ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0086.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: non-parametric modeling; flu; influenza; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Empirical Dynamic Modeling; forecasting
Online: 6 June 2022 (10:24:45 CEST)
The evolution of some epidemics, as influenza, shows common patterns both in different regions and from year to year. On the contrary, epidemics like the novel COVID-19 show quite heterogeneous dynamics and are extremely susceptible to the measures taken to mitigate their spread. In this paper we propose empirical dynamic modeling to predict the evolution of influenza in Spain’s regions. It is a non-parametric method that looks into the past for coincidences with the present to make the forecasts. Here we extend the method to predict the evolution of other epidemics at any other starting territory and we test also this procedure with Spanish COVID-19 data. We finally build influenza and COVID-19 networks to check possible coincidences in the geographical distribution of both diseases. With this, we grasp the uniqueness of the geographical dynamics of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0628.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; corona virus; COVID-19; non-parametric model
Online: 8 February 2021 (15:54:23 CET)
Based on comprehensible non-parametric methods, estimates of crucial parameters that characterise the COVID-19 pandemic with a focus on the German epidemic are presented. Where appropriate, the estimates for Germany are compared with the results for seven other countries (FR, IT, US, UK, ES, CH, BR) to get an idea of the breadth of applicability and a relational understanding. Thereby, only prevalence data of daily reported new counts of diagnosed cases and fatalities provided by the Johns Hopkins University are used. Drawing on uncertain a priori knowledge is avoided. Specifically, we present estimates resulting from delay-time correlations for the duration from diagnosis to death being 13 days for Germany and Switzerland. The delay-time correlation applied to time series from other countries exhibit less pronounced peaks suggesting high variabilities for the corresponding time-to-death durations. With respect to the German data, the two time series of new cases and fatalities exhibit a strong coherence within the frequency range of interest, which backs our findings. Furthermore, based on the knowledge of this time lag between diagnoses and deaths, properly delayed asymptotic as well as instantaneous fatality-case ratios are calculated having superiority compared to the commonly published case-fatality rate. The temporal median of the instantaneous fatality-case ratio with proper delay of 13-days between cases and deaths for Germany turns out to be 0.02. Time courses of asymptotic fatality-case ratios are presented for other countries which substantially differ during the first half of the pandemic, however, converge to a narrow range with standard deviation 0.57% and mean 2.4%. Additionally, the time courses of instantaneous fatality-case ratios with optimal delay for the 8 exemplarily chosen countries are calculated and compared by means of the temporal medians. Similarly to the asymptotic fatality-case ratios, the differences are much smaller than expected from mass media reports. The basic reproduction number, R0, for Germany is estimated to be between 2.4 and 3.4. The uncertainty stems from uncertain knowledge of the generation time. A delay autocorrelation shows resonances at about 4 days and 7 days, where the latter resonance is at least partially attributable to the sampling process with weekly periodicity. The calculation of the basic reproduction number is based on an evaluation of cumulative numbers of cases yielding time-dependent doubling times as an intermediate step. This allows to infer to the reproduction number during the early phase of onset of the epidemic. In a second approach, the instantaneous reproduction number is derived from the incident (counts of new) cases and allows, in contrast to the first version, to infer to the temporal behaviour of the reproduction number during the later epidemic course. The time course of the reproduction number is compared to an alternative control measure given by the per capita growth, which largely confirms the conclusions drawn from the reproduction number. To conclude, by avoiding complicated parametric models we provide insights into basic features of the COVID-19 epidemic in an utmost transparent and comprehensible way. The perhaps most striking insight is that the fatality-case ratios do not differ between countries as much as previously suspected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: airline service quality; passenger satisfaction; non-parametric analysis; Type-2 Fuzzy Set; Fuzzy TOPSIS
Online: 22 September 2017 (16:34:11 CEST)
This paper focuses on evaluating airline service quality from the perspective of passengers view. Until now a lot of researches has performed in airline service quality evaluation in the world but a little research has been conducted in Iran, yet. In this research a framework for measuring airline service quality in Iran is proposed. After reviewing airline service quality criteria, SSQAI model was selected because of its comprehensiveness in covering airline service quality dimensions. SSQAI questionnaire items were redesigned to adopt with Iranian airlines requirements and environmental circumstances in the Iran's economic and cultural context. This study includes fuzzy decision-making theory, considering the possible fuzzy subjective judgment of the evaluators during airline service quality evaluation. Fuzzy TOPSIS have been applied for ranking airlines service quality performances. Three major Iranian airlines which have the most passenger transfer volumes in domestic and foreign flights, were chosen for evaluation in this research. Results demonstrated Mahan airline has got the best service quality performance rank in gaining passengers' satisfaction with delivery of high quality services to its passengers, among the three major Iranian airlines. IranAir and Aseman airlines placed in the second and third rank, respectively, according to passenger's evaluation.Statistical analysis have been used in analyzing passenger responses. Due to abnormality of data, Non-parametric tests were applied. To demonstrate airline ranks in every criterion separately, Friedman test was performed. Variance analysis and Tukey test were applied to study the influence of increasing in age and educational level of passengers' on degree of their satisfaction from airline's service quality. Results showed that age has not significant relation with passenger satisfaction of airlines, however increasing in educational level demonstrated a negative impact on passengers' satisfaction from airline's service quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0392.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: underwater acoustic communication; parametric technique; self-demodulation
Online: 28 May 2018 (09:42:15 CEST)
