ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0278.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; vaccine; mRNA vaccine; adenoviral vector vaccine; adverse event; local adverse event; systemic adverse event
Online: 16 February 2023 (08:00:51 CET)
The immunization of healthcare workers in the early stages of the rollout of COVID-19 vaccines was prioritized in order to ensure uninterrupted medical care provision. At the same time the increasing number of available COVID-19 vaccines may trigger hesitancy towards the decision to get vaccinated. Thus, accumulating reliable information on the adverse events following immunization may educate and urge the general population to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. The present study aimed to evaluate the adverse events (AEs) following immunization with any of the available COVID-19 vaccine among Bulgarian healthcare workers (HCWs). A cross-sectional study among HCWs in Plovdiv, Bulgaria was conducted in the period March – September 2021. Through a semi-structured online questionnaire, the participants reported the adverse events following the administration of the first and second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. A total of 253 respondents, vaccinated with one of the available vaccines against COVID-19 took part in the study. Of them 71.9% were females, and 75.9% received mRNA-based vaccines, while 24.1% received a viral-vector based vaccine. Overall 91.6% and 82.6% of all participants reported at least one local AE after the first and second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. The share of respondents reporting at least one systemic AE after the first and second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine was 59.7% and 62.4% respectively. The most common local AE was pain at the injection spot (84.0%), while the most common systemic AEs were fatigue (54.9%), chills (43.2%), and headache (41.7%). The mRNA-based vaccines versions seem to cause higher prevalence of local AEs, while the vector-based vaccines were linked with increased prevalence of systemic AEs. Female HCWs and the younger age group were associated with an increased risk of adverse events generally. Our results added more evidence that mRNA-based and viral-vector based vaccines are generally safe. The reported adverse events were mild, although they occurred in a high share of the respondents. No serious AEs attributable to the vaccines were reported.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: DRESS syndrome, Eosinophilia, Adverse drug reaction, HHV-6 reactivation, Bactrim adverse reaction
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:26:48 CET)
Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) is a rare and potentially life-threatening systemic drug reaction with skin involvement. We present the unusual case of DRESS in a 16-year-old male that was treated with TMP-SMX for acne and was initially misdiagnosed with Steven Johnson Syndrome. Our case serves as an example to healthcare providers treating adverse drug reactions to having a high clinical suspicion for DRESS as delay in diagnosis and treatment can result in disseminated disease and higher patient mortality risk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0270.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SJS; TEN; Adverse drug reactions
Online: 19 October 2022 (07:28:11 CEST)
Both Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are main injurious cutaneous medication reactions that mostly affect the epidermis and mucus membranes. TEN and SJS affecting nearly 1 or 2/1,000,000 people per year, and can recognized as medical crises since they may be deadly. Mucocutaneous discomfort, hemorrhagic erosions, erythema, and more or less severe epidermal separation that appear as ulcer and patches of dermic loss are their defining characteristics. The sole difference between TEN and SJS at this time is the degree of skin detachment, making them two extremes of a spectrum of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs). In the majority of cases, drugs are considered as the principal reason of SJS/TEN, but herpes simplex virus and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections are also recognized causes, along with lesser number of cases in which the cause is still unknown. Among the drugs with a "high" likelihood of producing TEN/SJS are carbamazepine (CBZ), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, phenytoin, aminopenicillins, allopurinol, cephalosporins, other sulfonamide antibiotics, quinolones, phenobarbital, and NSAIDs of the oxicam variety. There is strong genetic evidence for SJS and TEN in Han Chinese due to the substantial association between the human leukocyte antigen (HLA-B*1502) and SJS brought on by CBZ. The diagnosis is made mostly based on clinical symptoms and the histological study of a dermal biopsy. Pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid, linear IgA dermatosis, paraneoplastic pemphigus, disseminated fixed bullous drug eruption, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) are among the differential diagnoses. The management of patients with SJS/TEN is complicated by the high risk of mortality, necessitating early diagnosis, estimation of the SCORTEN prognosis, identification and discontinuation of the causative drug, specialized supportive care, and high-dose injectable Ig therapeutic interventions. The reported fatality rates for SJS are 1-5% on average and 25-35% for TEN; it can be even higher in patients who are elderly or who have a significant amount of epidermal detachment on their skin. More than 50% of TEN patients who survive the disease experience long-term consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0575.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Cancer pain; NSAIDs; paracetamol; adverse events
Online: 30 November 2022 (14:11:00 CET)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most frequently prescribed drugs for cancer pain. We used Delphi methodology to evaluate the opinions of clinicians on NSAIDs and paracetamol, with a specific focus on their safety profile. Consensus was reached on 7 statements. High level of consensus was reached regarding use of NSAIDs and gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal risk in patients taking low-dose aspirin and assessment of liver function during long-term treatment with paracetamol. Consensus was also reached that assessment and monitoring of eGFR is important in the elderly being administered NSAIDs. It was further agreed that NSAIDs can often play a key role in association with opioids in treatment of cancer pain and that paracetamol is the analgesic of first choice for patients with mild chronic pain. When NSAIDs are administered in combination with steroids, it was agreed that the risk of gastrointestinal damage is increased since steroids delay the healing of ulcers, and that paracetamol can be used during pregnancy and does not affect the health of the fetus. This Delphi study highlights that there is a poor agreement on how these drugs are routinely prescribed. However, the consensus was reached for 7 key statements and may represent a valid contribution to daily practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0379.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Montelukast; Leukotrienes; Adverse drug reactions; Repurposing
Online: 26 July 2022 (03:27:37 CEST)
Increasing environmental distress is associated with a growing asthma incidence and, with no treatments available, montelukast (MTK) – an antagonist of the cysteinyl leukotrienes receptor 1 – is widely used in the management of symptoms among adults and children. Recently, new molecular targets have been identified and MTK has been proposed for repurposing in other therapeutic applications, with several ongoing clinical trials. The proposed applications include neuroinflammation control, which could be explored in some neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases (AD and PD). However, this drug has been associated with an increasing number of reported neuropsychiatric adverse drug reactions. Besides, and despite being on the market since 1998, MTK metabolism is still poorly understood and the mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric ADRs remain unknown. We review the role of MTK as modulator of leukotriene pathways and systematize the knowledge about MTK metabolism. Known toxic effects of MTK are discussed, and repurposing applications are presented comprehensively, with a focus on AD and PD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Adverse drug reaction; COVID-19 treatment
Online: 12 August 2020 (11:12:41 CEST)
BACKGROUND: From March to April 2020, Spain was the center of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, particularly Madrid with approximately 30% of the cases in Spain. The aim of this study is to report the suspected serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs) in COVID-19 patients versus non-COVID-19 patients detected by the prospective pharmacovigilance program based on automatic laboratory signals (ALSs) in the hospital (PPLSH) during that period. We also compared the results with the suspected SADRs detected during the same period for 2019. METHODS: All ALSs that reflected potential SADRs (including neutropenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, eosinophilia, leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid, hepatitis, pancreatitis, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis and hyponatremia were prospectively monitored in hospitalized patients during the study periods. We analyzed the incidence and the distribution of causative drugs for the COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The incidence rate of SADRs detected in the COVID-19 patients was 760.63 (95% CI 707.89–816.01) per 10,000 patients, 4.75-fold higher than the SADR rate for non-COVID-19 patients (160.15 per 10,000 patients,95% CI 137.09–186.80), and 5.84-fold higher than the SADR rate detected for the same period in 2019 (130.19 per 10,000 patients, 95% CI 109.53–154.36). The most frequently related drugs were tocilizumab (59.84%), dexketoprofen (13.93%), azithromycin (8.43%), lopinavir-ritonavir (7.35%), dexamethasone (7.62%), and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (6.91%). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of SADRs detected by the PPSLH in patients with COVID-19 was 4.75-fold higher than that of the non-COVID-19 patients. Caution is recommended when using medications for COVID-19 patients, especially drugs that are hepatotoxic, myotoxic, and those that induce thromboembolic events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0261.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: adverse outcome pathway; toxicity pathway; computational toxicology
Online: 21 June 2020 (11:10:34 CEST)
Background: Targeted methods that dominated toxicological research until recently did not allow for screening of all molecular changes involved in toxic response. Therefore, it is difficult to infer if all major mechanisms of toxicity have already been discovered, or if some of them are still overlooked. Objectives: To identify molecular mechanisms sensitive to chemical exposures in an unbiased manner. Methods: We used data on 641,516 unique chemical-gene interactions from the Comparative Toxicogenomic Database. Only data from high-throughput gene expression experiments with human, rat or mouse cells/tissues were extracted. The total number of chemical-gene interactions was calculated for every gene, and used as a measure of gene sensitivity to chemical exposures. These values were further used in enrichment analyses to identify molecular mechanisms sensitive to chemical exposures. Results: Remarkably, use of different input subsets with non-overlapping lists of chemical compounds identified largely the same genes and molecular pathways as most sensitive to chemical exposures, indicative of an unbiased nature of our analysis. One of the most important findings of this study is that almost every known molecular mechanism may be affected by chemical exposures. Predictably, xenobiotic metabolism pathways and mechanisms of cellular response to stress and damage were among the most sensitive. Additionally, our analysis identified a range of highly sensitive molecular pathways, which are not widely recognized by modern toxicology as major targets of toxicants, including lipid metabolism pathways, longevity regulation cascade and cytokine mediated signaling. Discussion: Molecular mechanisms identified as the most sensitive to chemical exposures are relevant for significant public health problems, such as aging, cancer, metabolic and autoimmune disease. Thus, public health system will likely benefit from future research focus on these sensitive molecular mechanisms. Additionally, approach used in this study may guide identification of priority adverse outcome pathways (AOP) for in-vitro and in-silico toxicity testing methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccination; Adverse event; Case report; Iran
