 2300±50 m (Ⅳ group) had the highest content of key compounds, and showed stronger antioxidant activity and antibacterial ability, indicating that these wild samples could be used as an excellent breeding resource. This is the first time to evaluate the quality of wild Chinese prickly ash in different altitude areas of Qinling Mountains. These excellent wild germplasm resources provided substantial potential accessions for use directly in Chinese prickly ash breeding programs.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0633.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Biofortification; Agro-biodiversity; HarvestPlus; Hidden Hunger; Orphan Crops; Wild edibles
Online: 28 July 2021 (16:18:29 CEST)
Biofortification refers to the increase in the amount of essential vitamins or provitamins or minerals in crops to improve the nutritional status of the people, which is largely intended to alleviate the problem of micronutrient malnutrition. I argue that biofortification may not be an effective weapon to fight against the hidden hunger since it demonstrates limited capacity on nutritional enhancement and can negatively impact the socio-economic fabric of the society in many different ways. Finally, I suggest a couple of alternatives that might meet the challenge more efficiently than biofortified crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0600.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Carnivore protoparvovirus 1; wild carnivores; domestic carnivore; virus transmission; Taiwan
Online: 22 April 2021 (09:29:43 CEST)
Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (CPPV-1) is a DNA virus causing gastrointestinal disease and immunosuppression in various terrestrial carnivores. Domestic dogs and cats are considered the primary CPPV-1 reservoirs. The habitat overlaps of wild carnivores and free-roaming dogs increases the threat of CPPV-1 transmission between them. This study explored the CPPV-1 distribution among wild carnivores through PCR screening and compared the DNA sequences of the partial capsid protein (VP2) between wild and domestic carnivores. In total, 181 samples were screened for the CPPV-1 VP2 gene, including 32 masked palm civets (Paguma larvata), 63 Chinese ferret badgers (Melogale moschata), and 86 crab-eating mongooses (Herpestes urva), from 2015 to 2019 in Taiwan. The average prevalence of CPPV-1 was 17.7% (32/181), with the highest prevalence in masked palm civets (37.5%). In addition, a masked palm civet was coinfected with two CPPV-1 strains. Among the 33 partial VP2 gene sequences, 23 were identical to sequences amplified from domestic dogs and cats in Asia and the remaining 10 were identified for the first time. This study demonstrated that CPPV-1 has circulated between domestic and wild carnivores in rural Taiwan. Therefore, further population control and health management of free-roaming domestic carnivores are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0251.v1
Online: 12 October 2020 (15:31:08 CEST)
African swine fever (ASF) is a viral infection of pigs and represents a major threat to animal health and trade. Due to the high tenacity of the causative virus also in carcasses of wild boar, contacts of wild boar with infectious carcasses are regarded an important driver of the so-called habitat cycle. The latter is believed to play a major role in maintaining the present ASF situation in wild boar in Europe. Therefore, search campaigns and timely removal and disposal of carcasses are considered important disease control approaches. If timely disposal is not feasible due to logistic reasons, deterrence of wild boar could be a provisionary option. The performance of seven deterrents (physical and chemical) was tested in a forest near Greifswald, Germany. Carcasses as entities of attraction for wild boar were substituted by luring sites. It could be demonstrated that certain physical (LED-Blinkers, aluminum stripes) and chemical (Wildschwein-Stopp™, Hukinol™) deterrents are capable of reducing significantly the odds of wild boar contacts to one third. It is recommended to carry a choice of the aforementioned, reasonable and easy to apply deterrents, when carcass search campaigns are launched in case of an outbreak of ASF in wild boar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0050.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: porcine circovirus; PCV2; domestic pig; wild boar; subtype; phylogenetics; MinION; Ukraine
Online: 7 April 2022 (03:03:31 CEST)