This paper presents a study of different types of parametric signals with application to underwater acoustic communications. In all the signals, the carrier frequency is 200 kHz, which corresponds to the resonance frequency of the transducer under study and different modulations are presented and compared. In this sense, we study modulations with parametric sine sweeps (4 to 40 kHz) that represent binary codes (zeros and ones), getting closer to the application in acoustic communications. The different properties of the transmitting signals in terms of bit rate, directivity, efficiency and power needed are discussed as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0077.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: parametric conversion of photons; optically linear and electro-optic parametric interactions
Online: 8 August 2016 (12:12:35 CEST)
An approximation-free and fully quantum optic formalism for parametric processes is presented. Phase-dependent gain coefficients and related phase-pulling effects are identified for quantum Rayleigh emission and the electro-optic conversion of photons providing parametric amplification in small scale integration of photonic devices. These mechanisms can be manipulated to deliver, simultaneously, sub-Poissonian distributions of photons as well as phase-dependent amplification in the same optical quadrature of a signal field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0099.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Global, non-parametric, non-iterative optimization; Time-mean quantities; Small time-varying forcing; Ordinary differential equation system (ODEs); Eigenvalue problem
Online: 30 August 2019 (09:35:18 CEST)
This study demonstrates a global, non-parametric, non-iterative optimization of time-mean value of a kind of index vibrated by time-varying forcing. It is based on the fact that the (steady) forced vibration of non-autonomous ordinary differential equation systems is well approximated by an analytical solution when the amplitude of forcing is sufficiently small and its base state without forcing is linearly stable and steady. It is applied to optimize a time-averaged heat-transfer rate on a two-dimensional thermal convection field in a square cavity with horizontal temperature difference, and the globally optimal way of vibrational forcing, i.e. the globally optimal, spatial distribution of vibrational heat and vorticity sources, is first obtained. The maximized vibrational thermal convection corresponds well to the state of internal gravity wave resonance. In contrast, the minimized thermal convection is weak, keeping the boundary layers on both sidewalls thick.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0171.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Nitrate-Nitrogen; Nitrite-Nitrogen; Non-Parametric Hypothesis Testing, Type II Error, Rivers and Streams
Online: 7 June 2021 (12:40:00 CEST)
Nitrogen and phosphorous support the ecosystem by supplying nutrients to algae and aquatic plants. Having them in excess results in the eutrophication of waters creating quality problems. In the past, nitrogen has been widely investigated for wells in the context of groundwater flow. However, a national-scale nitrogen assessment in rivers and streams has not received enough attention. In this research, the Wilcoxon rank sum test, as a non-parametric hypothesis testing method, has been applied to nitrogen concentration in the form of nitrate-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen in rivers and streams of the Contiguous United States. This approach was particularly selected because of the non-normal and positively skewed nitrogen levels occurring in the surface flow. This method was able to identify the impaired body of waters as well as quantify the confidence, significance, and errors involved. The Northern Appalachians (NAP), Northern Plains (NPL), and Xeric (XER) ecoregions were worsening in the nitrogen-nitrate condition with NAP, and XER needed immediate actions. The nitrite-nitrogen condition did not pose an immediate threat, so mitigation plans should focus more on nitrate-nitrogen remediation. It was shown that the method was superior to the two-sample t-test by yielding lower type II errors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0092.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Facade retrofitting; Scan to BIM; Parametric modelling; Terrestrial laser scanning; Building life cycle.
Online: 5 July 2021 (11:15:12 CEST)
Current commitments by European governments seek to improve energy consumption as a means to reduce carbon emissions from building stock by 2050. Within such context, retrieving reliable three-dimensional contours from point clouds becomes an important step in developing facade retrofitting solutions since facade retrofitting projects often make use of as-built 3D models to help reduce inaccuracies by narrowing interpretation and measurement errors. This work aims to provide a method that uses topology-based parametric modelling for reconstructing building envelopes from point clouds. Through a semi-automated process that gives permanent visual feedback, the user adjusts parameters to custom standards of acceptability. A solution under the form of a Grasshopper definition delivers building envelope 3D contours in various file formats as a means for increasing interoperability. The main contributions of this work consist of a parametric reconstruction workflow capable of solving building topology for retrieving 3D contours, a strategy to bypass point cloud occlusion, and a strategy for converting those contours into an IFC model directly from the parametric modelling environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0184.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: MEMS S&A device; centrifugal insurance mechanism; nonlinear dynamic method; parametric study
Online: 24 March 2017 (10:04:55 CET)
MEMS (Micro-electromechanical Systems) becomes important increasingly due to the smarter and smaller fuze used in OICW (Objective Individual Combat Weapon). MEMS Safety and Arming (S&A) device is employed in different platforms and regions for small caliber projectile. Therefore, it is necessary to make a parametric study of the MEMS S&A device in different apply environments and explore the main sensitive factors of the MEMS S&A device to provide reference for designs. In this paper, based on the MEMS S&A device designed by our term, theory and finite element models are established, and the centrifugal insurance mechanism of the MEMS S&A device is parametric studied under the different speeds, temperature and thickness of the model by nonlinear dynamic method. By comparing the experimental and predicted results, the established FEM model is verified, and the conclusion is that the temperature and the centrifugal force are the main sensitive factors in the centrifugal insurance mechanism. In summary, we can suggest that the application environment, which the MEMS S&A device is suitable for, is the temperature equal to or slightly greater than normal temperature and the rotating speed higher than35000r/min of small caliber projectile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0220.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: parametric; encoding; fingerprinting; machine learning; classification; transporter; cell-penetrating peptide.