Online: 3 March 2023 (08:30:15 CET)
Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has significantly contributed to the recent pandemic control. COVID-19 vaccines are available with different platforms and the primary clinical trials results presented acceptable safety profile of the approved vaccines. Nevertheless, the long-term assessment of the adverse events or rare conditions need to be investigated. The present systematic review, aimed at classification of Iranian case reports following COVID-19 immunization. To achieve this goal, the related published case reports were explored via PubMed, Web of Science and Google scholar according to PRISMA guideline and available up to 14th Dec, 2022. Out of 437 explored studies, the relevant data were fully investigated which totally led to 40 studies including 64 case reports with a new onset of a problem. The cases were then classified according to the various items such as the type of adverse event manifestations and COVID-19 vaccine. The reported COVID-19 vaccines in the studied cases included Sinopharm, AstraZeneca, and COVAXIN. The results showed that the adverse events presented in 8 different categories from which cutaneous problems accounted as the most prevalent manifestations (43.7%) in which rare diseases were also screened such as Steven-Johnson syndrome, Morphea and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. Notably, almost 60% of the cases had no comorbidities. Moreover, the obtained data revealed nearly half of the incidences occurred after the first dose of injection and the mean duration of improvement after the symptom onset was 18.72±24.69 days. 73% of all the cases were either significantly improved or fully recovered. Although the advantages of COVID-19 vaccination is undoubtedly significant, the high risk individuals including those with a history of serious disease or comorbidities immunodeficiency conditions should be vaccinated with the utmost caution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0243.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccines; Adverse Events; Self-reporting; Pandemic
Online: 18 May 2022 (11:06:19 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has put a lot of pressure on health systems worldwide. Mass vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has reduced morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite their safety profiles, vaccines like any other medical product can cause adverse events. Yet, in countries with poor epidemiological surveillance and monitoring systems, reporting vaccine-related adverse events is scarce. The objective of this study was to describe self-reported vaccine adverse events after receiving one of the available COVID-19 vaccine schemes in Ecuador. A cross-sectional analysis based on an online self-reporting 32-questionnaire was conducted in Ecuador from April 1st to July 15th, 2021. Participants were invited by social media, radio, and TV to voluntarily participate in our study. A total of 6,654 participants were included in this study. A 38.2% of the participants reported having at least one comorbidity. Patients received AstraZeneca, Pfizer, and Sinovac vaccines, and these were distributed 38.4%, 31.1%, and 30.5%, respectively. Pain, inflammation at the injection site (20,01%), and headache (16,91%) were the most reported adverse events. Women addressed ESAVIs (64%), more often than men (36%). After receiving the first dose of any available COVID-19 vaccine, a total of 19,481 self-reported ESAVIs were informed (86.9% were mild, 11.6% moderate and 1.5% severe). In terms of vaccine type and brand, the most reactogenic vaccine was AstraZeneca with 57.8%, followed by Pfizer (24.9%) and Sinovac (17, 3 %). After the second dose, 6,757 self-reported ESAVIs were reported (87.0% mild, 10.9% moderate, and 2.1% severe). AstraZeneca vaccine users reported a higher proportion of ESAVIs (72.2%) in comparison to Pfizer/BioNTech (15.9%) and Sinovac Vaccine (11.9%). Swelling at the injection site, headache, muscle pain, and fatigue were the most common ESAVIs for the first as well as second dose. In conclusion, most ESAVIs were mild. AstraZeneca users were more likely to report adverse events. Participants without a history of COVID-19 infection, as well as those who receive the first dose, were more prone to report ESAVIs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0214.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; elderly; adverse event; difficult cannulation
Online: 18 September 2019 (17:54:04 CEST)
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a routinely used therapeutic procedure for the biliary and pancreatic diseases. Population aging may increase the typical indications of ERCP and come with more complexity and difficulties, especially in cannulation. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence, causes, and management of difficult biliary cannulation during ERCP in super-aged patients and the role of difficult cannulation as a risk factor for adverse events. A total of 614 patients, underwent ERCP, were prospectively studied as a cohort and divided into two groups based on their age. There were 146 patients aged 80 years or older in group A and 468 patients aged less than 80 years in group B. The primary outcome measures were the difficulty grade of papilla cannulation, clinical outcomes, and ERCP-related complications in the two groups. The adverse events were analyzed using logistic regression for patient age, co-morbidities, indications, and cannulation difficulty grade variables. There was no difference in the incidence of difficult cannulation between the two groups (32.9% vs. 34.4%, p=0.765) though, as expected, super-aged Group A had a higher prevalence of periampullary diverticulum (29.5% vs. 16.7%, p=0.001). The technical cannulation success rate was (96.6% vs. 96.8%, p= 0.54). All used cannulation techniques in the elderly group were efficient and safe. Logistic regression showed that age ≥80 was not associated with increased adverse events; however, difficult cannulation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.478; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.877, 6.442; p<0.001) and CCI ≥2 (AOR=1.824; 95% CI=0.993, 3.349; p=0.045) were more likely to have adverse events. Age ≤65 (AOR=3.460; 95% CI=1.511, 7.922; p=0.003), female gender (AOR=2.362; 95% CI=1.089, 5.124; p=0.030), difficult cannulation (AOR=4.527; 95% CI=2.078, 9.860; p<0.001), and patients with cholangitis (AOR=3.261; 95% CI=1.204, 8.832; p=0.020) were strongly associated with increasing Post-ERCP Pancreatitis (PEP). Advanced age has not proved to be a risk factor of difficult cannulation, and secondary cannulation techniques can be safely and efficaciously utilized for this group. CCI ≥2 and difficult cannulation are associated with increased overall adverse events rate while age ≥80 factor is not.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0319.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adverse drug reactions; spontaneous reporting; causality; ADR; severity
Online: 18 August 2018 (05:17:05 CEST)
Hospital-based adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring and reporting programs intend to identify and quantify the risks associated with the use of drugs. To examine the causality, preventability and severity of ADR in a hospital setting; a prospective cohort study on spontaneous ADR reporting was conducted from December 2015 to May 2016. Incidence of ADRs, causality, type, severity and preventability were assessed using necessary assessment scales. The study included 3157 hospitalized individuals, in whom 51 ADRs were detected among 49 patients. The overall incidence of suspected ADRs was found to be 1.6%. According to the causality assessment, most of the ADRs reported were probable (n = 26, 51.0%), and type A (augmented/pharmacological) reactions (n = 39, 76%) were the most common type of ADR found. The majority of ADRs were moderate to severe (n = 35, 68.6%), of which 37.3% were found to be potentially preventable. Predictability was observed in 28 (54.9%) reported ADRs. The drugs most frequently associated with ADRs were antibiotics, antiepileptics and antihypertensives. This feasibility study was able to highlight the clinical pharmacist’s role in ADR monitoring service and create awareness about the way it could be done to promote safer drug use. Similar ADR reporting programs are necessary to educate and to improve awareness among the healthcare professionals in developing countries.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0065.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2); Adverse outcome pathway(AOP); Molecular initiation Event (MIE); Key event (KE); Adverse Outcome (AO)
Online: 4 January 2021 (16:37:08 CET)
Increasing global concern over COVID-19 has recently brought greater attention to studies due to the ease of person-to-person transmission and the current lack of effective antiviral therapy. Here, we proposed the application of the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework to support re-search on the pathogenesis of viral disease. We first constructed adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) applicable to COVID-19 management to understand whether the infection causes severe acute respiratory distress. Based on the AOP framework where mechanistic elucidation of the pathway from the interaction of chemicals (or viruses) to apical endpoints is represented, our COVID-19 AOP indicated that the molecular initiating event (MIE) was angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) interaction, and the key events (KEs) were the increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in immune cells, with increased mortality as an apical adverse outcome (AO). However, there is still limited information on the toxicity mechanisms of AOPs in COVID-19; therefore, detailed KEs and AOs on toxicity mechanisms will be required to fill these gaps in the data. This study demonstrated that the COVID-19 AOP framework is a suitable tool to design new drugs and to integrate crowded-sourced information for the battle against the COVID-19 pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs); Refugee children; Systematic review; Questionnaires
Online: 2 March 2023 (01:42:19 CET)