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is responsible for a number of porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCAD) that can severely impact domestic pig herds. For a non-enveloped virus with a small genome (1.7 kb ssDNA), PCV2 is remarkably diverse, with 8 subtypes (a-h). New subtypes of PCV2 can spread through migration of wild boars, which are thought to infect domestic pigs and spread further through the domestic pig trade. Despite a large swine population, the diversity of PCV2 subtypes in Ukraine has been undersampled, with few PCV2 genome sequences reported in the past decade. To gain a deeper understanding of PCV2 subtype diversity in Ukraine, samples of blood serum were collected from wild boars (n = 107) that were hunted in Ukraine during the November-December 2012 hunting season. We found 34/107 (31.8%) prevalence of PCV2 by diagnostic PCR. For domestic pigs, liver samples (n = 16) were collected from a commercial market near Kharkiv in 2019, of which 6/16 (37%) were positive for PCV2. We sequenced the genotyping locus ORF2, a gene encoding the PCV2 viral capsid (Cp), for 11 wild boar and 6 domestic pig samples in Ukraine using an Oxford Nanopore MinION device. Of 17 samples with resolved subtypes, PCV2 subtype b was most common in wild boar (10/11, 91%), while domestic pigs were infected with subtypes b and d. We also detected subtype b/d and b/a co-infections in wild boar and domestic pigs, respectively, and subtype f in a wild boar from Poltava for the first time in Ukraine. Building a maximum likelihood phylogeny, we identified a sublineage of PCV2 subtype b infections in both wild and domestic swine, suggesting a possible epizootic cluster and ecological interaction in northeastern Ukraine.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: BMP15 gene; Ewe; Sudanese Sheep; Residue; Wild type; Mutant type; dryland
Online: 6 November 2020 (15:29:04 CET)
This study tested the association between FecXG point mutation located in exon 2 of BMP15 gene and the prolificacy of Dubasi, Shugor and Watish sheep ecotypes, under dryland farming, Sudan. Blood samples were randomly collected from unrelated 100 ewes (Dubasi; n= 30, Shugor: n= 30, and Watish: n= 40). Bone Morphogenetic protein (BMP15) gene was amplified using PCR-RFLP. Two genotypes were found in all studied breeds (heterozygous and wild type). The calculated total genotype frequencies of BB, Bb and bb genotypes were 0.31, 0.69 and 0.00, respectively, while allele frequencies were 0.66 for B and 0.34 for b. Litter size was influenced by the genotypes of BMP15 gene, parities and subtypes (p<0.05), highest for Watish and 4th parity. Alignment of BMP15 samples along with database reference sequence revealed that most sequence regions were identical except for one variable nucleotide at position 111 bp where a guanine (G) was replaced by adenine (A) in Watish and Shugor samples. All amino acids were the same at residue 275. Watish and Shugor breeds are more related. The study concluded that the presence of one copy of FecXG point mutation of BMP15 gene increased the litter size by 0.17 lambs in the studied ecotypes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0454.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: gastronomy; livelihood; public healthcare; traditional knowledge; wild food plants; tribal belt
Online: 19 September 2020 (10:05:21 CEST)
The tribal belt of Pakistan-the Pak-Afghan border region is famous for its unique culture, ethnography and wild food plants and traditional knowledge. People of these regions gather wild plants for number of purposes including plants or plant parts for direct use, use it in the traditional cuisines and selling in local markets. However, there is huge lack of documentation of food system particularly the Wild Food Plants (WFPs). In current study we have focused on the uses and contributions of the WFPs in the tribal traditional food system. The ethnobotanical data were gathered through questionnaire surveys with Eighty-four informants 69 men and 15 women belonging to 21 different villages. We documented Sixty-three WFP species belonging to 34 botanical families, of which 27 were used as vegetables, 24 as fruits, 6 in different kinds of chutneys (starters) formation and six as fresh food species. Fruits were the mostly used part (40%) followed by leaves (24%), aerial parts (24%), seeds (7%), stem (3%), legume (2%) and young inflorescence (1%). Use of Carthamus oxycanthus & Pinus roxburghii seeds and Marsillea quadrifolia leaves were the novel reports for the gastronomy of Pakistan. The results elucidate that WFPs have a significant contribution in the Tribal Food Systems. Tribal people use WFPs not only due to their nutritional importance but also as a cultural practice - an inseparable component of the tribal communities. This important traditional Knowledge about the consumption of WFPs has been eroding with an alarming speed among the younger generations due to introduction of fast food chains, modernization, and globalization. Therefore, appropriates strategies are imperative not only to safeguard traditional knowledge but also the cultural heritage, food security and hence public healthcare via food supplement in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0306.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Egyptian mongoose; Gut microbiota; Microbial profiling; Bio-ecology; Mediterranean Wild Carnivores
Online: 21 February 2020 (08:02:59 CET)
Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) is a medium-size carnivore that in Europe is restricted to Iberia. The bio-ecology of this species remains to be elucidated in several dimensions, including gut microbiota that is nowadays recognized as a fundamental component of mammals. In this work, we investigated the gut microbiota of this herpestid by single-molecule real-time sequencing of twenty paired male (n=10) and female (n=10) intestinal samples. This culture-independent approach enabled microbial profiling based on 16S rDNA and investigation of taxonomical and functional features. The core gut microbiome of the adult subpopulation was dominated by Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Eight genera were uniquely found in adults and five in non-adults. When comparing gut bacterial communities across sex, four genera were exclusive of females and six uniquely found in males. Despite these compositional distinctions, alpha- and beta-diversity analyses showed no statistically significant differences across sex or between adult and non-adult specimens. However, males presented a significantly higher abundance of amino acid and citrate cycle metabolic pathways, compared to the significant overrepresentation in females of galactose’ metabolic pathways. Adults showed a significantly higher abundance of cationic antimicrobial peptide resistance pathways, while non-adults bared a significant overrepresentation of two-component systems associated with antibiotic synthesis, flagellin production and chemotaxis control. This study adds new insights into mongoose bio-ecology palette, highlighting taxonomical and functional microbiome dissimilarities across sex and age classes, possibly related to primary production resources and life-history traits that impact on behavior, diet and gut ecosystem.
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: solanum tuberosum; potato breeding; potato genebank; biotechnology; wild potato species; Solanaceae
Online: 28 July 2019 (14:25:23 CEST)
The goal of germplasm enhancement is to introgress traits from wild crop relatives into cultivated material and eventually cultivars. It seeks to restore genetic diversity that has been lost over time or to augment cultivated material with novel alleles that improve parents in breeding programs. This paper discusses potato germplasm enhancement efforts in the past, focusing on effective examples such as disease resistance and processing quality. In addition, it outlines new strategies for enhancement efforts, shifting the focus from evaluating phenotypes to tracking and manipulating specific DNA sequences. In the genomics era, germplasm enhancement will increasingly be focused on identifying and introgressing alleles rather than traits. Alleles will come from a broad pool of genetic resources that includes wild species relatives of potato, landraces, cultivated potato itself, and distantly related species. Genomics tools will greatly increase the efficiency of introgressing multigenic traits, and will make it possible to identify rare alleles and utilize recessive alleles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0160.v3
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: wild chili pepper; domestication; seed germination; capsaicinoids content; halopriming; gibberellic acid
Online: 26 March 2018 (08:51:45 CEST)
The effects of different priming techniques were evaluated to improve the dormancy and germination of wild seeds of “Piquín” chili pepper. Three experiments were designed for pre-sowing treatment of seeds: a) chemical seeds digestion; b) halopriming (with K+ or NH4+ of NO3-, SO42- or Cl-) at different priming times (24, 48 or 72 h) and osmotic potential (-5, -10 or -15 atm) and c) previously selected halopriming (KNO3 and NH4NO3) + Gibberellic acid (GA3, at 100 or 200 ppm) were tested. Digestion treatments did show a negative effect on seed germination. Recommended values of osmotic potential (Ψs), to improve Piquín chili seed germination, must be between -10 and -15 atm (-1.0 and -1.5 MPa) and the priming time must be between 48 and 72 hours. Priming techniques can considerably reduce Capsaicinoids content on seeds, improve dormancy, seed germination performance, and increase the rate and uniformity of seedling establishment. KNO3 and secondly GA3 treatments may improve rapid and uniform germination and seedling emergence. The results provide basic information to develop guidelines for commercial establishment of Piquín pepper crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0416.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Leishmania infantum; reservoir; wildlife; artiodactyls; roe deer; European hare; red fox; wild boar
Online: 27 October 2022 (02:10:58 CEST)
In the last decade, an upsurge of human leishmaniasis has been reported in the Emilia-Romagna region, Northeast Italy. Epidemiologic data raised doubts about the role of dogs as the main reservoirs for Leishmania infantum. In the present study, a total of 1,077 wild animals were screened for L. infantum DNA in earlobe and spleen samples from 2019 to 2022. The lymph nodes were tested only in the 23 animals already positive in the earlobe and/or spleen. A total of 71 (6.6%) animals resulted positive in at least one of the sampled tissues, including 3/18 (16.7%) wolves, 6/39 (15.4%) European hares, 38/309 (12.3%) roe deer, 1/11 (9.1%) red deer, 8 (4.9%) wild boars, 13/319 (4.1%) red foxes, 1/54 (1.9%) porcupine, and 1/59 (1.7%) European badger. Most of the infected animals (62/71) tested positive only in the earlobe tissue, just 4 animals (2 roe deer and 2 wild boars) tested positive only in the spleen, and 5 animals (3 roe deer and 2 red foxes) resulted positive for both tissues. L. infantum DNA was detected in the lymph nodes of 6/23 ani-mals. L. infantum detection occurred in all seasons associated with low real-time PCR Ct values. Further research is needed in order to clarify the role of wildlife in the re-emerging focus of leishmaniasis in Northeast Italy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0051.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: African swine fever; vaccination; efficacy; domestic pigs; wild boar; oral vaccine; intramuscular vaccine