Online: 18 February 2022 (02:19:27 CET)
Exploring new ways to represent and discover organic molecules is critical for developing novel therapies. With recent advances in bioinformatics, virtual screening of databases is possible. However, biochemical data must be encoded using computer algorithms to make them machine-readable, taking into account distance and similarity measures to support tasks such as similarity searching. Motivated by the ubiquity of the carbon element and the structured patterns that emerge, we propose a parametric approach to molecular encodings of carbon-based multilevel atomic neighborhoods. It implements a walk along the carbon chain of an organic molecule to compute different representations of its feature encoding in the form of a binary or numerical array that can be exported later into an image. Resulting encodings are reproducible and readily formatted for various domain tasks including machine learning tasks. This approach was evaluated using a 10-fold stratified cross validation for binary classification with eight data sets and six different encodings (384 models) in the domain knowledge of cell-penetrating peptides. The parametric approach is built on open-source software and is implemented as a Python package (cmangoes). Source code and documentation are available at https://github.com/ghattab/cmangoes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0095.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: remote sensing; cyclones; parametric models; hurricanes; CYGNSS; ASCAT; storm surges; waves; winds
Online: 23 April 2018 (12:01:15 CEST)
Parametric cyclonic wind fields are widely used worldwide for insurance risk underwriting, coastal planning, or storm surge forecasts. They support high-stakes financial, development, and emergency decisions. Yet, there is still no consensus on the best parametric approach, or relevant guidance to choose among the great variety of published models. The aim of this paper is first and foremost to demonstrate that recent progresses on estimating extreme surface wind speeds from satellite remote sensing now makes it possible to select the best option with greater objectivity. In particular, we show that the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) mission of NASA is able to capture a substantial part of the tropical cyclones structure, and allows identifying systematic biases in a number of parametric models. Our results also suggest that none of the traditional empirical approaches can be considered as the best option in all cases. Rather, the choice of a parametric model depends on several criteria such as cyclone intensity and/or availability of wind radii information. The benefit of using satellite remote sensing data to better select a parametric model for a specific case study is tested here by simulating hurricane Maria (2017). The significant wave heights computed by a wave-current hydrodynamic coupled model are found to be in good accordance with the predictions given by the remote sensing data in terms of bias. The results and approach presented in this study should shed new light on how to handle parametric cyclonic wind models, and help the scientific community to conduct better wind, waves and surge analysis for tropical cyclones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: B-spline; cross-section; beam; moments of area; parametric; symbolic; moments; area
Online: 17 January 2023 (01:23:35 CET)
The calculation of moments of area is one of the most fundamental aspects of engineering mechanics for calculating the properties of beams or for the determination of invariants in different kind of geometries. While a variety of shapes such as circles, rectangles, ellipses or their combinations can be described symbolically, such symbolic expressions are missing for freeform cross-sections. In particular, periodic B-spline cross-sections are suitable for an alternative beam cross-section, e.g. for the representation of topology optimization results. In this work, therefore, a symbolic description of the moments of area of various parametric representations of such B-splines is computed. The expressions found are then compared with alternative computational methods and checked for validity. The resulting equations show a simple way for fast conceptual computation of such moments of area of periodic B-splines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0080.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: photoacoustic spectroscopy; PAS; hydrocarbons; optical-parametric oscillator; OPO; gas sampling; spectral deconvolution; EUREQA
Online: 5 September 2018 (04:01:48 CEST)
Photoacoustic spectroscopy allows the identification of specific molecules in gases. We evaluate the spectral resolution and detection limits for a PAS system in the broadband infrared wavelength region 3270 nm ≲ λ ≲ 3530 nm driven by a continuous wave optical parametric oscillator with P ≈ 1.26 W by measuring the absorption of diluted propane, ethane and methane test gases at low concentrations c ~ 100 ppm for ~1350 discrete wavelengths λi. The resulting spectra IPAS(λi) were compared to the high resolution cross section data σFTIR obtained by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy from the HITRAN database. Deviations as little as 7.1(6)% for propane, 8.7(11)% for ethane and 15.0(14)% for methane with regard to the average uncertainty between IPAS(λi) and the expected reference values based on σFTIR were recorded. The wavelengths λres of the characteristic absorption lines can be pinpointed with a high relative accuracy <5 × 10−5 corresponding to a resolution of λres ~ 0.16 nm. Detection limits range between 7.1 ppb (ethane) to 13.6 ppb (methane) coinciding with high experimental signal-to-noise ratios. Moreover, using EUREQA, an artificial intelligence program, simulated mixed gas samples at low limits of detection could be deconvoluted. These results justify a further development of PAS technology to support, e.g., biomedical research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0288.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: digitization; 3D modeling; drawings; Renaissance; Leonardo da Vinci; Manuscript B; parametric
Online: 13 September 2020 (15:21:56 CEST)
Among many other themes, Leonardo da Vinci’s Manuscript B contains several drawings of centrally planned churches, some of which are represented using a plan view paired with a bird’s-eye view. The use of a bird’s-eye instead of an elevation represents an innovative depiction technique, which allows to combine the immediacy of the perspective view with the measurability of the façades, and therefore to describe the three-dimensionality of the buildings. To understand the reasons behind the use of this original technique, the edifices’ shape and classify them we decided to use 3D digital reconstruction techniques, for their ability to avoid misunderstandings in the reconstruction process and in the results. This article describes the method to create the digital models of sixteen churches. A Visual programming language (VPL) script was used as 3D base for modelling the churches achieved from a classification code expressing the aggregative rules of the churches. Then, the geometric process for the construction of the plan and its relationship with the elevation measures was studied for each church. Finally, this information was used for the completion of the 3D models, distinguishing more output variants each time there was an inconsistency between plan and perspective view, a variability of one architectural element or an uncertainty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0223.v1
Subject: Keywords: BERT; Classification; Mix-Code; Language Model; Youtube; Parametric and Non-Parametric