Today, various questionnaires are available to assess Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in children; however, it is uncertain if these questionnaires comprehensively address the adversities of vulnerable subgroups, specifically refugee children. This review's objectives are to (1) identify current ACE questionnaires and determine if they are suitable for assessing refugee children’s adversities, and (2) identify those previously used within a refugee population. A systematic literature search was conducted across five databases for articles published since 2010, including studies using an ACE questionnaire that recognized multiple adversities in healthy children and were published in English. A total of 103 ACE questionnaires were identified in 506 studies. Only 14 of the 103 questionnaires addressed a refugee-specific adversity. Their ability to capture refugee children’s experiences was limited: available questionnaires used a maximum of three items to assess refugee-specific adversities, covering only a fraction of forms of adversities relevant to refugee children. Psychometric characteristics were rarely reported. In addition, only two ACE questionnaires were used within a refugee population. With the tools currently available, it is not possible to comprehensively assess the exposure to and severity of the adversities faced by refugee children. The perpetuation of ongoing crises necessitates assessing refugee children's adversities to understand how their well-being is affected and to identify children at risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0169.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; adverse events; histamine intolerance; myocarditis; pericarditis; tachycardia
Online: 11 March 2022 (12:07:26 CET)
Rare cardiac adverse events are reported post vaccinations. For the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, higher numbers of these cardiac adverse events are being reported with myocarditis disproportionately occurring in younger males. The etiology of these cardiac adverse events associated with vaccines including SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. The etiology of the higher frequency of these cardiac adverse events temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is also unknown. This article proposes that innate immune responses to vaccines cause elevated histamine levels post vaccination; the histamine level reached may exceed the vaccinees’ histamine tolerance level for several days. This article proposes that the elevated histamine level is causative for the reported cardiac adverse events. For myocarditis reported adverse events, this article proposes that elevated histamine levels induce cardiac capillary pericyte induced vasoconstrictions followed by localized ischemia and anoxia; this is followed by the release of troponin from myocyte cells affected by anoxia. This hypothesis is supported by the temporal onset timing of adverse events reported following SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in the United States Department of Health and Human Services Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). This model applies to multiple vaccines with innate immune response histamine levels generated varying by each vaccine and incidence frequencies correlate with vaccine reactogenicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0244.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Phentolamine Mesylate; dental implants; haemodynamic changes; adverse effects; satisfaction
Online: 11 August 2021 (08:59:37 CEST)
The clinical application of Phentolamine Mesylate (PM) as an anaesthetic reversal agent has been documented in paediatric patients and in conservative dentistry, but no studies have been found in implant surgery. A prospective randomised study was conducted in 60 patients eligible for mandibular implant treatment, randomly divided between the Control Group (CG) and Experimental Group (EG), who were administered PM. Haemodynamic changes, adverse effects and patient satisfaction were assessed. No statistically significant differences in haemodynamic changes and postoperative pain were found between CG and EG (p<0.05), except for Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) which increased slightly in EG, without posing a risk to the patient. There were no differences in the presence of adverse effects between the two groups, except in the CG which presented greater difficulty in chewing and biting (p<0.05) and the EG with greater pain in the injection area (p=0.043). 83.3% of the EG patients would request PM again for future dental treatment. The use of PM offers an alternative in implant surgery, without increasing the risks and increasing the patient's quality of life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0333.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: 2-Deoxyglucose; Adverse effects; COVID-19; Glutamine; PI3K/Akt
Online: 1 July 2021 (13:04:43 CEST)
The treatment of viral infections is challenging owing to the intricate structure and metabolism of the viruses. In addition, they can highjack host cellular metabolism, mutate and adapt to harsh environmental conditions. The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) displays further resilient attributes, making its eradication even more difficult. SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped virus whose replication can be targeted by limiting the substrates available for structural incorporation. One such molecule that limits substrate availability and has received much attention lately is 2-Deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG). SARS-CoV-2 infection induces glycolysis, impairs mitochondrial function, and damages the infected cells. Administration of 2-DG can inhibit increased glycolytic flux and some other metabolic processes to cause the cessation of viral replication. This article provides a review of the mechanism of action and safety concerns associated with administering 2-DG in the treatment of COVID-19. The drug can have adverse effects on normal cell metabolism since it targets cells non-selectively, possibly in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the drug has limited use in SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with stroke, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and critical illness.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0573.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Adverse Outcome Pathways; COVID-19; mechanisms; systematic organization; interdisciplinary
Online: 27 January 2021 (17:01:44 CET)
Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOP) provide structured frameworks for systematic organization of research data and knowledge. The AOP framework follows a set of key principles that allow for broad application across diverse disciplines related to human health, including toxicology, pharmacology, virology and medical research. The COVID-19 pandemic engages a great number of scientists world-wide and data is increasing with exponential speed. Diligent data management strategies are employed but approaches for systematically organizing the data-derived information and knowledge are lacking. We believe AOPs can play an important role in improving interpretation and efficient application of scientific understanding of COVID-19. Here, we outline a newly initiated effort to streamline collaboration between scientists across the world towards development of AOPs for COVID-19, and describe the overarching aims of the effort, as well as the expected outcomes and research support that they will provide.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Drug Safety Surveillance; Adverse Drug Reaction; Ophthalmic; Ciprofloxacin; Dexamethasone
Online: 5 January 2021 (11:51:06 CET)
Background: drugs provide a significant benefit; however, their use implies an intrinsic potential danger, with the possibility to cause unwanted effects. These effects are known as adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Post-marketing drug safety surveillance detects unknown risks that have not been identified in clinical trials and it is necessary to monitor marketed medications under real-life practice. Due to the scarce information about fixed combination of ciprofloxacin 0.3% / dexamethasone 0.1% (SDO), we performed a drug safety surveillance study. (2) Methods: A prospective non-controlled drug safety surveillance study was conducted in Peruvian population. A total of 236 patients prescribed SDO were included derivates from 12 sites. Patients' standardized information was collected through two phone calls, including demographics, medical history, prescribing patterns of SDO, concomitant medication, and ADRs in detail. The ADRs were classified by causality and severity, followed by outcome measures to identify new risk. (3) Results: 236 patients prescribed with SDO participated in the study and 220 were included. A total of 82 ADRs/220 patients were reported after the use of SDO, presenting a ratio 0.37 ADR/patient. The most frequent ADR with SDO administration was eye irritation (30%). The totality of the ADR was classified as non-serious, and the 97.5% (n=80) was classified as mild and 2.5% as moderate (n=2). No cases under the severe category were identified. (4) Conclusion: No new risks were found in the population where this study was conducted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0076.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; periampullary diverticulum; difficult cannulation; biliary cannulation; cannulation techniques; adverse events
Online: 17 January 2020 (04:12:23 CET)
Aim: This study aimed to investigate the association between periampullary diverticulum (PAD) and difficult biliary cannulation, as well as to evaluate the impact of different types of PAD on the cannulation success rate and adverse events. Methods: A total of 636 patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) during the study period were prospectively studied and divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of PAD. In group A, 126 patients had PAD compared with 510 patients in group B without PAD. The primary outcome measurements were ERCP procedures time, selective cannulation techniques, and cannulation difficulty in addition to cannulation success rate and ERCP-related adverse events. The difficult cannulation was analyzed using logistic regression considering age, co-morbidities, the presence of PAD types, and indications as independent factors. Results: The average cohort age was 65.30±16.67 years, and 52.7% were male. Significant higher rates of choledocholithiasis, cholangitis, and biliary pancreatitis were reported in the group of PAD (p<0.05). Successful selective cannulation was achieved in 97.6% in group A and 95.3% in group B (p>0.05). The cannulation time was significantly longer in the presence of PAD (5.1 min, vs. 4.09 min, p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the rate of overall adverse events and post ERCP pancreatic PEP. Conclusion: The presence of PAD did not affect the duration or success of the ERCP procedure. Furthermore, it was associated with longer cannulation time and increase in the cannulation difficulty, especially with PAD type 1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Fook intake; pizza; pasta; vegetables; pregnancy; adverse perinatal outcome
Online: 8 April 2019 (11:35:16 CEST)
Growing body of evidence endorse the hypothesis of a protective role played by the in-utero environment on a suitable fetal programming, mainly sustained by fitting maternal diet. Our purpose was to assess the linkage between maternal food intake and poor obstetric results, with a special focus on typical Italian food. A cross sectional study including delivering women was designed. A self-reported questionnaire about socio-demographic data, obstetric history, and food frequency intake during pregnancy was administrated. A composite of adverse perinatal outcomes (APO) was constructed. Statistically significant differences were found between APO and control group in smoking habit (9.7 vs. 3.2%, p=0.045) and BMI at delivery (27.9±4.9 vs. 26.9±3.9, p=0.003). Women complicated by any or more APOs reported increased rates of pasta (5.3± 3.6 vs.4.4±1.9 times per week, p<0.001) and pizza (1.9±3.4 vs. 1.1±0.6, p<0.001) intake, with lower consumption of vegetables (5.4±3.9 vs. 7.1±2.9, p<0.001). By logistic regression analysis and after adjustments for maternal age, ethnicity, SES, maternal BMI at delivery, excessive ingestion of pizza (aOR 1.676, 95%CI 1.199-2.343, p=0.033), but not pasta (aOR 1.077, 95%CI 0.950-1.211, p=0.244), was found associated with APO. Vegetable consumption showed a protective role in reducing APOs (aOR 0.897, 95%CI 0.818-0.985, p=0.022). Nutrition in pregnancy should minimalize pizza intakes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0140.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; genetic vaccines; adverse reactions; autoimmunity; immunohistochemistry; spike protein