Online: 2 August 2022 (08:36:03 CEST)
African swine fever (ASF) is a pandemic threat to the global pig industry and wild suids. A safe and efficacious vaccine could monumentally assist in disease eradication. In the past years, promising live attenuated vaccine candidates emerged in proof-of-concept experiments, among them, “ASFV-G-∆MGF”. In our study, we tested the vaccine candidate in three animal experiments intramuscularly in domestic pigs one orally in wild boar. Further, a macrophage-grown vaccine virus and a virus grown on permanent cells could be employed. Irrespective of the production system of vaccine virus, a two-dose intramuscular immunization could induce close to sterile immunity with full clinical protection against challenge infection. After oral immunization, 50% of the vaccinees seroconverted and all responders were completely protected against subsequent challenge. All non-responders developed ASF upon challenge with two acute lethal infections and two mild and transient courses. The latter results show a lower efficiency after oral administration that would have to be taken into consideration when designing vaccination-based control measures. Our findings suggest that “ASFV-G-∆MGF” could help to contain the disease under an appropriate vaccination campaign. Further research is needed to characterize safety aspects and define possible improvements of oral efficiency.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Meta-analysis; p53 wild type antibodies; p53 mutant antibodies; cancer survival prognostic factor.
Online: 24 September 2021 (12:46:26 CEST)
Importance: p53 is an unequivocal tumor suppressor altered in half cancers. The immune system produces systemic p53 autoantibodies (p53 Abs) in many cancer patients. Objective: The focus of this systemic review and meta-analysis is on the prognostic value of p53 Abs expressed in the serum of patients with solid tumors. Data Sources: All the clinical investigations were searched on PubMed, MBase and Cochrane from 1993 reporting the first study until May 2021. Study Selection: Studies were included that met the following criteria: 1) participants with cancer; 2) outcome results expressed in relation to the presence of a p53 antibody; 3) a primary outcome (disease free survival, overall survival or progression free survival) expressed as hazard ratio (HR). The following exclusion criteria were used: 1) insufficient data available to evaluate outcomes; 2) animal studies; 3) studies with less than 10 participants. 1333 potentially relevant articles; studies as duplicates, non-patients studies or reviews were excluded. After viewing the titles and abstracts of the 52 remaining studies, the full texts of 34 studies were retrieved and 12 studies were included in the analysis. Data Extraction and Synthesis: PRISMA guidelines were used for abstracting and assessing data quality and validity by three independent observers. The summary estimates were generated using a fixed-effect model (Mantel–Haenszel method) or a random-effect model (DerSimonian–Laird-method) depending on the absence or presence of heterogeneity (I2). Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s): The primary study outcome was to determine the prognostic value of p53 Abs from a large population size of patients with solid tumors, as determined before data collection. Results: In total 12 clinical studies and of which 2094 patients were included and it was determined that p53-wt Abs expression in the serum significantly correlated with a worse survival of cancer patients (95% CI 1.48 [1.24, 1.77]; p<0.00001). On the contrary, data from literature indicated that there was a potential association between p53-mut Abs antibodies with better survival. Conclusions and Relevance: This is the first meta-analysis proving the diagnostic utility of p53-Abs for cancer patients, predicting a worse outcome. The serum-p53 value (s-p53-value) could be useful for future theranostics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0702.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: acylsugar; wild tomato; Solanum pennellii; secretory glandular trichome; specialized metabolism; intraspecific variation; metabolomics
Online: 31 August 2020 (05:15:08 CEST)