Online: 17 June 2020 (13:40:22 CEST)
The scope of a lucrative career promoted by Google through its video distribution platform YouTube 1 has attracted a large number of users to become content creators. An important aspect of this line of work is the feedback received in the form of comments which show how well the content is being received by the audience. However, volume of comments coupled with spam and limited tools for comment classification makes it virtually impossible for a creator to go through each and every comment and gather constructive feedback. Automatic classification of comments is a challenge even for established classification models, since comments are often of variable lengths riddled with slang, symbols and abbreviations. This is a greater challenge where comments are multilingual as the messages are often rife with the respective vernacular. In this work, we have evaluated top-performing classification models and four different vectorizers, for classifying comments which are a mix of different combinations of English and Malayalam (only English, only Malayalam and Mix of English and Malayalam). The statistical analysis of results indicates that Multinomial Naïve Bayes, K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest and Decision Trees offer similar level of accuracy in comment classification. Further, we have also evaluated 3 multilingual sub-types of the novel NLP language model, BERT and compared its’ performance to the conventional machine learning classification techniques. XLM was the top-performing BERT model with an accuracy of 67.31%. Random Forest with Term Frequency Vectorizer was the best the top-performing model out of all the traditional classification models with an accuracy of 63.59%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0028.v1
Subject: Keywords: Financial Analytics, Parametric and Non-parametric, Credit card fraud detection, bankruptcy detection, loan default prediction
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:15:52 CEST)
The growth of regularly generated data from many financial activities has significant implications for every corner of financial modeling. This study has investigated the utilization of these continuous growing data by a means of an automated process. The automated process can be developed by using Machine learning based techniques that analyze the data and gain experience from the underlying data. Different important domains of financial fields such as Credit card fraud detection, bankruptcy detection, loan default prediction, investment prediction, marketing and many other financial models can be modeled by implementing machine learning models. Among several machine learning based techniques, the use of parametric and non-parametric based methods are approached by this research. Two parametric models namely Logistic Regression, Gaussian Naive Bayes models and two non-parametric methods such as Random Forest, Decision Tree are implemented in this paper. All the mentioned models are developed and implemented in the field of Credit card fraud detection, bankruptcy detection, loan default prediction. In each of the aforementioned cases, the comparative study among the classification techniques is drawn and the best model is identified. The performance of each classifier on each considered domain is evaluated by various performance metrics such as accuracy, recall, precision, F1-score and mean squared error. In the credit card fraud detection model the decision tree classifier performs the best with an accuracy of 99.1% and, in the loan default prediction and bankruptcy detection model, the random forest classifier gives the best accuracy of 97% and 96.84% respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0729.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis; Machine learning; Optimization; Parametric and non-parametric methods; Supervised and unsupervised models; CVS model
Online: 30 September 2020 (08:19:51 CEST)
The main purpose of this paper is to propose a novel optimization model with a new machine learning approach in the first section to achieve the best results in financial institutions in the second section. Since the constancy of efficacy derived from parametric and non-parametric is not significant, this paper provides a scientific assessment at the optimization section and proposes a novel combined parametric and non-parametric model which will be a new experiment in literature perception. A scientific assessment of banks based on a combination of the efficiency measurement method of CCR(Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes model) or CRS(Constant Return to Scale) BCC(Banker, Charnes, and Cooper model) or VRS (Variable Return to Scale) in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), as well as Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA) for 65 banks during Feb to July 2020, are introduced. For analyzing the performance of the parametric and non-parametric approaches we have considered the linear regression and Unreplicated Linear Functional Relationship (ULFR). At the machine learning section, a novel four-layers data mining filtering pre-processes for selected supervised classification as well as unsupervised clustering algorithms to increase the accuracy and to remove unrelated attributes and data are applied. For the four kinds of preprocessing approaches of unsupervised attributes, supervised attributes, supervised instances, and unsupervised instances, we have chosen discretization, attribute selection, stratified remove folds, and resample filters respectively. Based on the nature of the suggested financial institution's dataset and attributes, the most appropriate preprocessing filter in each layer to achieve the highest performance is suggested. Finally, the superior bank, best performance model, and the most accurate algorithm are introduced. The results indicate that the bank number 56 is the superior bank. Among the proposed techniques, the novel recommended CVS compared with CCR-BCC and SFA models, has a more positive correlation with profit risk, and show a higher coefficient of determination values. Sequential Minimal Optimization(SMO) algorithm receives the highest accuracy in all four suggested filtering layers.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Central tendency; Weighted geometric mean; means; variance; non-parametric statistics
Online: 6 April 2021 (14:02:04 CEST)
Various means (the arithmetic mean, the geometric mean, the harmonic mean, the power means) are often used as central tendency statistics. A new statistic of such type is offered for a sample from a distribution on the positive semi-axis, the gamma-weighted geometric mean. This statistic is a certain weighted geometric mean with adaptive weights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0119.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: second-hand cars; p-values; confidence interval; non-parametric bootstrapping; correlation
Online: 10 November 2019 (16:46:47 CET)
In developed countries, especially the big-sized ones like Australia and the USA, a car is almost an inevitable necessity to carry out daily activities. Due to this, used cars have become a great alternative to brand new cars because of their cost effectiveness. In this work, estimation of prices of used cars based on numerous factors is studied statistically. Data is based on prices of used cars sold across Australia. Statistical methods like correlation and permutation tests using linear regression model, exact tests and non-parametric bootstrapping is implemented to study the relationship of price with mileage and year of manufacture of the car using p-values and null hypothesis. Predictions are also made on the price by calculating a 95% confidence interval (CI) of median prices in small portions of the dataset. The study presents potential ideas for understanding correlation between variables and parameters in business studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0690.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: lidar, atmosphere, DIAL, optical parametric oscillator, trace gases