Online: 8 March 2023 (02:57:33 CET)
As a result of the spread of SARS-CoV-2, a global pandemic was declared. Indiscriminate COVID-19 vaccination has been extended to include age groups and naturally immune people with minimal danger of suffering serious complications due to COVID-19. Solid immuno-histopathological evidence demonstrates that the COVID-19 genetic vaccines can display an off-target distribution in tissues that are terminally differentiated, triggering autoimmune reactions. These include the heart and brain, which may incur in situ production of spike protein eliciting a strong autoimmunological inflammatory response. Due to the fact that every human cell which synthesizes non-self antigens becomes inevitably the target of the immune system, and since the human body is not a strictly compartmentalized system, accurate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies are needed in order to determine precisely which tissues can be harmed. Therefore, our article aims to draw the attention of the scientific and regulatory communities on the critical need of bio-distribution studies for the genetic vaccines against COVID-19, as well as of rational harm-benefit assessments by age group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: COVID-19; hemodialysis; vaccination; cellular immunity; humoral immunity; adverse reactions
Online: 7 September 2022 (05:14:06 CEST)
Most studies on vaccines of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have focused on antibody, but cellular immunities are also critical. We aimed to evaluate the immune reactions of hemodialysis (HD) patients after the administration of the booster dose from the perspective of both humoral and cellular immunities. Hemodialysis patients (HD group) and age- and sex-matched non-dialysis individuals (control group) receiving three doses of BNT162b2 vaccine were measured for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (IgG) and T-SPOTⓇ.COVID test (T-SPOT) before, 3 weeks, and 3 months after the booster dose. The HD group had significantly higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels 3 weeks and 3 months after the booster dose than the control group, although both groups had no difference in SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels before the booster dose. Moreover, the HD group had significantly higher T-SPOT levels before and 3 weeks after the booster dose than the control group, but the difference was not significantly different 3 months after the booster dose. Furthermore, the incidence rates of local and systemic adverse reactions were significantly higher in the HD group than in the control group. HD patients obtained higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels and SARS-COV-2-specific T-cell responses after the booster dose than control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0168.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: awareness, adverse health effects, exposure, stone quarry workers, silica dust
Online: 13 May 2021 (11:02:43 CEST)
Background: Work experience is a key factor that influences safety awareness among workers. This study investigated the influence of work experience on the level of awareness on adverse health effects of silica dust exposure among stone quarry workers in Ghana while controlling for theoretically relevant compositional and contextual factors, evaluated the magnitude and order of association between the predictors and the predicted variable. Method: A cross-sectional survey data of 524 randomly selected stone quarry workers were subjected to multivariate statistical analyses. Results: Stone quarry workers who had 6 to10 years and more than 10 years of work experience were 48% (OR = 1.475, P = 0.021) and 82% (OR = 1.816, P = 0.003) respectively more likely to be aware of the adverse health effects of silica dust exposure compared to their counterparts who had 1 to 5 years work experience. Workers who had secondary or higher education were 32% (OR = 1.320, P = 0.036) more likely to be aware of the adverse health effects of silica dust exposure compared to their counterparts who had no education. Conclusion: These findings provide relevant information for managers and policymakers to plan and maximize awareness on silica dust health hazards among silica exposed workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0669.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Antenatal depression; Adverse childhood experiences; intimate partner violence; social support
Online: 26 March 2021 (14:18:14 CET)
Background: Few studies examined the contributions of childhood adversities, intimate partner violence and social support to antenatal depression (AD). This study aims to 1) evaluate association of these psychosocial factors with AD symptoms in early pregnancy; and 2) examine the mediating effect of social support on the relationship between psychosocial stressors and AD symptoms.Methods: Participants were 120 pregnant women aged from 18 to 49 in less than 16 gestational weeks and attending at Antenatal Care Center at Khon Kaen hospital, Thailand. AD symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Childhood adversities, intimate partner violence and social support were measured using the Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire (ACE questionnaire), Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Results: We found that the EPDS score was significantly and positively associated with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and negatively with social support. Partial Least Square analysis showed that 49.1% of the variance in the depressive subdomain of the EPDS score was predicted by ACEs, namely psychological and physical abuse and neglect, emotional or physical abuse by the partner, unplanned pregnancy, and no satisfaction with their relationship. The effects of adverse childhood experience due to neglect on the EDPS score was mediated by social support by friends. Limitations: ACEs were assessed retrospectively and, therefore, may be susceptible to recall bias.Conclusion: Prenatal depression scores are to a large extent predicted by psychological distress as indicated by early lifetime trauma, abuse by partner, relation satisfaction, and implications of unintended pregnancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: adverse drug reaction; healthcare professionals; pharmacovigilance; surveillance form; suspected ADR
Online: 3 August 2020 (08:49:10 CEST)
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of healthcare professionals regarding adverse drug reaction [ADR] monitoring and pharmacovigilance [PV] in India. Materials and Methods: It was a questionnaire based cross sectional observational study. Data was collected with the help of data collection Google form that included the demographics and twenty two survey based questions. Data were analysed by using Microsoft Excel sheet, further analysed for results, including frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation. Result: The questionnaire was filled by two hundred ten healthcare professionals in which 52.9 % were male and 47.10% of female. Most of the respondents were pharm d students (50.47%). Out of the total 91.4% responded to the definition of pharmacovigilance correctly. 87.6% participants said all ADR should be reported. 86.20% participants think Pharmacovigilance should be taught in detail to healthcare professionals. Most of the respondents (43.8%) always informed the patients about ADR while prescribing the medicines. Conclusion: Study revealed most of the participants have good knowledge about ADR and pharmacovigilance. Difficult to decide whether ADR occur or not and extra work load being major factors responsible for under reporting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0333.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: diabetic foot osteomyelitis; biofilm; antimicrobial resistance; adverse effects; rifampicin; fluoro-quinolones
Online: 18 January 2023 (10:00:52 CET)
The choice of antibiotic regimens to use in patients presenting with diabetic foot osteomyelitis and their duration differs according to the situation. Antibiotics play a more important role in the medical option where no infected bone has been resected while their role is reduced but not negligible in the case of surgical options. Some studies have reported the presence of biofilm structures in bone samples taken from patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis which raises the question of the place of anti-biofilm antibiotic regimens in this setting. During the last two decades, clinical studies have suggested a potential benefit for anti-biofilm antibiotics, mainly rifampicin against staphylococci and fluoroquinolones against gram-negative bacilli. No data from randomized controlled studies have however been reported so far. The present work provides a summary of the available data on the question of the place of anti-biofilm antibiotics for the treatment of diabetic foot osteomyelitis but also the potential limitations of such treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0031.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: antibiotics; antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial stewardship; AWaRe; Pharmacovigilance; Lareb; adverse drug reactions
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:27:02 CEST)
(1) Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires urgent multidisciplinary solutions, and Pharmacovigilance (PV) has the potential to strengthen current antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) strategies. This study aimed to characterise AMR-relevant adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports submitted to The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre (Lareb); (2) Methods: We carried out a descriptive analysis of ADR reports submitted to Lareb, coded with AMR-relevant MedDRA Preferred Terms (PTs).; (3) Results: Between 1998 and Jan 2019, 252 AMR-relevant ADR reports were submitted to Lareb. The most frequent antibiotics were tobramycin (n=89; 35%), colistin (n=30; 11,9%), ciprofloxacin (n=16; 6,35%), doxycycline (n=14; 5,5%) and aztreonam (n=12; 4,76%). The most frequently used PTs were drug ineffective (n=71; 28%), pathogen resistance (n=14; 5%) and drug resistance (n=13; 13%). A total of 119 reports (74%) suggested use-related issues. Watch antibiotics were in 54% of the reports and Reserve antibiotics were in 19%. In the Watch group, “Off label use” and “Product use in unapproved indication” were the most frequent PTs and majority of reports on Reserve antibiotics were coded as “Off label”. (4) Conclusions: Addressing AMR using the PV methods will provide an opportunity for PV expansion and could encourage further investment in both in AMS programs and PV systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0246.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: influenza virus; virus-host interaction; commonly prescribed drugs; drug adverse reaction
Online: 12 July 2021 (11:37:07 CEST)