Acylsugars constitute an abundant class of pest- and pathogen-protective Solanaceae family plant specialized metabolites produced in secretory glandular trichomes. Solanum pennellii produces copious triacylated sucrose and glucose esters, and the core biosynthetic pathway producing these compounds was previously characterized. We performed untargeted metabolomic analysis of S. pennellii surface metabolites from accessions spanning the species range, which indicated geographic trends in acylsugar profile and revealed two compound classes previously undescribed from this species, tetraacylglucoses and flavonoid aglycones. A combination of ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-MS) and NMR spectroscopy identified variations in number, length, and branching pattern of acyl chains, and the proportion of sugar cores in acylsugars among accessions. The new dimensions of acylsugar variation revealed by this analysis further indicate variation in the biosynthetic and degradative pathways responsible for acylsugar accumulation. These findings provide a starting point for deeper investigation of acylsugar biosynthesis, an understanding of which can be exploited through crop breeding or metabolic engineering strategies to improve endogenous defenses of crop plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0747.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: African swine fever virus; virulence; pathology; wild boar; domestic pig; macroscopy; histopathology; immunology
Online: 31 July 2020 (13:01:32 CEST)
Endemically infected European wild boar are considered a major reservoir of African swine fever virus in Europe. While high lethality was observed in the majority of field cases, strains of moderate virulence occurred in the Baltic States. One of these, “Estonia 2014”, led to a higher number of clinically healthy, antibody-positive animals in the hunting bag of North-Eastern Estonia. Experimental characterization showed high virulence in wild boar but moderate virulence in domestic pigs. Putative pathogenic differences between wild boar and domestic pigs are unresolved and comparative pathological studies are limited. We here report on a kinetic experiment in both subspecies. Three animals each were euthanized at 4, 7 and 10 days post infection (dpi). Clinical data confirmed higher virulence in wild boar although macroscopy and viral genome load in blood and tissues were comparable in both subspecies. The percentage of viral antigen positive myeloid cells tested by flow cytometry did not differ significantly in most tissues. Only immunohistochemistry revealed consistently higher viral antigen loads in wild boar tissues in particular 7 dpi, whereas domestic pigs already eliminated the virus. The moderate virulence in domestic pigs could be explained by a more effective viral clearance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0094.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: West Africa ; Atlantic humpback dolphin ; bottlenose dolphin ; bycatch ; marine bushmeat ; aquatic wild meat ; conservation
Online: 5 April 2021 (10:38:32 CEST)
Small-boat and shore-based surveys in 2017 confirm that Atlantic humpback (Sousa teuszii) and common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are resident in shallow neritic waters surrounding the protected MPA Tristao Islands in northern Guinea. Inshore-type T. truncatus were encountered also between Conakry and Kayar. First documented in 2012, dolphin bycatches in local fisheries continue to occur. The frequency of beach-cast remains suggests a significant conservation issue. Both multi- and monofilament gillnets are widely deployed, but it remains unclear which gear is the main cause of mortality. Forensic evidence shows that captured dolphins are often utilized for local consumption. Marine bushmeat of cetaceans is documented in many coastal nations in West and Central Africa. In Tristao Islands their use is synchronous with and thought related to declining fish stocks. Significant anthropogenic mortality relative to their low abundance, besides suspected pressures such as prey competition with fisheries and habitat deterioration from coastal development, raise concern for the future of coastal dolphins, in particular endangered S. teuszii, even in this formally protected MPA. Conservation measures need to be re-evaluated for improved efficiency while surveys to monitor trends should be annual.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0333.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Abiotic stress; Biotic stress; Adaptation; Climate change; Diaseases; Diversity; Genetic Resources; Gene bank; Wild relatives
Online: 15 July 2020 (11:21:07 CEST)
Abstract: A large number of collecting expeditions were launched in regions of ‘centers of diversity’ and hundreds of thousands of sample have been collected and stored in gene banks as ‘genetic resources’. So far, only a small number of the samples have been evaluated for their biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Now, their time to become useful has come. A new global phenomenon has arisen – climate change. The crop genetic resources and their wild progenitors that have survived countless years of changing environment during the last 11,000 years could harbor genes that may be useful under the new growing conditions and environmental factors thrown up by climate change and global warming. With the deployment of modern bio-engineering techniques selected genes or gene fragments can be transferred from genetic resources to modern varieties of crop plants to make them well-prepared to mitigate the effects of global warming and climate change. The latter is the most serious issue facing plant breeders today. New pests and diseases could affect crop production. These review paper discusses various impacts and issues as a result of this phenomenon and suggest ways to safeguard our most important crops through better management of crop plant genetic resources in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0140.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: common lands; baldios; wild mushrooms; non-timber forest products; Portugal; community; community forestry; forest governance