Online: 29 October 2018 (14:22:24 CET)
Data on the atmospheric gas concentrations can be received with high efficiency and on a large spatial scale only from remote laser sounding instruments. The remote laser techniques with the use of lidars are widely used in the study of the atmosphere and control of its state. The aims of this work are the design and test in numerical and field experiments of a DIAL OPO lidar system based on KTA and KTP crystals for gas analysis of the atmosphere. Lidar measurements of atmospheric gases in the near/mid infrared region have been numerically simulated. The differential absorption lidar system based on optical parametric oscillators with nonlinear KTA and KTP crystals which allow laser radiation tuning both in the near and in the middle IR spectral region is described; it allows tuning laser radiation in the near/mid-IR wavelength regions. Lidar echo signals have been experimentally recorded in the 1.8–2.5 and 3–4 m wavelength ranges. The results of H2O and CO2 profile measurements along the surface sounding path are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0068.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: sustainability; urban planning; parametric model; informal settlements; GIS
Online: 5 June 2018 (12:56:11 CEST)
The non-existence of a land ownership database in most of the developing countries moves the inhabitants to the occupation of public lands. Some of this situation are the origin to areas of informal housing, commerce and agriculture and in the end into new informal settlements. Informal settlements become a serious problem in developing countries. The most common typology of informal settlements is that they are the population settled in public lands without any infrastructures and against the administrator's will. Thought this action the result in an uncontrolled land occupation process that promotes new informal areas without any proper built-up utilities, located in risk areas on the territory, barely ensuring the minimum requirements for a heaty living of the population and in various cases incentives to an informal economy. The process of build a cadastral map in informal settlement areas is a fundamental base to support the future transformation of illegal areas and to regulate the occupation of new subdivision planning and into the creation of new expansion areas. In this paper, it is presented a methodology developed to be applied to support a new register of land and to management. The transformation of informal settlement areas. The model to register the land tenure has been associated with allows the process application to multiple typology of informal settlements. The model to register land tenure has developed on a series of qualitative and quantitative data that determine the identification and classification of the buildings and its physical and functional description. The model was developed using Geographic Information System and with an initial survey of existing land titles of possession and public proposals to develop new expansion areas. A case study of the method is presented, where the land management model was implemented - Chã da Caldeiras in Ilha do Fogo an informal settlement in Cape Verde. The results are a great acceptance of the proposal by the population and local authorities and the starting of the implementation phase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0728.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: parametric design; rake; picking; static analysis; CATIA; ANSYS; von Mises stress
Online: 31 July 2020 (03:34:11 CEST)
Olive picking is one of the most common social agricultural activities in many regions of Andalusia where the predominant crop is the traditional olive grove. The machinery used includes shakers, blowers and an essential low-cost type: hand-rake sweepers. The latter are generally used by the women of the squads to sweep the olives that fall from the trees. This article is focused on the design and optimisation of a hand-rake sweeper, in terms of durability and cost, for the picking of olives and other fruits, such as almonds, which are currently the main alternative to non-perennial crops in Andalusia. A parametric design of a hand-rake sweeper was created for this application using the design software CATIA, and its most vulnerable points were analysed in terms of effectiveness with varying design parameters, conducting usage simulations with ANSYS for a light material such as polypropylene. The maximum von Mises stress of the whole structure was 155.81 MPa. Using ANSYS, the dimension parameters of the hand-rake sweeper structure were optimised. The modified design was analysed again, showing a reduction of maximum tensions of 10.06%, as well as a decrease in its maximum elongations (0.0181 mm).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0037.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Urban morphology; Transitional morphologies; Assemblage; Urban coding; Adaptive city; Permutation; Parametric Design
Online: 1 April 2021 (17:46:19 CEST)
Grounded on urban morphology studies, the research tries to overcome the analysis of the permanents elements of the city seeking for a transitional paradigm in urban morphology, aiming at grasping the dynamics in urban evolution and providing operative tools for urban regeneration design in an adaptive approach. A combination of four actions of urban analysis is here suggested to highlight urban dynamics: a. Sorting the transitional steps of urban morphologies (within rapid market processes), b. Underlining rules and Processes characterizing urban coding in transition, c. Mapping urban assemblages in the adaptive city and d. Reading and representing urban permutation phenomenon. The results of this multifaced and multidimensional set of analytical tools allow to outline a new design thinking paradigm moving towards a parametric approach to urban design of cities in transition broadening the extent of urban regeneration process and supporting urban policies in the framework community based approach.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Microscopy Image Segmentation; Deep Learning; Data Augmentation; Synthetic Training Data; Parametric Models
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:07:00 CET)
The analysis of microscopy images has always been an important yet time consuming process in in materials science. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been very successfully used for a number of tasks, such as image segmentation. However, training a CNN requires a large amount of hand annotated data, which can be a problem for material science data. We present a procedure to generate synthetic data based on ad-hoc parametric data modelling for enhancing generalization of trained neural network models. Especially for situations where it is not possible to gather a lot of data, such an approach is beneficial and may enable to train a neural network reasonably. Furthermore, we show that targeted data generation by adaptively sampling the parameter space of the generative models gives superior results compared to generating random data points.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0175.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Parametric excitation; Dry-Friction; Magnetic Spring Force; Electronic circuit
Online: 12 January 2022 (14:33:34 CET)