Background: Every year, millions of people are hospitalized, and thousands die from influenza A virus (FLUAV) infection. Most cases of hospitalizations and death occur among elderly. Many of these elderly patients are reliant on medical treatment of underlying chronic diseases, such as arthritis, diabetes, and hypertension. We hypothesized that the commonly prescribed medicines for treatment of underlying chronic diseases can affect host responses to FLUAV infection, and thus contribute to morbidity and mortality associated with influenza. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether commonly prescribed medicines could affect host responses to virus infection in vitro. Methods: We first identified 45 active compounds of medicines commonly prescribed in Central Norway. Then we constructed a drug-target interaction network and identified potential implication of these interactions for FLUAV-host cell interplay. Finally, we tested the effect of 45 drugs on viability, transcription and metabolism of mock- and A/WSN/33(H1N1)-infected human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Results: In silico drug-target interaction analysis revealed that many drugs, such as acetylsalicylic acid, atorvastatin, candesartan, and hydroxocobalam, could target and modulate FLUAV-host cell interaction. In vitro experiments showed that these and other compounds at non-cytotoxic concentrations differently affected transcription and metabolism of mock- and FLUAV-infected cells. Conclusion: Many commonly prescribed drugs modulate FLUAV-host cell interactions in vitro and therefore could affect their interplay in vivo, thus, contributing to morbidity and mortality of patients with influenza virus infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0534.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: creatinine; vancomycin; amikacin; renal impairment; acute kidney injury; adverse drug reaction
Online: 21 December 2020 (15:42:59 CET)
Background: Disentangling adverse drug reactions from confounders remains a major challenge to assess causality and severity in neonates. Vancomycin and amikacin are perceived as nephrotoxic and often prescribed in neonates. We selected these compounds to assess their impact on creatinine dynamics as sensitive tool to detect a renal impairment signal. Methods: A recently developed dynamical model that characterized serum creatinine concentrations of 217 ELBW neonates (4036 serum creatinine observations) was enhanced with data on individual administration of vancomycin and/or amikacin to identify a potential effect of antibiotic exposure by nonlinear mixed-effects modelling analysis. Results: Of our ELBW patients, 77% were exposed to either vancomycin or amikacin. Antibiotic exposure resulted in transient lower overall creatinine clearance and a modest increase in serum creatinine. Dependency on gestational age was observed in the difference in serum creatinine when exposed to antibiotics during the third week after birth (difference in creatinine for a neonate at 24 weeks gestation decreased with 56% for a 32-week-old neonate). Conclusions: A previously described model on creatinine dynamics was used to explore and quantify the impact amikacin or vancomycin exposure on creatinine dynamics. Such tools can be used to explore minor changes, or compare minor differences between treatment modalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0113.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; inflammation; smoking; nicotine; hospitalization; adverse outcome
Online: 7 May 2020 (08:52:04 CEST)
Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and effects of current smoking on adverse outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature (PubMed) for studies published until April 25. Studies were included into the analysis if they satisfied all of the following criteria: 1. To present hospitalized patients with COVID-19. 2. To classify patients into less and more severe disease, irrespective of the severity definition (defined as “adverse ourtcome”). 3. To present data on the smoking status, separately for each severity classification. We identified 18 (from a total of 1398) relevant studies. Pooled current smoking prevalence was compared with the gender-adjusted, population-based expected prevalence by calculating Prevalence Odds Ratio (POR). The association between current, compared to non-current and former, smoking and adverse outcome was examined by calculating Odds Ratio (OR). All analyses were performed using random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Among 6515 patients, 440 of whom were current smokers, the pooled prevalence of current smoking was 6.8% (95%CI: 4.8-9.1%) and the POR was 0.21 (95%CI: 0.16-0.26, P < 0.001). In Chinese studies only, the POR was 0.22 (95%CI: 0.17-0.27, P < 0.001). Current smokers were more likely to have an adverse outcome compared to non-current smokers (OR: 1.53, 95%CI: 1.06-2.20, P = 0.022). However, they were less likely to have an adverse outcome compared to former smokers (OR: 0.42, 95%CI: 0.27-0.74, P = 0.003). Conclusion: An unexpectedly low prevalence of current smoking was observed among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Hospitalized current smokers had higher odds compared to non-current smokers but lower odds compared to former smokers for an adverse outcome. The possibility that nicotine may have a protective effect in COVID-19 which may be masked by smoking-related toxicity and by the abrupt cessation of nicotine intake when smokers are hospitalized should be explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0591.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: adverse events; immune checkpoint inhibitor; myasthenia gravis; myopathy; neuropathy; nivolumab; pembrolizumab
Online: 29 September 2018 (11:28:00 CEST)
Neuromuscular adverse events following cancer treatment with anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibodies are relatively rare, yet potentially fatal. Using the PRISMA approach, we performed a systematic review to characterize the clinical presentation, diagnostic workup, and management of neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) in patients treated with nivolumab or pembrolizumab. Sixty-three publications on 85 patients (mean age 66,9 years (range 34–86); male/female 2.6:1; 59% metastatic melanoma) were identified from selected indexing databases until June 2018. Forty-eight patients had received nivolumab and 39 pembrolizumab. The mean number of PD-1 inhibitor treatment cycles prior to onset of symptoms was 3,6 (range 1–28). Symptoms included oculomotor (47%); respiratory (43%), bulbar (35%), and proximal weakness (35%); as well as muscle pain (28%). Diagnoses were categorized as myasthenia gravis (27%), neuropathy (23%), myopathy (34%) and a combination of these (16%). After critical review of the data, however, evidence did not support the stated NMD diagnosis in 13% of cases, while up to 14% of patients had signs of additional NMDs. PD-1 inhibitor associated myasthenia was associated with cardiac complications in almost 30% of patients and with a more rapid clinical progression compared with idiopathic myasthenia. Mortality was high despite adequate treatment strategies including corticosteroid, IV immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis. In conclusion, clinical presentation of NMDs associated with PD-1 inhibitors is often atypical, with significant overlap between myasthenia gravis and myopathy; and cardiac/respiratory complications are common, leading to more severe disease courses than idiopathic myasthenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0207.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Adverse Drug Reaction; Spontaneous reporting; Active surveillance; Underreporting; Antiglau-coma; Artificial tear
Online: 11 October 2022 (03:18:55 CEST)
(1)Aims of the study: calculating the underreporting ratio for two different medications, a fixed combination of 0.5% timolol + 0.2% brimonidine + 2.0% dorzolamide (antiglaucoma) and a fixed combination of sodium hyaluronate 0.1% + chondroitin sulfate 0.18% (artificial tear) and characterizing the features influencing the reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in spontaneous reporting; (2) Methods: the underreporting ratio was calculated by comparing the adverse drug reactions reported in the spontaneous reporting database for every 10,000 defined daily doses marketed and the adverse drug reactions from an active surveillance study for every 10,000 defined daily doses used for different drugs (antiglaucoma and artificial tear). The factors related to the report in spontaneous reporting through statistical tests were also determined; (3) Results: The underreporting ratio of spontaneous reporting was 0.006029% for antiglaucoma and 0.003552% for artificial tear; additionally, statistically significant differences were found for severity, unexpected adverse drug reactions, and incidence of adverse drug reactions in females; (4) Conclusions: The underreporting ratio of ADRs related to ophthalmic medications indicates worry since the cornerstone of pharmacovigilance focuses on spontaneous reporting. Besides, since underreporting seems to be selective, the role of certain aspects like gender, seriousness, severity, and unexpected ADRs, must be considered in future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Valproic acid; Drug-induced liver injury; Adverse drug reaction; Case-control study
Online: 18 January 2021 (11:11:04 CET)
Introduction: Valproic acid (VPA) is an antiepileptic drug extensively used for treating partial and generalised seizures, acute mania and as prophylaxis for bipolar disorder. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) persists as a significant issue related to fatal outcomes by VPA. The aim of this study was to increase our knowledge about this condition and to better identify patients affected. Methods: We conducted an observational retrospective case-control study that identified cases of DILI by VPA from the Pharmacovigilance Programme from our Laboratory Signals at La Paz University Hospital from January 2007 to December 2019. From the Therapeutic VPA Monitoring Programme, two control groups were assigned, VPA-tolerant patients and the other with patients who developed mild VPA-related hepatitis but who did not meet the DILI criteria, matched for date, age and sex. Results: A total of 60 patients were included in the study: 15 cases of DILI, 30 VPA-tolerant controls and 15 controls with mild hepatitis. Mean age for the cases was 45.7 years, 4(26.7%) were women and 5(33.34%) were children under 18 years, of them 3(20%) were fatal. Polytherapy with other antiepileptic drugs (p=0.047) and alcohol consumption (p<0.001) were associated with a greater risk of developing DILI by VPA. A diagnosis of epileptic seizure was more frequently related to DILI when compared with the VPA-tolerant controls (p<0.001). The cases developed hepatocellular hepatitis (p<0.001), while the mild hepatitis controls had a higher rate of cholestatic hepatitis (p<0.001). The laboratory lactate dehydrogenase values were statistically higher (even at baseline) in patients with DILI than in both control groups (p= 0.033 and p=0.039). Conclusions: VPA hepatotoxicity remains a considerable problem. This study offers interesting findings for characterising VPA-induced liver injury and at-risk patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0232.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Adverse drug reactions; Anti-COVID drugs; Coronavirus; Drug repurposing; Drug toxicity; Pharmacotherapy
Online: 18 June 2020 (12:43:43 CEST)
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is the current global public health threat with no specific, effective, and approved treatment available till date. The outbreak of COVID-19 has led the world into an unimagined and uncertain situation by disrupting the economies, claiming human lives, and leaving many into secondary mental health problems. As per the latest WHO report, approximately 8.2 million people are infected, and nearly 0.44 million lives are lost to COVID. The infection has spread to over 200 countries and territories around the world. The world is in search of efficient diagnostics and therapeutics, including vaccines, biologics and drugs. With the rapid increase in rates of infection and time constraints, drug repurposing seems to be a potential and viable option to find the promising anti-COVID therapeutics. In the wake of a rapid increase in the number of clinical trials involving drugs for repurposing, we aim to provide information on the safety concerns related to the drugs currently investigated in trials. This review also highlights the possible mechanisms of actions, adverse drug reactions, and contraindications of the drugs under repurposing evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0388.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: agricultural pesticides; residential proximity; adverse birth outcomes; preterm birth; low birthweight; pregnancy