Online: 24 May 2017 (17:01:57 CEST)
Forest community connections are crucial to ensure forest stewardship and sustainability. We explored the potential of mushrooming to enable such connections in contexts where these connections have been historically broken, alienating local people from forests. Taking the case of the recent devolution of a community forest (baldios) in central Portugal to the local population, we present a five-year pilot project to rework mycology from a mushroom-centered approach to a mushroom-in-baldios approach. Mushrooms were used as an entry-point to connect the forest ecology with the challenges of governance and community building. The devised activities provided an opportunity for people inside and outside the local community to adventure into the woods and find out more about their socio-ecological history, develop communal and convivial relationships and engage in the responsible gathering of wild mushrooms. However, the hosting of mushroomers to know, value and engage with the community forest recovery has constantly working against the enclosure of mushrooms to provide marketable forms of leisure. The outcome of these activities depends on the relationships established between mushrooms, mycologists, local administrators, commoners and poachers, all operating within a framework that favors the eradication of resources instead of long-term relationships that sustain places.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0173.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: UAV remote sensing; large wild herbivore populations; grazing pressure; functional zones; Yellow-River-Source National Park
Online: 16 October 2019 (04:30:27 CEST)
Using the Yellow-River-Source National Park (YRSNP) as a study site, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing and line transect method was used to investigate the number of wild herbivorous animals and livestock, including the kiang (Equus kiang) and Tibetan gazelle (Procapra picticaudata). A downscaling algorithm was used to generate the forage yield data in YRSNP based on 30 m spatial resolution. On this basis, we estimated the forage–livestock balance, which included both wild animals and livestock, and analyzed the effects of functional zone planning in national parks on the forage–livestock balance in YRSNP. The results showed that the estimates of large herbivore population numbers in YRSNP based on population density in the aerial sample strips, which were compared and validated with statistical data and warm season survey results, indicated that the number of kiangs and Tibetan gazelles in the 2017 cold season was 12900 and 12100, respectively. The number of domestic yaks, Tibetan sheep, and horses was 53400, 76800, and 800, respectively, and the total number of sheep units was 353200. The ratio of the number of large wild herbivores and livestock sheep units was 1:5; Large wild herbivores have different preferences for functional zones, preferring ecological restoration areas consisting mainly of degraded grassland; The grazing pressure indices of the core reserve areas and ecological restoration areas were 0.168 and 0.276, respectively, indicating that these two regions still have high grazing potential. However, the grazing pressure index of the traditional utilization areas was 1.754, indicating that these grasslands are severely overloaded; After the planning and implementation of functional zones, the grazing pressure index of YRSNP was 1.967. Under this measure, the number of livestock was not reduced and the grazing pressure nearly doubled, indicating that forage–livestock conflict has become more severe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0322.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Viral Ecology; APMV; wild birds; Surveillance of Avian Paramyxoviruses; phylogenetics; MinION; Azov-Black Sea region in Ukraine
Online: 23 June 2022 (09:33:18 CEST)