In this paper, we have shown the electronic circuit equivalence of a mechanical system consists of two oscillators coupled with each other. The mechanical design has the effects of the magnetic, resistance forces and the spring constant of the system is periodically varying. We have shown that the system’s state variables, such as the displacements and the velocities, under the effects of different forces, lead to some nonlinear behaviors, like a transition from the fixed point attractor to the chaotic attractor through the periodic and quasi-periodic attractors. We have constructed the equivalent electronic circuit of this mechanical system and have verified the numerically obtained behaviors using the electronic circuit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0174.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: wave turbulence; satellite altimetry; wave steepness; parametric and physical models of wave period
Online: 25 December 2017 (09:06:02 CET)
Wave steepness is presented as an extension and a valuable add-on to the conventional set of sea state parameters retrieved from satellite altimetry data. Following physical model based on recent advances of weak turbulence theory wave steepness is estimated from directly measured spatial gradient of wave height. In this way the method works with altimetry trajectories rather than with point-wise data. Moreover, in contrast to widely used parametric models this approach provides us with instantaneous values of wave steepness and period. Relevance of single-track estimates of wave steepness (period) is shown for wave climate studies and confirmed by a simple probabilistic model. The approach is verified via comparison against buoy and satellite data including crossover points for standard 1 second data of Ku-band altimeters. High quality of the physical model and robustness of the parametric ones are examined in terms of global wave statistics. Prospects and relevance of both approaches in the ocean wave climate studies are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: curved link-slab; hingeless arch; theoretical derivation; parametric sensitivity analysis
Online: 25 February 2022 (07:45:06 CET)
This paper proposes a curved link-slab (CLS) structure, simplified into a hingeless-arch model, to address the current cracking phenomenon of CLS concrete. The stress formula of the hingeless arch under various loads is derived based on the classical mechanic's method. Based on an actual bridge example, the mechanical properties of CLS are analyzed under different loads and load combinations. The results show that: (1) the CLS stress is significantly lower than that of the flat link-slab structure (FLS), (2) its stress values are less than the concrete tensile limit, and (3) the CLS can effectively solve the concrete cracking phenomenon on the link-slab. The rationality of the stress formula derived from the simplified model of the hingeless arch is verified using the finite element method (FEM). The parametric sensitivity analysis shows that variation of the reinforcement ratio of the CLS has a limited impact on it. Considering both the concrete tensile and compressive limit, the thickness of the CLS should be 15 cm to 20 cm, and its design span should be about 5% to7.5% of the main beam length.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0357.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: humidity sensor; low-power sensors; MEMS; parametric amplification; spring softening
Online: 31 July 2019 (12:00:31 CEST)
We present the design, fabrication, and response of a polymer-based Laterally Amplified Chemo-Mechanical (LACM) humidity sensor based on mechanical leveraging and parametric amplification. The device consists of a sense cantilever asymmetrically patterned with a polymer and flanked by two stationary electrodes on the sides. When exposed to a humidity change, the polymer swells after absorbing the analyte and causes the central cantilever to bend laterally towards one side, causing a change in the measured capacitance. The device features an intrinsic gain due to parametric amplification resulting in an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). 11-fold magnification in sensor response was observed via voltage biasing of the side electrodes without the use of conventional electronic amplifiers. The sensor showed a repeatable and recoverable capacitance change of 11% when exposed to a change in relative humidity from 25-85%. The dynamic characterization of the device also revealed a response time ~1s and demonstrated a competitive response with respect to a commercially available reference chip.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0196.v1
Subject: Keywords: Quantum Rayleigh emission, optically linear parametric interactions, dynamic and coherent number states, sub-Poissonian photon distributions
Online: 8 November 2018 (10:03:09 CET)
By imposing the condition of non-vanishing expectation values for the amplitude and phase of field operators, pure quantum states are identified composed of two consecutive number states. These pure states also deliver noise-free radiation modes restricting the “half-photon noise” to the expectation value of the lowest level of dynamic and coherent number states. As a result, instantaneous phase-sensitive amplification of photons is easily controlled and direct evaluation of time or distance - varying wavefront distributions of photons and phases can be carried out for sub-Poissonian distributions of photons without the need for quasi-probabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0226.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Trend Analysis; Non-parametric trend tests; Mann-Kendall; Modified Mann-Kendall; Climate Change; modifiedmk; trendchange
Online: 17 December 2019 (10:04:35 CET)
Daily rainfall data was collected for the arid district of Ananthapuramu, Andhra Pradesh state, India from 1981 to 2016 at the sub-district level and aggregated to monthly, annual and seasonal rainfall totals and the number of rainy days. The objective of this study is to evaluate the homogeneity, trend, and trend change points in the rainfall data. After quality checks and homogeneity analysis, a total of 27 rain gauge locations were considered for trend analysis. A serial correlation test was applied to all the time series to identify serially independent series. Non-Parametric Mann-Kendall test and Spearman’s rank correlation tests were applied to serially independent series. The magnitude of the trend was calculated using Sen’s slope method. For the data influenced by serial correlation, various modified versions of Mann-Kendall tests (Pre-Whitening, Trend Free Pre-Whitening, Bias Corrected Pre-Whitening and two variants of Variance Correction Approaches) were applied. A significant increasing summer rainfall trend is observed in 6 out of 27 stations. Significant decreasing trends are observed at two stations in the south-west monsoon season and at two stations in the north-east monsoon season. To identify the trend change-points in the time series, distribution-free Cumulative SUM test and sequential Mann-Kendall tests were applied. Two open-source library packages were developed in R language namely, ‘modifiedmk’ and ‘trendchange’ to implement the statistical tests mentioned in this paper. The study will benefit water resource management, drought mitigation, socio-economic development and sustainable agricultural planning in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0358.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: parametric design, paper in architecture, temporary architecture, pop-up structures, membrane structures, isogeometric analysis, fabrication
Online: 13 April 2021 (13:17:11 CEST)