Online: 25 June 2018 (12:44:14 CEST)
Findings from studies of prenatal exposure to pesticides and adverse birth outcomes have been equivocal so far. We examined prenatal exposure to agricultural pesticides in relation to preterm birth and term low birthweight, respectively, in children born between 1998 and 2010 randomly selected from California birth records. We estimated residential exposures to agriculturally applied pesticides within 2 km of residential addresses at birth by pregnancy trimester for 17 individual pesticides and 3 chemical classes (organophosphates, pyrethroids, and carbamates). Among maternal addresses located within 2 km of any agricultural pesticide application, we identified 24,693 preterm and 220,297 term births, and 4,412 term low birthweight and 194,732 term normal birthweight infants. First or second trimester exposures to individual pesticides (e.g., glyphosates, paraquat, imidacloprid) or exposures to 2+ pesticides in the three chemical classes were associated with small increases (3-7%) in risk for preterm birth; associations were stronger for female offspring. We did not find associations between term low birthweight and exposures to pesticides other than for myclobutanil (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.04-1.20) and possibly pyrethroids as a class. Our improved exposure assessment revealed that first and second trimester exposures to pesticides were associated with preterm delivery but few affected term low birthweight.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0070.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Nutraceuticals; Personalized Medicine; Precision Medicine; Probiotics; Vitamins; Covid; Dietary Supplements; Adverse Drug Effects
Online: 3 November 2022 (06:27:25 CET)
Nutraceuticals have taken the spotlight during the past two decades as evidenced by the exponential publications on them. Long a part of routine in Traditional Medicine Systems, the rise of their mainstream use globally raises both safety concerns and need for better understanding of efficacious dosing. We attempt to answer these questions in this preliminary scoping review by an analysis of current literature on nutraceutical use as a personalized or prescription medicine. Using Covidence, Rayyan, and manual searches of PubMed, 598 unique publications were selected. 32 are systematic reviews, of which we overview the scope. We also overview 30 papers that address adverse drug reactions. To obtain an unbiased landscape of the 598 papers, we analyzed keywords using multiple methods. Expectedly, the most frequent keywords were probiotics and vitamins. Unexpectedly and remarkably, among the highest keyword yield was ‘COVID’. Further exploring this aspect, we review 15 pertinent papers, that not only provide robust evidence for nutraceutical benefits as part of SARS-CoV-2 treatment, but also amplify the notion that nutraceuticals are protective. Overall, the strident note is that further robust targeted research is needed in order to reap the full benefits of nutraceuticals in a safe and efficacious manner.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0298.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Checkpoint inhibitors; Immune related adverse events; Cholestasis; Severe ductopenia; Vanishing bile duct syndrome
Online: 20 January 2022 (11:07:21 CET)
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) significantly improve the outcomes of patients with advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), but high-grade toxicities can occur, particularly during combination therapy. Herein, we report a patient with advanced metastatic ccRCC, who developed grade 4 cholestasis during combined therapy with nivolumab and cabozantinib. After the exclusion of common disorders associated with choles-tasis and a failure of corticosteroids (CS), a liver biopsy was performed that demonstrated severe ductopenia. Consequently, a diagnosis of vanishing bile duct syndrome related to TKI and ICI administration was made, resulting in CS discontinuation and ursodeoxycholic acid administra-tion. After a 7-months follow-up, liver tests had returned to normal values. Immunological studies revealed that our patient had developed robust T-cells and macrophages infiltrates in his lung metastasis, as well as in skin and liver tissues at the onset of toxicities. At the same time, peripheral blood immunophenotyping revealed significant changes in T-cell subsets suggesting their potential role in the pathophysiology of the disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0564.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model (PBPK); Drugs; environmental chemicals; Adverse outcome pathway (AOP); machine learning
Online: 30 December 2022 (01:30:07 CET)
Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models (PBPK) are mechanistical tools generally employed in the pharmaceutical industry and environmental health risk assessment. These models are recognised by regulatory authorities for predicting organ concentration-time profile, pharmacokinetic and daily intake dose of xenobiotics. Extension of PBPK models to capture sensitive populations like pediatric, geriatric, pregnant females, fetus etc. and diseased population like renal impairment, liver cirrhosis etc. is a must. However, the current modelling practice and existing models are not mature enough to confidently predict the risk in these populations. A multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, experimental and modeler scientist is vital to improve the physiology, and calculation of biochemical parameters for integrating the knowledge and refining existing PBPK models. Specific PBPK covering compartments like cerebrospinal fluid, and hippocampus are required to gain mechanistic understanding about xenobiotic disposition in these sub-parts. The PBPK model assists in building quantitative adverse outcome pathways (qAOPs) for several endpoints like developmental neurotoxicity (DNT), hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity. Machine learning algorithms can predict physicochemical parameters required to develop in-silico models where experimental data is unavailable. Integrating machine learning with PBPK carries the potential to revolutionize the field of drug discovery and development and environmental risk. Overall, this review tried to summarize the recent developments in the in-silico models, building qAOPs, use of machine learning for improving existing models along with a regulatory perspective. This review can act as a guide for toxicologists who wish to build their careers in kinetic modeling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0275.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: blood pressure; cardiorespiratory fitness; waist circumference; lifestyle intervention; primary care; adverse responders; metabolic syndrome
Online: 20 July 2022 (05:59:58 CEST)
Systemic hypertension has been recognized as a modifiable traditional cardiovascular risk factor and influenced by many factors such as eating habits, physical activity, diabetes and obesity. The objective of this study was to identify cardiometabolic factors that predict changes in blood pressure induced by a one-year lifestyle intervention in primary care settings involving a collaboration between family physicians, dietitians, and exercise specialists. Patients with metabolic syndrome diagnosis were recruited by family physicians participating in primary care lifestyle intervention among several family care clinics across Canada. Participants for whom all cardiometabolic data at the beginning (T0) and the end (T12) of the intervention were available were included in the present analysis (n=101). Patients visited the dietitian and the exercise specialist weekly for the first three months and monthly for the last nine months. Diet quality, exercise capacity, anthropometric indicators, and cardiometabolic variables were evaluated at T0 and at T12. The intervention induced a significant decrease in waist circumference (WC), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, and plasma triglycerides and an increase in cardiorespiratory fitness (estimated VO2max). Body weight (p<0.001), body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001), and plasma glucose (p=0.006) reduction and VO2max increase (p=0.048) were all related to changes in SBP. WC was the only variable for which changes were significantly correlated with those in both SBP (p<0.0001) and DBP (p=0.0004). Variations in DBP were not associated with changes in other cardiometabolic variables to a statistically significant extent. Twelve participants were identified as adverse responders in both SBP and DBP and displayed less favorable changes in WC. The beneficial effects of a lifestyle intervention on blood pressure were significantly associated with cardiometabolic variables, especially WC. These findings suggest that a structured lifestyle intervention in primary care can help improve cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with metabolic syndrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0186.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: adverse childhood experiences; social information processing; behavior problems; Preschool; Social skills; externalizing problems; trauma
Online: 27 February 2018 (16:47:48 CET)
Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) has been found to have a profound negative impact on multiple child outcomes, including academic achievement, social cognition patterns, and behavioral adjustment. However, these links have yet to be examined in preschool children that are already experiencing behavior or social-emotional problems. Thus, the present study examined the links between the caregiver's and the child's exposure to ACE and multiple child and caregiver's outcomes in a sample of 30 preschool children enrolled in a Therapeutic Nursery Program (TNP). Children are typically referred to this TNP due to significant delays in their social emotional development that often result in difficulty functioning in typical childcare, home, and community settings. Analyses revealed some contradictory patterns that may be specific to this clinical sample. Children with higher exposure to ACE showed more biased social information processing patterns and their caregivers reported lower child social skills than caregivers of children with less exposure, however their inhibitory control levels were higher (better control) and staff reported that these children exhibited better social skills as well as better approaches to learning than children with less exposure. No such contradictions were found in relation to the caregiver's exposure to ACE, as it was positively associated with a number of negative child and caregiver outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0206.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: new approach methodologies (NAMs); adverse outcome pathways (AOPs); endocrine disruptors; animal replacement; OECD TG 414
Online: 11 November 2022 (02:00:48 CET)