Emerging RNA virus infections are a growing concern among domestic bird and poultry industries due to the severe impact it can have on the flock health and economic livelihoods. Avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) are pathogenic, negative sense RNA viruses that cause serious infections in the respiratory and central nervous system. APMV was detected in multiple avian species during the 2017 migration season in Ukraine, and studied using PCR, virus isolation, and sequencing. Of the 4090 wild bird samples, eleven swabs were isolated in chicken embryos and identified for APMV serotype by hemagglutinin inhibition test: APMV-1, APMV-4, APMV-6, APMV-7. At a variety of sites in Ukraine we characterized the virulence of the virus and further analyzed and predicted the potential risks of spillover to immunologically naïve populations. RNA was extracted and amplified using a multiplex-tiling primer approach to encompass full cDNA genomes. Full-length APMV-1 (n=5) and APMV-6 (n=2) genomes were sequenced on an Oxford Nanopore MinION device in Ukraine. All APMV-1 and APMV-6 fusion (F) proteins possessed a monobasic cleavage site, suggesting these APMV were likely low virulence, annually circulating strains. Utilization of this low-cost method will identify gaps in viral evolution and circulation in this understudied but important critical region for Eurasia.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Wild Edible Plants; antimicrobial effect; Mediterranean plant; Gram+ bacteria; Gram- bacteria; extraction protocols; bioactive compounds; essential oils
Online: 21 July 2021 (10:05:22 CEST)
Introduction. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is estimated to cause the major number of deaths by 2050 if we do not find strategies to slow down the rise of drug resistance . Reviews on Mediterranean Wild Edible Plants (MWEPs) with antimicrobial properties are scarce in the mean databases (Pubmed, Scopus and WoS). Hence, we proceeded to a new review of the studies on MWEPs. Methods. We used Wild Edible Plant and Antimicrobial as keywords. We only included the Mediterranean plants, and studies in non-Mediterranean countries, but for plants growing in Mediterranean basin. Exclusion criteria were the document type, studies not concerning plant, plants not edible, not antimicrobial properties, or totally out of topic. Results. Finally, the number of studies reviewed, starting from one hundred and ninety-two, was thirty-eight (19,8%), concerning the antimicrobial properties of seventy-four MWEPs species, be-longing to twenty-five Families. Fifty-seven (77%) out of seventy-four species, proved to be antimicrobial with a stringent threshold selection. Conclusions. The studies are still very heterogeneous. We still know too little about MWEPs properties, but what we already know seriously recommends continuing.
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: tomato; 7-epi-zingiberene; 9-hydroxy-zingiberene; 9-hydroxy-10,11-epoxy zingiberene; spectrophotometer; absorbance; introgression; breeding; wild relatives
Online: 29 September 2021 (16:24:30 CEST)
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), an important vegetable crop, is a host for numerous pests and pathogens. Consequently, tomato breeders are striving to improve pest resistance. Many acces-sions of the wild relative S. habrochaites display high resistance towards arthropod pests such as spider mites and whiteflies and the presence of the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon 7-epi zingiberene in its trichomes has been associated with arthropod resistance. Consequently, tomato breeders are attempting to introgress 7-epi zingiberene from wild to cultivated tomato, which requires the ability to quantify zingiberene. 7-Epi zingiberene has conjugated double bonds causing it to ab-sorb uv light. In fact, de Freitas, et al.  have claimed that measurement of absorbance at 270 nm of tomato leaflet washes can be used to quantify zingiberene. However, this claim has never been critically evaluated. We initially evaluated the use of uv absorbance to estimate zingiberene content of leaflet washes from an interspecific hybrid tomato BC4F2 generation that was segre-gating widely for presence and abundance of zingiberene. When absorbances at 270 nm were compared with zingiberene measured by gas chromatography the resulting relationship did not obey the Beer-Lambert law. Consequently, we examined in detail aspects of the uv-absorbance of zingiberenoids by: 1) obtaining uv absorbance spectra for three isolated zingiberenoids and de-termining the relationship between the abundance of each isolated compound and absorbance at single wavelengths; 2) obtaining uv absorbance spectra of leaflet washes of relevant wild acces-sions and parents; 3) obtaining average absorbance spectra for interspecific generations of tomato that were segregating for abundance of zingiberenoids and determining their λmax values in the 250-280 nm region; 4) evaluating by regression the relationship between absorbance at a single wavelength and the concentration of zingiberene and when present, its derivatives, as measured by gas chromatography in several interspecific hybrid generations; and 5) exploring the potential use of absorbances at multiple wavelengths to improve estimates of concentrations of zingi-berenoids. Results indicated that isolated zingiberenoids as well as leaflet washes of wild tomatoes that contain zingiberenoids have broad absorbance spectra in the uv region with a λmax of 264 nm. The relationship between abundance of isolated zingiberenoids and absorbance at a single wavelength of 264 nm did obey the Beer-Lambert Law. Average