Temporary pavilions play an important role as experimental fields for architects, designers and engineers, apart from providing exhibition spaces. Novel structural and formal solutions applied in pavilions also can give them unusual appearance that attracts eyesight of spectators. In this article authors explore the possibility of combination of structural novelty, visual attractiveness and low-cost by a design and construction of a temporary pavilion. For that purpose, an innovative structural system and design approach was applied, i.e. membrane structure designed in Rhino and Grasshopper environments with the use of Kiwi!3D IsoGeometric analysis tool. The designed pavilion, named Obverse/Reverse, was built in Opole, Poland, for the occasion of World Architecture Day in July 2019. Design and construction was performed by the authors in cooperation with students’ organisation Humanisation of Urban Environment from the Faculty of Architecture Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. The Rresultant pavilion proved the possibility of obtaining a low-budgets but visually attractive architectural solution with the adaption of parametrical design tools and some scientific background with innovative structural systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0093.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: consumer behavior; cooking fuel; environmental consciousness; health consciousness; semi-parametric estimation; trivariate probit; water and sanitation; wealth
Online: 13 February 2018 (08:53:03 CET)
Relying on Random Utility Theory (RUT) as the guiding mechanism for the Data Generating Process (DGP), this paper uses households consumption choices on cooking fuel, drinking water, and sanitation from the 2014 United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data on Burkina Faso, to characterize and investigate the inter-linkages between health consciousness and environmental consciousness, and their relationship with wealth in a low income country context. We achieve this by specifying sequentially three econometric modeling frameworks: the first one being independent binary probit (IBP) models to describe each choice process, followed by a fully parametric trivariate probit (FPTP) model to account for choice dependency, and finally by a semi-parametric trivariate probit (SPTP) model to further relax the linearity assumption. Based on the Akaike Information criteria (AIC) and the estimated Trivariate model correlation coefficients, the SPTP framework is found to be the best specification for describing the observed consumption behaviors. The results show that increased wealth level raises households health and environmental consciousness, while leaving the relative preference ordering over the elements in the household consumption basket unchanged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0185.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: MEMS S&A device; threshold-value judging mechanism; fabrication process; tensile test; theoretical, simulationand experimentalanalysis; parametric design method
Online: 24 March 2017 (10:12:13 CET)
In order to meet the military requirements of the fuze, such as precision strike, efficient mutilates ability and low collateral damages, the microminiaturization is an inevitable trend of secure system. Based on the silicon-based MEMS S&A device designed by our term, the design principles of each module and fabrication process are introduced. The average fracture strength and Young's modulus of the silicon are 726 MPa and 175 GPa from the tensile test, respectively. From Hopkinson impact experiment, we can get the threshold-value judging mechanism being safety under the impact overload of 20526 g, and this value is much more than the standard of the drop overload 12000g; the arming value under the centrifugal overload obtained from theory, simulation and experiment is at the range of 28200 g and 32000 g, it shows that the threshold-value judging mechanism can be arming compared with the value 35951g of design principle. Therefore, the threshold-value judging mechanism can meet the design requirements of overload. Furthermore, the relationship of fracture threshold-values obtained by different theories is found out through parametric design method, as shown in Figure 14, it provides the theory evidence to the follow parametric design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0087.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Dynamical Casimir effect; parametric amplification of vacuum fluctuation; Floquet method; complex spectral analysis
Online: 6 February 2020 (16:20:18 CET)
We theoretically study the dynamical Casimir effect (DCE), i.e., parametric amplification of a quantum vacuum, in an optomechanical cavity interacting with a photonic crystal, which is considered to be an ideal system to study the microscopic dissipation effect on the DCE. Starting from a total Hamiltonian including the photonic band system as well as the optomechanical cavity, we have derived an effective Floquet-Liouvillian by applying the Floquet method and Brillouin-Wigner-Feshbach projection method. The microscopic dissipation effect is rigorously taken into account in terms of the energy-dependent self-energy. The obtained effective Floquet-Liouvillian exhibits the two competing instabilities, i.e., parametric and resonance instabilities, which determine the stationary mode as a result of the balance between them in the dissipative DCE. Solving the complex eigenvalue problem of the Floquet-Liouvillian, we have determined the stationary mode with vanishing values of the imaginary parts of the eigenvalues. We find a new non-local multimode DCE represented by a multimode Bogoliubov transformation of the cavity mode and the photon band. We show the practical advantage for the observation of DCE in that we can largely reduce the pump frequency when the cavity system is embedded in a narrow band photonic crystal with a bandgap.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0295.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: flow; deformation flow; point vortex; elliptic vortex; chaotic dynamics; parametric instability; stability islands
Online: 25 December 2018 (05:15:51 CET)
Deformation flows are flows incorporating shear, strain and rotational components. These flows are ubiquitous in the geophysical flows, such as the ocean and atmosphere. They appear near almost any salience, such as isolated coherent structures (vortices and jets), various fixed obstacles (submerged obstacles, continental boundaries). Fluid structures subject to such deformation flows may exhibit drastic changes in motion. In this review paper, we focus on the motion of a small number of coherent vortices embedded in deformation flows. Problems involving isolated one and two vortices are addressed. When considering a single-vortex problem, the main focus is on the evolution of the vortex boundary and its influence on the passive scalar motion. Two vortex problems are addressed with the use of point vortex models, and the resulting stirring patterns of neighbouring scalars are studied by a combination of numerical and analytical methods from the dynamical system theory. Many dynamical effects are reviewed with emphasis on the emergence of chaotic motion of the vortex phase trajectories and the scalars in their immediate vicinity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0336.v3
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Prediction accuracy; Mixed linear and Bayesian models; Machine Learning algorithms; Training set size and composition; Parametric and nonparametric models
Online: 17 September 2020 (05:41:51 CEST)