Developmental toxicity testing urgently requires the implementation of human relevant new approach methodologies (NAMs) that better recapitulate the peculiar nature of human physiology during pregnancy, especially the placenta and the maternal/fetal interface, which represent a key stage for the human lifelong health. Fit-for-purpose NAMs for the placental-fetal interface are desirable to improve the biological knowledge of environmental exposure at molecular level and to reduce the high cost, time and ethical impact of animal studies. This article reviews the state of the art on the available in vitro (placental, fetal and amniotic cell-based systems) and in silico NAMs of human relevance for developmental toxicity testing purposes, as well as of the available Adverse Outcome Pathways related to developmental toxicity. The OECD TG 414 for the identification and assessment of deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to chemicals on developing organisms will be discussed to delineate the regulatory context and to better debate what is missing and needed in the context of the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis to significantly improve this sector. Starting from this analysis, the development of a novel human feto-placental organ-on-chip platform will be introduced as an innovative alternative tool for developmental toxicity testing, considering possible implementation and validation strategies to overcome the limitation of the current animal studies and NAMs available in regulatory toxicology and in the biomedical field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; immunotherapy; adverse events; immune checkpoints inhibitors; chimeric antigen receptor therapy; bispecific antibodies; toxicity; renal; oncology
Online: 18 July 2022 (09:21:56 CEST)
Modern oncological therapy utilizes various types of immunotherapy. Immune checkpoint inhib-itors (ICIs), chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T) therapy, cancer vaccines and bispecific an-tibodies are improving patients’ outcomes. However, stimulation of the immune system, benefi-cial in terms of fighting against cancer, generates the risk of harm to other cells in a patient's body. Kidney damage belongs to the relatively rare adverse events (AEs). Best described, but still, su-perficially, are renal AEs in patients treated with ICIs. International guidelines issued by Euro-pean Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) cover the management of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) during ICI therapy. There are scarce data concerning renal adverse drug reactions of other immunotherapeutic methods. This implicates the need for the collection of safety data during ongoing clinical trials and in the re-al-life world to characterize the hazard related to the use of new immunotherapies and manage-ment of irAEs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2020045
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: adverse drug reactions; antimalarial; Ghana; herbal remedies; malaria; questionnaire; street sale; orthodox; unnatural medicines; patient preference
Online: 12 June 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Malaria is a serious infection affecting millions of people in Africa. Our study investigated the personal preferences and applications of antimalarial medicines in Ghana. Based on over 1000 questionnaires distributed in Ghana from January to May 2019, we noticed that although Western medications to fight this disease are widely available, most patients in Ghana prefer treatment with locally produced herbal remedies. This preference appears to be due to a combination of traditional venues for obtaining medicines “on the street” rather than in licensed pharmacies, trust in local and “green” products, extensive advertisement of such local products, and an inherent distrust of imported and synthetic or unnatural medicines. Going local and natural is a trend also observed in other countries across the globe, and adds to the acceptance or rejection of drugs regardless of their activity or toxicity. In fact, adverse side effects associated with herbal remedies, such as general weakness and swollen, sore mouth, do not seem to deter the respondents of this study in Ghana. We propose a combination of (a) increasing public awareness of the benefits of modern medicine and (b) an improvement and control of the quality of herbal remedies to raise the standard of malaria treatment in countries such as Ghana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0177.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: chronic myeloid leukemia; tyrosine kinase inhibitor; adverse drug event; quality of life; second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor; nilotinib
Online: 16 August 2019 (08:09:07 CEST)
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm constituting approximately 15% of newly diagnosed leukemia in adult patients. Development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have dramatically improved outcomes in patients with chronic CML in chronic phase. However, adverse drug events (ADEs) associated with TKI therapy have influenced drug adherence, resulting in adverse clinical outcomes and a decline in the quality of life (QoL). In this study, we carried out a unique questionnaire survey to evaluate ADEs, which comprised 14 adverse events. We compared drug adherence rates between patients using imatinib and those who switched from imatinib to nilotinib, a second-generation TKI. Following the switch, the total number of ADEs decreased considerably in most cases. Simultaneously, better QoL was observed in the nilotinib group than in the imatinib group. Drug adherence was measured using Morisky’s 9-item Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS). MMAS increased significantly after switching to nilotinib in all cases. Drug adherence is a critical factor for achieving molecular response in patients with CML. In fact, our results showed a strong inverse correlation between clinical outcome [international scale (IS)] and adherence (MMAS), with a stronger tendency in the nilotinib group than in the imatinib group. In conclusion, low occurrence of ADEs induced a high level of QoL and a good clinical response with second-generation TKI nilotinib treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0609.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitors; immune-related adverse events (irAEs); tolerance; ipilimumab; nivolumab; interleukin-2; hyperthermia; low-dose-combination therapy
Online: 28 November 2018 (10:23:31 CET)
As a result of the cancer immunotherapy revolution hundreds of clinical trials of the newly approved immunotherapies are now under way to improve responses. Not unexpectedly, the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo for their development of cancer therapy by blockade of co-inhibitory signals. While success stories of terminal cancer patients achieving complete remissions are accumulating, not enough research has been done into the risks of the new therapies. Since the use of immunotherapy is becoming more common, and is expected to develop into first- and second-line treatments, immunotoxicity and autoimmunity are emerging as the nemesis of immunotherapy. Immune-related adverse events (IrAEs) could affect any tissue, their incidence may reach up to 90% of patients and toxicity is dose-dependent. While the combination of two immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) increased efficacy, the incidence of severe adverse events was also increased. Apparently, ICIs cannot be restricted to the targeted anti-tumor T cell population. The long lasting objective of cancer regression can only be achieved by paying a price: tolerance to healthy self tissues is compromised. In the face of an ipilimumab induced pan-lymphocytic activation, a therapeutic paradigm shift is required. The task is not desperately trying to put the genie back in the bottle by immune suppressive treatments, but instead harnessing the autoimmune forces by an off label low-dose combined anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD1 antibody blockade, which is supplemented with conventional interleukin-2 stimulation and hyperthermia. The proof-of-principle of the low-dose-combination therapy was demonstrated in a heavily pre-treated triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patient with far advanced pulmonary metastases and severe shortness of breath, who had exhausted all conventional treatment. Her pulmonary metastases went into complete remission with transient WHO I-II diarrhea and skin rash. She lived for 27 months after starting the low-dose-combination therapy. She had recurrence as a sternal mass and pleural metastases up to 3 cm. Since the low-dose-combination protocol consists only of approved drugs and treatments, this exceptional response should instigate further research efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0421.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Oncology; Immune Checkpoint Inhibition; PD-1; PD-L1; CTLA-4; Immune Related Adverse Events; Immunotherapy; Tumor Plasticity; Tumor Microenvironment; Optimum Therapy Duration
Online: 6 March 2023 (01:53:16 CET)
Immune checkpoint inhibition therapy (ICIT) is an emerging field in oncology especially opening new horizons to chemotherapy refractory patients. This paper provides deep insight into immune related adverse events (irAEs) posing a major challenge and drawback to ICIT, and presents right management strategies for very complex complications. Moreover, for the first time in literature, a non-linear mathematical model is introduced to measure the ICIT success rate and to decide about the optimum ICIT duration. Furthermore, a strategy is presented to overcome or to delay the progression after initial good response in a subset of patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0517.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: CAR T-cells; chimeric antigen receptor T cells; cytokine release syndrome; central nervous system toxicity; neurotoxicity; adverse events; pathophysiology
Online: 19 April 2021 (21:17:34 CEST)
Anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells represent a novel immunotherapy that has shown remarkable success in the treatment of adult relapsed or refractory (R/R) B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, adult R/R mantle cell lymphoma, and R/R acute paediatric lymphoblastic leukaemia. One barrier to the widespread use of CAR T-cell therapy is toxicity, primarily cytokine release syndrome (CRS) with a variable grade of severity. The main manifestations of CRS are fever, hypotension, cytopenia, organ dysfunction among others. Neurological toxicities vary widely and range from headaches to encephalopathy. In addition, anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy provokes an array of less frequent events, such as coagulopathies, delayed cytopenia, and cardiovascular toxicities. In general, toxicities are usually reversible and resolve on their own in most cases, though severe cases may require intensive care and immunosuppressive therapy. Deaths due to CRS, neurologic toxicity and infectious complications have been reported, which highlights the gravity of these syndromes and the critical nature of appropriate intervention. In this paper, we look at all available FDA- and EMA-approved information about the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, risk factor reviews of existing toxicity grading systems, current management strategies, and guidelines for anti-CD19 CAR T-cell toxicities. We also present new approaches, which are under investigation, to mitigate these adverse events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0523.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Zimbabwe Stimulated Telephone Assisted Rapid Safety Surveillance (Zm-STARSS); mHealth active participant-centred (MAPC) Adverse Events Following Immunisation(AEFI) surveillance
Online: 30 March 2023 (03:51:08 CEST)