absorbance spectra for leaflet washes from BC3F5 generation plants sampled by two methods, as well as from a BC5F1 and a BC3F3 generation showed subtle shifts in the λmax away from 264 nm. Furthermore, the rela-tionship between absorbance at 264 nm and zingiberenoid content of these generations did not obey the Beer-Lambert Law in that in each case regression of absorbance on zingiberenoid content of the leaflet washes resulted in non-zero intercept estimates that varied considerably among generations and sampling methods. Use of multiple wavelengths for estimation zingiberenoids in these breeding generations was explored and inclusion of additional absorbances at one or two wavelengths identified by stepwise regression always improved estimates of zingiberenoid content from absorbance data. However, the identified wavelength(s) differed among generations. Taken together the results indicate that measurement of absorbance of tomato leaflet washes at a single wavelength is not a reliable quantitative estimate of zingiberenoids in the leaflet wash. These estimates can be improved by utilizing absorbance at multiple wavelengths, but the par-ticular wavelengths will likely vary among generations. Lastly, measurement of absorbance may be a useful tool in identifying those relatively rare individuals in a generation that is widely segregating for zingiberenoid content. However, even in this situation the determination of the actual zingiberene content e.g., for comparison with the donor parent, would need to be back-stopped by a valid quantitative method such as gas chromatography.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0027.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: pollination value; native bees; economics; production function; willingness to pay; contingent valuation; stated preference; wild blueberry; cranberry; survey
Online: 3 July 2018 (06:33:59 CEST)
Recent pollinator declines have focused efforts on their conservation which require clear estimates of pollination value to agriculture. Our socio-economic producer surveys and agronomic field research data were used to present a new way of estimating ecosystem service value of native pollinators. Using two regionally important U.S.A. crops, Maine wild blueberry and Massachusetts cranberry as models, we present perceived values of native bee pollinators from both consumer and producers. Wild blueberry’s Replacement Cost (RC) was greater than Attributable Net Income (ANI), since greater rented honey bee stocking densities are required. Attributable Net Income for native bees were similar for wild blueberry ($613/ha) and cranberry ($689/ha). Marginal Net Farm Income (MNFI) from incrementally adding more hives per ha was greater from stocking a third/fourth hive per ha for cranberry ($6,206) than stocking a ninth/tenth hive per ha for wild blueberry ($556), given greater responsiveness of yield, revenue, and profit to using rented honey bee hives in cranberry compared to wild blueberry. Both crops’ producers were only willing to annually invest $140–188/ha in native pollination enhancements on their farms, justifying government support. Consumers are willing to pay ~6.7 times more to support native bees than producers, supporting market-based support for invertebrate conservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: group A rotavirus gastroenteritis; emerging zoonotic viral diseases; leopardus tigrinus and leopardus pardalis; endangered neotropical rain forest felids; rehabilitation of injured or orphaned native wild cats
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:06:31 CEST)
Rotaviruses are highly infectious and typically transmitted by fecal-oral route via in the tropics and leading the cause of diarrheal deaths in children of developing countries, besides causing significant economic impacts like neonatal disease agents of domestic animals. This present report aims to present the clinical and diagnostic findings of two confirmed cases of rotavirus (RV) infection in orphaned Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758), the first register of the infection by group A rotavirus in these species. Both felids were rescued in the Pará State Amazon Brazil by the IBAMA (the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources), and treated by veterinarians into intensive care ward in a public Environmental Park of Belém city. After the adaptation period to the quarantine, these animals showed non-specific symptoms of acute fulminant gastroenteritis. Rotavirus group A antigen was identified in blood and faecal samples of L. tigrinus analyzed by immunochromatography (ICG) and immunoassay methods (ELISA) at the Virology Laboratory of the Institute Evandro Chagas. The animals died within few days during the clinical exacerbation unresponsive to current treatment, its necropsies and histopathological analysis were performed in the Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology of the Federal Rural University of Amazonia (UFRA). Despite the compatible pathologic findings of rotavirus infection in both animals, the atypical hemorrhagic character was a curious finding, considering the presumed etiology.