Genomic selection (GS) can accelerate variety improvement when training set (TS) size, and its relationship with the breeding set (BS) are optimized for prediction accuracies (PA) of genomic prediction (GP) models. Sixteen GP algorithms were run on phenotypic best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) and estimators (BLUEs) of resistance to both fall armyworm (FAW) and maize weevil (MW) in a tropical maize panel. For MW resistance, 37% of the panel was the TS, and BS was the remainder whilst for FAW, random-based training sets (RBTS) and pedigree-based training sets (PBTS) were designed. PAs achieved with BLUPs varied from 0.66 to 0.82 for MW resistance traits, and, for FAW resistance, 0.694 to 0.714 for RBTS of 37%, and 0.843 to 0.844 for RBTS of 85%, and, these were at least two-fold those from BLUEs. For PBTS, FAW resistance PAs were generally higher than those for RBTS, except for one dataset. GP models generally showed similar PAs across individual traits whilst the TS designation was determinant since a positive correlation (R=0.92***) between TS size and PAs was observed for RBTS and, for the PBTS, it was negative (R=0.44**). This study pioneers the use of GS for maize resistance to insect pests in sub-Saharan Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0083.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Chinese ancient architecture; bracket set; tile work; regularized reconstruction; parametric; algorithm modeling; Grasshopper; HBIM; built heritage
Online: 9 January 2020 (11:57:24 CET)
By the study of the pattern book Ying Zao Fa Shi (building regulations of Song Dynasty, 1103 AD), while analyzing the combining and dimensioning rule of timber framework and tile work, a model self-generating program has been compiled for the first time. The operating framework has been firstly defined, while solving the issues of clustering principle, connecting method, output classification, etc. with the detailed description of algorithm theory. Taking the corner bracket set and nine-ridge roof for example, after the compilation and debug by Grasshopper, according to various input parameters, various models have been generated automatically by the plugin, proving the velocity and the veracity of the algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0167.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: compound flooding; D-vine copula; trivariate joint analysis; Bernstein estimator; Beta kernel estimator; parametric copulas; kernel density estimation; return periods
Online: 12 October 2022 (09:04:04 CEST)
Low-lying coastal communities are often threatened by compound flooding (CF), which can be determined through the joint occurrence of storm surges, rainfall and river discharge either successively or in close succession. The trivariate distribution can demonstrate the risk of the compound phenomenon more realistically rather than considering each contributing factor independently or in a pairwise dependency. Recently vine copula has been recognized as the highly flexible approach to constructing a higher dimensional joint density framework. In such construction, parametric class copula with parametric univariate marginal distributions is often involved. Such incorporation can lack flexibility due to parametric functions with prior distribution assumptions about their univariate marginal and/or copula joint density. This study introduces the vine copula approach in a nonparametric setting by introducing Bernstein and Beta kernel copula density in establishing trivariate flood dependence. The proposed model is applied to 46 years of flood characteristics collected on the west coast of Canada. The univariate flood marginal distribution is modelled using nonparametric kernel density estimation (KDE). The 2-D Bernstein estimator and Beta kernel copulas estimator are tested independently in capturing pairwise dependencies to establish D-vine structure in a stage-wise nesting approach in three alternative ways, each by permutating the location of the conditioning variable. The best-fitted vine structure is selected using goodness-of-fit (GOF) test statistics. The performance of the nonparametric vine approach is also compared with the vine constructed in the parametric and semiparametric fitting procedure. Investigation reveals that the D-vine constructed using Bernstein copula with normal KDE marginals nonparametrically performed well in capturing dependence of the compound events. Finally, the derived nonparametric model is used in the estimation of trivariate OR- and AND-joint return periods, further employed in estimating failure probability (FP) statistics. The trivariate return periods for the AND-joint case are higher than for the OR-joint case for the same flood combination. Also, the trivariate flood hazard results in a high-value FP than bivariate and univariate events. Ignoring the trivariate dependence could result in the underestimation of FP
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0294.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Data preprocessing; data validation; recommendation engine; E-commerce; Click-through rate; Buy-through rate; online customer behavior; non-parametric outlier removal; personalization
Online: 1 February 2019 (10:22:37 CET)
E-commerce businesses employ recommender models to assist in identifying a personalized set of products for each visitor. To accurately assess the recommendations’ influence on customer clicks and buys, three target areas—customer behavior, data collection, user-interface —will be explored for possible sources of erroneous data. Varied customer behavior misrepresents the recommendations’ true influence on a customer due to the presence of B2B interactions and outlier customers. Non-parametric statistical procedures for outlier removal are delineated and other strategies are investigated to account for the effect of a large percentage of new customers or high bounce rates. Subsequently, in data collection we identify probable misleading interactions in the raw data, propose a robust method of tracking unique visitors, and accurately attributing the buy influence for combo products. Lastly, user-interface issues discuss the possible problems caused due to the recommendation widget’s positioning on the e-commerce website and the stringent conditions that should be imposed when utilizing data from the product listing page. This collective methodology results in an exact and valid estimation of the customer’s interactions influenced by the recommendation model in the context of standard industry metrics such as Click-through rates, Buy-through rates, and Conversion revenue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0084.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: mathematics applied to lighting and radiative transfer; configuration factors; computational geometry; parametric design; new solutions for equations of geometric optics; numerical computation of quadruple integrals.
Online: 3 December 2020 (13:05:02 CET)
Several problems of radiative transfer are yet unsolved because of the difficulties of the calculations involved in them, especially if the intervening shapes are geometrically complex. The main goal of our investigation in this domain is to convert the formulas that were previously derived, into a graphical interface based on the projected solid-angle principle. Such procedure is now feasible by virtue of several widely diffused programs for Algorithms Aided Design (AAD). Accuracy and reliability of the process is controlled by means of the analytical software DianaX developed at an earlier stage by the authors. With this new approach the often cumbersome procedure of lighting and thermal exchange calculations can be simplified and made available for the neophyte, with the undeniable advantage of reduced computer time.