Abstract Introduction: The mHealth active participant centred (MAPC) adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) surveillance is a promising area for early AEFI detection resulting in risk minimisation. Passive (spontaneous) AEFI surveillance is the backbone for vaccine pharmacovigilance, but has inherent drawbacks of under reporting, and requires strengthening with active surveillance methods. The Zimbabwe stimulated telephone assisted rapid safety surveillance (Zm-STARSS) randomized controlled trial (RCT) sought to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of AEFI detection using a short message service (SMS) and computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) approach. Method: A multicentre Zm-STARSS RCT enrolled consented adult vaccinees or parents or guardians of children receiving vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines, at study vaccination clinics. At enrolment study participants were randomised to either SMS-CATI group or control group. SMS prompts were sent on days 0-2 and 14 post-vaccination to SMS-CATI group to ascertain if a medical event following immunisation (MEFI) had occurred. However, no SMSs were sent to the control group. SMS-CATI group who responded “Yes” to SMS prompts were interviewed by research healthcare workers (RHCWs) who completed a CATI to determine if an MEFI/AEFI had occurred whilst an AEFI in control group was determined from passive AEFI reporting channels. The primary study outcome was the AEFI detection rate in the SMS-CATI group compared to the control group. Results: A total of 704 (31%) participants responded to the SMS prompts, with 75% (528/704) indicating “No” and 25% (176/704) "Yes” to experiencing a MEFI. However, 31% (55/176) who responded “Yes” did not complete a CATI survey, but 69% (121/176) did; and 64% (77/121) of these indicated negative to AEFI experience whilst 36% (44/121) were affirmative. There were no AEFI reported in control group participants. Zm-STARSS showed promising results in that the AEFI detection rate using SMS-CATI was 2% (44/2280) on an intention to treat cohort. Conclusion: Despite the low SMS response and CATI completion rate, we demonstrated that Zm-STARSS SMS system improves AEFI detection compared to passive AEFI surveillance. We recommend cost-effective multi-channel digital approaches for holistic pharmacovigilance to improve AEFI detection in LMICs for all vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0440.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19 Vaccines; BNT162 Vaccine; ChAdOx1 nCoV-19; Side Effects and Adverse Reactions; Booster Immunizations; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 25 January 2023 (03:50:52 CET)
More than 600 Healthcare workers died due to COVID-19 infection until January 2022 in Ecuador. Even though the COVID-19 vaccines are safe, local, and systemic reactions were reported among physicians. This study aims to analyze the Adverse events (AEs) of COVID-19 vaccines with an emphasis on homologous and heterologous booster doses. An electronic survey was performed in Quito- Ecuador, directed to physicians who were vaccinated with the three doses of COVID-19 vaccines. 210 participants were analyzed after administering any doses of the vaccines. At least one AE was identified in 60.0% (126/210) of the sample after the first dose, 52.40% (110/210) after the second dose, and 75.2% (158/210) after the booster dose. The most frequent AEs were localized pain, myalgia, headache, and fever. At least one drug was used in 44.3% of the population after the first dose, 37.1% after the second dose, and 63.8% in the booster dose. Heterol-ogous booster produces more AEs compared with homologous booster (80.1% vs. 53.8%), and 77.3% of participants reported that interfered with daily activities. Similar studies agree that reactogenicity occurs mainly with heterologous vaccination compared to ho-mologous vaccination. This situation affected physicians’ performance in daily activities and led them to use medication for the symptoms
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0121.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 infection; COVID-19; modulating factors; Adverse Outcome Pathway; sex; age; co-morbidities; lifestyle; environment; pre-existing conditions
Online: 8 June 2022 (09:47:23 CEST)
Addressing factors modulating COVID-19 is crucial since abundant clinical evidence shows that outcomes are markedly heterogeneous between patients. This requires identifying the factors and understanding how they mechanistically influence COVID-19. Here, we describe how eleven selected factors influence COVID-19 by applying the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework well-established in regulatory toxicology. This framework aims to model the sequence of events starting from an initial interaction of a stressor with the organism and the progress through key biological events leading to an adverse health outcome. Several linear AOPs depicting pathways from the binding of the virus to ACE2 up to clinical outcomes observed in COVID-19 patients have been developed and integrated into a network offering a unique overview of the mechanisms underlying the disease. As SARS-CoV-2 infectibility and ACE2 activity are the major starting points and inflammatory response is central in the development of COVID-19, we evaluated how eleven intrinsic and extrinsic factors modulate those processes impacting clinical outcomes. Applying this AOP-aligned approach enables the identification of current knowledge gaps orientating for further research and allows to propose biomarkers to identify of high-risk patients. This approach also facilitates expertise synergy from different disciplines to address public health issues.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: microbiome; adverse childhood experiences (ACEs); gerobiotics, microimmunosome; healthspan; circadian rhythms; sleep disorders; noncommunicable diseases and conditions (NCDs); chronic disorders; early life programming
Online: 7 December 2021 (12:48:17 CET)
Adverse childhood experiences are known to program children for disrupted biological cycles, premature aging, microbiome dysbiosis, immune-inflammatory misregulation, and chronic disease multimorbidity. To date, the microbiome has not been a major focus of deprogramming efforts despite its emerging role in every aspect of ACE-related dysbiosis and dysfunction. This article examines: 1) the utility of incorporating microorganism-based, anti-aging approaches to combat ACE-programmed chronic diseases (also known as noncommunicable diseases and conditions, NCDs) and 2) microbiome regulation of core systems biology cycles that affect NCD comorbid risk. In this review microbiota influence over three key cyclic rhythms (circadian cycles, the sleep cycle, and the lifespan/longevity cycle) as well as tissue inflammation and oxidative stress are discussed as an opportunity to deprogram ACE-driven chronic disorders. Microbiota, particularly those in the gut, have been shown to affect host-microbe interactions regulating the circadian clock, sleep quality, as well as immune function/senescence and regulation of tissue inflammation. The microimmunosome is one of several systems biology targets of gut microbiota regulation. Furthermore, correcting misregulated inflammation and increased oxidative stress is key to protecting telomere length and lifespan/longevity and extending what has become known as the healthspan. This review article concludes that to reverse the tragedy of ACE-programmed NCDs and premature aging, managing the human holobiont microbiome should become a routine part of healthcare and preventative medicine across the life course.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0389.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: adverse remodeling; aldosterone; cardiac myocyte; crosstalk; G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR); GPCR-kinase (GRK); heart failure; inflammation; mineralocorticoid receptor; myocardial infarction; oxidative stress; signal transduction
Online: 16 November 2018 (07:54:04 CET)
The mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone regulates sodium and potassium homeostasis but also adversely modulates the maladaptive process of cardiac adverse remodeling post-myocardial infarction. Through activation of its mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a classic steroid hormone receptor/transcription factor, aldosterone promotes inflammation and fibrosis of the heart, the vasculature, and the kidneys. This is why MR antagonists reduce morbidity and mortality of heart disease patients and are part of the mainstay pharmacotherapy of advanced human heart failure. A plethora of animal studies using cell type–specific targeting of the MR gene have established the importance of MR signaling and function in cardiac myocytes, vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, renal cells, and macrophages. In terms of its signaling properties, the MR is distinct from nuclear receptors in that it has, in reality, two physiological hormonal agonists: not only aldosterone but also cortisol. In fact, in several tissues, including in the myocardium, cortisol is the primary hormone activating the MR. There is a considerable amount of evidence indicating that the effects of the MR in each tissue expressing it depend on tissue- and ligand-specific engagement of molecular co-regulators that either activate or suppress its transcriptional activity. Identification of these co-regulators for every ligand that interacts with the MR in the heart (and in other tissues) is of utmost importance therapeutically, since it can not only help elucidate fully the pathophysiological ramifications of the cardiac MR`s actions but also help design and develop novel better MR antagonist drugs for heart disease therapy. Among the various proteins the MR interacts with are molecules involved in cardiac G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. This results in a significant amount of crosstalk between GPCRs and the MR, which can affect the latter`s activity dramatically in the heart and in other cardiovascular tissues. This review summarizes the current experimental evidence for this GPCR-MR crosstalk in the heart and discusses its pathophysiological implications for cardiac adverse remodeling as well as for heart disease therapy. Novel findings revealing non-conventional roles of GPCR signaling molecules, specifically of GPCR-kinase (GRK)-5, in cardiac MR regulation are also highlighted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0460.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; Myo-pericarditis and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; Multisystem-Inflammatory-Syndrome and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; arrhythmias and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; Pathogenesis of myocarditis following COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; MIS-A; MIS-C; MIS-V; Myocarditis; COVID-19 mRNA vaccine Adverse Events.
Online: 26 January 2023 (02:50:29 CET)
Each injection of any known vaccine results in a strong expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This is the result of the innate immune system activation, without which no adaptive response to the injection of vaccines is possible. COVID-19 mRNA vaccines would not escape this rule. Unfortunately, the degree of inflammation produced by these vaccines is variable, probably depending on the genetic background and previous immune experiences, which through epigenetic modifications, could have made the innate immune system of each individual tolerant or reactive to subsequent immune stimulations.We hypothesize that we can move from a limited pro-inflammatory condition to conditions of increasing expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines that can culminate in multisystem hyperinflammatory syndromes following COVID-19 mRNA vaccines (MIS-V). We have graphically represented this idea in a hypothetical inflammatory pyramid (IP) and we have correlated the time factor to the degree of inflammation produced after the injection of vaccines. Furthermore, we have placed the clinical manifestations within this hypothetical IP, correlating them to the degree of inflammation produced. Surprisingly, excluding the possible presence of an early MIS-V, the time factor and the complexity of clinical manifestations are correlated to the increasing degree of inflammation: symptoms, heart disease and syndromes (MIS-V).